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  • 251.
    Brown, Nils
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Wang, Lan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Sectoral Energy Report: Synthesis Report - ICT for Energy Efficiency in Buildings and Strategic Environmental Assessment for Smart Grids2013Report (Refereed)
  • 252. Bruggeman, C.
    et al.
    Maes, N.
    Christiansen, B. C.
    Stipp, S. L. S.
    Breynaert, E.
    Maes, A.
    Regenspurg, Simona
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology (moved 20130630).
    Malmström, Maria E.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Liu, X.
    Grambow, B.
    Schaefer, Th
    Redox-active phases and radionuclide equilibrium valence state in subsurface environments - New insights from 6th EC FP IP FUNMIG2012In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 404-413Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the 6th EC FP Integrated Project "Fundamental Processes of Radionuclide Migration'' (FUNMIG), progress has been made to improve knowledge about the phases and reaction mechanisms involved in complex reduction processes of radionuclide contaminants in natural subsurface environments. This review paper gives an overview of the achievements made by the research groups involved in this project, and puts the scope and results of the studies in a more global context. Firstly, both thermodynamic and experimental evidence show that green rust is present and reactive in subsurface groundwater with a composition that spans the Fe(II)/Fe(III) redox boundary. Green rust has been shown to reduce Np(V), Se(VI) and Se(IV), but the pathways for the redox processes and the reaction products that result are complicated, and change as a function of the reaction parameters. Secondly, considerable evidence has emerged that Se(IV) is reduced on Fe(II)-bearing minerals which are ubiquitous in subsurface environments. The stable Se valence state in the presence of FeS(2) has been shown to be Se(0). Also, natural dissolved humic substances that contain sufficient electron donating capacity are capable of interacting with, and possibly reducing, Se(IV) to lower valence states. Thirdly, the influence of HCO(3)(-) and organic ligands on the uptake and reduction of U(VI) on Fe(II)-bearing minerals was investigated. While it appeared that HCO(3)(-) decreased the extent of U(VI) uptake by the reducing surface, the fraction of reduced U(IV) in the solid phase increased with increasing HCO(3)(-) concentration. In contrast with the observations for HCO(3)(-), organic ligands decreased both the extent of U uptake, as well as the fraction of U(IV) found in the solid phase. The studies performed within FUNMIG show that investigating reduction-oxidation mechanisms require (1) a detailed control over reaction conditions (anoxic atmosphere, purification of solid phases, initial radionuclide speciation), (2) a rigorous follow-up of reaction products (both solution chemistry and spectroscopic methods), and (3) the consideration of slow kinetics in the setting up of an experiment. These requirements make the study and assessment of redox processes one of the most demanding scientific challenges for geochemists who are asked to make predictions for radionuclide transport behaviour in the environment.

  • 253. Buccolieri, R.
    et al.
    Sandberg, Mats G.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Di Sabatino, S.
    An application of ventilation efficiency concepts to the analysis of building density effects on urban flow and pollutant concentration2011In: International Journal of Environment and Pollution, ISSN 0957-4352, Vol. 47, no 1-4, p. 248-256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is devoted to the study of flow and pollutant dispersion within different urban configurations by means of wind tunnel experiments and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. The influence of the building packing density was evaluated in terms of ventilation efficiency. We found that air entering the array through the lateral sides and that leaving through the street roofs increased and the lateral spread of the pollutant released from a ground level line source decreased with increasing packing density. Ventilation efficiency concepts developed for indoor environments appear a promising tool for evaluating the urban air quality as well.

  • 254.
    Buhrgard, Andreas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Thunell, Rasmus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Banan och bomullsgräs som vattenrenare: Undersökning av förmågan att adsorbera koppar och nickel2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project has investigated the capability of banana (Musa paradisiaca) and cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) to adsorb copper and nickel, and the concurrence between these two metals. The overall purpose was to contribute to the possibilities of developing affordable and resource effective technology for metal contaminated water in Uganda. The project included a laboratory study, a literature study regarding the contemporary state of knowledge, and eventually a discussion anchored in theory of sustainable development. The laboratory results showed that in a solution where the concentration of copper ions dominates, banana seems to be a better adsorbent. When the copper ions get concurrence from nickel ions, the cogongrass seems to be a better alternative. A comparison of the state of knowledge, showed that the metal concentration is a stronger driving force than the biomass concentration in the adsorption of copper and nickel. Compared to our study, the state of knowledge differed in one aspect; the capability of banana to adsorb nickel and copper in a binary solution. Our study showed that copper was adsorbed to the largest extent, the state of knowledge the contrary. Based on theory of sustainable development the project has been identified as being closer related to further research with an environmental focus, rather than actual implementation in society. This is because the formation, construction and usage of purification technology are all associated with more complex systems; they are not limited to the main technology of our study, namely purification by adsorption.

  • 255. Bulbul, A.
    et al.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Huq, S.M.I.
    Gunaratna, K.R.
    Arsenic uptake by fresh water green alga, Chlamydomonas2008In: Groundwater for Sustainable Development: Problems, Perspectives and Challenges / [ed] Bhattacharya, P., Ramanathan, AL., Mukherjee A.B., Bundschuh, J., Chandrasekharam, D. Keshari, A.K., The Netherlands: Taylor and Francis/A. A. Balkema , 2008, p. 389-396Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 256.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
    Bhattacharya, ProsunKTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.Chandrashekharam, D.
    Natural Arsenic in Groundwater: Occurrence, Remediation and Management2005Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 257.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Bhattacharya, ProsunKTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.Chandrashekharam, DornadulaIndian Institute of Technology-Bombay, Mumbai-400076, India.
    Natural Arsenic in Groundwater: Occurrences, Remediation and Management: Proceedings of the Pre-Congress Workshop "Natural Arsenic in Groundwater", 32nd International Geological Congress, Florence, Italy, 18-19 August 20042005Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwater is an important resource that serves as a backbone of human development. In several regions -mostly in developing countries- groundwater from sedimentary and hard rock aquifers used for drinking are naturally contaminated with arsenic. In different countries in Asia such as eastern India, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, Nepal, Pakistan, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam, the situation of arsenic toxicity is alarming and severe health problems are reported amongst the inhabitants relying on groundwater as sources of water for drinking purposes. Arsenic occurrences in groundwater in Bengal Delta Plain of West Bengal, India and Bangladesh is one of the largest environmental health disaster of the present century, where at least 50 million people is at risk of cancer and other arsenic related diseases due to the consumption of high arsenic groundwater. In these same countries, land and agricultural sustainability is threatened by the use of arsenic contaminated irrigation water. In several Middle- and South-American countries, for example in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Mexico, high arsenic is reported in natural waters. In Argentina, at least 1.2 million people are affected. Elevated levels of natural arsenic in groundwater due to geogenic sources, is therefore an issue of primary environmental concern, which limits the use of these resources for drinking or other purposes, and hinders the economic and social development. Hence there is need to improve our understanding on the genesis of high arsenic groundwaters from the various aquifers in order to develop strategies of e to improve the socio-economic status of the affected regions.

