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  • 2351.
    Åkerberg, Mathias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Computer and Electronic Engineering.
    Tibbling, Anders
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Computer and Electronic Engineering.
    Säker identitetshantering på internet: Att minimera bedrägerier och öka konsumentens säkerhet och inflytande vid e-handel2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There's a high risk that an unauthorized party can gain access to and use a consumer's iden-tity. This while the ability to control how and when a personal identity is used is small. The question to be answered were regarding how identity theft and online fraud could be mi-nimized and give the consumers a greater influence and more control over the management of their identity online.

    The goal was to centralize and establish a common approach for identity management on-line, with greater benefits for consumers. Through central service individual consumers would be able to set conditions for which online shops and services would be able to access their identities and grant access in each specific transaction. This would remove the need for non-central control of identities and as a result remove the need for independent storage of identity information.

    The solution would result in a system model with the potential to authenticate the consu-mer, managing conditions for how individual identity documents may be used online and to provide the consumer with a online history by sending notifications of events that has occurred with regard to a specific identity.

    A prototype was developed to demonstrate the basic functionality in practice. This included the functionality to authenticate the consumer with Mobile BankID, send notifications about events and check existing conditions regarding a specific identity. This prototype came to consist of a simplified system according to the model developed, an associated API, and two models representing an online store and a payment provider that would utilize the functionality of the system by calling the API.

    The proposed solution was evaluated through two interviews with experts in the fields of IT Security and e-commerce. The conclusion was that identity fraud would probably drop drastically and the individual consumer influence and awareness would be fortified. The main reason for this was considered to be primarily through the consistent and standardized way for authentication of and communication with the consumer. This would remove the individual risk for online services.

    The challenge with this proposed solution is believed to be getting consumers, online re-tailers and payment providers to accept a central solution instead of relying on internally developed and disconnected solution.

  • 2352.
    Ånell, Rickard
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology.
    Eiken, Ola
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology.
    Grönkvist, Mikael
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology.
    Sundblad, Patrik
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology.
    Gennser, Mikael
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology.
    Vaskulära gasbubblor hos jaktplanspiloter under olika flygprofiler2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2353.
    Åström Paulsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Schmidt, Lisa
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Eriksson, Tomas
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Nyman, Teresia
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Parmsund, Marianne
    Torgén, Margareta
    Svartengren, Magnus
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Procurement and implementation processes for Occupational Health Services in SwedenIn: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, E-ISSN 1432-1246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study investigates how contracts with OHS-providers in Sweden are established and implemented  to explore i) the procurement process ii) contractual terms and conditions and iii) processes for implementing and evaluating the services provided.

    Methods: Review and analysis of 17 OHS contracts using both quantitative and qualitative approaches. Follow-up interviews were conducted with Human Resource managers, management, health and safety representatives and OHS professionals.

    Results: Contracts with OHS providers were mainly drawn up by HR departments. First-line managers or health and safety representatives were not involved. The contracts were not integrated with the companies’ occupational health and safety management. The organisations lacked knowledge on when or why to use services from their OHS provider, which promoted reactive rather than preventive interventions. Terms and conditions of contracts were found to be quite irrelevant to what services that were actually utilised.

    Conclusions: Important factors in creating conditions for a more preventive and group-oriented use of OHS expertise could be 1) the inclusion of first-line managers and health and safety representatives in needs analysis and implementation processes, 2) the definition of relevant, achievable and measurable goals regarding the collaboration and 3) the arrangement of regularly meetings with the OHS-provider.

  • 2354.
    Öhman, Daniel
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Vi sitter tillsammans: Upplevelser av samhörighet och ledarskap i ett traditionellt kontorslandskap.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The office is the working environment in which an increasing proportion of the population spends their days . One type of office are open plan offices which are characterized by several people sitting together in the same room without spatial boundaries . The general discourse of this kind of offices is that they constitute an advantageous design that allows organizational changes without the need for redevelopment . From a work perspective, this office design is both criticized and acclaimed . Problems with noise is frequently reported in research which can lead to ill health. At the same time quantitative studies shows that these office designs can both positively and negatively affect the cohesion and leadership at work. A deeper understanding of how office design affects cohesion and leadership is missing. This interview study aims to examine employees ' and managers' perceptions of how the open plan office affect the cohesion and leadership at work.

