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  • 251.
    Hasselström, Linus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    The monetary value of marine environmental change2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The marine ecosystems are fundamental for human welfare. A number of current environmental pressures need attention, and the formulation of management strategies requires information from a variety of analytical dimensions. The linkage between environmental change and resulting implications for human welfare is one such dimension.

    This thesis presents studies on welfare implications from hypothetical future policies which improve the state of the marine environment. The method for these studies is economic valuation. The studied scenarios concern eutrophication in the Baltic Sea (including the Kattegat) and oil spill risk from shipping in the Lofoten-Vesterålen area in the Arctic Barents Sea. The thesis shows that the economic benefits from undertaking policies to improve or protect the marine environment in these cases are substantial and exceed the costs of taking measures.

    In addition to providing new monetary estimates, the thesis also provides new insights concerning 1) what type of scenario to use when valuing an environmental improvement and 2) whether there may exist trade-offs between precision in estimates and the level of ambition with respect to survey instrument complexity and econometric models when conducting valuation studies. The findings suggest an end of an era for studies in which the environmental change is unspecified or based on a single environmental indicator while the actual consequences of the suggested measures are more multifaceted. In contrast, relevant scenarios to study are well-specified and holistic. The thesis further reveals that it might not always be worth the effort to go for the most advanced scenario presentation or statistically best-fitting model specifications. This is something that needs to be further discussed among practitioners in order to allocate valuation resources wisely and not waste resources on unnecessarily elegant valuation studies.

  • 252.
    Hedin, Sigrid
    et al.
    Nordregio.
    Dubois, Alexander
    Nordregio.
    Ikonen, Riikka
    Nordregio.
    Lähteenmäki-Smith, Kaisa
    Nordregio.
    Neubauer, Jörg
    Nordregio.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Nordregio.
    Rauhut, Daniel
    Nordregio.
    Tynkkynen, Veli-Pekka
    Nordregio.
    Regionally Differentiated Innovation Policies in the Nordic Countries: Applying the Lisbon Agenda2008Book (Other academic)
  • 253. Hemlin, S.
    et al.
    Olsson, Lisa
    KTH.
    Denti, L.
    Creativity in R&D2013In: Handbook of Research on Creativity, Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd. , 2013, p. 508-521Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 254. Henrik, Hammar
    et al.
    Tommy, Lundgren
    Sjöström, Magnus
    Andersson, Matts
    The kilometer tax and Swedish industry - effects on sectors and regions2009In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, p. 2907-2917Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An introduction of a kilometer tax for heavy goods vehicles can be constrained by the risk of that higher production costs than competitors in other countries will negatively affect regions and industries of policy concern. We estimate factor demand elasticities in the Swedish manufacturing industry using firm level data for the 1990 to 2001 period on input prices and quantities. The results show that the introduction of a kilometer tax for heavy goods vehicles decreases transport demand and increases labour demand. The effects are less pronounced in terms of changes in output, though some industries (e. g. wood, pulp and paper) can be expected to be affected more than others due to their dependence on road freight transport. The regional dimension regarding the consequences of a kilometer tax seems to be small or even nonexisting.

  • 255. Heyman, Fredrik
    et al.
    Sjöholm, Fredrik
    Gustavsson Tingvall, Patrik
    Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
    Is there really a foreign ownership wage premium?: Evidence from matched employer-employee data2007In: Journal of International Economics, ISSN 0022-1996, E-ISSN 1873-0353, Vol. 73, no 2, p. 355-376Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous studies on firm-level data have reported higher average wages in foreign-owned firms than in domestically owned firms. This, however, does not necessarily imply that the individual worker's wage increase with foreign ownership. Using detailed matched employer–employee data on the entire Swedish private sector, we examine the effect of foreign ownership on individual wages, controlling for individual and firm heterogeneity as well as for possible selection bias in foreign acquisitions. We distinguish between foreign greenfields and takeovers and compare foreign-owned firms with both domestic multinationals and local firms. Our results show a considerably smaller wage premium in foreign-owned firms than what has been found in studies conducted at a more aggregate level. Moreover, foreign takeovers of Swedish firms tend to have no or even a negative effect on wages.

  • 256. Heyman, Fredrik
    et al.
    Sjöholm, Fredrik
    Gustavsson Tingvall, Patrik
    Multinationals, cross-border acquisitions and wage dispersion2011In: Canadian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0008-4085, E-ISSN 1540-5982, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 627-650Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the impact of cross-border acquisitions on intra-firm wage dispersion using a detailed Swedish linked employer-employee data set including data on all firms and about 50% of the Swedish labour force with information on job-tasks and education. Foreign acquisitions of domestic multinationals and local firms increase wage dispersion but so do also other types of cross-border acquisitions. Hence, it is the acquisition itself rather than foreign ownership that increases wage dispersion. The positive wage effect is concentrated to CEOs and other managers, whereas other groups are either negatively affected or not affected at all.