  • 258.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Nath, B.
    Naidu, R.
    Ng, J.
    Guilherme, L. R. G.
    Ma, L. Q.
    Kim, K. -W
    Jean, J. -S
    Arsenic ecotoxicology: The interface between geosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere2013In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 262, p. 883-886Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 259.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Sracek, Ondra
    Fernanda Mellano, M.
    Ramirez, Antonio E.
    Storniolo, Angel del R.
    Martin, Raul A.
    Cortes, Julia
    Litter, Marta I.
    Jean, Jiin-Shuh
    Arsenic removal from groundwater of the Chaco-Pampean Plain (Argentina) using natural geological materials as adsorbents2011In: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A: Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering, ISSN 1093-4529, E-ISSN 1532-4117, Vol. 46, no 11, p. 1297-1310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Use of natural geological materials for arsenic (As) removal is an emerging solution at a household level for poor people in remote rural settlements, especially when the materials are locally available and can be collected by the local population. Their low or zero cost makes these materials very attractive compared with synthetic or commercial materials. Sometimes, this may be the only option to provide safe water to very poor settlements. Their suitability for As removal from water is mainly due to adsorption, co-precipitation and ion exchange processes involving Fe- and Al-rich minerals and clay minerals present in the soils or sediments. In the present study, various clay-rich soils from the Santiago del Estero province (SDE, NW Argentina) and, for comparison, a laterite from the Misiones province have been tested as adsorbents for As in shallow naturally contaminated groundwaters of the Rio Dulce alluvial aquifer in SDE. Batch adsorption experiments showed higher As(V) removal for the Misiones laterite sample (99 %) as compared with the soils from SDE (40-53 %), which can be related to lower contents of water-soluble and oxalate extractable Al and Fe in the last samples. These results suggest the application of the Misiones laterite soil as an alternative for As removal. However, high transportation costs from Misiones to SDE can be an economical restriction for the low-income population of SDE.

  • 260.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    von Brömssen, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Jakariya, Md
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Thunvik, Roger
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Litter, M.I.
    Garcia, M.E.
    Arsenic-safe aquifers as a socially acceptable source of safe drinking water: What can rural Latin America learn from Bangladesh experiences?2009In: Natural Arsenic in Groundwater of Latin America: Occurrence, health impact and remediation, The Netherlands: CRC Press/Balkema , 2009, p. 677-685Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 261.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630). Karlsruhe University of Applied Sciences, Karlsruhe, Germany .
    Litter, M. I.
    Nicolli, H. B.
    Hoinkis, J.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
    Identifying occurrences of groundwater arsenic in Latin America: A continent-wide problem and challenge2010In: Arsenic in Geosphere and Human Diseases, As 2010 - 3rd International Congress: Arsenic in the Environment, 2010, p. 512-516Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 262.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Litter, Marta I.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Arsenic in Latin America, an unrevealed continent: Occurrence, health effects and mitigation2012In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 429, p. 1-1Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 263.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Litter, Marta I.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Targeting arsenic-safe aquifers for drinking water supplies2010In: Environmental Geochemistry and Health, ISSN 0269-4042, E-ISSN 1573-2983, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 307-315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At present, 70 countries worldwide are affected by groundwater contamination by arsenic (As) released from predominantly geogenic sources. Consequently, the As problem is becoming a global issue. The option to target As-safe aquifers, which uses geological, geochemical, hydrogeological, morphological and climatic similarities to delimit As-safe aquifers, appears as a sustainable mitigation option. Two pilot areas, Meghna Flood Plain in Matlab Upazila, representative of Bengal Delta in Bangladesh, and Rio Dulce Alluvial Cone, representing a typical aquifer setting in the Chaco-Pampean Plain in Argentina groundwater As occurrence, were compared. In rural Bangladesh, As removal techniques have been provided to the population, but with low social acceptance. In contrast, "targeting As-safe aquifers" was socially accepted in Bangladesh, where sediment color could be used to identify As-safe aquifer zones and to install safe wells. The investigation in Argentina is more complex because of very different conditions and sources of As. Targeting As-safe aquifers could be a sustainable option for many rural areas and isolated peri-urban areas.

  • 264.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Litter, Marta I.
    Parvez, Faruque
    Roman-Ross, Gabriela
    Nicolli, Hugo B.
    Jean, Jiin-Shuh
    Liu, Chen-Wuing
    Lopez, Dina
    Armienta, Maria A.
    Guilherme, Luiz R. G.
    Gomez Cuevas, Alina
    Cornejo, Lorena
    Cumbal, Luis
    Toujaguez, Regla
    One century of arsenic exposure in Latin America: A review of history and occurrence from 14 countries2012In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 429, p. 2-35Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The global impact on public health of elevated arsenic (As) in water supplies is highlighted by an increasing number of countries worldwide reporting high As concentrations in drinking water. In Latin America, the problem of As contamination in water is known in 14 out of 20 countries: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Peru and Uruguay. Considering the 1 0 mu g/L limit for As in drinking water established by international and several national agencies, the number of exposed people is estimated to be about 14 million. Health effects of As exposure were identified for the first time already in the 1910s in Bellville (Cordoba province, Argentina). Nevertheless, contamination of As in waters has been detected in 10 Latin American countries only within the last 10 to 15 years. Arsenic is mobilized predominantly from young volcanic rocks and their weathering products. In alluvial aquifers, which are water sources frequently used for water supply, desorption of As from metal oxyhydroxides at high pH (>8) is the predominant mobility control; redox conditions are moderate reducing to oxidizing and As(V) is the predominant species. In the Andes, the Middle American cordillera and the Transmexican Volcanic Belt, oxidation of sulfide minerals is the primary As mobilization process. Rivers that originate in the Andean mountains, transport As to more densely populated areas in the lowlands (e.g. Rimac river in Peru, Pilcomayo river in Bolivia/Argentina/Paraguay). In many parts of Latin America, As often occurs together with F and B; in the Chaco-Pampean plain As is found additionally with V. Mo and U whereas in areas with sulfide ore deposits As often occurs together with heavy metals. These co-occurrences and the anthropogenic activities in mining areas that enhance the mobilization of As and other pollutants make more dramatic the environmental problem.

  • 265.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Maity, J. P.
    Nath, B.
    Baba, A.
    Gunduz, O.
    Kulp, T. R.
    Jean, J. -S
    Kar, S.
    Yang, H. -J
    Tseng, Y. -J
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Chen, C. -Y
    Naturally occurring arsenic in terrestrial geothermal systems of western Anatolia, Turkey: Potential role in contamination of freshwater resources2013In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 262, p. 951-959Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Arsenic (As) contamination in terrestrial geothermal systems has been identified in many countries worldwide. Concentrations higher than 0.01mg/L are detrimental to human health. We examined potential consequences for As contamination of freshwater resources based on hydrogeochemical investigations of geothermal waters in deep wells and hot springs collected from western Anatolia, Turkey. We analyzed samples for major ions and trace element concentrations. Temperature of geothermal waters in deep wells showed extreme ranges (40 and 230°C), while, temperature of hot spring fluids was up to 90°C. The Piper plot illustrated two dominant water types: Na-HCO3 - type for geothermal waters in deep wells and Ca-HCO3 - type for hot spring fluids. Arsenic concentration ranged from 0.03 to 1.5mg/L. Dominance of reduced As species, i.e., As(III), was observed in our samples. The Eh value ranged between -250 and 119mV, which suggests diverse geochemical conditions. Some of the measured trace elements were found above the World Health Organization guidelines and Turkish national safe drinking water limits. The variation in pH (range: 6.4-9.3) and As in geothermal waters suggest mixing with groundwater. Mixing of geothermal waters is primarily responsible for contamination of freshwater resources and making them unsuitable for drinking or irrigation.

