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  • 2451.
    Ahlgren, Per
    University College of Borås.
    Query expansion2001In: Human IT, ISSN 1402-1501, E-ISSN 1402-151X, no 4, p. 157-176Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 2452.
    Ahlgren, Per
    University College of Borås.
    The effects of indexing strategy-query term combination on retrieval effectiveness in a Swedish full text database2004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with Swedish full text retrieval and the problem of morphological variation of query terms in thedocument database. The study is an information retrieval experiment with a test collection. While no Swedish testcollection was available, such a collection was constructed. It consists of a document database containing 161,336news articles, and 52 topics with four-graded (0, 1, 2, 3) relevance assessments.

    The effects of indexing strategy-query term combination on retrieval effectiveness were studied. Three of five testedmethods involved indexing strategies that used conflation, in the form of normalization. Further, two of these threecombinations used indexing strategies that employed compound splitting. Normalization and compound splittingwere performed by SWETWOL, a morphological analyzer for the Swedish language. A fourth combinationattempted to group related terms by right hand truncation of query terms. A search expert performed the truncation.The four combinations were compared to each other and to a baseline combination, where no attempt was made tocounteract the problem of morphological variation of query terms in the document database.

    Two situations were examined in the evaluation: the binary relevance situation and the multiple degree relevancesituation. With regard to the binary relevance situation, where the three (positive) relevance degrees (1, 2, 3) weremerged into one, and where precision was used as evaluation measure, the four alternative combinationsoutperformed the baseline. The best performing combination was the combination that used truncation. Thiscombination performed better than or equal to a median precision value for 41 of the 52 topics. One reason for therelatively good performance of the truncation combination was the capacity of its queries to retrieve different partsof speech.

    In the multiple degree relevance situation, where the three (positive) relevance degrees were retained, retrievaleffectiveness was taken to be the accumulated gain the user receives by examining the retrieval result up to givenpositions. The evaluation measure used was nDCG (normalized cumulated gain with discount). This measurecredits retrieval methods that (1) rank highly relevant documents higher than less relevant ones, and (2) rankrelevant (of any degree) documents high. With respect to (2), nDCG involves a discount component: a discount withregard to the relevance score of a relevant (of any degree) document is performed, and this discount is greater andgreater, the higher position the document has in the ranked list of retrieved documents.

    In the multiple degree relevance situation, the five combinations were evaluated under four different user scenarios,where each scenario simulated a certain user type. Again, the four alternative combinations outperformed thebaseline, for each user scenario. The truncation combination had the best performance under each user scenario.This outcome agreed with the performance result in the binary relevance situation. However, there were alsodifferences between the two relevance situations. For 25 percent of the topics and with regard to one of the four userscenarios, the set of best performing combinations in the binary relevance situation was disjunct from the set of bestperforming combinations in the multiple degree relevance situation. The user scenario in question was such thatalmost all importance was placed on highly relevant documents, and the discount was sharp.

    The main conclusion of the thesis is that normalization and right hand truncation (performed by a search expert)enhanced retrieval effectiveness in comparison to the baseline, irrespective of which of the two relevance situationswe consider. Further, the three indexing strategy-query term combinations based on normalization were almost asgood as the combination that involves truncation. This holds for both relevance situations.

  • 2453.
    Ahlgren, Per
    Stockholm University.
    The SNIP indicator in relation to the Norwegian model2014In: Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Science and Technology Indicators, 2014, p. 6-13Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2454.
    Ahlgren, Per
    Stockholm University.
    Two elements of evaluative bibliometrics in Sweden: The national indicator and the bibliometric unit of Stockholm University2015In: Ronald Rousseau and the development of Scientomerics in China.: The 8th International Conference on Scientometrics and  University Evaluation, 2015, p. 66-75Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2455.
    Ahlgren, Per
    et al.
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE).
    Colliander, C.
    Sjögårde, Peter
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE). Department of ALM, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Exploring the relation between referencing practices and citation impact: A large-scale study based on Web of Science data2018In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, ISSN 2330-1635, E-ISSN 2330-1643, Vol. 69, no 5, p. 728-743Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this large-scale contribution, we deal with the relationship between properties of cited references of Web of Science articles and the field normalized citation rate of these articles. Using nearly 1 million articles, and three classification systems with different levels of granularity, we study the effects of number of cited references, share of references covered by Web of Science, mean age of references and mean citation rate of references on field normalized citation rate. To expose the relationship between the predictor variables and the response variable, we use quantile regression. We found that a higher number of references, a higher share of references to publications within Web of Science and references to more recent publications correlate with citation impact. A correlation was observed even when normalization was done with a finely grained classification system. The predictor variables affected citation impact to a larger extent at higher quantile levels. Regarding the relative importance of the predictor variables, citation impact of the cited references was in general the least important variable. Number of cited references carried most of the importance for both low and medium quantile levels, but this importance was lessened at the highest considered level.

  • 2456.
    Ahlgren, Per
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Colliander, Cristian
    Document-document similarity approaches and science mapping: Experimental comparison of five approaches2009In: Journal of Informetrics, ISSN 1751-1577, E-ISSN 1875-5879, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 49-63Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2457.
    Ahlgren, Per
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Colliander, Cristian
    Textual content, cited references, similarity order, and clustering: An experimental study in the context of science mapping2009In: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Scientometrics and Informetrics (Volume 2), 2009, p. 862-873Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2458.
    Ahlgren, Per
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Colliander, Cristian
    Persson, Olle
    Field normalized citation rates, field normalized journal impact and Norwegian weights for allocation of university research funds2012In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 92, no 3, p. 767-780Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We compared three different bibliometric evaluation approaches: two citation-based approaches and one based on manual classification of publishing channels into quality levels. Publication data for two universities was used, and we worked with two levels of analysis: article and department. For the article level, we investigated the predictive power of field normalized citation rates and field normalized journal impact with respect to journal level. The results for the article level show that evaluation of journals based on citation impact correlate rather well with manual classification of journals into quality levels. However, the prediction from field normalized citation rates to journal level was only marginally better than random guessing. At the department level, we studied three different indicators in the context of research fund allocation within universities and the extent to which the three indicators produce different distributions of research funds. It turned out that the three distributions of relative indicator values were very similar, which in turn yields that the corresponding distributions of hypothetical research funds would be very similar.