    Based on twelve personal interviews , six employees and six managers of a public administration, the interview answers were transcribed and thematised.

    Nineteen themes emerged that described how the open plan office impact on cohesion and leadership. Among these nineteen, thirteen themes were common , meaning that they occurred among both employees and managers to some extent. Six themes were explicit , meaning that they occurred only among either employees or managers. Five of the explicit themes occurred only among managers. The most frequent common theme underlying several cohesion and leadership enhancement factors were to sit together, which have a clear connection to the open plan office design.

    The open plan office was perceived to contribute to the cohesion at work in a positive way . However, there was a difference in the quality of depth between the groups in their answers. In the case of the impact on leadership , most managers and employees agree that the design contributed substantially to the manager's availability . There in was a difference between employees and managers , whether it was a positive or negative attribute . The study shows that there is a difficulty in determining where office design's influence ends and where the labor organization's impact begins.

  • 2355.
    Öhman, Maj-Britt
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University.
    Thunqvist, Eva-Lotta
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Systems Safety and Management.
    Designing Dam Safeties: Perspectives on large scale dams within the intra-actions of technology, nature and human decision making2013In: International Commission of Large Dams, ICOLD, Seattle, 2013: International Symposium, Seattle: ICOLD , 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analyzing the intra-actions between the actors involved, this paper presents results from interviews and participatory observations with local authorities, local inhabitants, power companies representatives as well as dam operators. We argue that the Swedish model for dam safety currently is suffering from a major deficiency as the expertise and understanding of the technical constructions remain among the dam owners and that the societal authority in charge of supervising the dam owners work have no capability of achieving the same level of understanding and thus to take informed and relevant decisions. Furthermore we argue that the lack of technical understanding of dams and hydropower outside of the dam sector has become a huge threat to dam safety as state representatives and political decision makers currently allow and even encourage mining exploitation both next to high risk classified hydropower dams and even within existing hydropower reservoirs.

    We argue that the actual challenge to safeguard an increased dam safety is by bridging the gap between the multitude of different actors– engineers/operators, users, political decision makers -   in order to generate new understandings and new methodologies to deal with risk, safety and security. It is necessary to bridge the gaps between the sectors and actors involved, and that this should be done through investment in close collaboration between the dam sector and engineering research on the one hand and social sciences and humanities on the other – to ensure understandings of political decision making as well as of technical artifacts and water flows.

    The geographical focus is on two rivers – the Ume River and the Lule River in the north of Sweden. Both rivers are of major importance for national production of electricity, and the rivers are water suppliers for a large amount of inhabitants.

  • 2356. Öhman, May-Britt
    et al.
    Thunqvist, Eva-Lotta
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Challenging Genocide: Decolonizing Methods against Aggressive Swedish State Colonization of Sàmi Lands and Waters2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2357.
    Öhman, May-Britt
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Centrum för Genusvetenskap.
    Thunqvist, Eva-Lotta
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Human Bodies and the Forces of Nature: Regulated Rivers, Safety and Embodied Knowledge2012In: International Commission for Large Dams International Symposium, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the human bodies involved in the regulated rivers, via the technology of design and operation of remote controland surveillance systems. It draws on case studies of hydropower in Sweden, both historical and current events, from studies madewithin an ongoing research project. Within current civil engineering education, training as well as within societal and company leveldecision making on large scale technical systems, the human body, with its knowledges, emotions and affections, as well as itsvulnerabilities are to a large extent disregarded. The body of the engineer/ operator is considered uninteresting and replaceable whileat the same time as it is viewed as a never failing machine. New technologies for camera surveillance and monitoring have providedopportunities to assemble data on a dam and the water flowing through it. We argue that these new technologies may contribute to adecreased dam safety, as it reinforces this paradigm of a detached human body - working like a never failing machine, always in controlof nature’sforces. We suggest that more attention is paid to the human bodies – emotions, affections and societal contexts – workingwith the design and operation of remote control and surveillance systems