  • 266. Bundschuh, Jochen
    et al.
    Maity, Jyoti Prakash
    Mushtaq, Shahbaz
    Vithanage, Meththika
    Seneweera, Saman
    Schneider, Jerusa
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering.
    Khan, Nasreen Islam
    Hamawand, Ihsan
    Guilherme, Luiz R. G.
    Reardon-Smith, Kathryn
    Parvez, Faruque
    Morales-Simfors, Nury
    Ghaze, Sara
    Pudmenzky, Christa
    Kouadio, Louis
    Chen, Chien-Yen
    Medical geology in the framework of the sustainable development goals2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 581, p. 87-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposure to geogenic contaminants (GCs) such as metal(loid)s, radioactive metals and isotopes as well as transuraniums occurring naturally in geogenic sources (rocks, minerals) can negatively impact on environmental and human health. The GCs are released into the environment by natural biogeochemical processes within the near-surface environments and/or by anthropogenic activities such as mining and hydrocarbon exploitation as well as exploitation of geothermal resources. They can contaminate soil, water, air and biota and subsequently enter the food chain with often serious health impacts which are mostly underestimated and poorly recognized. Global population explosion and economic growth and the associated increase in demand for water, energy, food, and mineral resources result in accelerated release of GCs globally. The emerging science of "medical geology" assesses the complex relationships between geo-environmental factors and their impacts on humans and environments and is related to the majority of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals in the 2030 Agenda of the United Nations for Sustainable Development. In this paper, we identify multiple lines of evidence for the role of GCs in the incidence of diseases with as yet unknown etiology (causation). Integrated medical geology promises a more holistic understanding of the occurrence, mobility, bioavailability, bio-accessibility, exposure and transfer mechanisms of GCs to the food-chain and humans, and the related ecotoxicological impacts and health effects. Scientific evidence based on this approach will support adaptive solutions for prevention, preparedness and response regarding human and environmental health impacts originating from exposure to GCs.

  • 267.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Nath, Bibhash
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Liu, Chen-Wuing
    Aurora Armienta, Maria
    Moreno Lopez, Myriam V.
    Lopez, Dina L.
    Jean, Jiin-Shuh
    Cornejo, Lorena
    Lauer Macedo, Luciene Fagundes
    Tenuta Filho, Alfredo
    Arsenic in the human food chain: the Latin American perspective2012In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 429, p. 92-106Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many regions of Latin America are widely reported for the occurrence of high arsenic (As) in groundwater and surface water due to a combination of geological processes and/or anthropogenic activities. In this paper, we review the available literature (both in English and Spanish languages) to delineate human As exposure pathways through the food chain. Numerous studies show that As accumulations in edible plants and crops are mainly associated with the presence of high As in soils and irrigation waters. However, factors such as As speciation, type and composition of soil, and plant species have a major control on the amount of As uptake. Areas of high As concentrations in surface water and groundwater show high As accumulations in plants, fish/shellfish, livestock meat, milk and cheese. Such elevated As concentrations in food may result in widespread health risks to local inhabitants, including health of indigenous populations and residents living close to mining industries. Some studies show that As can be transferred from the water to prepared meals, thereby magnifying the As content in the human diet. Arsenic speciation might also change during food preparation, especially during high temperature cooking, such as grilling and frying. Finally, the review of the available literature demonstrates the necessity of more rigorous studies in evaluating pathways of As exposure through the human food chain in Latin America.

  • 268.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Sracek, O.
    Hydrogeochemistry principles for geochemical modeling2011In: Geochemical Modeling of Groundwater, Vadose and Geothermal Systems, CRC Press , 2011, p. 3-26Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A wide diversity of physical and chemical processes control the distribution of species in waters in the vadose zone above the water table, and in the saturated zone below. The mineralogical composition of rocks or sediments, chemical reactions between solid, aqueous and gas phases, and oxidation/reduction (redox) processes are principal factors that influence the chemical composition of vadose-zone, ground-and surface waters, and the concentrations and mobilities of individual species. 

  • 269.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Zilberbrand, Michael
    Editors’ preface2011In: Geochemical Modeling of Groundwater, Vadose and Geothermal Systems, p. xxi-xxiiiArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 270. Burkhard, Benjamin
    et al.
    Maes, Joachim
    Potschin-Young, Marion
    Santos-Martín, Fernando
    Geneletti, Davide
    Stoev, Pavel
    Kopperoinen, Leena
    Adamescu, Cristian
    Adem Esmail, Blal
    Arany, Ildikó
    Arnell, Andy
    Balzan, Mario
    Barton, David N.
    van Beukering, Pieter
    Bicking, Sabine
    Borges, Paulo
    Borisova, Bilyana
    Braat, Leon
    M Brander, Luke
    Bratanova-Doncheva, Svetla
    Broekx, Steven
    Brown, Claire
    Cazacu, Constantin
    Crossman, Neville
    Czúcz, Bálint
    Dan\vek, Jan
    de Groot, Rudolf
    Depellegrin, Daniel
    Dimopoulos, Panayotis
    Elvinger, Nora
    Erhard, Markus
    Fagerholm, Nora
    Frélichová, Jana
    Grêt-Regamey, Adrienne
    Grudova, Margarita
    Haines-Young, Roy
    Inghe, Ola
    Kallay, Tamas
    Kirin, Tamara
    Klug, Hermann
    Kokkoris, Ioannis
    Konovska, Iskra
    Kruse, Marion
    Kuzmova, Iliyana
    Lange, Manfred
    Liekens, Inge
    Lotan, Alon
    Lowicki, Damian
    Luque, Sandra
    Marta-Pedroso, Cristina
    Mizgajski, Andrzej
    Mononen, Laura
    Mulder, Sara
    Müller, Felix
    Nedkov, Stoyan
    Nikolova, Mariana
    Östergård, Hannah
    Penev, Lyubomir
    Pereira, Paulo
    Pitkänen, Kati
    Plieninger, Tobias
    Rabe, Sven-Erik
    Reichel, Steffen
    Roche, Philip
    Rusch, Graciela
    Ruskule, Anda
    Sapundzhieva, Anna
    Sepp, Kalev
    Sieber, Ina
    Šmid Hribar, Mateja
    Stašová, Simona
    Steinhoff-Knopp, Bastian
    St\cepniewska, Ma\lgorzata
    Teller, Anne
    Vackar, David
    van Weelden, Martine
    Veidemane, Kristina
    Vejre, Henrik
    Vihervaara, Petteri
    Viinikka, Arto
    Villoslada, Miguel
    Weibel, Bettina
    Zulian, Grazia
    Mapping and assessing ecosystem services in the EU - Lessons learned from the ESMERALDA approach of integration2018In: One Ecosystem, ISSN 2367-8194, Vol. 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Union (EU) Horizon 2020 Coordination and Support Action ESMERALDA aimed at developing guidance and a flexible methodology for Mapping and Assessment of Ecosystems and their Services (MAES) to support the EU member states in the implementation of the EU Biodiversity Strategy’s Target 2 Action 5. ESMERALDA’s key tasks included network creation, stakeholder engagement, enhancing ecosystem services mapping and assessment methods across various spatial scales and value domains, work in case studies and support of EU member states in MAES implementation. Thus ESMERALDA aimed at integrating various project outcomes around four major strands: i) Networking, ii) Policy, iii) Research and iv) Application. The objective was to provide guidance for integrated ecosystem service mapping and assessment that can be used for sustainable decision-making in policy, business, society, practice and science at EU, national and regional levels. This article presents the overall ESMERALDA approach of integrating the above-mentioned project components and outcomes and provides an overview of how the enhanced methods were applied and how they can be used to support MAES implementation in the EU member states. Experiences with implementing such a large pan-European Coordination and Support Action in the context of EU policy are discussed and recommendations for future actions are given.