  • 2459.
    Ahlgren, Per
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Grönqvist, Leif
    Evaluation of retrieval effectiveness with incomplete relevance data: theoretical and experimental comparison of three measures2008In: Information Processing & Management, ISSN 0306-4573, E-ISSN 1873-5371, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 212-225Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2460.
    Ahlgren, Per
    et al.
    University College of Borås.
    Grönqvist, Leif
    Measuring retrieval effectiveness with incomplete relevance data2006In: Current research in information sciences and technologies: multidisciplinary approaches to global information systems, 2006, p. 74-78Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2461.
    Ahlgren, Per
    et al.
    University College of Borås.
    Grönqvist, Leif
    Retrieval evaluation with incomplete relevance data: a comparative study of three measures2006In: Proceedings of the 15th ACM International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management, 2006, p. 872-873Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2462.
    Ahlgren, Per
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Hinders, Johan
    Lindelöw, Camilla
    Parmhed, Sara
    Swedberg, Per
    Research collaboration between Stockholm University and other Swedish academic institutions: a bibliometric study to support decisions on library collaboration2015In: Qualitative and Quantitative Methods in Libraries (QQML), ISSN 2241-1925, Vol. 4, p. 49-60Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Academic libraries collaborate in several ways. For instance, collaboration can concern standards for indexing and statistics, technical solutions or collection development. A question that a given academic library might ask is with which other academic libraries the library should principally collaborate. In this study, we show how bibliometric methods can be used to generate information that can support decision making with regard to the question at stake. We evaluate the amount of research collaboration between Stockholm University and other Swedish academic institutions across five publishing years, and for the whole considered time period, where research collaboration is operationalized as co-publishing. A dataset of publications obtained from Web of Science, where each publication has at least one Stockholm University address, is used in the study. Co-publishing rates, non-fractionalized and fractionalized, across the publishing years and for the whole for period, for Stockholm University and other Swedish academic institutions, are reported. Further, parts of the outcome of the study are visualized in terms of co-publishing networks.

  • 2463.
    Ahlgren, Per
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Jarneving, Bo
    Bibliographic coupling, common abstract stems and clustering: a comparison of two document-document similarity approaches in the context of science mapping2008In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 76, no 2, p. 273-290Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2464.
    Ahlgren, Per
    et al.
    University College of Borås.
    Jarneving, Bo
    Rousseau, Ronald
    Author cocitation analysis and Pearson's r2004In: Journal of The American Society For Information Science And Technology, ISSN 1532-2882, E-ISSN 1532-2890, Vol. 55, no 9, p. 843-843Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2465.
    Ahlgren, Per
    et al.
    University College of Borås.
    Jarneving, Bo
    Rousseau, Ronald
    Rejoinder: In defense of formal methods2004In: Journal of The American Society For Information Science And Technology, ISSN 1532-2882, E-ISSN 1532-2890, Vol. 55, no 10, p. 936-936Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2466.
    Ahlgren, Per
    et al.
    University College of Borås.
    Jarneving, Bo
    Rousseau, Ronald
    Requirements for a cocitation similarity measure, with special reference to Pearson's correlation coefficient2003In: Journal of The American Society For Information Science And Technology, ISSN 1532-2882, E-ISSN 1532-2890, Vol. 54, no 6, p. 550-560Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Author cocitation analysis (ACA), a special type of cocitation analysis, was introduced by White and Griffith in 1981. This technique is used to analyze the intellectual structure of a given scientific field. In 1990, McCain published a technical overview that has been largely adopted as a standard. Here, McCain notes that Pearson's correlation coefficient (Pearson's r) is often used as a similarity measure in ACA and presents some advantages of its use. The present article criticizes the use of Pearson's r in ACA and sets forth two natural requirements that a similarity measure applied in ACA should satisfy. It is shown that Pearson's r does not satisfy these requirements. Real and hypothetical data are used in order to obtain counterexamples to both requirements. It is concluded that Pearson's r is probably not an optimal choice of a similarity measure in ACA. Still, further empirical research is needed to show if, and in that case to what extent, the use of similarity measures in ACA that fulfill these requirements would lead to objectively better results in full-scale studies. Further, problems related to incomplete cocitation matrices are discussed.

  • 2467.
    Ahlgren, Per
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Järvelin, Kalervo
    Measuring impact of twelve information scientists using the DCI index2010In: Journal of The American Society For Information Science And Technology, ISSN 1532-2882, E-ISSN 1532-2890, Vol. 61, no 7, p. 1424-1439Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Discounted Cumulated Impact (DCI) index has recently been proposed for research evaluation. In the present work an earlier dataset by Cronin and Meho (2007) is reanalyzed, with the aim of exemplifying the salient features of the DCI index. We apply the index on, and compare our results to, the outcomes of the Cronin-Meho (2007) study. Both authors and their top publications are used as units of analysis, which suggests that, by adjusting the parameters of evaluation according to the needs of research evaluation, the DCI index delivers data on an author's (or publication's) "lifetime" impact or current impact at the time of evaluation on an author's (or publication's) capability of inviting citations from highly cited later publications as an indication of impact, and on the relative impact across a set of authors (or publications) over their "lifetime" or currently.

