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  • 2051. Adriani, O.
    et al.
    Barbarino, G. C.
    Bazilevskaya, G. A.
    Bellotti, R.
    Boezio, M.
    Bogomolov, E. A.
    Bongi, M.
    Bonvicini, V.
    Bottai, S.
    Bruno, A.
    Cafagna, F.
    Campana, D.
    Carbone, R.
    Carlson, P.
    Casolino, M.
    Castellini, G.
    de Pascale, M. P.
    Santis, C. D. E.
    Simone, N. D. E.
    Felice, V. D. I.
    Formato, V.
    Galper, A. M.
    Giaccari, U.
    Karelin, A. V.
    Kheymits, M. D.
    Koldashov, S. V.
    Koldobskiy, S.
    Krutkov, S. Y.
    Kvashnin, A. N.
    Leonov, A.
    Malakhov, V.
    Marcelli, L.
    Martucci, M.
    Mayorov, A. G.
    Menn, W.
    Merge, M.
    Mikhailov, V. V.
    Mocchiutti, E.
    Monaco, A.
    Mori, N.
    Munini, R.
    Nikonov, N.
    Osteria, G.
    Palma, F.
    Papini, P.
    Pearce, Mark
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Picozza, P.
    Pizzolotto, C.
    Ricci, M.
    Ricciarini, S. B.
    Rossetto, L.
    Sarkar, R.
    Scotti, V.
    Simon, M.
    Sparvoli, R.
    Spillantini, P.
    Stozhkov, Y. I.
    Vacchi, A.
    Vannuccini, E.
    Vasilyev, G.
    Voronov, S. A.
    Yurkin, Y. T.
    Zampa, G.
    Zampa, N.
    Zverev, V. G.
    Antiprotons in primary cosmic radiation with PAMELA experiment2013In: Proceedings of the 33rd International Cosmic Rays Conference, ICRC 2013, Sociedade Brasileira de Fisica , 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The latest measurements of antiprotons spectrum and antiproton-to-proton ratio in primary cosmic rays with PAMELA experiment are presented. They are in good agreement with model of secondary production of antiprotons in Galaxy, but they do not completely rule other sources at the high-energies. 

  • 2052. Adriani, O.
    et al.
    Barbarino, G. C.
    Bazilevskaya, G. A.
    Bellotti, R.
    Boezio, M.
    Bogomolov, E. A.
    Bongi, M.
    Bonvicini, V.
    Bottai, S.
    Bruno, A.
    Cafagna, F.
    Campana, D.
    Carbone, R.
    Carlson, Per
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    Casolino, M.
    Castellini, G.
    Danilchenko, I. A.
    De Donato, C.
    De Santis, C.
    De Simone, N.
    Di Felice, V.
    Formato, V.
    Galper, A. M.
    Karelin, A. V.
    Koldashov, S. V.
    Koldobskiy, S.
    Krutkov, S. Y.
    Kvashnin, A. N.
    Leonov, A.
    Malakhov, V.
    Marcelli, L.
    Martucci, M.
    Mayorov, A. G.
    Menn, W.
    Merge, M.
    Mikhailov, V. V.
    Mocchiutti, E.
    Monaco, A.
    Mori, N.
    Munini, R.
    Osteria, G.
    Palma, F.
    Panico, B.
    Papini, P.
    Pearce, Mark
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics. Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, AlbaNova University Centre, Sweden.
    Picozza, P.
    Pizzolotto, C.
    Ricci, M.
    Ricciarini, S. B.
    Rossetto, L.
    Sarkar, R.
    Scotti, V.
    Simon, M.
    Sparvoli, R.
    Spillantini, P.
    Stozhkov, Y. I.
    Vacchi, A.
    Vannuccini, E.
    Vasilyev, G. I.
    Voronov, S. A.
    Yurkin, Y. T.
    Zampa, G.
    Zampa, N.
    Zverev, V. G.
    Measurement of Boron and Carbon Fluxes in Cosmic Rays with the Pamela Experiment2014In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 791, no 2, p. 93-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The propagation of cosmic rays inside our galaxy plays a fundamental role in shaping their injection spectra into those observed at Earth. One of the best tools to investigate this issue is the ratio of fluxes for secondary and primary species. The boron-to-carbon (B/C) ratio, in particular, is a sensitive probe to investigate propagation mechanisms. This paper presents new measurements of the absolute fluxes of boron and carbon nuclei as well as the B/C ratio from the PAMELA space experiment. The results span the range 0.44-129 GeV/n in kinetic energy for data taken in the period 2006 July to 2008 March.

  • 2053. Adriani, O.
    et al.
    Barbarino, G. C.
    Bazilevskaya, G. A.
    Bellotti, R.
    Boezio, M.
    Bogomolov, E. A.
    Bongi, M.
    Bonvicini, V.
    Bottai, S.
    Bruno, A.
    Cafagna, F.
    Campana, D.
    Carbone, R.
    Carlson, Per
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics. AlbaNova University Centre, Sweden.
    Casolino, M.
    Castellini, G.
    De Pascale, M. P.
    De Santis, C.
    De Simone, N.
    Di Felice, V.
    Formato, V.
    Galper, A. M.
    Giaccari, U.
    Karelin, A. V.
    Kheymits, M. D.
    Koldashov, S. V.
    Koldobskiy, S.
    Krut'kov, S. Yu.
    Kvashnin, A. N.
    Leonov, A.
    Malakhov, V.
    Marcelli, L.
    Martucci, M.
    Mayorov, A. G.
    Menn, W.
    Mikhailov, V. V.
    Mocchiutti, E.
    Monaco, A.
    Mori, N.
    Munini, Riccardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics. INFN, Italy; AlbaNova University Centre, Sweden; University of Trieste, Italy.
    Nikonov, N.
    Osteria, G.
    Papini, P.
    Pearce, Mark
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics. AlbaNova University Centre, Sweden.
    Picozza, P.
    Pizzolotto, C.
    Ricci, M.
    Ricciarini, S. B.
    Rossetto, Laura
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics. AlbaNova University Centre, Sweden.
    Sarkar, R.
    Simon, M.
    Sparvoli, R.
    Spillantini, P.
    Stozhkov, Y. I.
    Vacchi, A.
    Vannuccini, E.
    Vasilyev, G. I.
    Voronov, S. A.
    Wu, J.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics. AlbaNova University Centre, Sweden; China University of Geosciences, China .
    Yurkin, Y. T.
    Zampa, G.
    Zampa, N.
    Zverev, V. G.
    The PAMELA Mission: Heralding a new era in precision cosmic ray physics2014In: Physics reports, ISSN 0370-1573, E-ISSN 1873-6270, Vol. 544, no 4, p. 323-370Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On the 15th of June 2006, the PAMELA (Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics) satellite-borne experiment was launched onboard the Russian Resurs-DK1 satellite by a Soyuz rocket from the Baikonur space centre. The satellite was placed in a quasi-polar 70 degrees inclination orbit at an altitude varying between 350 km and 600 km. New results on the antiparticle component of the cosmic radiation were obtained. The positron energy spectrum and positron fraction were measured from 400 MeV up to 200 GeV revealing a positron excess over the predictions of commonly used propagation models. This can be interpreted either as evidence that the propagation models should be revised or in terms of dark matter annihilation or a pulsar contribution. The antiproton spectrum was measured over the energy range from 60 MeV to 350 GeV. The antiproton spectrum is consistent with secondary production and significantly constrains dark matter models. The energy spectra of protons and helium nuclei were measured up to 1.2 TV. The spectral shapes of these two species are different and cannot be described well by a single power law. For the First time the electron spectrum was measured up to 600 GeV complementing the information obtained from the positron data. Nuclear and isotopic composition was obtained with unprecedented precision. The variation of the low energy proton, electron and positron energy spectra was measured from July 2006 until December 2009 accurately sampling the unusual conditions of the most recent solar minimum activity period (2006-2009). Low energy particle spectra were accurately measured also for various solar events that occurred during the PAMELA mission. The Earth's magnetosphere was studied measuring the particle radiation in different regions of the magnetosphere. Energy spectra and composition of sub-cutoff and trapped particles were obtained. For the first time a belt of trapped antiprotons was detected in the South Atlantic Anomaly region. The flux was found to exceed that for galactic cosmic-ray antiprotons by three order of magnitude.