  • 2358.
    Öhman, May-Britt
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Centrum för Genusvetenskap.
    Thunqvist, Eva-Lotta
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå universitet, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Udén, M
    Luleå Tekniska universitet.
    Supradisciplinary conversations on Security, Risk and Resilience around Dams in Sub Arctica2010In: International Commission for Large Dams International Symposium, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydropower is often promoted as an environmentally friendly and renewable energy resource. Yet, it is since long established that this energy source indeed has numerous negative environmental impacts, and the negative social impacts have been established by researchers in several cases. At the same time it is an ageing technology, within which aging dams are confronting climate change with the result that it is a carrier of number of threats against both human security and sustainable development.

    The paper forms the basis for a recently launched research project involving four scientific disciplines - history of science and technology; political science; gender, technology and organization and land and water resource management.  In the paper, the possibilities for a supradisciplinary approach to analyze the sociotechnical aspects of security, safety and risk in regard to large dams within Sub Arctica are discussed. Supradisciplinarity refers in this case to the involvement of both social and natural/technical sciences as well as the involvement of practitioners/constructors/dam owners etc and local inhabitants around the dams.

    In focus is the question on how the current narrow and technically oriented dam safety concept could or maybe should be broadened to include differing attitudes and values, from different perspectives depending on gender, ethnicity and situated knowledge.

    Empirical examples are drawn from on an ongoing study of the Lule River, the most hydroexploited river in Sweden, located within the Swedish part of Sapmi, within which local reindeer herders are being interviewed along with interviews with actors within the Swedish setting of dam safety. Departing from these empirical examples, attempts to identify the current understandings of the socio-technical constructions of dams, scientific perceptions of water flows and a changing climate within the framing of dam safety and discuss how can these understandings could be influenced by supradisciplinary conversations and exchange.

  • 2359.
    Österman, Cecilia
    et al.
    Kalmar Maritime Academy, Linnaeus University.
    Rose, Linda M
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Assessing financial impact of maritime ergonomics on company level: a case study2015In: Maritime Policy & Management, ISSN 0308-8839, E-ISSN 1464-5254, Vol. 42, no 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper reports a case study examining a conceptual framework for assessing financial impact of occupational maritime ergonomics in a Swedish shipping company. Specifically, the aim was to study the availability and applicability of suggested determinants for operational performance, routines for estimating the effects of ergonomics and the customer’s (sea transport buyer’s) demands for ergonomics management on the case company. The results show that the determinants and subcategories for operational performance in terms of productivity, efficiency and quality are present and applicable, albeit not measured to any large extent. No routines or specific methods for measuring or estimating cost and effects of ergonomics investments, accidents and operational disturbances were found. Further, the results show that the sea transport buyers increasingly express interest for and place demands related to maritime ergonomics, for instance, through compliance of specific standards and guiding principles linked to maritime ergonomics. It is concluded that in order to support and enable managers’ ability to make well-informed decisions and prioritizations, between investments, ergonomic or other, increased knowledge is needed of the financial effects of ergonomics on company core value processes. There is also a need to develop and implement usable tools to simplify these measuring procedures.

  • 2360.
    Österman, Cecilia
    et al.
    Chalmers ChalmersUniversity of Technology,Shipping and Marine Technology,.
    Rose, Linda M
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics (Closed 20130701).
    Osvalder, Anna-Lisa
    Chalmers University of Technology, Product and Production Development.
    Exploring Maritime Ergonomics from a Bottom Line Perspective2010In: WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs (JoMA), ISSN 1651-436X, E-ISSN 1654-1642, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 153-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper reports a study composed of three research activities exploring the economics of ergonomics in a shipping context. First, a literature study aimed to review previous studies on the economics of ergonomics in general and within the maritime domain in particular; and moreover, to ascertain the key ergonomic factors addressed in contemporary maritime ergonomic research. Second, the concept of ergonomics was probed from a stakeholder perspective through nine semi-structured qualitative  interviews. Third, structured interviews were held with representatives of ten Swedish shipping companies to investigate if the shipowners are aware of and calculate the economic effects of ergonomics. The results show that severalmodels and methods have been developed to estimate costs and benefits of ergonomics in other industries, but no studies were found from the shipping industry.Whether these methods can be readily adapted to the shipping industry has to be investigated further. While contemporary maritime ergonomic literature showed a focus on physical ergonomic and health and safety issues, the results of the stakeholder interviews indicated a focus on organizational ergonomics. The Swedish shipowners calculate the costs of sick-leave, but do not estimate the economic effects of ergonomics on a regular basis.