  • 2468.
    Ahlgren, Per
    et al.
    University College of Borås.
    Kekälainen, Jaana
    Indexing strategies for Swedish full text retrieval under different user scenarios2007In: Information Processing & Management, ISSN 0306-4573, E-ISSN 1873-5371, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 81-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with Swedish full text retrieval and the problem of morphological variation of query terms in the document database. The effects of combination of indexing strategies with query terms on retrieval effectiveness were studied. Three of five tested combinations involved indexing strategies that used conflation, in the form of normalization. Further, two of these three combinations used indexing strategies that employed compound splitting. Normalization and compound splitting were performed by SWETWOL, a morphological analyzer for the Swedish language. A fourth combination attempted to group related terms by right hand truncation of query terms. The four combinations were compared to each other and to a baseline combination, where no attempt was made to counteract the problem of morphological variation of query terms in the document database. The five combinations were evaluated under six different user scenarios, where each scenario simulated a certain user type. The four alternative combinations outperformed the baseline, for each user scenario. The truncation combination had the best performance under each user scenario. The main conclusion of the paper is that normalization and right hand truncation (performed by a search expert) enhanced retrieval effectiveness in comparison to the baseline. The performance of the three combinations of indexing strategies with query terms based on normalization was not far below the performance of the truncation combination. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 2469.
    Ahlgren, Per
    et al.
    University College of Borås.
    Kekälainen, Jaana
    Swedish full text retrieval: Effectiveness of different combinations of indexing strategies with query terms2006In: Information retrieval (Boston), ISSN 1386-4564, E-ISSN 1573-7659, Vol. 9, no 6, p. 681-697Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, which treats Swedish full text retrieval, the problem of morphological variation of query terms in the document database is studied. The Swedish CLEF 2003 test collection was used, and the effects of combination of indexing strategies with query terms on retrieval effectiveness were studied. Four of the seven tested combinations involved indexing strategies that used normalization, a form of conflation. All of these four combinations employed compound splitting, both during indexing and at query phase. SWETWOL, a morphological analyzer for the Swedish language, was used for normalization and compound splitting. A fifth combination used stemming, while a sixth attempted to group related terms by right hand truncation of query terms. The truncation was performed by a search expert. These six combinations were compared to each other and to a baseline combination, where no attempt was made to counteract the problem of morphological variation of query terms in the document database. Both the truncation combination, the four combinations based on normalization and the stemming combination outperformed the baseline. Truncation had the best performance. The main conclusion of the paper is that truncation, normalization and stemming enhanced retrieval effectiveness in comparison to the baseline. Further, normalization and stemming were not far below truncation.

  • 2470.
    Ahlgren, Per
    et al.
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Department for Library services, Language and ARC, Publication Infrastructure.
    Pagin, Peter
    Persson, Olle
    Svedberg, Maria
    Bibliometric analysis of two subdomains in philosophy: free will and sorites2015In: SCIENTOMETRICS, ISSN 0138-9130, Vol. 103, no 1, p. 47-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we tested the fruitfulness of advanced bibliometric methods for mapping subdomains in philosophy. The development of the number of publications on free will and sorites, the two subdomains treated in the study, over time was studied. We applied the cocitation approach to map the most cited publications, authors and journals, and we mapped frequently occurring terms, using a term co-occurrence approach. Both subdomains show a strong increase of publications in Web of Science. When we decomposed the publications by faculty, we could see an increase of free will publications also in social sciences, medicine and natural sciences. The multidisciplinary character of free will research was reflected in the cocitation analysis and in the term co-occurrence analysis: we found clusters/groups of cocited publications, authors and journals, and of co-occurring terms, representing philosophy as well as non-philosophical fields, such as neuroscience and physics. The corresponding analyses of sorites publications displayed a structure consisting of research themes rather than fields. All in all, both philosophers involved in this study acknowledge the validity of the various networks presented. Bibliometric mapping appears to provide an interesting tool for describing the cognitive orientation of a research field, not only in the natural and life sciences but also in philosophy, which this study shows.

  • 2471.
    Ahlgren, Per
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Persson, Olle
    Globalization of citations and collaboration: A study of twelve journals2012In: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Science and Technology Indicators, 2012, Vol. 1, p. 23-32Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2472.
    Ahlgren, Per
    et al.
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Department for Library services, Language and ARC, Publication Infrastructure.
    Persson, Olle
    Rousseau, Ronald
    An approach for efficient online identification of the top-k percent most cited documents in large sets of Web of Science documents2014In: ISSI Newsletter, ISSN 1998-5460, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 81-89Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 2473.
    Ahlgren, Per
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Persson, Olle
    Tijssen, Robert
    Geographical distance in bibliometric relations within epistemic communities2013In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 95, no 2, p. 771-784Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2474.
    Ahlgren, Per
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Waltman, Ludo
    The correlation between citation-based and expert-based assessments of publication channels: SNIP and SJR vs. Norwegian quality assessments2014In: Journal of Informetrics, ISSN 1751-1577, E-ISSN 1875-5879, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 985-996Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the correlation between citation-based and expert-based assessments of journals and series, which we collectively refer to as sources. The source normalized impact per paper (SNIP), the Scimago Journal Rank 2 (SJR2) and the raw impact per paper (RIP) indicators are used to assess sources based on their citations, while the Norwegian model is used to obtain expert-based source assessments. We first analyze – within different subject area categories and across such categories – the degree to which RIP, SNIP and SJR2 values correlate with the quality levels in the Norwegian model. We find that sources at higher quality levels on average have substantially higher RIP, SNIP, and SJR2 values. Regarding subject area categories, SNIP seems to perform substantially better than SJR2 from the field normalization point of view. We then compare the ability of RIP, SNIP and SJR2 to predict whether a source is classified at the highest quality level in the Norwegian model or not. SNIP and SJR2 turn out to give more accurate predictions than RIP, which provides evidence that normalizing for differences in citation practices between scientific fields indeed improves the accuracy of citation indicators.