  • 2054. Adriani, O.
    et al.
    Barbarino, G. C.
    Bazilevskaya, G. A.
    Bellotti, R.
    Boezio, M.
    Bogomolov, E. A.
    Bongi, M.
    Bonvicini, V.
    Bottai, S.
    Bruno, A.
    Cafagna, F.
    Campana, D.
    Carlson, Per
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Casolino, M.
    Castellini, G.
    De Donato, C.
    De Santis, C.
    De Simone, N.
    Di Felice, V.
    Formato, V.
    Galper, A. M.
    Giaccari, U.
    Karelin, A. V.
    Koldashov, S. V.
    Koldobskiy, S.
    Krutkov, S. Y.
    Kvashnin, A. N.
    Leonov, A.
    Malakhov, V.
    Marcelli, L.
    Martucci, M.
    Mayorov, A. G.
    Menn, W.
    Merge, M.
    Mikhailov, V. V.
    Mocchiutti, E.
    Monaco, A.
    Mori, N.
    Munini, R.
    Osteria, G.
    Palma, F.
    Panico, B.
    Papini, P.
    Pearce, Mark
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Picozza, P.
    Ricci, M.
    Ricciarini, S. B.
    Sarkar, R.
    Scotti, V.
    Simon, M.
    Sparvoli, R.
    Spillantini, P.
    Stozhkov, Y. I.
    Vacchi, A.
    Vannuccini, E.
    Vasilyev, G. I.
    Voronov, S. A.
    Yurkin, Y. T.
    Zampa, G.
    Zampa, N.
    SEARCH FOR ANISOTROPIES IN COSMIC-RAY POSITRONS DETECTED BY THE PAMELA EXPERIMENT (vol 811, 21, 2015)2016In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 818, no 1, article id 100Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2055. Adriani, O.
    et al.
    Barbarino, G. C.
    Bazilevskaya, G. A.
    Bellotti, R.
    Boezio, M.
    Bogomolov, E. A.
    Bongi, M.
    Bonvicini, V.
    Bottai, S.
    Bruno, A.
    Cafagna, F.
    Campana, D.
    Carlson, Per
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Casolino, M.
    Castellini, G.
    De Donato, C.
    De Santis, C.
    De Simone, N.
    Di Felice, V.
    Formato, V.
    Galper, A. M.
    Karelin, A. V.
    Koldashov, S. V.
    Koldobskiy, S.
    Krutkov, S. Y.
    Kvashnin, A. N.
    Leonov, A.
    Malakhov, V.
    Marcelli, L.
    Martucci, M.
    Mayorov, A. G.
    Menn, W.
    Merge, M.
    Mikhailov, V. V.
    Mocchiutti, E.
    Monaco, A.
    Mori, N.
    Munini, R.
    Osteria, G.
    Palma, F.
    Panico, B.
    Papini, P.
    Pearce, Mark
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Picozza, P.
    Ricci, M.
    Ricciarini, S. B.
    Sarkar, R.
    Scotti, V.
    Simon, M.
    Sparvoli, R.
    Spillantini, P.
    Stozhkov, Y. I.
    Vacchi, A.
    Vannuccini, E.
    Vasilyev, G. I.
    Voronov, S. A.
    Yurkin, Y. T.
    Zampa, G.
    Zampa, N.
    Reentrant albedo proton fluxes measured by the PAMELA experiment2015In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 120, no 5, p. 3728-3738Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a precise measurement of downward going albedo proton fluxes for kinetic energy above similar to 70 MeV performed by the Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA) experiment at an altitude between 350 and 610 km. On the basis of a trajectory tracing simulation, the analyzed protons were classified into quasi-trapped, concentrating in the magnetic equatorial region, and untrapped spreading over all latitudes, including both short-lived (precipitating) and long-lived (pseudotrapped) components. In addition, features of the penumbra region around the geomagnetic cutoff were investigated in detail. PAMELA results significantly improve the characterization of the high-energy albedo proton populations at low-Earth orbits.

  • 2056. Adriani, O.
    et al.
    Barbarino, G. C.
    Bazilevskaya, G. A.
    Bellotti, R.
    Boezio, M.
    Bogomolov, E. A.
    Bongi, M.
    Bonvicini, V.
    Bottai, S.
    Bruno, A.
    Cafagna, F.
    Campana, D.
    Carlson, Per
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics. AlbaNova Univ Ctr, Oskar Klein Ctr Cosmoparticle Phys, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Casolino, M.
    Castellini, G.
    De Donato, C.
    De Santis, C.
    De Simone, N.
    Di Felice, V.
    Formato, V.
    Galper, A. M.
    Karelin, A. V.
    Koldashov, S. V.
    Koldobskiy, S.
    Krutkov, S. Y.
    Kvashnin, A. N.
    Leonov, A.
    Malakhov, V.
    Marcelli, L.
    Martucci, M.
    Mayorov, A. G.
    Menn, W.
    Merge, M.
    Mikhailov, V. V.
    Mocchiutti, E.
    Monaco, A.
    Mori, N.
    Munini, R.
    Osteria, G.
    Palma, F.
    Panico, B.
    Papini, P.
    Pearce, Mark
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics. AlbaNova Univ Ctr, Oskar Klein Ctr Cosmoparticle Phys, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Picozza, P.
    Ricci, M.
    Ricciarini, S. B.
    Sarkar, R.
    Scotti, V.
    Simon, M.
    Sparvoli, R.
    Spillantini, P.
    Stozhkov, Y. I.
    Vacchi, A.
    Vannuccini, E.
    Vasilyev, G.
    Voronov, S. A.
    Yurkin, Y. T.
    Zampa, G.
    Zampa, N.
    MEASUREMENTS OF COSMIC-RAY HYDROGEN AND HELIUM ISOTOPES WITH THE PAMELA EXPERIMENT2016In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 818, no 1, article id 68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The cosmic-ray hydrogen and helium (H-1, H-2, He-3, He-4) isotopic composition has been measured with the satellite-borne experiment PAMELA, which was launched into low-Earth orbit on board the Resurs-DK1 satellite on 2006 June 15. The rare isotopes H-2 and He-3 in cosmic rays are believed to originate mainly from the interaction of high-energy protons and helium with the galactic interstellar medium. The isotopic composition was measured between 100 and 1100 MeV/n for hydrogen and between 100 and 1400 MeV/n for helium isotopes using two different detector systems over the 23rd solar minimum from 2006 July to 2007 December.

  • 2057. Adriani, O.
    et al.
    Barbarino, G. C.
    Bazilevskaya, G. A.
    Bellotti, R.
    Boezio, M.
    Bogomolov, E. A.
    Bongi, M.
    Bonvicini, V.
    Bottai, S.
    Bruno, A.
    Cafagna, F.
    Campana, D.
    Carlson, Per
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Casolino, M.
    Castellini, G.
    De Santis, C.
    Di Felice, V.
    Galper, A. M.
    Karelin, A. V.
    Koldashov, S. V.
    Koldobskiy, S. A.
    Krutkov, S. Y.
    Kvashnin, A. N.
    Leonov, A.
    Malakhov, V.
    Marcelli, L.
    Martucci, M.
    Mayorov, A. G.
    Menn, W.
    Merge, M.
    Mikhailov, V. V.
    Mocchiutti, E.
    Monaco, A.
    Mori, N.
    Munini, R.
    Osteria, G.
    Panico, B.
    Papini, P.
    Pearce, Mark
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Picozza, P.
    Ricci, M.
    Ricciarini, S. B.
    Simon, M.
    Sparvoli, R.
    Spillantini, P.
    Stozhkov, Y. I.
    Vacchi, A.
    Vannuccini, E.
    Vasilyev, G. I.
    Voronov, S. A.
    Yurkin, Y. T.
    Zampa, G.
    Zampa, N.
    Potgieter, M. S.
    Vos, E. E.
    Time Dependence of the Electron and Positron Components of the Cosmic Radiation Measured by the PAMELA Experiment between July 2006 and December 20152016In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 116, no 24, article id 241105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cosmic-ray electrons and positrons are a unique probe of the propagation of cosmic rays as well as of the nature and distribution of particle sources in our Galaxy. Recent measurements of these particles are challenging our basic understanding of the mechanisms of production, acceleration, and propagation of cosmic rays. Particularly striking are the differences between the low energy results collected by the space-borne PAMELA and AMS-02 experiments and older measurements pointing to sign-charge dependence of the solar modulation of cosmic-ray spectra. The PAMELA experiment has been measuring the time variation of the positron and electron intensity at Earth from July 2006 to December 2015 covering the period for the minimum of solar cycle 23 (2006-2009) until the middle of the maximum of solar cycle 24, through the polarity reversal of the heliospheric magnetic field which took place between 2013 and 2014. The positron to electron ratio measured in this time period clearly shows a sign-charge dependence of the solar modulation introduced by particle drifts. These results provide the first clear and continuous observation of how drift effects on solar modulation have unfolded with time from solar minimum to solar maximum and their dependence on the particle rigidity and the cyclic polarity of the solar magnetic field.

  • 2058. Adriani, O.
    et al.
    Barbarino, G. C.
    Bazilevskaya, G. A.
    Bellotti, R.
    Boezio, M.
    Bogomolov, E. A.
    Bongi, M.
    Bonvicini, V.
    Bottai, S.
    Bruno, A.
    Cafagna, F.
    Campana, D.
    Carlson, Per
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Casolino, M.
    Castellini, G.
    De Santis, C.
    Di Felice, V.
    Galper, A. M.
    Karelin, A. V.
    Koldashov, S. V.
    Koldobskiy, S.
    Krutkov, S. Y.
    Kvashnin, A. N.
    Leonov, A.
    Malakhov, V.
    Marcelli, L.
    Martucci, M.
    Mayorov, A. G.
    Menn, W.
    Merge, M.
    Mikhailov, V. V.
    Mocchiutti, E.
    Monaco, A.
    Munini, R.
    Mori, N.
    Osteria, G.
    Panico, B.
    Papini, P.
    Pearce, Mark
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Picozza, P.
    Ricci, M.
    Ricciarini, S. B.
    Simon, M.
    Sparvoli, R.
    Spillantini, P.
    Stozhkov, Y. I.
    Vacchi, A.
    Vannuccini, E.
    Vasilyev, G.
    Voronov, S. A.
    Yurkin, Y. T.
    Zampa, G.
    Zampa, N.
    Ten years of PAMELA in space2017In: La Rivista del nuovo cimento della Società italiana di fisica, ISSN 0393-697X, E-ISSN 1826-9850, Vol. 40, no 10, p. 473-522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The PAMELA cosmic-ray detector was launched on June 15th 2006 on board the Russian Resurs-DK1 satellite, and during ten years of nearly continuous data-taking it has observed new interesting features in cosmic rays (CRs). In a decade of operation it has provided plenty of scientific data, covering different issues related to cosmic-ray physics. Its discoveries might change our basic vision of the mechanisms of production, acceleration and propagation of cosmic rays in the Galaxy. The antimatter measurements, focus of the experiment, have set strong constraints to the nature of Dark Matter. Search for signatures of more exotic processes (such as the ones involving Strange Quark Matter) was also pursued. Furthermore, the long-term operation of the instrument had allowed a constant monitoring of the solar activity during its maximum and a detailed and prolonged study of the solar modulation, improving the comprehension of the heliosphere mechanisms. PAMELA had also measured the radiation environment around the Earth, and it detected for the first time the presence of an antiproton radiation belt surrounding our planet. The operation of Resurs-DK1 was terminated in 2016. In this article we will review the main features of the PAMELA instrument and its constructing phases. The main part of the article will be dedicated to the summary of the most relevant PAMELA results over a decade of observation.