  • 2361.
    Östlund, Britt
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering.
    Being in for different reasons. Implementing robots into daily life of elderly people in multi-diciplinary collaboration2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2362.
    Östlund, Britt
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering.
    Deconstructing the Path Towards “Homo Digitalis”2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2363.
    Östlund, Britt
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering.
    Digitizing Health Care Welfare technology as a way to meet digital and demographic challenges in Sweden2017In: 2017 4th International Conference on Systems And Informatics (ICSAI), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, p. 78-83Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digitizing health care takes place in parallel with demographic changes posing one of the greatest social changes of our time. Although modern elderly care has evolved closely related to technological development and evaluated by established methods, digitization places new demands on approaches as a result of its systemic characteristics and its potential to bridge different environments and social contexts and the involvement of elderly users. This paper is paying attention to three challenges: digitizing already existing technological environments; implementing technology in new arenas outside hospitals and laboratories; and the imbalance between perceptions of elderly users and their actual needs and demands. The conclusions point out that digitization provides opportunities to deepen or reflections on technology and implementation, develop multidisciplinary collaborations and enhance proactive engagements to make new technologies work.

  • 2364.
    Östlund, Britt
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Systems Safety and Management.
    Final Evaluation Report with included Cross Cultural Analysis Report D6.3 for the EC Project GiraffPlus. Combining social interaction and long term monitoring for promoting independent living.2015Report (Other academic)
  • 2365.
    Östlund, Britt
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Systems Safety and Management.
    Intermediate Evaulation Report D6.2 for the EC Project GiraffPlus. Combining social interaction and long term monitoring for promoting independent living.2014Report (Other academic)
  • 2366.
    Östlund, Britt
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Systems Safety and Management.
    Kan gamla människor bo i nya IT-hus?1993In: Datorstod för hyresgäster i Stockholm / [ed] Peter, Benson; Ulf, Keijer; Elisabeth, Lillman; Sture, Samuelsson; Britt, Östlund, Stockholm: KTH , 1993Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 2367.
    Östlund, Britt
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Systems Safety and Management.
    The benefits of involving older people in the design process2015In: 1st International Conference on Human Aspects of IT for the Aged Population, ITAP 2015 Held as Part of 17th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, HCI International 2015, Springer, 2015, p. 3-14Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The more experience we get of involving older people in innovation and design processes, the more we recognize the benefits of having to do with life experience as input to the development of digital products and services. Heterogeneity raises personalization as a key component in design. This paper argues that old people are an asset in innovation processes, which is illustrated by projects conducted in Sweden from 1992 to 2014. The aim is to present how older people contribute to the development and what hinders them. The goal of these projects was to promote participation of older people during the design process but to varying degrees depending on the question. Different degrees of participation and involvement are discussed based on the “participation ladder”, on an idea of Arnstein from 1969 and on conclusions from innovation research.