  • 2475.
    Ahlgren, Per
    et al.
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Department for Library services, Language and ARC, Library, Publication Infrastructure.
    Yue, Ting
    Rousseau, Ronald
    Yang, Liying
    The role of the Chinese Key Labs in the international and national scientific arena revisited2017In: Research Evaluation, ISSN 0958-2029, E-ISSN 1471-5449, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 132-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this contribution, which builds on and develops a study that was published more than 10 years ago, we address the role of the Chinese Key Labs (KLs) in the international and national scientific arena. We give a short overview of the position of KLs in China, including their budget and manpower. Based on large numbers of Chinese publications obtained from the Web of Science (WoS) and the Chinese Science Citation Database (CSCD), the KLs are compared across publication years to the rest of China (ChRest) with respect to publication output and citation impact. We also look at collaboration in terms of co-publishing between the KLs and the ChRest. As to publications in the WoS, we found that the contribution of KLs compared with the ChRest is slightly and irregularly increasing (using full counting as well as fractional counting), whereas a stronger increasing trend is observed for the corresponding contribution in the CSCD. We observed an increase in the number of collaborations between KLs and Chinese colleagues, regardless of database. For WoS and field normalized citation indicators, we obtained the expected results that researchers at KLs perform considerably better than other Chinese colleagues and, moreover, perform clearly better than database average. As such we may conclude that KLs have lived up to their promise and made real impact on the international arena.

  • 2476. Ahlgren, S.
    et al.
    Röös, E.
    Di Lucia, L.
    Sundberg, Cecilia
    Hansson, P. -A
    EU sustainability criteria for biofuels: Uncertainties in GHG emissions from cultivation2012In: Biofuels, ISSN 1759-7269, E-ISSN 1759-7277, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 399-411Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Cultivation of raw material represents a large proportion of biofuelś GHG emissions. The EU renewable energy directive 2009/28/EC specifies a GHG emission default value for cultivation of biofuel raw material (23 g CO2-e/MJ ethanol for wheat). The aim of this study was to quantify the uncertainty in GHG emissions for wheat cultivation in Sweden, considering uncertainty and variability in data at farm level. Results: Two levels of data collection at farm level were analyzed; simple (only yield and amount of N) and advanced (also including amounts and types of energy). The 2.5-97.5 percentile uncertainty for Swedish winter wheat was 20-27 g CO 2-e/MJ, which can be considered large in the context of the Directives threshold of 23 g (to two significant figures). Conclusion: It is concluded that quantifying GHG emissions in order to regulate biofuels is a difficult task, especially emissions from cultivation, since these are biological systems with large variability.

  • 2477.
    Ahlgren, Serina
    et al.
    SLU.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Ekman, Anna
    Lund University.
    Karlsson, H
    SLU.
    Berlin, Johanna
    SP.
    Börjesson, Pål
    Lund University.
    Ekvall, Tomas
    IVL.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Janssen, Matty
    Chalmers.
    Strid, Ingrid
    SLU.
    LCA of biorefinieries -identification of key issues and methodological recommendations2013Report (Other academic)
  • 2478.
    Ahlgren, Serina
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Ekman, Anna
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Karlsson, Hanna
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Berlin, Johanna
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Börjesson, Pål
    Lund University.
    Ekvall, Tomas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Janssen, Matty
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Strid, Ingrid
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Review of methodological choices in LCA of biorefinery systems: key issues and recommendations2015In: Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining, ISSN 1932-104X, E-ISSN 1932-1031, Vol. 9, no 5, p. 606-619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current trend in biomass conversion technologies is toward more efficient utilization of biomass feedstock in multiproduct biorefineries. Many life-cycle assessment (LCA) studies of biorefinery systems have been performed but differ in how they use the LCA methodology. Based on a review of existing LCA standards and guidelines, this paper provides recommendations on how to handle key methodological issues when performing LCA studies of biorefinery systems. Six key issues were identified: (i) goal definition, (ii) functional unit, (iii) allocation of biorefinery outputs, (iv) allocation of biomass feedstock, (v) land use, and (vi) biogenic carbon and timing of emissions. Many of the standards and guidelines reviewed here provide only general methodological recommendations. Some make more specific methodological recommendations, but these often differ between standards. In this paper we present some clarifications (e.g. examples of research questions and suitable functional units) and methodological recommendations (e.g. on allocation).

  • 2479.
    Ahlholm, Vilma
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Hellberg, Louise
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Instagram och ekologisk hållbarhet: Hur påverkas användaren, ur ett miljöperspektiv, av ett flöde på Instagram?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Instagram is a social network that is very popular in Sweden. On Instagram, users take part of information in the form of images from accounts they have chosen to follow. The dissemination of information regarding climate change needs to be more effective. People's environmental degradation habits are a problem and need to be changed, but rooted behavior patterns can be difficult to break. The public needs a nudge in the right direction to live more climate-smart and to make more environmentally-friendly choices.

    The aim of the study is to, in a qualitative way, investigate how a feed on Instagram, can affect university students with a focus on climate change. The research question which the paper is based on is; How is the user affected, from an environmental perspective, by a feed on Instagram?

    The approach to investigate this meant that the participants used a modified Instagram account, the methods used are diary and individual semi-structured interviews. Patterns in the collected material from the diaries and interviews are structured under different themes and the result shows that the participants of the study have been affected in different ways. They have learned new things, acted on tips and recipes, shopped second hand, followed accounts that spread information about the environment from their own Instagram account, and had the climate situation more frequent in their thoughts. All these types of actions have in common that they are no big life adjustments, but rather simpler actions that are easy to apply in everyday life. More complicated actions, like growing their own herbs, raised an interest and the action was not performed. The discussion addresses the reasons for the different ways in which the participants have been affected and ties in with theories of social influence and nudging.