  • 2059. Adriani, O.
    et al.
    Barbarino, G. C.
    Bazilevskaya, G. A.
    Bellotti, R.
    Boezio, M.
    Bogomolov, E. A.
    Bongi, M.
    Bonvicini, V.
    Bruno, A.
    Cafagna, F.
    Campana, D.
    Carlson, Per
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Casolino, M.
    Castellini, G.
    De Santis, C.
    Di Felice, V.
    Galper, A. M.
    Karelin, A. V.
    Koldashov, S. V.
    Koldobskiy, S.
    Krutkov, S. Y.
    Kvashnin, A. N.
    Leonov, A.
    Malakhov, V.
    Marcelli, L.
    Martucci, M.
    Mayorov, A. G.
    Menn, W.
    Merge, M.
    Mikhailov, V. V.
    Mocchiutti, E.
    Monaco, A.
    Mori, N.
    Munini, R.
    Osteria, G.
    Panico, B.
    Papini, P.
    Pearce, Mark
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Picozza, P.
    Pizzella, G.
    Ricci, M.
    Ricciarini, S. B.
    Simon, M.
    Sparvoli, R.
    Spillantini, P.
    Stozhkov, Y. I.
    Vacchi, A.
    Vannuccini, E.
    Vasilyev, G.
    Voronov, S. A.
    Yurkin, Y. T.
    Zampa, G.
    Zampa, N.
    Unexpected Cyclic Behavior in Cosmic-Ray Protons Observed by PAMELA at 1 au2018In: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 852, no 2, article id L28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Protons detected by the PAMELA experiment in the period 2006-2014 have been analyzed in the energy range between 0.40 and 50 GV to explore possible periodicities besides the well known solar undecennial modulation. An unexpected clear and regular feature has been found at rigidities below 15 GV, with a quasi-periodicity of similar to 450 days. A possible Jovian origin of this periodicity has been investigated in different ways. The results seem to favor a small but not negligible contribution to cosmic rays from the Jovian magnetosphere, even if other explanations cannot be excluded.

  • 2060. Adriani, O.
    et al.
    Barbarino, G. C.
    Bazilevskaya, G. A.
    Bellotti, R.
    Boezio, M.
    Pearce, Mark
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Carlson, Per
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Hofverberg, Petter
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Orsi, Silvio
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    et al,
    New Measurement of the Antiproton-to-Proton Flux Ratio up to 100 GeV in the Cosmic Radiation2009In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 102, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new measurement of the cosmic-ray antiproton-to-proton flux ratio between 1 and 100 GeV is presented. The results were obtained with the PAMELA experiment, which was launched into low-Earth orbit on-board the Resurs-DK1 satellite on June 15th 2006. During 500 days of data collection a total of about 1000 antiprotons have been identified, including 100 above an energy of 20 GeV. The high-energy results are a tenfold improvement in statistics with respect to all previously published data. The data follow the trend expected from secondary production calculations and significantly constrain contributions from exotic sources, e. g., dark matter particle annihilations.

  • 2061. Adriani, O.
    et al.
    Barbarino, G. C.
    Bazilevskaya, G. A.
    Boezio, M.
    Bogomolov, E. A.
    Bonechi, L.
    Bongi, M.
    Bonvicini, V.
    Borisov, S. V.
    Bottai, S.
    Bruno, A.
    Cafagna, F.
    Campana, D.
    Carbone, R.
    Carlson, Per
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Casolino, M.
    Castellini, G.
    De Pascale, M. P.
    De Santis, C.
    De Simone, N.
    Di Felice, V.
    Galper, A. M.
    Gillard, William
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    Grishantseva, L. A.
    Jerse, G.
    Karelin, A. V.
    Krutkov, S. Y.
    Kvashnin, A. N.
    Leonov, A. A.
    Malakhov, V. V.
    Marcelli, L.
    Mayorov, A. G.
    Koldashov, S. V.
    Mikhailov, V. V.
    Mocchiutti, E.
    Monaco, A.
    Mori, N.
    Osteria, G.
    Palma, F.
    Papini, P.
    Pearce, Mark
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Picozza, P.
    Pizzolotto, C.
    Ricciarini, S.
    Rossetto, Laura
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Sarkar, R.
    Simon, M.
    Sparvoli, R.
    Spillantini, P.
    Stozhkov, Y. I.
    Vacchi, A.
    Vannuccini, E.
    Vasilyev, G. I.
    Voronov, S. A.
    Yurkin, Y. T.
    Wu, Juan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    Zampa, G.
    Zampa, N.
    Zverev, V. G.
    Measurements of cosmic-ray proton and helium spectra with the PAMELA calorimeter2013In: Advances in Space Research, ISSN 0273-1177, E-ISSN 1879-1948, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 219-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a new measurement of the cosmic ray proton and helium spectra by the PAMELA experiment performed using the "thin" (in terms of nuclei interactions) sampling electromagnetic calorimeter. The described method, optimized by using Monte Carlo simulation, beam test and experimental data, allows the spectra to be measured up to 10 TeV, thus extending the PAMELA observational range based on the magnetic spectrometer measurement.

  • 2062. Adriani, O.
    et al.
    Barbarino, G. C.
    Carlson, Per
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    Gillard, William
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    Pearce, Mark
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Rossetto, Laura
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    Wu, Juan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    Zampa, G.
    Zampa, N.
    Zverev, V. G.
    Cosmic-Ray Electron Flux Measured by the PAMELA Experiment between 1 and 625 GeV2011In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 106, no 20, p. 201101-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Precision measurements of the electron component in the cosmic radiation provide important information about the origin and propagation of cosmic rays in the Galaxy. Here we present new results regarding negatively charged electrons between 1 and 625 GeV performed by the satellite-borne experiment PAMELA. This is the first time that cosmic-ray e(-) have been identified above 50 GeV. The electron spectrum can be described with a single power-law energy dependence with spectral index -3.18 +/- 0.05 above the energy region influenced by the solar wind (> 30 GeV). No significant spectral features are observed and the data can be interpreted in terms of conventional diffusive propagation models. However, the data are also consistent with models including new cosmic-ray sources that could explain the rise in the positron fraction.

  • 2063. Adriani, O.
    et al.
    Bazilevskaya, G. A.
    Barbarino, G. C.
    Bellotti, R.
    Boezio, M.
    Bogomolov, E. A.
    Bonechi, L.
    Bongi, M.
    Bonvicini, V.
    Borisov, S. V.
    Bottai, S.
    Bruno, A.
    Cafagna, F.
    Campana, D.
    Carlson, P.
    Casolino, M.
    Castellini, G.
    Pascale, M. P.
    Rosa, G.
    Fedele, D.
    Felice, V.
    Galper, A. M.
    Grishantseva, L. A.
    Hofverberg, Petter
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    Leonov, A. A.
    Koldashov, S. V.
    Krutkov, S.Yu.
    Kvashnin, A. N.
    Malvezzi, V.
    Marcelli, L.
    Menn, W.
    Mikhailov, V. V.
    Minori, M.
    Mocchiutti, E.
    Orsi, Silvio
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    Osteria, G.
    Papini, P.
    Pearce, Mark
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    Picozza, P.
    Ricci, M.
    Ricciarini, S. B.
    Simon, M.
    Simone, N.
    Sparvoli, R.
    Spillantini, P.
    Stozhkov, Yu.I.
    Taddei, E.
    Vacchi, A.
    Vannuccini, E.
    Vasil'ev, G. V.
    Voronov, S. A.
    Yurkin, Yu.T.
    Zampa, G.
    Zampa, N.
    Zverev, V. G.
    Positrons and electrons in primary cosmic rays as measured in the PAMELA experiment2009In: Bulletin of the Russian Academy of Sciences: Physics, ISSN 1062-8738, Vol. 73, no 5, p. 568-570Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The PAMELA experiment is being carried out on board the Russian satellite Resurs DK1 placed in the near-earth near-polar orbit on June 15, 2006. The apparatus comprising a silicon-strip magnetic spectrometer and an electromagnetic calorimeter allows measurement of electron and positron fluxes in cosmic rays in a wide energy interval from ∼100 MeV to hundreds of GeV. The high-energy electron and positron separation technique is discussed and the data on positron-to-electron ratio in primary cosmic rays up to E ≃ 10 GeV from the 2006 - 2007 measurements are reported in this work.

  • 2064. Adriani, O.
    et al.
    Bazilevskaya, G. A.
    Barbarino, G. C.
    Bellotti, R.
    Boezio, M.
    Bogomolov, E. A.
    Bonvicini, V.
    Bongi, M.
    Bonechi, L.
    Borisov, S. V.
    Bottai, S.
    Bruno, A.
    Vacchi, A.
    Vannuccini, E.
    Vasilyev, G. I.
    Voronov, S. A.
    Wu, Juan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    Galper, A. M.
    Grishantseva, L. A.
    Danilchenko, I. A.
    Gillard, William
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    Jerse, G.
    Zampa, G.
    Zampa, N.
    Zverev, V. G.
    Casolino, M.
    Campana, D.
    Carbone, R.
    Karelin, A. V.
    Carlson, Per
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Castellini, G.
    Cafagna, F.
    Kvashnin, A. N.
    Koldashov, S. V.
    Koldobskiy, S. A.
    Krutkov, S. Y.
    Consiglio, L.
    Leonov, A. A.
    Mayorov, A. G.
    Malakhov, V. V.
    Malvezzi, W.
    Marcelli, L.
    Menn, W.
    Mikhailov, V. V.
    Mocchiutti, E.
    Monaco, A.
    Mori, N.
    Nikonov, N. N.
    Osteria, G.
    Palma, F.
    Papini, P.
    Pizzolotto, C.
    de Pascale, M. P.
    Picozza, P.
    Pearce, Mark
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Ricci, M.
    Ricciarini, S.
    Rossetto, Laura
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Runtso, M. F.
    De Santis, C.
    Sarkar, R.
    Simon, M.
    De Simone, N.
    Sparvoli, R.
    Spillantini, P.
    Stozhkov, Y. I.
    Di Felice, V.
    Yurkin, Y. T.
    Measurement of the flux of primary cosmic ray antiprotons with energies of 60 MeV to 350 GeV in the PAMELA experiment2013In: JETP Letters: Journal of Experimental And Theoretical Physics Letters, ISSN 0021-3640, E-ISSN 1090-6487, Vol. 96, no 10, p. 621-627Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is interesting to measure the antiproton galactic component in cosmic rays in order to study the mechanisms by which particles and antiparticles are generated and propagate in the Galaxy and to search for new sources of, e.g., annihilation or decay of dark matter hypothetical particles. The antiproton spectrum and the ratio of the fluxes of primary cosmic ray antiprotons to protons with energies of 60 MeV to 350 GeV found from the data obtained from June 2006 to January 2010 in the PAMELA experiment are presented. The usage of the advanced data processing method based on the data classification mathematical model made it possible to increase statistics and analyze the region of higher energies than in the earlier works.