  • 2368.
    Östlund, Britt
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    The benefits of involving oler people in the design process2015In: Human Aspects of IT for the Aged Population. Design for Everyday Life / [ed] Zhou, J. & Salvendy, G., Springer , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2369.
    Östlund, Britt
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Systems Safety and Management.
    User Evaluation and Application Assessment Report D6.1 for the EC Project GiraffPlus: Combining social interaction and long term monitoring for promoting independent living2013Report (Other academic)
  • 2370.
    Östlund, Britt
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering.
    Björling, Gunilla
    Mattsson, Janet
    Stridh, Sara
    Sahlström, Madeleine
    Technology in Health Care. A new research and teaching subject in collaboration between nursing science and engineering2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2371.
    Östlund, Britt
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering.
    Jonsson, Oskar
    Lunds universitet.
    Dalholm Hornyanszky, Elisabeth
    Lunds universitet.
    Warell, Anders
    Lunds universitet.
    Sperling, Lena
    Lunds universitet.
    Experiences of a User-Centered Approach to Relations between Ageing People and Furniture in the Home Environment2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2372.
    Östlund, Britt
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Technology in Health Care.
    Kempinsky, Peter
    Cederberg, X
    Lindblom, B
    Testbäddar inom hälso- och sjukvård och äldreomsorg. Portföljutvärdering av VINNOVAs program.2017Report (Other academic)
  • 2373. Šarabon, N
    et al.
    Eiken, Ola
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology. KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Swedish Aerospace Physiology Centre, SAPC.
    Mekjavic, IB
    Babič, J
    PlanHab: Effects of hypoxia and bed rest on postural stability2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2374. Šket, R
    et al.
    Treichel, N
    Debevec, T
    Eiken, Ola
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology. KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Swedish Aerospace Physiology Centre, SAPC.
    Mekjavic, IB
    Schloter, M
    Stres, B
    PlanHab: Human intestinal microflora dynamics in normoxic and hypoxic bedrest studies2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2375. Šket, Robert
    et al.
    Treichel, Nicole
    Debevec, Tadej
    Eiken, Ola
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology.
    Mekjavic, Igor
    Schloter, Michael
    Vital, Marius
    Chandler, Jenna
    Tiedje, James M.
    Murovec, Boštjan
    Prevoršek, Zala
    Stres, Blaž
    Hypoxia and Inactivity Related Physiological Changes (Constipation, Inflammation) Are Not Reflected at the Level of Gut Metabolites and Butyrate Producing Microbial Community: The PlanHab Study2017In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 8, no 4, article id 250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We explored the assembly of intestinal microbiota in healthy male participants during the run-in (5 day) and experimental phases [21-day normoxic bed rest (NBR), hypoxic bedrest (HBR)], and hypoxic ambulation (HAmb) in a strictly controlled laboratory environment, balanced fluid, and dietary intakes, controlled circadian rhythm, microbial ambiental burden, and 24/7 medical surveillance. The fraction of inspired O2 (FiO2) and partial pressure of inspired O2 (PiO2) were 0.209 and 133.1 ± 0.3 mmHg for NBR and 0.141 ± 0.004 and 90.0 ± 0.4 mmHg for both hypoxic variants (HBR and HAmb; ~4,000 m simulated altitude), respectively. A number of parameters linked to intestinal transit spanning Bristol Stool Scale, defecation rates, zonulin, α1-antitrypsin, eosinophil derived neurotoxin, bile acids, reducing sugars, short chain fatty acids, total soluble organic carbon, water content, diet composition, and food intake were measured (167 variables). The abundance, structure, and diversity of butyrate producing microbial community were assessed using the two primary bacterial butyrate synthesis pathways, butyryl-CoA: acetate CoA-transferase (but) and butyrate kinase (buk) genes. Inactivity negatively affected fecal consistency and in combination with hypoxia aggravated the state of gut inflammation (p < 0.05). In contrast, gut permeability, various metabolic markers, the structure, diversity, and abundance of butyrate producing microbial community were not significantly affected. Rearrangements in the butyrate producing microbial community structure were explained by experimental setup (13.4%), experimentally structured metabolites (12.8%), and gut metabolite-immunological markers (11.9%), with 61.9% remaining unexplained. Many of the measured parameters were found to be correlated and were hence omitted from further analyses. The observed progressive increase in two immunological intestinal markers suggested that the transition from healthy physiological state toward the developed symptoms of low magnitude obesity-related syndromes was primarily driven by the onset of inactivity (lack of exercise in NBR) that were exacerbated by systemic hypoxia (HBR) and significantly alleviated by exercise, despite hypoxia (HAmb). Butyrate producing community in colon exhibited apparent resilience toward short-term modifications in host exercise or hypoxia. Progressive constipation (decreased intestinal motility) and increased local inflammation marker suggest that changes in microbial colonization and metabolism were taking place at the location of small intestine.