  • 2480.
    Ahlin, Adrian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES).
    Törnblom, Sebastian
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES).
    Automated Control With Collision Avoidance of Multiple Unmanned air Vehicles2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report is a study of the coordination of multipleunmanned air vehicles (UAV). It begins with the model of a flyingvehicle with four fixed propellers, a so called quadcopter. Themodel describes how movement is related to motor speed, vehiclesize and mass distribution. Secondly we evaluate what sensorsare appropriate to use in an autonomous air vehicle system andwhat outputs they create. The model and the sensor outputs areused to perform automated stability control of a quadcopter, forwhich we propose the use of a PID controller. In the third partof the report we examine possible ways for autonomous vehiclesto perform motion planning. We compare the Potential field, A*and RRT algorithms and choose to implement a program whichsimulates UAVs using a potential field algorithm to navigate. Theprogram is two dimensional and randomly generates a chosennumber of flying units and static obstacles. The potential fieldmethod is not error free, sometimes vehicles get stuck when theirgoal is directly behind an obstacle, but the simulation proves theusability of the algorithm if elaborated with a few minor functionsto avoid specific problem cases. In the last part we discuss someexisting and some future applications of UAVs in a smarter urbanenvironment.

  • 2481.
    Ahlin, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Gärdin, Marcus
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Automated Classification of Steel Samples: An investigation using Convolutional Neural Networks2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Automated image recognition software has earlier been used for various analyses in the steel making industry. In this study, the possibility to apply such software to classify Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images of two steel samples was investigated. The two steel samples were of the same steel grade but with the difference that they had been treated with calcium for a different length of time. 

    To enable automated image recognition, a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) was built. The construction of the software was performed with open source code provided by Keras Documentation, thus ensuring an easily reproducible program. The network was trained, validated and tested, first for non-binarized images and then with binarized images. Binarized images were used to ensure that the network's prediction only considers the inclusion information and not the substrate.

    The non-binarized images gave a classification accuracy of 99.99 %. For the binarized images, the classification accuracy obtained was 67.9%.  The results show that it is possible to classify steel samples using CNNs. One interesting aspect of the success in classifying steel samples is that further studies on CNNs could enable automated classification of inclusions. 

  • 2482.
    Ahlin, Björn T. I.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Nitrogen Removal in a Vacuum Tank Degasser: An Investigation on the Nitrogen Removal Performance2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The impending change of processes at SSAB Oxelösund due to the HYBRIT project, where the blast furnace and LD converter are to be replaced with an EAF will have a significant impact on the manufacturing of steel in Oxelösund. One issue that will arise is the nitrogen content in the steel. Sources claim that the nitrogen content in steel from an EAF route is substantially larger, 60-70 ppm, than in steel from a blast furnace and LD converter route, which have a nitrogen content of around 25 ppm. Therefore, the nitrogen removal capabilities of SSAB Oxelösund’s vacuum tank degasser were to be examined. Industrial trials were performed where the amount of slag during vacuum treatment was lowered. The intention was that half the amount of slag removed prior to vacuum treatment and later completely slag free. This was performed in an attempt to increase the effective reaction area, where nitrogen removal occurs. Due to some practical problems with the steel mill, the industrial trial were unfortunately cut short. Consequently, only trials with half the amount of slag were performed and compared to existing process data for standard praxis. Also, nitrogen removal calculations based on the industrial data were performed. A parameter representing the overall reaction rate, which is dependent on effective reaction area was obtained, validated and subsequently applied to a future case scenario. The results indicate that the reduction in slag amount does have the desired effect, increasing the said area and increasing the rate of nitrogen removal. However, the sample size is not nearly sufficient enough to determine this definitively. The conclusions reached were that the facility does have the possibility to decrease the increased nitrogen content down to reasonable levels, around 20-30 ppm. Albeit, an increase in vacuum treatment time is probably required. Another conclusion was that surface active elements, such as oxygen and sulphur greatly reduce the nitrogen removal. Therefore, efforts should be taken to remove these elements prior to vacuum treatment. In addition, it was established that the effective reaction area is of great importance for a successful nitrogen removal. Therefore, actions to maximise this area should be taken. Finally, it was stated that further research is necessary in order to fully understand nitrogen contamination prevention- and removal techniques

  • 2483.
    Ahlin, Christian
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Att skapa interna varumärken: En studie kring varumärkesteoriernas roll i interna intiativ2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Organisationers komplexitet och vikten av effektiv intern kommunikation växer med storleken och därmed är det dags att undersöka ifall mer avancerad marknadsföring även är relevant för internt bruk. Därför har användningen av varumärkesteorier i intern marknadsföring av interna initiativ studeras i syfte att försöka förstå deras roll. För att öka förståelsen så har en fallstudie genomförts vilket resulterat i en perspektivsmatris med möjligheten att påvisa en dualitet gällande motivationen bakom skapandet av varumärken för interna initiativ inom en organisation. De förutsättningar för internt varumärkesskapande som framkommer är (digital och/eller skriven) kommunikation, (någon form av) konkurrens, (initiativets) kontinuitet, maktskillnad (med annan beslutsfattare än ägare av initiativet) och möjligheter (för extern användning). Detta framställs tillsammans med råd gällande användningen av varumärkesteorier, det vill säga varumärkesskapande via associationsbyggande, för interna initiativ. Kvalitativa data samlades in under 2008 hos företaget.

  • 2484.
    Ahlin, Filip
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Mathematical Statistics.
    Internal model for spread risk under Solvency II2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In May 2009 the European Commission decided on new regulations regarding solvency among insurance firms, the Solvency II Directive. The directive aims to strengthen the connection between the requirement of solvency and risks for insurance firms. The directive partly consists of a market risk module, in which a credit spread risk is a sub category.

    In this thesis a model for credit spread risk is implemented. The model is an extended version of the Jarrow, Lando and Turnbull model (A Markov Model for theTerm Structure of Credit Risk Spreads, 1997) as proposed by Dubrana (A Stochastic Model for Credit Spreads under a Risk-Neutral Framework through the use of an Extended Version of the Jarrow, Lando and Turnbull Model, 2011). The implementation includes the calibration of a stochastic credit risk driver as well as a simulation of bond returns with the allowance of credit transitions and defaults.