  • 2065. Adriani, O.
    et al.
    Bazilevskaya, G. A.
    Barbarino, G. C.
    Bellotti, T. R.
    Bzheumikhova, M. A.
    Bogomolov, E. A.
    Boezio, V. M.
    Bonvicini, V.
    Bongi, M.
    Bonechi, L.
    Bottai, S.
    Bruno, A.
    Vacchi, A.
    Vannuccini, E.
    Vasiliev, G. V.
    Voronov, S. A.
    Galper, A. M.
    Grishantseva, L. A.
    Zampa, G.
    Zampa, N.
    Zverev, V. G.
    Casolino, M.
    Campana, T. D.
    Carlson, Per
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    Castellini, G.
    Cafagna, F.
    Kvashnin, A. N.
    Koldashov, S. V.
    Krutkov, S.Yu.
    Leonov, A. A.
    Malakhov, V. V.
    Malvezzi, V.
    Marcelli, L.
    Menn, W.
    Mikhailov, V. V.
    Mocchiutti, E.
    Orsi, Silvio
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    Osteria, G.
    Papini, P.
    De Pascale, M. P.
    Picozza, T. P.
    Pearce, Mark
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    De Rosa, G.
    Ricci, M.
    Ricciarini, S. B.
    Simon, M.
    De Simone, N.
    Sparvoli, R.
    Spillantini, P.
    Stozhkov, Yu.I.
    Taddei, E.
    Felice, V.
    Fedele, D.
    Hofverberg, Petter
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    Yurkin, Yu.T.
    Secondary electron and positron fluxes in the near-Earth space observed in the ARINA and PAMELA experiments2009In: Bulletin of the Russian Academy of Sciences: Physics, ISSN 1062-8738, Vol. 73, no 3, p. 364-366Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Secondary electron and positron fluxes in the energy range from 3 MeV to 7 GeV were measured with the ARINA and PAMELA spectrometers onboard the Resurs-DK satellite launched on June 15, 2006 into an elliptical orbit with an inclination of 70.4° and an altitude of 350-600 km. It is shown that positrons dominate over electrons by a factor of up to 4-5 in the geomagnetic equator region (L < 1.2 and B > 0.25).

  • 2066. Adriani, O.
    et al.
    Carlson, Per
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Gillard, William
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    Pearce, Mark
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Rossetto, Laura
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Wu, Juan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Zverev, V. G.
    et al.,
    The discovery of geomagnetically trapped cosmic-ray antiprotons2011In: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, Vol. 737, no 2, p. L29-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The existence of a significant flux of antiprotons confined to Earth's magnetosphere has been considered in several theoretical works. These antiparticles are produced in nuclear interactions of energetic cosmic rays with the terrestrial atmosphere and accumulate in the geomagnetic field at altitudes of several hundred kilometers. A contribution from the decay of albedo antineutrons has been hypothesized in analogy to proton production by neutron decay, which constitutes the main source of trapped protons at energies above some tens of MeV. This Letter reports the discovery of an antiproton radiation belt around the Earth. The trapped antiproton energy spectrum in the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) region has been measured by the PAMELA experiment for the kinetic energy range 60-750 MeV. A measurement of the atmospheric sub-cutoff antiproton spectrum outside the radiation belts is also reported. PAMELA data show that the magnetospheric antiproton flux in the SAA exceeds the cosmic-ray antiproton flux by three orders of magnitude at the present solar minimum, and exceeds the sub-cutoff antiproton flux outside radiation belts by four orders of magnitude, constituting the most abundant source of antiprotons near the Earth.

  • 2067. Adriani, O.
    et al.
    Carlson, Per
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Hofverberg, Petter
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Pearce, Mark
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Orsi, Silvio
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Lund, J.
    Zampa, N.
    et. al.,
    The Pamela experiment ready for flight2007In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 572, no 1, p. 471-473Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Pamela apparatus will allow precise measurements of cosmic rays in Low Earth Orbit, mainly focusing on the antiparticles component. The apparatus is now ready for flight, and the launch is foreseen during June 2006. The paper briefly reports the status of the experiment, and the performances of the various components as measured before the launch.

  • 2068. Adriani, O.
    et al.
    Carlson, Per
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Pearce, Mark
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Vos, E.E.
    et al.,
    TIME DEPENDENCE of the e- FLUX MEASURED by PAMELA during the 2006 July-2009 DECEMBER SOLAR MINIMUM2015In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 810, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Precision measurements of the electron component of cosmic radiation provide important information about the origin and propagation of cosmic rays in the Galaxy not accessible from the study of cosmic-ray nuclear components due to their differing diffusion and energy-loss processes. However, when measured near Earth, the effects of propagation and modulation of Galactic cosmic rays in the heliosphere, particularly significant for energies up to at least 30 GeV, must be properly taken into account. In this paper the electron (e-) spectra measured by the Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics down to 70 MeV from 2006 July to 2009 December over six-month time intervals are presented. Fluxes are compared with a state-of-the-art three-dimensional model of solar modulation that reproduces the observations remarkably well.

  • 2069. Adriani, O
    et al.
    Carlson, Per
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Pearce, Mark
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Zampa, N.
    SEARCH FOR ANISOTROPIES IN COSMIC-RAY POSITRONS DETECTED BY THE PAMELA EXPERIMENT2015In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 811, no 1, article id 21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The. Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA) detector was launched on board the Russian Resurs-DK1 satellite on 2006 June 15. The data collected during the first four years have been used to search for large-scale anisotropies in the arrival directions of cosmic ray positrons. The PAMELA experiment allows for a full sky investigation, with sensitivity to global anisotropies in any angular window of the celestial sphere. Data samples of positrons in the rigidity range of 10 GV <= R <= 200 GV were analyzed. This article discusses the method and the results of the search for possible local sources through the analysis of anisotropy in positron data compared to the proton background. The resulting distributions of arrival directions are found to be isotropic. Starting from the angular power spectrum, a dipole anisotropy upper limit of delta = 0.076 at the 95% confidence level is determined. An additional search is carried out around the Sun. No evidence of an excess correlated with that direction was found.

  • 2070. Adriani, O
    et al.
    Carlson, Per
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Pearce, Mark
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Zampa, N.
    et al.,
    New Upper Limit on Strange Quark Matter Abundance in Cosmic Rays with the PAMELA Space Experiment2015In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 115, no 11, article id 111101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work we present results of a direct search for strange quark matter (SQM) in cosmic rays with the PAMELA space spectrometer. If this state of matter exists it may be present in cosmic rays as particles, called strangelets, having a high density and an anomalously high mass-to-charge (A/Z) ratio. A direct search in space is complementary to those from ground-based spectrometers. Furthermore, it has the advantage of being potentially capable of directly identifying these particles, without any assumption on their interaction model with Earth's atmosphere and the long-term stability in terrestrial and lunar rocks. In the rigidity range from 1.0 to similar to 1.0 x 10(3) GV, no such particles were found in the data collected by PAMELA between 2006 and 2009. An upper limit on the strangelet flux in cosmic rays was therefore set for particles with charge 1 <= Z <= 8 and mass 4 <= A <= 1.2 x 10(5). This limit as a function of mass and as a function of magnetic rigidity allows us to constrain models of SQM production and propagation in the Galaxy.

  • 2071. Adriani, O.
    et al.
    Carlson, Per
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Pearce, Mark
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Zampa, N.
    et. al.,
    PAMELA's measurements of geomagnetic cutoff variations during the 14 December 2006 storm2016In: Space Weather: The international journal of research and applications, ISSN 1542-7390, E-ISSN 1542-7390, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 210-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data from the Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA) satellite experiment were used to measure the geomagnetic cutoff for high-energy ( 80MeV) protons during the 14 December 2006 geomagnetic storm. The variations of the cutoff latitude as a function of rigidity were studied on relatively short timescales, corresponding to spacecraft orbital periods (approximate to 94 min). Estimated cutoff values were compared with those obtained by means of a trajectory-tracing approach based on a dynamical empirical modeling of the Earth's magnetosphere. We found significant variations in the cutoff latitude, with a maximum suppression of approximate to 7 degrees at lowest rigidities during the main phase of the storm. The observed reduction in the geomagnetic shielding and its temporal evolution were related to the changes in the magnetospheric configuration, investigating the role of interplanetary magnetic field, solar wind, and geomagnetic parameters. PAMELA's results represent the first direct measurement of geomagnetic cutoffs for protons with kinetic energies in the sub-GeV and GeV region.

  • 2072. Adriani, O.
    et al.
    Carlson, Per
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Pearce, Mark
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Zverev, V. G.
    et al.,
    TRAPPED proton fluxes at low earth orbits measured by the PAMELA experiment2015In: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 799, no 1, p. L4-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report an accurate measurement of the geomagnetically trapped proton fluxes for kinetic energy above similar to 70 MeV performed by the PAMELA mission at low Earth orbits (350 divided by 610 km). Data were analyzed in the frame of the adiabatic theory of charged particle motion in the geomagnetic field. Flux properties were investigated in detail, providing a full characterization of the particle radiation in the South Atlantic Anomaly region, including locations, energy spectra, and pitch angle distributions. PAMELA results significantly improve the description of the Earth's radiation environment at low altitudes, placing important constraints on the trapping and interaction processes, and can be used to validate current trapped particle radiation models.