  • 271. Burman, Jan
    et al.
    Jonsson, Lage
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Issues when linking computational fluid dynamics for urban modeling to toxic load models: The need for further research2015In: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 104, p. 112-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to predict casualties caused by chemical hazards in densely populated areas, state-of-the-art Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) techniques could be utilized together with toxic load models. In the current study, simulations of consequences of hypothetical releases of toxic gas in a city center are presented and discussed. CFD models that reproduce flow statistics would be most appropriate for this purpose since it could be expected that they will more realistically represent the environment. However, since concentration-peaks in the ever-present spatiotemporal fluctuations of airborne chemicals contribute so much to the toxic load, it is shown that straight-forward direct linking of a CFD model to a toxic load model is not a suitable approach for predicting consequences of a toxic release. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the use of different turbulence models leads to different casualty assessments. Obviously, there is an urgent need to establish widely accepted methods, ideally with known uncertainty measures. Thus, further research in this area is of great importance.

  • 272.
    Butt, Ali Azhar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Life Cycle Assessment of Asphalt Pavements including the Feedstock Energy and Asphalt Additives2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Roads are assets to the society and an integral component in the development of a nation’s infrastructure. To build and maintain roads; considerable amounts of materials are required which consume quite an amount of electrical and thermal energy for production, processing and laying. The resources (materials and the sources of energy) should be utilized efficiently to avoid wastes and higher costs in terms of the currency and the environment.

    In order to enable quantification of the potential environmental impacts due to the construction, maintenance and disposal of roads, an open life cycle assessment (LCA) framework for asphalt pavements was developed. Emphasis was given on the calculation and allocation of energy used for the binder and the additives. Asphalt mixtures properties can be enhanced against rutting and cracking by modifying the binder with additives. Even though the immediate benefits of using additives such as polymers and waxes to modify the binder properties are rather well documented, the effects of such modification over the lifetime of a road are seldom considered. A method for calculating energy allocation in additives was suggested. The different choices regarding both the framework design and the case specific system boundaries were done in cooperation with the asphalt industry and the construction companies in order to increase the relevance and the quality of the assessment.

    Case-studies were performed to demonstrate the use of the LCA framework. The suggested LCA framework was demonstrated in a limited case study (A) of a typical Swedish asphalt pavement. Sensitivity analyses were also done to show the effect and the importance of the transport distances and the use of efficiently produced electricity mix. It was concluded that the asphalt production and materials transportation were the two most energy consuming processes that also emit the most GreenHouse Gases (GHG’s). The GHG’s, however, are largely depending on the fuel type and the electricity mix. It was also concluded that when progressing from LCA to its corresponding life cycle cost (LCC) the feedstock energy of the binder becomes highly relevant as the cost of the binder will be reflected in its alternative value as fuel. LCA studies can help to develop the long term perspective, linking performance to minimizing the overall energy consumption, use of resources and emissions. To demonstrate this, the newly developed open LCA framework was used for an unmodified and polymer modified asphalt pavement (Case study B). It was shown how polymer modification for improved performance affects the energy consumption and emissions during the life cycle of a road. From the case study (C) it was concluded that using bitumen with self-healing capacity can lead to a significant reduction in the GHG emissions and the energy usage.  Furthermore, it was concluded that better understanding of the binder would lead to better optimized pavement design and thereby to reduced energy consumption and emissions. Production energy limits for the wax and polymer were determined which can assist the additives manufacturers to modify their production procedures and help road authorities in setting ‘green’ limits to get a real benefit from the additives over the lifetime of a road.

  • 273.
    Butt, Ali Azhar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Birgisson, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Kringos, Nicole
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Considering the benefits of asphalt modification using a new technical LCA framework2016In: Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, ISSN 1392-3730, E-ISSN 1822-3605, Vol. 22, no 5, p. 597-607Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Asphalt mixtures properties can be enhanced by modifying it with additives. Even though the immediatebenefits of using polymers and waxes to modify the binder properties are rather well documented, the effects of suchmodification over the lifetime of a road are seldom considered. To investigate this, a newly developed open technical lifecycle assessment (LCA) framework was used to determine production energy and emission limits for the asphaltadditives. The LCA framework is coupled to a calibrated mechanics based computational framework that predicts the intimepavement performance. Limits for production energy of wax and polymers were determined for the hypotheticalcase studies to show how LCA tools can assist the additives manufacturers to modify their production procedures andhelp road authorities in setting ‘green’ limits to get a real benefit from the additives over the lifetime of a road. From thedetailed case-studies, it was concluded that better understanding of materials will lead to enhanced pavement design andcould help in the overall reduction of energy usage and emissions.

  • 274.
    Butt, Ali Azhar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Birgisson, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Kringos, Nicole
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Optimizing the Highway Lifetime by Improving the Self Healing Capacity of Asphalt2012In: Transport Research Arena 2012, 2012, Vol. 48, p. 2190-2200Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is of imminent urgency to optimize the lifetime of asphalt binders from the remaining available crude sources. This paper presents a recently developed model in which the self-healing capacity of bitumen is based on fundamental chemo-mechanical parameters. The implications of the enhanced bitumen healing rates are investigated by utilizing a newly developed Open Life Cycle Assessment framework. From the case study it was concluded that using bitumen with self-healing capacity can lead to a significant reduction in Greenhouse Gas emission and energy usage. Additionally, the importance of knowing the fuels and emission of bitumen modifiers on the highway sustainability was demonstrated.

  • 275.
    Butt, Ali Azhar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Jelagin, Denis
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Birgisson, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Kringos, Nicole
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Using Life Cycle Assessment to Optimize Pavement Crack-Mitigation2012In: Scarpas et al. (Eds.), 7th RILEM International Conference on Cracking in Pavements: Vol. 1, Delft, The Netherlands, 2012, p. 299-306Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cracking is very common in areas having large variations in the daily temperatures and can cause large discomfort to the users. To improve the binder properties against cracking and rutting, researchers have studied for many years the behaviour of different binder additives such as polymers. It is quite complex, however, to decide on the benefits of a more expensive solution without looking at the long term performance. Life cycle assessment (LCA) studies can help to develop this long term perspective, linking performance to minimizing the overall energy consumption, use of resources and emissions. To demonstrate this, LCA of an unmodified and polymer modified asphalt pavement using a newly developed open LCA framework has been performed. It is shown how polymer modification for improved performance affects the energy consumption and emissions during the life cycle of a road. Furthermore, it is concluded that better understanding of the binder would lead to better optimized pavement design, hence reducing the energy consumption and emissions. A limit in terms of energy and emissions for the production of the polymer was also found which could help the polymer producers to improve their manufacturing processes, making them efficient enough to be beneficial from a pavement life cycle point of view.