    The modeling will be made with the requirements of the Solvency II Directive in mind. Finally, the result will be compared with the Solvency II standard formula for the spread risk sub-module.

  • 2485.
    Ahlin, Filip
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Optimization and Systems Theory.
    Wahlstedt, Anton
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Optimization and Systems Theory.
    ESG-investerande och portföljresultat: En studie av ESG-investerande utifrån metoden bäst-i-klassen2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As a result of a more globalized and industrial world, sustainability issues in terms of the environment and society has become an everyday heading in the financial world. The fact that companies should work actively towards sustainability and accountability is today a necessity rather than a choice. The purpose of this study is to research responsible investment (RI) and portfolio performance. To examine this relationship the study focuses on ESG where its dimensions will be included jointly through optimization, discussion and conclusion. The report outlines how ESG can be integrated into the investment process, but the weight of the study addresses the discussion of a portfolio's performance at the inclusion of ESG. Methods used are Modern Portfolio Theory (MPT) combined with the implementation of ESG according to "best-in-class". The results of the study lead towards the conclusion that ESG in addition to its positive effects, provided an accurate assessment, on sustainability also is financially arguable for investors.

  • 2486. Ahlin, G.
    et al.
    Hilgendorf, C.
    Karlsson, J.
    Al-Khalili Szigyarto, Cristina
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics.
    Uhlén, Mathias
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics.
    Artursson, P.
    Endogenous Gene and Protein Expression of Drug-Transporting Proteins in Cell Lines Routinely Used in Drug Discovery Programs2009In: Drug Metabolism And Disposition, ISSN 0090-9556, E-ISSN 1521-009X, Vol. 37, no 12, p. 2275-2283Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the gene and protein expression profiles of important drug-transporting proteins in human cell lines commonly used for studies of drug transport mechanisms. Human cell lines used to transiently or stably express single transporters [HeLa, human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293] and leukemia cell lines used to study drug resistance by ATP-binding cassette transporters (HL-60, K562) were investigated and compared with organotypic cell lines (HepG2, Saos-2, Caco-2, and Caco-2 TC7). For gene expression studies, real-time polymerase chain reaction was used, whereas monospecific polyclonal antibodies were generated and used to investigate protein expression by immunohistochemistry. Thirty-six transporters were studied for gene expression, and nine were studied for protein expression. The antibodies were validated using expression patterns in human tissues. Finally, the function of one ubiquitously expressed transporter, MCT1/SLC16A1, was investigated using [C-14]lactic acid as a substrate. In general, the adherent cell lines (HeLa, HEK293) displayed low transporter expression, and the expression patterns were barely affected by transfection. The leukemia cell lines (K562, HL-60) and Saos-2 also had low endogenous transporter expression, whereas the organotypic cell lines (HepG2 and Caco-2) showed higher expression of some transporters. Comparison of gene and protein expression profiles gave poor correlations, but better agreement was obtained for antibodies with a good validation score, indicating that antibody quality was a significant variable. It is noteworthy that the monocarboxylic acid-transporting protein MCT1 was significantly expressed in all and was functional in most of the cell lines, indicating that MCT1 may be a confounding factor when the transport of small anionic drugs is investigated.

  • 2487.
    AHLIN HÖGFELDT, SIMON
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    SÖDERMAN, DANIEL
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Human controlled robotic arm: Improving usability with haptic feedback2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In our modern society, the usage of robotic arms are increasing. Much of the

    work in the industry is now done by robots. Even though they are able to do

    very precise work, difficulties appear when trying to do some of the tasks that

    humans do. This can be changed by making it easy for a human to control the

    robotic arm and to "teach it" how it’s done.

    The purpose of this project is to develop a robotic arm that is easily controlled

    by the user. This is done by using the users own arm movement to

    control the robot. To make the usage more intuitive, a simple haptic feedback

    system will be implemented. This creates a greater experience where the user

    is able to "feel what the robot feels". To be able to create such a system,

    development of an easy control unit, robotic arm and feedback system has to

    be made. The steering of the robotic arm is created from reading the user’s

    arm movement with potentiometers, and mapping these values to servos on

    the robotic arm. Sensors on the robotic claw and on the user’s hand makes it

    possible for a DC motor to create a counter torque that gives a feel for the size

    of the object being lifted.

    The feedback system seemed to improve the overall experience of using a

    robotic arm and with further work, today’s robotic industry could be improved.

  • 2488.
    Ahlin, Jesper
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Personal Autonomy and Informed Consent: Conceptual and Normative Analyses2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This licentiate thesis is comprised of a “kappa” and two articles. The kappa includes an account of personal autonomy and informed consent, an explanation of how the concepts and articles relate to each other, and a summary in Swedish.

    Article 1 treats one problem with the argument that a patient’s consent to treatment is valid only if it is authentic, i.e., if it is “genuine,” “truly her own,” “not out of character,” or similar. As interventions with a patient’s life and liberties must be justified, the argument presupposes that the authenticity of desires can be reliably determined. If the status of a desire in terms of authenticity cannot be reliably determined, discarding the desire-holder’s treatment decision on the basis that it is inauthentic is morally unjustified. In the article, I argue that no theory of authenticity that is present in the relevant literature can render reliably observable consequences. Therefore, the concept of authenticity, as it is understood in those theories, should not be part of informed consent practices.