  • 2073.
    Adriasola Orellana, Renato
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Boendet där emellan2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    De senaste decennierna har det blivit allt tydligare att utbudet på bostadsmarknaden inte matchar efterfrågan. Främst den rådande bristen på bostäder, men också för de bostäder som alla slåss om i huvudsak är byggda utifrån hur Sverige såg ut för 40–50 år sedan. Dagens familjer och deras behov ser inte lika dana ut som när bostäderna byggdes. Bostadsmarknaden måste följa samhällets utveckling och vara villiga att satsa på nytänkande. I mitt examensarbete vill jag visa på hur ett sådant boende skulle kunna se ut.

  • 2074.
    Adrup, Joakim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Visualization and Interaction with Temporal Data using Data Cubes in the Global Earth Observation System of Systems2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to explore the usage of data cubes in the context of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). This study investigated what added benefit could be provided to users of the GEOSS platform by utilizing the capabilities of data cubes. Data cubes in earth observation is a concept for how data should be handled and provided by a data server. It includes aspects such as flexible extraction of subsets and processing capabilities. In this study it was found that the most frequent use case for data cubes was time analysis. One of the main services provided by the GEOSS portal was the discovery and inspection of datasets. In the study a timeline interface was constructed to facilitate the exploration and inspection of datasets with a temporal dimension. The datasets were provided by a data cube, and made use of the data cubes capabilities in retrieving subsets of data along any arbitrary axis. A usability evaluation was conducted on the timeline interface to gain insight into the users requirements and user satisfaction. The results showed that the design worked well in many regards, ranking high in user satisfaction. On a number of points the study highlighted areas of improvement. Providing insight into important design limitations and challenges together with suggestions on how these could be approached in different ways.

  • 2075.
    Adrup, Joakim
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC).
    Skogström, Charlotte
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC).
    Effekterna av spelmekanismerna ledartavlor, serier och certifikat på det dagliga stegantalet hos högskolestuderande studenter2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Gamification is becoming a recognized concept, especially in research areas such as HCI (Human Computer Interaction). This paper discusses and compares three different game mechanics through the daily step count. The game mechanisms included are leaderboards, streaks and badges. The study applies quantitative and qualitative methods to investigate how the above named game mechanisms affect the daily step count of students studying at a university level.

    The study shows that gamification is preferable in terms of awareness and pleasure, but that gamification must not interfere with the basic functions of the original product. On the contrary, gaming mechanisms should be used to support the products existing features, not just to make the product more entertaining and motivating. The general conclusion of the collected quantitative data is that gamification does not influence the daily step count.

    Finally, the article discusses what factors should be implemented to make gamification work in a motivating way. The article also discusses how game developers can use game design to create interesting and engaging applications.

  • 2076.
    Adson, Artur
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Matin, Timu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Further Development of A Rescue Helmet2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this master's thesis was to further develop a helmet for search and rescue personnel, on request from AUK Protection, formerly known as Baering. This thesis succeeds the KTH MF2061 higher course project Baering Y1 - Product development of a new search and rescue helmet in collaboration with Baering in 2013. AUK Protection had identified a need for a purposely designed helmet through contact with members of Swedish Search and Rescue(SAR) and Swedish Sea Rescue Society(SSRS). There are approximately 2000 active SAR and SSRS members who use helmets designed for recreational activities, such as rafting and mountain climbing, for lack of a better alternative. The helmets are consequently modified to accommodate their specific needs. Essential rescue equipment, such as position lights and communication systems, are retrofit using fasteners, tape, straps and Velcro. User studies conducted in the MF2061 project indicated safety concerns with the aforementioned attachment methods. The retrofit components protrude from the helmet and often interfere with other rescue equipment, with the risk of entangling the user. The Y1 helmet concept produced in the MF2061 project was evaluated together members from SAR and SSRS, with focus on form and functionality. Different materials and manufacturing methods were researched and the manufacturability of the Y1 was analysed. It was ultimately decided to discontinue the development of the Y1 due to the feedback received. New concepts were generated with focus on anthropometric data, manufacturability, helmet safety standards and the ability to mount additional components. Different material combinations were investigated and evaluated using physical testing. Further development of the concepts involved clay sculpting and 3D CAD modelling. The final concept was chosen based on input from the users, AUK Protection and HOWL Design Studio. The R1 -Rescue One helmet is the result and supersedes currently available solutions for rescue applications. The essence of the R1 helmet is a modular mounting system that can be customized for use with third-party components. Prototypes were manufactured in the correct materials for further evaluation. Drop tests were performed according to PAS 028 standard validate the mechanical properties of the helmet.

  • 2077.
    Adson, Artur
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Söderström, Amanda
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Laddstation för eldrivna taxibilar2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The requirements on today’s cars regarding fuel consumption, CO2 and particle emissions have been getting higher since the first classification of an environmentally friendly car in 1993. Today there are four classifications in Sweden; 2000, 2005, EEV and El and hybrid. More car manufacturers choose to develop and release environmentally friendly cars and in mars 2011 there were 403359 environmentally friendly cars registered in Sweden, a 35 per cent increase from 2010. The goal with this project was to present a concept of an automated system that enables taxi drivers to use the time queuing in taxi lanes for charging their batteries. A pre-study was conducted where taxi drivers from outside the central Stockholm train station were interviewed. Results from the interviews indicate that taxi drivers regularly have to wait for a mean 21 minutes for a customer. Scientific articles on the principals of induction, inductive charging, electric motors and vehicles were studied and resulted in a simplified model of an inductive coupling. The model was used to estimate coil dimensions, manufacturing cost and wireless energy transfer efficiency. The final concept is an inductive charging station that is mounted on the side of the taxi-lane. With a coil diameter of 700 mm it is possible to charge at a maximum distance of 210 mm with a transfer efficiency of above 50 per cent. This is considered as high efficiency for wireless energy transfer.

  • 2078.
    ADUT, JONATHAN
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Organization and management.
    Applying agile approaches in public construction and civil engineering projects: A study to identify opportunities for a more flexible projectmanagement process2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In an ever-evolving business climate, with new projects emerging like never before, the need for efficient project management within all areas is highly stressed. The core of any project management is to carefully plan, organise, motivate and control resources to achieve a desired outcome and to meet project objectives. Traditional project management provides a project design frame that is uniformly constructed to apply to almost any type of project. Working with project phases in traditional C&CE projects have a tendency to be too rigid and time consuming for today's dynamic business environment.

    Project management of today is no longer about managing the sequence of steps required to complete the project on time. It is about systematically incorporating the voice of the customer, creating a disciplined way of prioritising effort and resolving trade-offs, working concurrently on all aspects of the project in multi-functional teams. Studying the concept of Agile Project Management allows for just that.

    Agile approaches allow the project management process to be a vivid and continuously updated. Agile project management provides project managers with methods, tools and approaches to aid both the project manager and project client to engage in a more efficient manner, allowing for more open communication, feedback sessions and the notion of pursuing a shared goal towards successful project management.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether project management within the C&CE industry – which so far mostly has been carried out in a traditional way – could benefit from utilising agile approaches. By studying both traditional project management and observing how projects were run at WSP Management, as well as interviewing experienced senior project managers, the identification of possible agile approaches was identified.

    Combining the foundation of knowledge about the traditional sense of project management with agile theory, value & principles and interviews with agile experts – it became evident that the possibilities of utilising and benefitting from agile approaches in the C&CE industry is viable.

  • 2079.
    Adzemovic, Haris
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC).
    Sandor, Alexander
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC).
    Comparison of user and item-based collaborative filtering on sparse data2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Recommender systems are used extensively today in many areas to help users and consumers with making decisions. Amazon recommends books based on what you have previously viewed and purchased, Netflix presents you with shows and movies you might enjoy based on your interactions with the platform and Facebook serves personalized ads to every user based on gathered browsing information. These systems are based on shared similarities and there are several ways to develop and model them. This study compares two methods, user and item-based filtering in k nearest neighbours systems.The methods are compared on how much they deviate from the true answer when predicting user ratings of movies based on sparse data. The study showed that none of the methods could be considered objectively better than the other and that the choice of system should be based on the data set.

  • 2080. Aebersold, Ruedi
    et al.
    Agar, Jeffrey N.
    Amster, I. Jonathan
    Baker, Mark S.
    Bertozzi, Carolyn R.
    Boja, Emily S.
    Costello, Catherine E.
    Cravatt, Benjamin F.
    Fenselau, Catherine
    Garcia, Benjamin A.
    Ge, Ying
    Gunawardena, Jeremy
    Hendrickson, Ronald C.
    Hergenrother, Paul J.
    Huber, Christian G.
    Ivanov, Alexander R.
    Jensen, Ole N.
    Jewett, Michael C.
    Kelleher, Neil L.
    Kiessling, Laura L.
    Krogan, Nevan J.
    Larsen, Martin R.
    Loo, Joseph A.
    Loo, Rachel R. Ogorzalek
    Lundberg, Emma
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Stanford Univ, Dept Genet, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.
    MacCoss, Michael J.
    Mallick, Parag
    Mootha, Vamsi K.
    Mrksich, Milan
    Muir, Tom W.
    Patrie, Steven M.
    Pesavento, James J.
    Pitteri, Sharon J.
    Rodriguez, Henry
    Saghatelian, Alan
    Sandoval, Wendy
    Schluter, Hartmut
    Sechi, Salvatore
    Slavoff, Sarah A.
    Smith, Lloyd M.
    Snyder, Michael P.
    Thomas, Paul M.
    Uhlen, Mathias
    Van Eyk, Jennifer E.
    Vidal, Marc
    Walt, David R.
    White, Forest M.
    Williams, Evan R.
    Wohlschlager, Therese
    Wysocki, Vicki H.
    Yates, Nathan A.
    Young, Nicolas L.
    Zhang, Bing
    How many human proteoforms are there?2018In: Nature Chemical Biology, ISSN 1552-4450, E-ISSN 1552-4469, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 206-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite decades of accumulated knowledge about proteins and their post-translational modifications (PTMs), numerous questions remain regarding their molecular composition and biological function. One of the most fundamental queries is the extent to which the combinations of DNA-, RNA-and PTM-level variations explode the complexity of the human proteome. Here, we outline what we know from current databases and measurement strategies including mass spectrometry-based proteomics. In doing so, we examine prevailing notions about the number of modifications displayed on human proteins and how they combine to generate the protein diversity underlying health and disease. We frame central issues regarding determination of protein-level variation and PTMs, including some paradoxes present in the field today. We use this framework to assess existing data and to ask the question, "How many distinct primary structures of proteins (proteoforms) are created from the 20,300 human genes?" We also explore prospects for improving measurements to better regularize protein-level biology and efficiently associate PTMs to function and phenotype.