  • 276.
    Byström, Gustaf
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    GIS-baserade metoder för hållbar planering av vindkraft - Grön infrastruktur2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 277.
    Byström, Gustaf
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    GIS-metoder för hållbar planering av vindkraft2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 278.
    Byström, Gustaf
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Johansson, Maya
    Stockholms Universitet.
    GIS-based methods for sustainable wind power planning2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research motivation

    Renewable energy has great importance in the work to counteract the global climate changes. The Swedish government has seta target that in 2020, 50% of the energy use shall come from renewable energy, and the government has also declared a longterm commitment for Sweden to be independent of fossil fuels. To reach these targets wind power is expected to play a greatpart, and approximately 50 TWh of new wind power is needed to meet this objective, compared to the current annual production of approximately 16 TWh. However, climate change is not the only issue at hand, and there is a risk of conflicts between meetingthe targets for renewable energy and other sustainability objectives, e.g. concerning ecosystem services, such as habitatsupporting biodiversity, recreation and cultural landscapes. Hence to steer towards a sustainable planning of wind power, targets and objectives as well as decision support has to be dealt with systematically, encompassing social, economic, technical and ecological perspectives.

    Objective

    The objective of the project is to develop GIS-based methods that can be used as planning support in sustainable planning of wind power, in cooperation with regional and municipal actors. The method will function as decision support, which will helpplanners and decision makers at local and regional level to systematically handle the different aspects related to wind power localisation.

    Methodology

    The project is performed in collaboration with the County Administrative Board of Västernorrland County, which is the study areafor the project. Initially, a literature study is performed to gain knowledge about earlier research in the field and identify importantfactors to include in the methodology. Workshops are held with the included actors, to gain further understanding of what information is relevant when planning for wind power, and to gain local knowledge about the study area; what issues are at hand,and what factors govern wind power planning in the particular area. During the workshops different scenarios related to theplanning process are also developed. The method will include the development of a number of GIS-models to be used in a multicriteria analysis that can be used for design and evaluation of the different planning scenarios.

    Preliminary results

    The literature study as well as the workshops reveals that the location of wind turbines often can have impact on, and render conflict between, different interests and objectives. Factors of high concern when planning for locating wind turbines in the County of Västernorrland are, besides wind speed and technical considerations; noise impact, visual impact, and impact on certain bird species, reindeer hearding and recreation. In order to handle these factors, multi-criteria decision analysis within a GIS environment can support planning in the face of complex problems, with capabilities to handle multiple and often conflicting objectives, and to find sustainable solutions to decision-making problems.

    Management implications

    The project will result in a General GIS-based Planning Support (GPS) methodology to integrate important sustainability issuesin wind power planning, which can be applied generally in future spatial planning. The project will contribute to a morepredictable planning process, where disparate sustainability targets will be handled in an integrated and systematic way, therebyincreasing the possibility of reaching the targets.

  • 279.
    Byström, Gustaf
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Wretling, Vincent
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Johansson, Maya
    Stockholms Universitet.
    GIS-based methods for sustainable wind power planning2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 280.
    Byström, Gustaf
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Wretling, Vincent
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Johansson, Maya
    Stockholms Universitet.
    GIS-based methods for sustainable wind power planning2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 281. Bäckstrom, M.
    et al.
    Karlsson, S.
    Bäckman, L.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Lind, B.
    Mobilisation of heavy metals by deicing salts in a roadside environment2004In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 720-732Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The seasonal variations of some selected heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) and principal anions in soil solutions were monitored as a function of distance from the road at two field sites in Sweden. During the winter, the conductivity, concentrations of dissolved sodium and chloride increased dramatically due to the application of deicing agents (i.e. NaCl). Due to ion exchange, the pH decreased one unit in the soil solutions, whereas the concentrations of total organic carbon decreased due to coagulation and/or sorption to stationary solids. The heavy metal concentrations increased during the winter, but through different mechanisms. Cadmium concentrations in the aqueous phase increased as a response to ion exchange, possibly also enhanced by the formation of chloride complexes. Similarly, the concentrations of zinc increased, due to ion exchange, with calcium and protons. The mechanisms of mobilisation for copper and lead were not that clear probably due to association with coagulated or sorbed organic matter in combination with colloid dispersion.

  • 282. Bäckström, A.
    et al.
    Antikainen, Janne
    Backers, Tobias
    Feng, X.
    Jing, Lanru
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Engineering Geology and Geophysics.
    Kobayashi, A.
    Koyama, Tomofumi
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Engineering Geology and Geophysics.
    Pan, P.
    Rinne, M.
    Shen, B.
    Hudson, J.A.
    Numerical modelling of unaxial compressive failure of granite with and without saline porewater2008In: International Journal of Rock Mechanics And Mining Sciences, ISSN 1365-1609, E-ISSN 1873-4545, Vol. 45, no 7, p. 1126-1142Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 283.
    Bärlund, Johnny
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geodesy and Satellite Positioning.
    Numerical Investigation on Spherical Harmonic Synthesis and Analysis2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis work the accuracy of the spherical harmonic synthesis and analysis are investigated, by simulated numerical studies.The main idea is to investigate the loss of accuracy, in the geopotential coeffcients, by the following testing method. We start with a synthesis calculation, using the coefficients(EGM2008), to calculate geoid heights on a regular grid. Those geoid heights are then used in an analysis calculation to obtain a new set of coeffcients, which are in turn used to derive a new set of geoid heights. The difference between those two sets of geoid heights will be analyzed to assess the accuracy of the synthesis and analysis calculations.The tests will be conducted with both point-values and area-means in the blocks in the grid. The area-means are constructed in some different ways and will also be compared to the mean value from 10000 point values as separate tests. Numerical results from this investigation show there are signifi…cant systematic errors in the geoid heights computed by spherical harmonic synthesis and analysis, sometimes reaching as high as several meters. Those big errors are most common at the polar regions and at the mid-latitude regions.

  • 284. Caceres Choque, Luis Fernando
    et al.
    Ramos Ramos, Oswaldo E.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Valdez Castro, Sulema N.
    Choque Aspiazu, Rigoberto R.
    Choque Mamani, Rocio G.
    Fernandez Alcazar, Samuel G.
    Sracek, Ondra
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Fractionation of heavy metals and assessment of contamination of the sediments of Lake Titicaca2013In: Environmental Monitoring & Assessment, ISSN 0167-6369, E-ISSN 1573-2959, Vol. 185, no 12, p. 9979-9994Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical weathering is one of the major geochemical processes that control the mobilization of heavy metals. The present study provides the first report on heavy metal fractionation in sediments (8-156 m) of Lake Titicaca (3,820 m a.s.l.), which is shared by the Republic of Peru and the Plurinational State of Bolivia. Both contents of total Cu, Fe, Ni, Co, Mn, Cd, Pb, and Zn and also the fractionation of these heavy metals associated with four different fractions have been determined following the BCR scheme. The principal component analysis suggests that Co, Ni, and Cd can be attributed to natural sources related to the mineralized geological formations. Moreover, the sources of Cu, Fe, and Mn are effluents and wastes generated from mining activities, while Pb and Zn also suggest that their common source is associated to mining activities. According to the Risk Assessment Code, there is a moderate to high risk related to Zn, Pb, Cd, Mn, Co, and Ni mobilization and/or remobilization from the bottom sediment to the water column. Furthermore, the Geoaccumulation Index and the Enrichment Factor reveal that Zn, Pb, and Cd are enriched in the sediments. The results suggest that the effluents from various traditional mining waste sites in both countries are the main source of heavy metal contamination in the sediments of Lake Titicaca.