    Article 2 discusses the problem of what it is to consent or refuse voluntarily. In it, I argue that voluntariness should be more narrowly understood than what is common. My main point is that a conceptualization of voluntariness should be agent-centered, i.e., take into account the agent’s view of her actions. Among other things, I argue that an action is non-voluntary only if the agent thinks of it as such when being coerced. This notion, which at first look may seem uncontroversial, entails the counterintuitive conclusion that an action can be voluntary although the agent has been manipulated or coerced into doing it. In defense of the notion, I argue that if the agent’s point of view is not considered accordingly, describing her actions as non-voluntary can be alien to how she leads her life. There are other moral concepts available to describe what is wrong with manipulation and coercion, i.e., to make sense of the counterintuitive conclusion. Voluntariness should be reserved to fewer cases than what is commonly assumed.

  • 2489.
    Ahlin, Jesper
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Reflective Equilibrium DefendedManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Reflective equilibrium is a method of justification in ethics. In this essay, I account for an argument against reflective equilibrium put forth by Theo van Willigenburg from a position of (weak) foundationalism. I attempt to demonstrate why it is flawed and how reflective equilibrium as a method of justification can withstand the foundationalist critique.

  • 2490.
    Ahlin, Jesper
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    The Ethics of Immigration2015In: Theoria, ISSN 0040-5825, E-ISSN 1755-2567, Vol. 81, no 4, p. 380-384Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 2491. Ahlin, Jesper
    The impossibility of reliably determining the authenticity of desires: implications for informed consent2017In: Medicine, Health care and Philosophy, ISSN 1386-7423, E-ISSN 1572-8633Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is sometimes argued that autonomous decision-making requires that the decision-maker’s desires are authentic, i.e., “genuine,” “truly her own,” “not out of character,” or similar. In this article, it is argued that a method to reliably determine the authenticity (or inauthenticity) of a desire cannot be developed. A taxonomy of characteristics displayed by different theories of authenticity is introduced and applied to evaluate such theories categorically, in contrast to the prior approach of treating them individually. The conclusion is drawn that, in practice, the authenticity of desires cannot be reliably determined. It is suggested that authenticity should therefore not be employed in informed consent practices in healthcare.

  • 2492.
    Ahlin, Jesper
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Toward an Agent-Centered Theory of VoluntarinessManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of voluntariness is central to informed consent and personal autonomy, yet it has been underexplored by bioethicists. There are various theories intended to explain voluntary choice and action. None is fully agent-centered, in the sense that the conceptualization of voluntariness takes into account the agent’s views of her decisions and actions. An agent-centered theory of voluntariness would promote analytical precision, and foster autonomy in healthcare and research practices. According to the most influential bioethical theory of voluntariness, here called the Voluntariness as Control theory, an action is non-voluntary if the agent is controlled by external influences. The theory is critically discussed from an agent-centered perspective, and a new conceptualization of voluntariness is proposed.

  • 2493.
    Ahlin, Jesper
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    What Justifies Judgments of Inauthenticity?2018In: HEC Forum, ISSN 0956-2737, E-ISSN 1572-8498Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The notion of authenticity, i.e., being “genuine,” “real,” or “true to oneself,” is sometimes held as critical to a person’s autonomy, so that inauthenticity prevents the person from making autonomous decisions or leading an autonomous life. It has been pointed out that authenticity is difficult to observe in others. Therefore, judgments of inauthenticity have been found inadequate to underpin paternalistic interventions, among other things. This article delineates what justifies judgments of inauthenticity. It is argued that for persons who wish to live according to the prevailing social and moral standards and desires that are seriously undesirable according to those standards, it is justified to judge that a desire is inauthentic to the extent that it is due to causal factors that are alien to the person and to the extent that it deviates from the person’s practical identity. The article contributes to a tradition of thinking about authenticity which is known mainly from Frankfurt and Dworkin, and bridges the gap between theoretical ideals of authenticity and real authenticity-related problems in practical biomedical settings.

  • 2494.
    Ahlin, Lars
    et al.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI).
    Englund, Eva
    FOI.
    Jönsson, Christian
    FOI.
    Söderquist, Ingrid
    FOI.
    Zander, Jens
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Signals, Sensors and Systems.
    Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Teleinformatics.
    Automous Tactical Communications Possibilities and Problems1997In: MILCOM 97 Proceedings, 1997, p. 393-397Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the battlefield of the future, more and more information will be available for making decisions on a tactical level, provided that this information can be dispersed rapidly and accurately. As a consequence, advanced tactical decision support that now is limited to advanced platforms (e.g. combat aircrafts) will become available at a much lower level, ranging from different kinds of vehicles, down to the individual soldier by means of ultra-light weight ``wearable'' equipment.

    Establishing reliable wireless communications in such a large group of users with unprecidented bandwidth demands and requirements on survivability constitutes a considerable enginerring challenge. In the paper we will, after a short review of some existing approaches, investigate the specific engineering challenges and the fundamental limitations of such low level, autonomous communication systems. Further we give an example of a system architecture, harmonized with a proposed structure for third generation commercial wireless systems (e.g. UMTS). Our conclusions show that mainly distributed computing complexity, device power consumption and available bandwidth constitute the fundamental problems.

  • 2495.
    Ahlin, Lars
    et al.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI).
    Zander, Jens
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Signals, Sensors and Systems.
    Automous tactical communication: problems & possibilities1996Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On the battlefield of the future, more and more information will be available for making decisions on a tactical level, provided that this information can be dispersed rapidly and accurately. Sophisticated electronic equipment for communication, information processing and for collection of sensor data are becoming light-weight, small and inexpensive. As a consequence, advanced tactical decision support that now is limited to advanced platforms (e.g. combat aircrafts) will become available at a much lower level, maybe down to the individual soldier. In such a scenario, the number of communicating entities is one or several orders of magnitude larger than in todays tactical systems. Establishing reliable wireless communications in such a large group constitutes a considerable engineering challenge. In this paper we investigate the specific engineering challenges and the fundamental limitations of such low level, autonomous communication systems. Our conclusions are that mainly distributed computing complexity, device power consumption and available bandwidth constitute the fundamental problems.