  • 2081. Aebischer, B.
    et al.
    Hilty, Lorenz
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. University of Zurich, Switzerland .
    The energy demand of ICT: A historical perspective and current methodological challenges2015In: ICT Innovations for Sustainability, Springer, 2015, p. 71-103Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter provides an overview of energy demand issues in the field of ICT with a focus on the history of measuring, modelling and regulating ICT electricity consumption and the resulting methodological challenges. While the energy efficiency of ICT hardware has been dramatically improving and will continue to improve for some decades, the overall energy used for ICT is still increasing. The growing demand for ICT devices and services outpaces the efficiency gains of individual devices. Worldwide per capita ICT electricity consumption exceeded 100 kWh/year in 2007 (a value which roughly doubles if entertainment equipment is included) and is further increasing. Methodological challenges include issues of data collection and modelling ICT devices and services, assessing the entire life cycle of ICT devices and infrastructures, accounting for embedded ICT, and assessing the effect of software on ICT energy consumption.

  • 2082.
    Aejmelaeus-Lindström, Petrus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    FAD* for Stadsgårdskajen2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    FAD * for Stadsgårdskajen

    Re-introduction of some of the knowledge from the master builder to the contemporary architect.

    This project investigates the interaction between designing architecture and building architecture in a computer controlled context. Algorithms have been developed to simulate and control an automated in situ brick stacking process. Brick laying is a well researched topic for robotic processes. It is an ideal material for building with robots (in Stockholm) since it is a generic building block that is cheap and easy to produce locally. Corbeled vaults, instead of keystone vaults, can be built without support and with all identical elements and are therefore also suitable for robotic fabrication. 

    The algorithms have been incorporated in a parametric model that have been used to develop public building at Stadsgårdskajen, Stockholm. FAD is about creating and explore a different architectural expression as well as reintroducing the brick as a relevant construction material for Stockholm.

  • 2083.
    Aejmelaeus-Lindström, Petrus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Opera i Stockholm, Stadsgårdskajen2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2084.
    af Burén, Claës
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Piska eller morot?: En studie av möjligheter och hinder samt förslag på åtgärder till förändringar inom den svenska industrin i syfte att öka energieffektiviseringsarbetet.2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Our nation is dependent on secure energy supply at competitive prices. Even though energy efficiency tools are available Sweden hasn’t achieved its full potential. The Swedish industry and its energy efficiency is affected by a number of instruments concerning climate and energy, such as energy- and carbon taxes, the European emission trading system (EU ETS) and the Swedish program for energy efficiency (PFE). 

    Optional or obligatory, today there is a difference of opinion concerning the design of energy efficiency instruments. This paper focus on the research of energy efficiency instruments in the industry and to identify potential opportunities, obstacles and give recommendations of actions to improve the energy efficiency. This paper is a part of a project,”Ett energieffektivt samhälle”,   initiated by the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences (IVA).  The research is based on interviews with industry related representatives of companies, associations, government agencies and other independent operators.

    PFE, EKC, the environmental code, ErP, energy- and carbon taxes, ETS and the Swedish system of electricity certificates, influences the energy efficiency work. None of these instruments have an overall impact on the industry. PFE and ErP are popular instruments but EKC has to improve to be an incentive for the industry.  The environmental code is criticized for its interpretation and enforcement. Competitiveness is adversely affected by taxes and ETS in contrary to PFE and EKC. Continuously energy work is only required by PFE and the environmental code.

    Both authorities and companies have to provide clear guidelines, follow-ups and the gains to be obtained of the energy efficiency work. Authorities have to support critical investments and to avoid interfering with the competition on the market. Long-term planning, cost-effectiveness, technology neutrality and being a legitimate stakeholder is of vital importance. Companies have to provide the financial structure suited for energy efficiency work. They also have to apply a continuous and long-term efficiency work, for example by highlighting new ratios and to encourage employees to participate in the development process. Collaboration in the form of co-production between different universities, institutes, lobby-associations and companies have to be encouraged to improve knowledge exchange and reduced costs.

    The question is if energy efficiency instruments should be based on “the stick or carrot approach”? Research about energy efficiency shows, that a combination of voluntary, mandatory and economical instruments is absolutely necessary for a favourable development.  Parts with different interests and qualifications demands a number of arrangements that both is a “stick and a carrot approach” to a necessary energy efficiency work.  Many of the participants in the study underline the importance to address the heterogeneity of the parts otherwise it will disfavour the energy efficiency work when the industry moves abroad. Actually the following conclusion could be made, that the initial question about the “stick or carrot approach” must be put in a different way. About an effective energy efficiency work it’s absolutely necessary to create a combination of both “the stick and the carrot” approach and the wider look on the concept energy efficiency. It’s most important to have a very well done combination and harmonization of the instruments to support the energy efficiency work, the industry and the society at large.

  • 2085.
    Af Geijerstam, Jan
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Industrial Economics and Management.
    Landscapes of Technology Transfer: Swedish Ironmakers in India 1860–18642004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    In the early 1860s three Swedes, Nils Wilhelm Mitander,Julius Ramsay and Gustaf Wittenström, were engaged by theBritish to build and run charcoal-based ironworks in India.These works, the Burwai Iron Works of the British Government inthe case of Mitander and the privately owned Kumaon Iron Worksin the case of Ramsay and Wittenström, were both to bebased on the most modern European technology. The projects werepioneering in Indian ironmaking. The ambitions were high andstakes big, but after only a few years the projects were closedand the Swedes returned home.Landscapes of Technology Transferpresents a detailedstudy of the Kumaon and Burwai Iron Works, from their firstconception to their final closure. The investigation isbasically empirical and a fundamental question is: Why were theworks never brought into full and continuous production?

    The ironworks projects should be considered as processes oftechnology transfer rather than fully fledged and completedtransfers. In spite of this lack of success, or maybe becauseof it, the history of the ironworks and the Swedes also forms afruitful case to put other questions of wide relevance. Itexposes workings and effects of colonialism and offers anexplanation of the late development of India's iron and steelindustry and analyses of the complex totality forming theprerequisites for a successful transfer of technology. The longtraditions of bloomery ironmaking in India and ismarginalisation is also discussed.

    Landscapes of Technology Transferis a comprehensiveempirical study. From a local and individual perspective ittraces lines of connection across boundaries of time andgeography. The historical landscapes of technology transfer aredescribed in their cultural, social, economic and politicaldimensions and the thesis underlines the importance of a closeacquaintance with local settings and conditions, where historyis manifested in a physical presence. The remains of theironworks and theirlocal landscapes in present-day India areused as a central source for writing their histories. There isalso a strong emphasis on the use of photographs and drawingsas sources.

    The outcome of the projects was the result of the interplaybetween the local and the global, between a diversity ofconcrete factors influencing the construction of the works andtheir running and their colonial character. The studyemphasises the importance of technological systems andnetworks, both on a micro and a macro level. On a local leveldemanding logistics, a sometimes adverse climate, theprocurement of charcoal and iron ore in sufficient quantitiesand the build up of knowledge of ironmaking posed serious butnot insurmountable difficulties. Most obstacles were overcomealready during the first few years of the 1860s, the period ofthe Swedes, but to put the works into full and continuousproduction would have needed perseverance and purposefulefforts to support and protect the iron production, at leastduring an initial period. In the end the position of India as acolonial dependency, subjected to the primacy of Britishinterests, set the limits of the projects.

    Key words:History of technology, industrial heritagestudies, industrial archaeology, technology transfer,diffusion, technological systems, landscapes of technology,iron and steel, charcoal iron, direct and indirect ironmaking,bloomeries, 19th century, industrial history,industrialisation, de-industrialisation, underdevelopment,colonialism, India, Sweden, Great Britain, global history,annales.

  • 2086.
    Af Klintberg, Albin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Åkehag, Jonny
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Träbjälklag med tung fyllning: Bjälklag framtaget med inspiration av byggteknik från sekelskiftet 1800–19002017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report investigates the possibilities of using residual products as sound insulation in apartment

    separating timber floors with a span of 6 m. One step towards meeting the Swedish construction

    industry's zero vision for carbon dioxide emissions is to build more using timber and to reuse/recycle

    residual products. The Swedish building contractor Skanska has at its quarries a surplus of material in

    the form of crushed rock of the 0 - 0.2 mm fraction and crushed residual concrete. In this report, a

    prototype of a timber floor has been produced with influences of construction technology from the

    turn of the 19

    th century regarding the use of heavy filling as sound insulation in timber floors.

    The developed floor prototype complies with the requirements set in BBR after dimensioning

    according the Eurocodes regarding fire safety, strength, sagging and deflection. According to a

    simulation in SEAWood, a tool for acoustic simulation which is under development at RISE Research

    Institutes of Sweden the requirements for sound insulation are also met, which is supported by

    analyzes made by comparing with data on similar timber floors. The high mass of the filling material

    implies that the prototype is a low frequency floor, this in conjunction with the simulation only being

    an indication of sound insulation properties, it will require practical tests to determine the prototypes

    sound insulating and dynamic properties.

    The developed floor prototype is suitable for prefabrication thanks to a design with few components.

    Prefabrication of the floor has in addition to the economic benefits it brings great benefits from a

    working environment perspective and is also beneficial from a moisture point of view.

    To estimate the environmental impact of the timber flooring, a simple comparison was made with a

    prefabricated concrete floor which showed that carbon dioxide emissions up to the using phase were

    more than twice that of the concrete floor than for the prototype floor.