  • 2376. Šket, Robert
    et al.
    Treichel, Nicole
    Kublik, Susanne
    Debevec, Tadej
    Eiken, Ola
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology. KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Swedish Aerospace Physiology Centre, SAPC.
    Mekjavić, Igor
    Schloter, Michael
    Vital, Marius
    Chandler, Jenna
    Tiedje, James M.
    Murovec, Boštjan
    Prevoršek, Zala
    Likar, Matevž
    Stres, Blaž
    Hypoxia and inactivity related physiological changes precede or take place in absence of significant rearrangements in bacterial community structure: The PlanHab randomized trial pilot study2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 12, article id e0188556Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We explored the assembly of intestinal microbiota in healthy male participants during the randomized crossover design of run-in (5 day) and experimental phases (21-day normoxic bed rest (NBR), hypoxic bed rest (HBR) and hypoxic ambulation (HAmb) in a strictly controlled laboratory environment, with balanced fluid and dietary intakes, controlled circadian rhythm, microbial ambiental burden and 24/7 medical surveillance. The fraction of inspired O2 (FiO2) and partial pressure of inspired O2 (PiO2) were 0.209 and 133.1 ± 0.3 mmHg for NBR and 0.141 ± 0.004 and 90.0 ± 0.4 mmHg for both hypoxic variants (HBR and HAmb; ~4000 m simulated altitude), respectively. A number of parameters linked to intestinal environment such as defecation frequency, intestinal electrical conductivity (IEC), sterol and polyphenol content and diversity, indole, aromaticity and spectral characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) were measured (64 variables). The structure and diversity of bacterial microbial community was assessed using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Inactivity negatively affected frequency of defecation and in combination with hypoxia increased IEC (p < 0.05). In contrast, sterol and polyphenol diversity and content, various characteristics of DOM and aromatic compounds, the structure and diversity of bacterial microbial community were not significantly affected over time. A new in-house PlanHab database was established to integrate all measured variables on host physiology, diet, experiment, immune and metabolic markers (n = 231). The observed progressive decrease in defecation frequency and concomitant increase in IEC suggested that the transition from healthy physiological state towards the developed symptoms of low magnitude obesity-related syndromes was dose dependent on the extent of time spent in inactivity and preceded or took place in absence of significant rearrangements in bacterial microbial community. Species B. thetaiotamicron, B. fragilis, B. dorei and other Bacteroides with reported relevance for dysbiotic medical conditions were significantly enriched in HBR, characterized with most severe inflammation symptoms, indicating a shift towards host mucin degradation and proinflammatory immune crosstalk.

  • 2377. Švec, J.G.
    et al.
    Granqvist, Svante
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine. Division of Speech and Language Pathology, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tutorial and guidelines on measurement of sound pressure level in voice and speech2018In: Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, ISSN 1092-4388, E-ISSN 1558-9102, Vol. 61, no 3, p. 441-461Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Sound pressure level (SPL) measurement of voice and speech is often considered a trivial matter, but the measured levels are often reported incorrectly or incompletely, making them difficult to compare among various studies. This article aims at explaining the fundamental principles behind these measurements and providing guidelines to improve their accuracy and reproducibility. Method: Basic information is put together from standards, technical, voice and speech literature, and practical experience of the authors and is explained for nontechnical readers. Results: Variation of SPL with distance, sound level meters and their accuracy, frequency and time weightings, and background noise topics are reviewed. Several calibration procedures for SPL measurements are described for stand-mounted and head-mounted microphones. Conclusions: SPL of voice and speech should be reported together with the mouth-to-microphone distance so that the levels can be related to vocal power. Sound level measurement settings (i.e., frequency weighting and time weighting/averaging) should always be specified. Classified sound level meters should be used to assure measurement accuracy. Head-mounted microphones placed at the proximity of the mouth improve signal-to-noise ratio and can be taken advantage of for voice SPL measurements when calibrated. Background noise levels should be reported besides the sound levels of voice and speech. 

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