  • 285.
    Cai, Zhichang
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Song, Xingqiang
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Wennersten, Ronald
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Sustainable Development in China: Challenges for Research and Education2009In: In Transitions toward Sustainability, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 286.
    Cai, Zhichang
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Wennersten, Ronald
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Integrated sustainability analysis on green building development in China: case study of three green practices2009In: SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND PLANNING IV, VOLS 1 AND 2 / [ed] Brebbia, CA; Neophytou, M; Beriatos, E; Ioannou, I; Kungolos, AG, SOUTHAMPTON: WIT PRESS , 2009, p. 679-689Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    China has adopted Sustainable Development as an inequitable strategy for the whole country in all industries. In the civil construction sector, sustainability in China is regarded as the development of Green Building. Due to the promotion by Chinese government, more and more buildings are emerging in China under the name of "Green". This paper offers a general overview of the current green trend in China and presents a specific analysis on three cases to search for the proper approach for China's unique situation. The green practices are categorizes into three types: Modem Vernacular Architecture, Eco-offices and Mass-housing, according to their features in scale, location and function. Three specific cases were selected and the analysis of the different types was made. The analysis of the three projects is made from the perspectives of technology, economy, environmental impact, and social aspects, respectively. Finally, the paper argues that an adaptive and holistic approach should be found for the development of Green Building in China

  • 287.
    Cai, Zipan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geoinformatics.
    Multitemporal Satellite Data for Monitoring Urbanization in Nanjing from 2001 to 20162017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Along with the increasing rate of urbanization takes place in the world, the population keeps shifting from rural to urban areas. China, as the country of the largest population, has the highest urban population growth in Asia, as well as the world. However, the urbanization in China, in turn, is leading to a lot of social issues which reshape the living environment and cultural fabric. A variety of these kinds of social issues emphasize the challenges regarding a healthy and sustainable urban growth particularly in the reasonable planning of urban land use and land cover features. Therefore, it is significant to establish a set of comprehensive urban sustainable development strategies to avoid detours in the urbanization process.

    Nowadays, faced with such as a series of the social phenomenon, the spatial and temporal technological means including Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) can be used to help the city decision maker to make the right choices. The knowledge of land use and land cover changes in the rural and urban area assists in identifying urban growth rate and trend in both qualitative and quantitatively ways, which provides more basis for planning and designing a city in a more scientific and environmentally friendly way. This paper focuses on the urban sprawl analysis in Nanjing, Jiangsu, China that being analyzed by urban growth pattern monitoring during a study period.

    From 2001 to 2016, Nanjing Municipality has experienced a substantial increase in the urban area because of the growing population. In this paper, one optimal supervised classification with high accuracy which is Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier was used to extract thematic features from multitemporal satellite data including Landsat 7 ETM+, Landsat 8, and Sentinel-2A MSI. It was interpreted to identify the existence of urban sprawl pattern based on the land use and land cover features in 2001, 2006, 2011, and 2016. Two different types of change detection analysis including post-classification comparison and change vector analysis (CVA) were performed to explore the detailed extent information of urban growth within the study region. A comparison study on these two change detection analysis methods was carried out by accuracy assessment. Based on the exploration of the change detection analysis combined with the current urban development actuality, some constructive recommendations and future research directions were given at last.

    By implementing the proposed methods, the urban land use and land cover changes were successfully captured. The results show there is a notable change in the urban or built-up land feature. Also, the urban area is increased by 610.98 km2 while the agricultural land area is decreased by 766.96 km2, which proved a land conversion among these land cover features in the study period. The urban area keeps growing in each particular study period while the growth rate value has a decreasing trend in the period of 2001 to 2016. Besides, both change detection techniques obtained the similar result of the distribution of urban expansion in the study area. According to the result images from two change detection methods, the expanded urban or built-up land in Nanjing distributes mainly in the surrounding area of the central city area, both side of Yangtze River, and Southwest area.

    The results of change detection accuracy assessment indicated the post-classification comparison has a higher overall accuracy 86.11% and a higher Kappa Coefficient 0.72 than CVA. The overall accuracy and Kappa Coefficient for CVA is 75.43% and 0.51 respectively. These results proved the strength of agreement between predicted and truth data is at ‘good’ level for post-classification comparison and ‘moderate’ for CVA. Also, the results further confirmed the expectation from previous studies that the empirical threshold determination of CVA always leads to relatively poor change detection accuracy. In general, the two change detection techniques are found to be effective and efficient in monitoring surface changes in the different class of land cover features within the study period. Nevertheless, they have their advantages and disadvantages on processing change detection analysis particularly for the topic of urban expansion.

  • 288. Callaghan, Terry V.
    et al.
    Bergholm, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Christensen, Torben R.
    Jonasson, Christer
    Kokfelt, Ulla
    Johansson, Margareta
    A new climate era in the sub-Arctic: Accelerating climate changes and multiple impacts2010In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 37, no 14, p. L14705-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate warming in the Swedish sub-Arctic since 2000 has reached a level at which statistical analysis shows for the first time that current warming has exceeded that in the late 1930' s and early 1940' s, and has significantly crossed the 0 degrees C mean annual temperature threshold which causes many cryospheric and ecological impacts. The accelerating temperature increase trend has driven similar trends in the century-long increase in snow thickness, loss of lake ice, increases in active layer thickness, lake water TOC (total organic carbon) concentrations and the assemblages of diatoms, and changes in tree-line location and plant community structure. Some of these impacts were not evident in the first warm period of the 20th Century. Changes in climate are associated with reduced temperature variability, particularly loss of cold winters and cool summers, and an increase in extreme precipitation events that cause mountain slope instability and infrastructure failure. The long term records of multiple, local environmental factors compiled here for the first time provide detailed information for adaptation strategy development while dramatic changes in an environment particularly vulnerable to climate change highlight the need to adopt global mitigation strategies.

  • 289.
    Campagne, Antoine
    et al.
    LEGI, Université Grenoble Alpes.
    Alfredsson, Henrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Chassagne, Rémi
    LEGI, Université Grenoble Alpes.
    Micard, Diane
    LMFA, École Centrale de Lyon.
    Mordant, Nicolas
    LEGI, Université Grenoble Alpes.
    Segalini, Antonio
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Sommeria, Joel
    LEGI, Université Grenoble Alpes.
    Viboud, Samuel
    LEGI, Université Grenoble Alpes.
    Mohanan, Ashwin Vishnu
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Lindborg, Erik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Augier, Pierre
    LEGI, Université Grenoble Alpes.
    First report of the MILESTONE experiment: strongly stratified turbulence and mixing efficiency in the Coriolis platform2016In: VIIIth International Symposium on Stratified Flows (ISSF), 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Strongly stratified turbulence is a possible interpretation of oceanic and atmospheric mea-surements. However, this regime has never been produced in a laboratory experiment be-cause of the two conditions of very small horizontal Froude number Fh and large buoyancy Reynolds number R which require a verily large experimental facility. We present a new attempt to study strongly stratified turbulence experimentally in the Coriolis platform.The flow is forced by a slow periodic movement of an array of six vertical cylinders of 25 cm diameter with a mesh of 75 cm. Five cameras are used for 3D-2C scanned horizontalparticles image velocimetry (PIV) and stereo 2D vertical PIV. Five density-temperatureprobes are used to measure vertical and horizontal profiles and signals at fixed positions.The first preliminary results indicate that we manage to produce strongly stratified tur-bulence at very small Fh and large R in a laboratory experiment.