  • 257. Hilty, Lorenz M
    et al.
    Aebisher, BernardAndersson, GöranKTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.Lohmann, Wolfgang
    ICT4S 2013: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies for Sustainability, ETH Zurich, February 14-16, 20132013Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 258.
    Ho, Cynthia Sin Tian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Wilhelmsson, MatsKTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Does Proximity to banks bridge the financial and entrepreneurial gaps?2019Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on location theory, the local relationships between new firm formation and its potential determinants are explored in 290 municipalities across Sweden. From the geographically weighted regression (GWR) model in 2013, mostly positive relationships with new firm formation are shown for firm density, human capital level, industry diversification level and percentage of immigrants living in the area. Mostly negative relationships are shown for weighted mean distance to the nearest bank branches, establishment size, unemployment rate, industry specialization. Spatially constrained multivariate clustering is also applied to group municipalities with similar conditions. Implications of the GWR modelling and cluster analysis are then discussed.

  • 259.
    Hollander, Ernst
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Industrial Economics and Management.
    Varför var det så segt?: om lågriskkemi, miljödriven innovation och kravformning1995Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 260. Holt, Charles
    et al.
    Myers, Erica
    Wråke, Markus
    Mandell, Svante
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Institute.
    Burtraw, Dallas
    Teaching Opportunity Cost in an Emissions Permit Experiment2010In: International Review of Economics Education, ISSN 1477-3880, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 34-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes an individual choice experiment that can be used to teach students how to correctly account for opportunity costs in production decisions. Students play the role of producers that require a fuel input and an emissions permit for production. Given fixed market prices, they make production quantity decisions based on their costs. Permits have a constant price throughout the experiment. In one treatment, students have to purchase both a fuel input and an emissions permit for each production unit. In a second treatment, they receive permits for free and any unused permits are sold on their behalf at the permit price. If students correctly incorporate opportunity costs, they will have the same supply function in both treatments.This experiment motivates classroom discussion of opportunity costs and emission permit allocation under cap and trade schemes.The European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) provides a relevant example for classroom discussion, as industry earned significant “windfall profits” from free allocation of emissions permits in the early phases of the program.

  • 261.
    Hou, Yongzhou
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Regional housing price dynamics in urban ChinaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 262.
    Hou, Yongzhou
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Urban Housing Markets in China2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on problems of prices and risks in the housing markets of urban China. What drives the dynamics of housing prices across regions is not only of great interest for academic researchers but also of first importance for policy makers. It is also interesting to pay attention to the issue of housing bubbles at a city level and risk allocations from an institutional view. To address the issues, the thesis applies both qualitative and econometric approaches in analyzing the urban housing markets of China.

    The first paper reviews articles mainly published in Chinese core journals. The existing studies are mainly concerned with such six topics as institutions, policy, land, finance, price and market. The first three topics involve the public housing allocation system reform, such fiscal and monetary tools as tax and interest rate, and the land reserve system. The housing finance treats such subjects of mortgages, bubbles and financial systems, while housing prices explore factors such as land prices, construction cost and exogenous forces like income. Finally, the housing market addresses housing circles and the relationship between housing demand and supply.

    In paper 2, the housing price dynamics is investigated at a national level and across regions by using the panel data with 30 provinces over 7 years (2001-2007). The empirical results suggest that the estimates for the fundamentals of income, user cost, housing stock and employment are robust at a national level, implying that there exists a stationary equilibrium relation in the long run between the housing price and the fundamentals above. The speed of price adjustment varies considerably across regions in the East, Midland and West.

    Then the housing markets in Beijing and Shanghai are examined in Paper 3 to quantify possible existence of a bubble in the two metropolitan areas. This article uses an integrated strategy involved with such fundamentals as interest rates, rent, income and GDP. The results show that Beijing might have been on the way of forming a housing price bubble between 2005 and 2008, and that there possibly existed a bubble in Shanghai from 2003 to 2004.

    By comparing the risk allocation in China with that in Sweden, Paper 4 explores the difference of actual risks taken by various actors. The banks and governments appear to take more risks in China, especially as the Chinese developers have a weaker financial situation than in Sweden. Households have more choices to reduce the risk by purchasing various kinds of insurance products and also by binding the interest rate.