  • 2496.
    Ahlin, Lars
    et al.
    FOI.
    Zander, Jens
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Ben Slimane, Slimane
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Principles of Wireless Communications2006Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This textbook provides the reader with a basic understanding of the design and analysis of wireless and mobile communication systems. It deals with the most important techniques, models and tools used today in the design of mobile wireless links and gives an introduction to the design of wireless networks. Topics covered include: fundamentals of radio propagation and antennas; transmission schemes, including modulation, coding and equalising schemes for broadband wireless communications; diversity systems; wireless data transmission; introduction to Wireless Network design and resource management. The fundamentals are illustrated by examples from state-of-the-art technologies such as OFDM, WCDMA, WLANs and others. The book contains a significant number of worked examples and more than 160 problems with answers. It is intended for use in a first graduate course in wireless communications and the reader should be familiar with the fundamentals of probability and communication theory.

  • 2497.
    Ahlin, Lina
    et al.
    Lund Univ, CIRCLE, Lund, Sweden.;Lund Univ, Dept Econ, Lund, Sweden..
    Andersson, Martin
    Lund Univ, CIRCLE, Lund, Sweden.;Lund Univ, Dept Econ, Lund, Sweden.;Blekinge Inst Technol BTH, Dept Ind Econ, SE-37179 Karlskrona, Sweden.;Res Inst Ind Econ IFN, Stockholm, Sweden.;Swedish Entrepreneurship Forum, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Thulin, Per
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.). Swedish Entrepreneurship Forum, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Human capital sorting: The "when" and "who" of the sorting of educated workers to urban regions2018In: Journal of regional science, ISSN 0022-4146, E-ISSN 1467-9787, Vol. 58, no 3, p. 581-610Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sorting of high-ability workers is often advanced as one source of spatial disparities in economic outcomes. There are still few papers that analyze when human capital sorting occurs and whom it involves. Using data on 16 cohorts of university graduates in Sweden, we demonstrate significant sorting to urban regions on high school grades and education levels of parents, i.e., two attributes typically associated with latent abilities that are valued in the labor market. A large part of this sorting has already occurred in deciding where to study, because the top universities in Sweden are predominantly located in urban regions. The largest part of directed sorting on ability indicators occurs in the decision of where to study. Even after controlling for sorting prior to labor market entry, the best and brightest are still more likely to start working in urban regions. However, this effect appears to be driven by Sweden's main metropolitan region, Stockholm. We find no influence of our ability indicators on the probability of starting to work in urban regions after graduation when Stockholm is excluded. Studies of human capital sorting need to account for selection processes to and from universities, because neglecting mobility prior to labor market entry is likely to lead to an underestimation of the extent of the sorting to urban regions.

  • 2498. Ahlin, Lina
    et al.
    Andersson, Martin
    Thulin, Per
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation. Swedish Entrepreneurship Forum, Sweden.
    Market Thickness and the Early Labour Market Career of University Graduates: An Urban Advantage?2014In: Spatial Economic Analysis, ISSN 1742-1772, E-ISSN 1742-1780, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 396-419Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyse the influence of market thickness for skills on initial wages and the early job market career of university graduates. Using Swedish micro-level panel data on a cohort of graduates, we show that two out of three graduates move to large cities upon graduation. Large cities increase employment probabilities and yield higher rewards to human capital, even after controlling for employment selection. The premium on initial wages for graduates in urban regions is in the interval of 5-6%, and we estimate a wage-growth premium of about 2-4%. Thicker markets for skills appear as a key reason for the concentration of graduates to larger cities.

  • 2499.
    Ahlin Marceta, Jesper
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    A non-ideal authenticity-based conceptualization of personal autonomy2018In: Medicine, Health care and Philosophy, ISSN 1386-7423, E-ISSN 1572-8633Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Respect for autonomy is a central moral principle in bioethics. The concept of autonomy can be construed in various ways. Under the non-ideal conceptualization proposed by Beauchamp and Childress, everyday choices of generally competent persons are autonomous to the extent that they are intentional and are made with understanding and without controlling influences. It is sometimes suggested that authenticity is important to personal autonomy, so that inauthenticity prevents otherwise autonomous persons from making autonomous decisions. Building from Beauchamp and Childress’s theory, this article develops a non-ideal authenticity-based conceptualization of personal autonomy. Factors that indicate inauthentic decision-making are explicated, and the full concept is defended from three expected objections. The theory is then tested on a paradigm case which has concerned theorists and practitioners for some time, namely the possible inauthenticity of anorexia nervosa patients’ decision-making. It is concluded that the theory seems to be fruitful in analyses of the degree of autonomy of patients’ decision-making, and that it succeeds in providing reliable action-guidance in practical contexts.

  • 2500.
    Ahlin Marceta, Jesper
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Authenticity in Bioethics: Bridging the Gap between Theory and Practice2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this doctoral thesis is to bridge the gap between theoretical ideals of authenticity and practical authenticity-related problems in healthcare. In this context, authenticity means being "genuine," "real," "true to oneself," or similar, and is assumed to be closely connected to the autonomy of persons. The thesis includes an introduction and four articles related to authenticity. The first article collects various theories intended to explain the distinction between authenticity and inauthenticity in a taxonomy that enables oversight and analysis. It is argued that (in-)authenticity is difficult to observe in others. The second article offers a solution to this difficulty in one theory of authenticity. It is proposed that under certain circumstances, it is morally justified to judge that the desires underlying a person's decisions are inauthentic. The third article incorporates this proposition into an already established theory of personal autonomy. It is argued that the resulting conceptualization of autonomy is fruitful for action-guidance in authenticity-related problems in healthcare. The fourth article collects nine cases of possible authenticity-related problems in healthcare. The theory developed in the third article is applied to the problems, when this is allowed by the case-description, to provide guidance with regard to them. It is argued that there is not one universal authenticity-related problem but many different problems, and that there is thus likely not one universal solution to such problems but various particular solutions.

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