  • 2087.
    af Klintberg, Janine
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Brodin, Philip
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Kommunikation inom projekt: En analys av projektledarrollen utifrån en beteendevetenskaplig metod2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many issues within project management emerge due to insufficient communication. If such missteps can be avoided companies will be able to save both time and recourses.An analysis of how project managers communicate has been conducted based upon a behavioural model. Evaluated questions are:

    1. How can project managers communicate as individual-based as possible?

    2. Which problems exist with individual-based communication?

    The scientific method used in this project includes an extensive literature review, which has been followed by an interview with an expert within the chosen theoretical framework. IPU profilanalys is a method, which categorises human behaviour in a pedagogical way. The human behaviours are divided into four categories commonly known as Dominance, Influence, steadiness and conscientiousness. Three interviews have been conducted to achieve an empirical foundation within the chosen subject as well as to compare the theory with reality. Three project managers from Ericsson, The National Maritime Museums, and Scania have been interviewed. The questions were semi-structured and were based on an imaginable project. Common ways for the interviewed project manager to handle communication were discussed as well as his or her view upon technical devices. The purpose was to evaluate if the project managers deliberately adapted their communication towards the individuals within the organisation. The answers were then compared to the chosen theory to determine if individual-based communication were used and if so, how much it occurs. By adjusting the communication from the project manager to surrounding groups several factors are to be considered closely. They are:

    • Mutual goals,
    • Diversified communications,
    • Give project members time to prepare.

    The problems with individual-based communication mainly occurred when facing tight schedules. It also showed that individual-based communication is not always possible to use.

  • 2088.
    af Klintberg, Tord
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology.
    Air Gap Method: Air-Gaps in Building Construction to avoid Dampness & Mould2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 2089.
    af Klintberg, Tord
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology.
    Heated air gaps: a possibility to dry out dampness from building constructions2008Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The air gap method is a modification of the common way of building indoor walls and floors. The aim of the method is to make a construction, less fragile to water damage, with air gaps where moisture can be removed with a thermally driven air flow, caused by a heating cable. The thesis includes a number of experimental studies of this method.

    Temperature and convective air flow in a vertical air gap was studied and it was noted how air flow increased with raised power of the heating cable. The air flow for one meter of wall varied between 50 m3/day (13 air changes per hour) and 140 m3/day (36 air changes per hour). The lower value was caused by a temperature difference in the range 0.2-0.3 oC. Without heating no air flow was found.

    In studies of moisture and RH in wet “slab on ground” constructions, it was noted how the slab in the room with the air gap method dried to a much higher extent than the slab in the room built in an ordinary way. It was also noted that moisture was transported from the air gap in the floor and up through the air gap in the wall. In the room with the air gap construction, the RH values beneath the floor was at a lower level (and below 75 % RH) than the RH values beneath the floor of conventional construction. Mould does not grow below 75 % RH.

    In the study of a flooded intermediate floor it was noted how the thermally driven convective air flow evidently speeded up drying of the construction. Mould growth was only noted in the case where the heating cables were turned off.

  • 2090.
    af Klintberg, Tord
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology.
    Björk, Folke
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology.
    Air Gap Method: Dependence of water removal on RH in room and height of floor air gap2012In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 56, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is performed in combined floor and wall constructions with air gaps within and with a heating cable in the vertical air gap. All surfaces of the air gap are covered with polystyrene plastic to avoid leakage into the construction. Wet gypsum boards that are weighed at start and end of experiment are used to measure the dry out process.Three different heights of the floor air gap, 25 mm, 15 mm and 5 mm are investigated. The influences of the RH in the surrounding room and of the wetness of the gypsum boards are also investigated.It is shown that the height of the floor air gap has a great impact on the rate of drying. The optimal height is less than 25 mm and somewhere between 15 and 5 mm.

  • 2091.
    af Klintberg, Tord
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology.
    Björk, Folke
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology.
    Air Gap Method: drying of a concrete slab on ground construction2010In: Structural Survey, ISSN 0263-080X, E-ISSN 1758-6844, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 281-299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to report on a study which has been carried out on a timber floor construction above a ground-supported concrete slab, which was used in small detached houses built in Sweden during the period 1960-1990. This method of building has turned out to be a risky construction nowadays, but there are 800,000 houses built this way in Sweden.

    Design/methodology/approach – By using the patented Air Gap Method inside building constructions, harmful water can be dried out. The method ventilates air gaps inside walls and floors with an air flow driven by thermal buoyancy caused by a heating cable in the vertical air gaps. The drying out process has been studied both by measuring the moisture level in the slab and also by measuring the humidity transport and comparing this with air flow measurements.

    Findings – The paper shows that the Air Gap Method manages to dry out water from both the slab and the overlaying wooden construction. The study shows also that the relative humidity (RH) levels in the air space below the floor are reduced in a significant way, thus minimizing mould growth. It is also shown that a thin layer of concrete upon floor beams prevents mould to grow even in a humid situation.

    Research limitations/implications – The research reported in this paper is only concerned with timber-framed small detached houses. Similar studies of apartment buildings are ongoing.

    Practical implications – The Air Gap Method can thus be useful in the context of renovating a water damaged house of this type built during this 30-year period. The method provides a possibility of drying out such damage without a separate drying period. The inhabitants could therefore be able to use a renovated water-damaged kitchen six/eight weeks earlier compared to ordinary building methods.

    Originality/value – The paper is useful because it provides better understanding of the mechanism of RH inside a building construction and how this parameter could be lowered. The paper is also useful in the context of renovating water-damaged small detached houses built by the risky method of construction used in the last decades of the twentieth century.

  • 2092.
    af Klintberg, Tord
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology.
    Björk, Folke
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology.
    Air gap method: measurements of airflow inside air gaps of walls2008In: Structural Survey, ISSN 0263-080X, E-ISSN 1758-6844, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 343-363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - Water damage is a severe problem in modern construction, causing economic loss and health implications. By using the patented Air Gap Method inside building constructions, harmful water in the construction can be dried out. The method drains and ventilates air gaps inside walls and floors with an airflow driven by thermal buoyancy caused by a heating cable in vertical air gaps. This paper aims to investigate this method and measurements of airflow inside air gaps of walls. Design/methodology/approach - This study investigates the measured correlation between the power of the heating cable, the difference of temperature inside and outside the air gap, and the airflow. Data are collected by experimentation with a full-scale constructed wall. Findings - The study finds that airflow increases with raised temperature difference between the air gap and room and with raised power of the heating cable. The measured airflow reaches values up to 140 m3/metre wall and day for one cable. A small increase in temperature, between 0.2 and 0.3 oC inside the vertical air gap results in an air flow of approximately 60 m3/metre wall and day. The air change rate per hour for the air inside the wall construction varies between 15 times for a 6 W/m cable and 37 times for a 16 W/m cable. Practical implications - The method provides the means to build houses in a more robust way, minimising the negative effects of water damage. This investigation provides an understanding of how temperature and ventilation are related in this method of construction. Originality/value - The issue of ventilated construction is rarely investigated in scientific research.

  • 2093.
    af Klintberg, Tord
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology.
    Björk, Folke
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology.
    Molnar, Miklos
    LTH.
    Nilsson, Martin
    LTU.
    Plos, Mario
    Chalmers.
    Silfwerbrand, Johan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Thelandersson, Sven
    LTH.
    System för personlig meritering och certifiering för ingenjörer inom den svenska byggsektorn2018Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Incitament till systematisk personlig kompetensutveckling för ingenjörer inom byggbranschen saknas. Detta leder till att vi har svårt att upprätthålla tillräckligt hög kompetens och utvecklingstakt i branschen.

    Frågan är om ett system för meritering kan underlätta och ge större incitament för kontinuerlig kompetensutveckling än vad som finns idag. I ansökningstexten till detta projekt nämns bland annat att: Det är dock väsentligt att ett sådant system är utformat på ett sätt som gör att branschens aktörer finner det relevant och behövligt, samt att det verkligen stärker ingenjörens roll och bidrar till att kompetens bibehålls och utvecklas. I projektet ingår också att beakta ekonomiska och legala aspekter.

    Arbetet rör först och främst konstruktörer även om slutsatserna kan tillämpas på stora delar av ingenjörskollektivet. Det förefaller finnas brist på kompetenta ingenjörer för centrala positioner i stora projekt med förmåga att upprätthålla kontroll och kommunikation med projektets ingående parter, som byggherre, installationsföretag etc.

    Ett flertal intervjupersoner hävdar att många stora bygg- och anläggningsprojekt är fragmentiserade med bristande intern kommunikation och att de lider av höga merkostnader.  Intervjuade personer inom Trafikverket, med inblick i den egna verksamheten, menar att det kan finnas höga merkostnader även inom de egna projekten. Trafikverket är dock en mycket kompetent byggherre. Det är troligt att mindre byggherrar med lägre kompetens kan ha en värre situation avseende denna typ av kostnader. Många merkostnader skulle kunna begränsas eller undvikas om kompetensnivån höjs inom ingenjörssektorn.

    Ett meriteringssystem med vidareutbildning, mentorskap mellan seniorer och juniorer, fokuserat på bland annat personlig utveckling skulle kunna höja kompetensnivån bland ingenjörer. Ett meriteringssystem skulle göra konstruktörsyrket mer attraktivt, om det blir tydligt att en oerfaren konstruktör har en karriärväg mot högre expertkompetens.

    Förbättrade meriter kan valideras genom ett certifieringssystem, som bör fokusera på ingenjörskunskaper såsom konceptuell förståelse och bedömning av bärförmåga och konstruktioners verkningssätt. Systemet ska ha en kontroll- och reklamationsfunktion, som hanterar eventuella kvalitetsproblem hos den certifierade personen. Ett certifieringssystem dokumenterar kompetensnivån för en certifierad och kan därigenom göra det lättare för byggherrar att säkerställa kvalitet i sina beställda projekt.