  • 290.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    Zhang, J.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Geog Sci, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Yao, T.
    Sci Syst & Applicat Inc SSAI, Lanham, MD 20706 USA.;NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Andersson, S.
    Swedish Meteorol & Hydrol Inst, SE-60176 Norrkoping, Sweden..
    Landelius, T.
    Swedish Meteorol & Hydrol Inst, SE-60176 Norrkoping, Sweden..
    Melton, F.
    NASA ARC CREST, Moffett Field, CA 94035 USA.;Calif State Univ Monterey Bay, Sch Nat Sci, Seaside, CA 93955 USA..
    Yan, Jerry
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes. Malardalen Univ, Future Energy Ctr, Sch Business Soc & Engn, SE-72123 Vasteras, Sweden.;KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Chem Engn, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Managing agricultural drought in Sweden using a novel spatially-explicit model from the perspective of water-food-energy nexus2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 197, p. 1382-1393Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a multi-disciplinary approach, this paper integrated spatial analysis with agricultural and energy system modelling to assess the impacts of drought on crop water demand, water availability, crop yield, and electricity requirements for irrigation. This was done by a novel spatially-explicit and integrated water-food-energy nexus model, using the spatial climatic data generated by the mesoscale MESAN and STRANG models. In this study, the model was applied to quantify the effects of drought on the Swedish irrigation sector in 2013, a typical drought year, for a specific crop. The results show that drought can severely affect the crop yield if irrigation is not applied, with a peak yield reduction of 18 t/ha, about 50 % loss as compared to the potential yield in irrigated conditions. Accordingly, the water and energy requirements for irrigation to halt the negative drought effects and maintain high yields are significant, with the peaks up to 350 mm and 700 kWh per hectare. The developed model can be used to provide near real-time guidelines for a comprehensive drought management system. The model also has significant potentials for applications in precision agriculture, especially using high-resolution satellite data.

  • 291. Cao, D.
    et al.
    Fu, H. S.
    Cao, J. B.
    Wang, T. Y.
    Graham, D. B.
    Chen, Z. Z.
    Peng, F. Z.
    Huang, S. Y.
    Khotyaintsev, Y. V.
    Andre, M.
    Russell, C. T.
    Giles, B. L.
    Lindqvist, Per-Arne
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Torbert, R. B.
    Ergun, R. E.
    Le Contel, O.
    Burch, J. L.
    MMS observations of whistler waves in electron diffusion region2017In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 44, no 9, p. 3954-3962Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whistler waves that can produce anomalous resistivity by affecting electrons' motion have been suggested as one of the mechanisms responsible for magnetic reconnection in the electron diffusion region (EDR). Such type of waves, however, has rarely been observed inside the EDR so far. In this study, we report such an observation by Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission. We find large-amplitude whistler waves propagating away from the X line with a very small wave-normal angle. These waves are probably generated by the perpendicular temperature anisotropy of the -300eV electrons inside the EDR, according to our analysis of dispersion relation and cyclotron resonance condition; they significantly affect the electron-scale dynamics of magnetic reconnection and thus support previous simulations.

  • 292. Caragliu, Andrea
    et al.
    Del Bo, Chiara F.
    Kourtit, Karima
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Nijkamp, Peter
    The winner takes it all: forward-looking cities and urban innovation2016In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 56, no 3, p. 617-645Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper offers a new perspective on urban innovation and enters the debate on the contribution of non-material growth-enhancing factors to the socio-economic performance of cities. Because of the often widespread availability of "hard" production factors, most cities increasingly compete for attracting non-material production factors whose role, in light of the more widespread diffusion of physical production factors, may ultimately determine their long-run economic success. Against this background, our paper focuses on a relatively neglected non-material factor, viz. urban risk attitude. In fact, cities offer the competitive and challenging environment where individual characteristics of actors may enjoy their highest returns; risk-loving and innovative individuals may sort in large urban agglomerations. The paper tests whether cities attracting such individuals and, thus, enjoying a more positive and open attitude towards risk, tend to innovate more. The empirical analysis of the paper is based on the most recent (2008/2009) wave of the European Values Study. Micro- data on about 80,000 individuals located in different EU urban areas are used to calculate city-specific attitudes towards risk that go beyond individual characteristics. This city-level risk attitude variable is then used within a knowledge production function approach, as an explanatory variable for urban innovation (patent applications to the European Patent Office) along with more traditional knowledge determinants (human capital and R&D expenditures). Our empirical results show that cities with a more open and positive attitude towards risk ceteris paribus also tend to be more innovative. In addition, we find that, unlike traditional knowledge production factors, this factor faces no decreasing returns. While further research might be beneficial in order to more precisely pinpoint the extent of such effects, our findings appear to be robust and suggest a positive role for the urban attitude towards risky endeavours in explaining urban innovation.

  • 293. Carlsen, H.
    et al.
    Lempert, R.
    Wikman-Svahn, Per
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Schweizer, V.
    Choosing small sets of policy-relevant scenarios by combining vulnerability and diversity approaches2016In: Environmental Modelling & Software, ISSN 1364-8152, E-ISSN 1873-6726, Vol. 84, p. 155-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computer simulation models can generate large numbers of scenarios, far more than can be effectively utilized in most decision support applications. How can one best select a small number of scenarios to consider? One approach calls for choosing scenarios that illuminate vulnerabilities of proposed policies. Another calls for choosing scenarios that span a diverse range of futures. This paper joins these two approaches for the first time, proposing an optimization-based method for choosing a small number of relevant scenarios that combine both vulnerability and diversity. The paper applies the method to a real case involving climate resilient infrastructure for three African river basins (Volta, Orange and Zambezi). Introducing selection criteria in a stepwise manner helps examine how different criteria influence the choice of scenarios. The results suggest that combining vulnerability- and diversity-based criteria can provide a systematic and transparent method for scenario selection.

  • 294. Carlsen, Henrik
    et al.
    Klein, Richard J. T.
    Wikman-Svahn, Per
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Transparent scenario development2017In: Nature Climate Change, ISSN 1758-678X, E-ISSN 1758-6798, Vol. 7, no 9, p. 613-613Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 295.
    Carlsson, Annica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630). Environmental Accounts, Statistics Sweden, Sweden.
    Krook, Joakim
    Eklund, Mats
    Frändegård, Per
    Svensson, Niclas
    Urban mining: hibernating copper stocks in local power grids2011In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 19, no 9-10, p. 1052-1056Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large technical systems serving the everyday needs of people, such as water supply systems, power grids or communication networks, are rich in accumulated metals. Over time, parts of these systems have been taken out of use without the system infrastructure being removed from its original location. Such metal stocks in hibernation thus constitute potential resource reservoirs accessible for recovery. In this paper, obsolete stocks of copper situated in the local power grids of two Swedish cities are quantified. Emphasis is also on economic conditions for extracting such "hibernating" cables. The results show that on a per customer basis, the two power grids contain similar amounts of copper, i.e. 0.04-0.05 tonnes per subscriber. However, the share of the copper stock that is in hibernation differs between the grids. In the larger grid of Gothenburg, almost 20% of the copper accumulated in the grid is no longer in use, while the obsolete share does not exceed 5% in the city of Linkoping. For managers of local power grids, recovery of hibernating cables could be beneficial if integrated with other maintenance work on the grid. At the present price of copper, however, separate recovery of obsolete cables is not economically justified.