    Beträffande värdet av certifiering påvisas i en brittisk rapport att certifiering för testlaboratorier är lönsamt för ingående parter, alltså både för de certifierade och för beställarna. Rapportens slutsats är att det är samhällsekonomiskt lönsamt med certifiering, då den bygger upp förtroende samt minskar risker.

    Regeringen skulle kunna ge en eller flera myndigheter, exempelvis Transportstyrelsen och/eller Boverket ansvar för personlig kompetensutveckling inom väg och vattenbyggnadssektorn. Denna myndighet skulle alltså få ett liknande ansvar som Socialstyrelsens, som under ett flertal år har medverkat till att utveckla medicinsektorn, med en höjd personlig expertis som resultat. Socialstyrelsens verktyg har här varit personcertifiering (läkarlegitimation). Dessutom ges vidareutbildning, samt handledar- och mentorskap inom medicinsektorn.

    Trafikverket skulle eventuellt kunna undersöka möjligheten att upphandla certifiering för nyckelkompetenser samt definiera dessa kompetenser i sina egna projekt. Ett liknande förfarande finns hos Stockholms Exploateringskontor när det gäller upphandling av nyckelkompetenser. Om Trafikverket skulle avisera att det skulle ställa särskilda krav på certifiering vid cirka 20 upphandlingar år 2021, så skulle det ge konsultbolagen tid att etablera ett antal certifierade ingenjörer. Dessa projekt kan då jämföras med projekt utan certifiering.

    Det är förmodligen kostsamt att bygga upp ett svenskt system för personlig certifiering liknande medicinsektorns legitimationssystem. Författarnas förslag är därför att branschen kan börja använda internationella certifieringssystem, exempelvis ”Institution of Civil Engineers” (ICE) och ”Institution of Structural Engineers” (IStructE). ICE är ett bredare system för väg och vattenbyggnadsingenjörer i allmänhet och IStructE certifierar konstruktörer. ICE och IStructE fokuserar på ingenjörs- och marknadskompetens, personlig utveckling och har en kontroll- och reklamationsfunktion samt olika grader avseende medlemmarnas kompetens.

    De svenska konsult- och entreprenadföretagen har i denna rapports intervjuundersökning visat stort intresse för att låta meritera och certifiera sina konstruktörer, särskilt om stora beställare kommer att efterfråga meriterade konstruktörer. Om internationella certifieringssystem (ICE och IStructE) används, kommer förmodligen svenska konsult- och entreprenörföretag att stärkas på en internationell marknad.  Under en övergångstid behövs ett register över befintliga svenska kompetenta ingenjörer så att dessa inte stängs ute från marknaden.

    Det kommer att ta tid att införa utökad meritering, mentorskap och certifiering. Det är fråga om en kulturförändring i ingenjörssektorn och det behövs då en uthållighet hos branschen, framför allt hos byggherrar. Systemet kommer inledningsvis att medföra ökade kostnader, medan besparingar och vinster kommer i ett senare skede.

  • 2094.
    af Klintberg, Tord
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology.
    Jóhannesson, Gudni
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology.
    Björk, Folke
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology.
    Air gaps in building construction avoiding dampness and mould2008In: Structural Survey, ISSN 0263-080X, E-ISSN 1758-6844, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 242-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - Water damage is a severe problem in modern construction, causing economic loss and health implications. The patented Air Gap Method, which is a slight modification of the common infill wall construction, provides means to build houses in a more robust way, minimizing the negative effects of water damage. This full-scale study of the method aims to show how walls and floors may be built to create ventilation within the construction, with air gaps equipped with heating cables. The general hypothesis is that the patented Air Gap Method drains and evaporates dampness after water damage. The purpose of this study is to show how the method is built and how the method deals with water damage, such as a flooding, and with mould growth. Design/methodology/approach - The Air Gap Method is based on a common timber-framed construction and is completed by the provision of inlets, air gaps, slits, and outlets. The power for the convective airflow is given by an electrical heating cable. The study was carried out as a full-scale experiment using a 24m2 large apartment build by this method. This apartment was flooded with 120 litres of domestic wastewater and the drying period was compared when heating cables were switched on or not. Mould growth was also investigated. Findings - The method dries out a flooded floor in nine days when two heating cables were switched on, in 13 days with one heating cable and 21 days when the heating cables were off. The method prevents all mould growth provided that the indoor RH is lower than 65 per cent. Practical implications - The method provides means to build houses in a more robust way, minimizing the negative effects of water damage. Originality/value - The issue of ventilated construction is rarely investigated in scientific research.

  • 2095.
    af Klintberg, Tord
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Krav på tillgänglighetsanpassning vid renovering: Ett diskussionsinlägg2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2096.
    af Klinteberg, Ludvig
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Numerical Analysis, NA.
    Computational methods for microfluidics2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is concerned with computational methods for fluid flows on the microscale, also known as microfluidics. This is motivated by current research in biological physics and miniaturization technology, where there is a need to understand complex flows involving microscale structures. Numerical simulations are an important tool for doing this.

    The first paper of the thesis presents a numerical method for simulating multiphase flows involving insoluble surfactants and moving contact lines. The method is based on an explicit interface tracking method, wherein the interface between two fluids is decomposed into segments, which are represented locally on an Eulerian grid. The framework of this method provides a natural setting for solving the advection-diffusion equation governing the surfactant concentration on the interface. Open interfaces and moving contact lines are also incorporated into the method in a natural way, though we show that care must be taken when regularizing interface forces to the grid near the boundary of the computational domain.

    In the second paper we present a boundary integral formulation for sedimenting particles in periodic Stokes flow, using the completed double layer boundary integral formulation. The long-range nature of the particle-particle interactions lead to the formulation containing sums which are not absolutely convergent if computed directly. This is solved by applying the method of Ewald summation, which in turn is computed in a fast manner by using the FFT-based spectral Ewald method. The complexity of the resulting method is O(N log N), as the system size is scaled up with the number of discretization points N. We apply the method to systems of sedimenting spheroids, which are discretized using the Nyström method and a basic quadrature rule.

    The Ewald summation method used in the boundary integral method of the second paper requires a decomposition of the potential being summed. In the introductory chapters of the thesis we present an overview of the available methods for creating Ewald decompositions, and show how the methods and decompositions can be related to each other.

  • 2097.
    af Klinteberg, Ludvig
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Numerical Analysis, NA.
    Ewald summation for the rotlet singularity of Stokes flow2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ewald summation is an efficient method for computing the periodic sums that appear when considering the Green's functions of Stokes flow together with periodic boundary conditions. We show how Ewald summation, and accompanying truncation error estimates, can be easily derived for the rotlet, by considering it as a superposition of electrostatic force calculations.

  • 2098.
    af Klinteberg, Ludvig
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Numerical Analysis, NA.
    Fast and accurate integral equation methods with applications in microfluidics2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is concerned with computational methods for fluid flows on the microscale, also known as microfluidics. This is motivated by current research in biological physics and miniaturization technology, where there is a need to understand complex flows involving microscale structures. Numerical simulations are an important tool for doing this.

    The first, and smaller, part of the thesis presents a numerical method for simulating multiphase flows involving insoluble surfactants and moving contact lines. The method is based on an interface decomposition resulting in local, Eulerian grid representations. This provides a natural setting for solving the PDE governing the surfactant concentration on the interface.

    The second, and larger, part of the thesis is concerned with a framework for simulating large systems of rigid particles in three-dimensional, periodic viscous flow using a boundary integral formulation. This framework can solve the underlying flow equations to high accuracy, due to the accurate nature of surface quadrature. It is also fast, due to the natural coupling between boundary integral methods and fast summation methods.

    The development of the boundary integral framework spans several different fields of numerical analysis. For fast computations of large systems, a fast Ewald summation method known as Spectral Ewald is adapted to work with the Stokes double layer potential. For accurate numerical integration, a method known as Quadrature by Expansion is developed for this same potential, and also accelerated through a scheme based on geometrical symmetries. To better understand the errors accompanying this quadrature method, an error analysis based on contour integration and calculus of residues is carried out, resulting in highly accurate error estimates.

  • 2099.
    Af Klinteberg, Ludvig
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Wave Energy Propulsion forPure Car and Truck Carriers(PCTCs)2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wave Energy Propulsion for Pure Car and Truck Carriers (PCTC's)

    The development of ocean wave energy technology has in recent years seena revival due to increased climate concerns and interest in sustainable energy.This thesis investigates whether ocean wave energy could also beused for propulsion of commercial ships, with Pure Car and Truck Carriers(PCTC's) being the model ship type used. Based on current wave energyresearch four technologies are selected as candidates for wave energy propulsion:bow overtopping, thrust generating foils, moving multi-point absorberand turbine-tted anti-roll tanks.Analyses of the selected technologies indicate that the generated propulsivepower does not overcome the added resistance from the system at the shipdesign speed and size used in the study. Conclusions are that further waveenergy propulsion research should focus on systems for ships that are slowerand smaller than current PCTC's.

  • 2100.
    af Klinteberg, Ludvig
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Numerical Analysis, NA. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Lindbo, Dag
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Numerical Analysis, NA. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Tornberg, Anna-Karin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Numerical Analysis, NA. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    An explicit Eulerian method for multiphase flow with contact line dynamics and insoluble surfactant2014In: Computers & Fluids, ISSN 0045-7930, E-ISSN 1879-0747, Vol. 101, p. 50-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The flow behavior of many multiphase flow applications is greatly influenced by wetting properties and the presence of surfactants. We present a numerical method for two-phase flow with insoluble surfactants and contact line dynamics in two dimensions. The method is based on decomposing the interface between two fluids into segments, which are explicitly represented on a local Eulerian grid. It provides a natural framework for treating the surfactant concentration equation, which is solved locally on each segment. An accurate numerical method for the coupled interface/surfactant system is given. The system is coupled to the Navier-Stokes equations through the immersed boundary method, and we discuss the issue of force regularization in wetting problems, when the interface touches the boundary of the domain. We use the method to illustrate how the presence of surfactants influences the behavior of free and wetting drops.

39404142434445 2051 - 2100 of 124233
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