  • 296.
    Carlsson, Annica
    et al.
    Environmental Accounts, Statistics Sweden.
    Palm, V.
    Sörne, L.
    Wadeskog, A.
    Material Flows in Sweden 20042008In: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution: Focus, ISSN 1567-7230, Vol. 8, no 5-6, p. 425-432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents and discusses the method and results of account for material flows in Sweden for the year 2004. The results show that it is possible to compile material flow data from existing sources in the Swedish statistical system. By using the European classification system of goods, the Combined Nomenclature, as the basic unit of the data collection, both data collection and aggregation into material flow categories were made possible. Although these data exist in the statistical system, they are not easily available for the scientific community. This is due to several reasons, such as the aggregation of data in the system of statistics not corresponding to the material flow account structure and the fact that data on import and export of materials are organised differently than data for domestic extraction. Almost 50% of the material flows in Sweden are flows of minerals, mainly construction minerals followed by iron ores. Most of the extracted iron ores are exported. In comparison with other European countries this generates a unique situation with Sweden as the only net exporter of iron ores. The flow of biomass in terms of wood is also considerable (26% of the Swedish material flows in 2004). The domestic material consumption (inflow) per capita in 2004 was 8 tonnes minerals, 6 tonnes biomass and almost 3 tonnes of fossil fuels. Of the material flows of fossil fuels petroleum and natural gas dominates with 90%.

  • 297.
    Carstens, Christoffer
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Water Resources Engineering.
    In the Pipe or End of Pipe?: Transport and Dispersion of Water-borne Pollutants and Feasibility of Abatement Measures2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Eutrophication is one of the key environmental problems of today, both in terms of complexity and magnitude. For the Baltic Sea (BS), eutrophication is an acute problem, leading to hypoxic conditions at the bottom; a situation that is sustained and amplified, when phosphorus is released from hypoxic sediments. Reducing nutrient loading is a top political priority but the present situation is believed to require active measures within the catchments and recipients to reduce both loading and adverse effects. Implementation of effective and cost-efficient abatement methods requires understanding of natural processes in watersheds, streams and recipients as well as technological expertise in order to compare the effects of measures of different kinds and locations. This thesis tries to combine process understanding of catchment transport behaviour, especially in coastal zones, and feasibility of certain technologies for reducing nutrient loading and effects of eutrophication in-situ. The over-arching theme is the fate of the individual contaminant, from injection to removal. Transport and dispersion in catchments are investigated, combining physically-based, distributed, numerical groundwater models with Lagrangian stochastic advective reactive solute (LaSAR) transport modelling. The approach is powerful in the sense that it incorporates catchment structural, geomorphological dispersion in the numerical model with hydrodynamic and sub-scale dispersion as well as uncertainty in the LaSAR framework. The study exemplifies the complex nature of transport time distributions in catchments in general and when varying source size and location, importance of dispersion parameters and retention due to molecular diffusion. It is shown that geomorphological control on dispersion is present even for relatively heterogeneous systems and that neither the mean residence time nor a statistical distribution may provide accurate representations of hydrological systems. To combat internal loading of P from sediments in-situ, large-scale aeration of deep waters, halocline ventilation, has been suggested. This study further investigates the feasibility of wave-powered devices to meet the energy demands for such an operation. It is shown that the required amount of oxygen needed to keep the sediments at oxic conditions could be provided, cheaply and efficiently, through the use of wave power.

  • 298.
    Carstens, Christoffer
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. Cty Adm Board Gavleborg, S-80266 Gavle, Sweden..
    Sonnek, Karin Mossberg
    Swedish Def Res Agcy, Def Anal, S-16490 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Raty, Riitta
    Swedish Def Res Agcy, Def Anal, S-16490 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wikman-Svahn, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History.
    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Metzger, Jonathan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Insights from Testing a Modified Dynamic Adaptive Policy Pathways Approach for Spatial Planning at the Municipal Level2019In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 2, article id 433Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Dynamic Adaptive Policy Pathways (DAPP) approach has successfully been used to manage uncertainties in large infrastructure projects. However, the viability of the DAPP approach for spatial planning in smaller municipal settings is not clear. This paper examines opportunities and constraints of using adaptive pathways approaches to help small municipalities plan for future sea-level rise. The methodology was based on developing a simplified DAPP-approach, which was tested in a multiple experimental case study of spatial planning projects in three municipalities in Sweden. The results show that the approach promoted vulnerability-based thinking among the end-users and generated new ideas on how to manage the uncertain long-term impacts of future sea-level rise. However, the increased understanding of uncertainties was used to justify static, rather than adaptive, solutions. This somewhat surprising outcome can be explained by perceived legal constraints, lack of experience of adaptive pathways, and unwillingness to prescribe actions that could prove difficult to enforce in the future. More research is needed to further understand at what planning phases dynamic policy pathway approaches work best and how current barriers in legislation, practices, mind-set, organization, and resources can be overcome.

  • 299. Cartalis, C.
    et al.
    Asimakopoulos, D. N.
    Ban, Yifang
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geoinformatics.
    Bao, Y.
    Bi, Y.
    Defourny, P.
    Del Barrio, G.
    Fan, J.
    Gao, Z.
    Gong, H.
    Gong, J.
    Gong, P.
    Li, C.
    Pignatti, S.
    Sarris, A.
    Yang, G.
    Earth observation in support of science and applications development in the field "land and Environment": Synthesis results from the ESA-most dragon cooperation Programme2015In: International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences - ISPRS Archives, 2015, no 7W3, p. 1075-1081Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dragon is a cooperation Programme between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of the P.R. China. The Programme, initiated in 2004, focuses on the exploitation of ESA, Third Party Missions (TPM) and Chinese Earth Observation (EO) data for geo-science and applications development in land, ocean and atmospheric applications. In particular, the Programme brings together joint Sino- European teams to investigate 50 thematic projects. In this paper, the results of the research projects1 in the thematic field "Land and Environment" will be briefly presented, whereas emphasis will be given in the assessment of the usefulness of the results for an integrated assessment of the state of the environment in the respective study areas. Furthermore new knowledge gained in such fields as desertification assessment, drought and epidemics' monitoring, forest modeling, cropwatch monitoring, climate change vulnerability (including climate change adaptation and mitigation plans), urbanization monitoring and land use/cover change assessment and monitoring, will be presented. Such knowledge will be also linked to the capacities of Earth Observation systems (and of the respective EO data) to support the temporal, spatial and spectral requirements of the research studies. The potential of DRAGON to support such targets as "technology and knowledge transfer at the bilateral level", "common EO database for exploitation" and "data sharing and open access data policy" will be also presented. Finally special consideration will be given in highlighting the replication potential of the techniques as developed in the course of the projects, as well as on the importance of the scientific results for environmental policy drafting and decision making.

  • 300. Castree, Noel
    et al.
    Robin, Elizabeth
    Sörlin, Sverker
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment. Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, United States .
    Wynne, Brian
    et al.,
    Changing the intellectual climate2014In: Nature Climate Change, ISSN 1758-678X, E-ISSN 1758-6798, Vol. 4, no 9, p. 763-768Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Calls for more broad-based, integrated, useful knowledge now abound in the world of global environmental change science. They evidence many scientists' desire to help humanity confront the momentous biophysical implications of its own actions. But they also reveal a limited conception of social science and virtually ignore the humanities. They thereby endorse a stunted conception of 'human dimensions' at a time when the challenges posed by global environmental change are increasing in magnitude, scale and scope. Here, we make the case for a richer conception predicated on broader intellectual engagement and identify some preconditions for its practical fulfilment. Interdisciplinary dialogue, we suggest, should engender plural representations of Earth's present and future that are reflective of divergent human values and aspirations. In turn, this might insure publics and decision-makers against overly narrow conceptions of what is possible and desirable as they consider the profound questions raised by global environmental change.

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