  • 263.
    Hou, Yongzhou
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Risk allocation on the housing market: a comparision between Sweden and ChinaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 264.
    Hu, Zimu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Chinese Happiness Index and Its Influencing Factors Analysis2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades, economists are gradually showing their interests in the study of happiness. They even put forward some challenges to the traditional theories. In contrast, studies on Chinese happiness problem are not enough in terms of breadth and depth. 

    This paper used the data provided by China General Social Survey to conduct an empirical analysis. The model author adopted is Ordered Discrete Choice model. In the empirical section, author analyzed the impact of income, macroeconomic variables, etc. 

    Ultimately, based on the empirical results, author proposed some policy recommendations and further study suggestions.

  • 265.
    Hullgren, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Mortgage decisions in Swedish housing co-operatives2017In: International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis, ISSN 1753-8270, E-ISSN 1753-8289, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 572-584Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - This paper aims to highlight co-ops mortgage choice strategy and factors that influence the board's mastermortgage decisions in Swedish co-op associations. Design/methodology/approach - Data are collected through a pre-study interviewing chair persons in co-ops in Stockholm followed up by a more extensive questionnaire. Answers from these are tested by logistic regression and compared to hypotheses based on earlier findings on mortgage choice on a household level and additional findings from the interviews. Findings - The mortgage choice in co-ops seems to be more dependent on financial similarities than physical location. Loan-to-value (LTV) ratios have a dominant influence in that co-ops with high LTV ratios have a lower preference for adjustable-rate mortgages (ARMs). When checking for location, the media and individual chair persons also seem to affect the choice. Overall, there seems to be awareness in co-ops boards about the potential financial effects of their mortgage choice. Practical implications - The negative connection between high LTV ratios and ARMs implies that boards try to make their mortgage expenditure more predictable. This reduces liquidity risks which may be of importance for financially constrained owners. Findings indicate that co-ops are risk averse and that the short-term threat for increasing interest costs is low. This is of value to both homebuyers and the financial industry. Originality/value - This paper examines factors influencing mortgage choices in an organizational context such as co-op associations. The master mortgage in a co-op can have major influence on members financial situation but, to the author's knowledge, a similar study has never been done before, neither in an international nor a Swedish context.

  • 266.
    Hullgren, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Söderberg, Inga-Lill
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Borrower characteristics and mortgage rate choice in Sweden2016In: International Journal of Bank Marketing, ISSN 0265-2323, E-ISSN 1758-5937, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 649-669Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose– The purpose of this paper is to investigate driving forces behind mortgage rate choice among homeowners in a market of no mortgage rate spread. The study reported on was conducted in Sweden, a country relatively spared both from effects of the subprime crisis and the on-going Euro-crisis. A number of potentially influential factors, such as respondents’ risk aversion, financial vulnerability, experience, expectations as well as the impact of media and bank advisors are examined and a number of demographic factors controlled for. Design/methodology/approach– The study reported on is based on data from a national randomized survey conducted in Sweden in 2012. An empirical analysis is carried out on a sample of 474 households with mortgages. A logistic regression is performed to test a model based on hypothesized factors. Findings– The study shows that consumers choosing fixed rate mortgages (FRMs) have high LTV and high risk aversion and perceive their choice as having been influenced by bank advisors. This is in line with earlier findings. Lower levels of – or no – FRMs (more adjustable rate mortgages) seems to be attractive for the wealthier with higher education and previous experience of home owning. Other factor negatively affecting the choice of FRMs are: being younger; being influenced by media; and perceiving oneself as financially vulnerable. Research limitations/implications– To summarize, this paper contributes to research in two major ways: first, the Swedish case is modeled against a review of international research on mortgage rate choice. Second, a number of consumer-related factors are investigated, and their relative contribution as drivers of a choice of FRMs are tested. This gives input to more theoretical research conceptualizing a model for the understanding of how consumer mortgage rate choices are made. Practical implications– The results should serve as an alarm bell for the industry, as the consumers described – the youngest mortgage holders, the financially vulnerable with low repayment capacity and those easily influenced by reports in media – are a potential threat to stable development of long term customer relations and mortgage portfolios. Social implications– The results gives reason for policy makers to address the question and reasons to call for more studies of the preferences and choices of the younger consumers. Originality/value– This study represents an investigation into some factors not often studied in relation to mortgage rate choice. It also highlights the Swedish case and puts it in an international context.

  • 267.
    Hungria-Gunnelin, Rosane
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Auction strategies: do they really work? An empirical study of residental real estate auctionsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 268.
    Hungria-Gunnelin, Rosane
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Bidding strategies and winner's curse in auctions of non-distressed residential real estateManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes how listing price and bidding strategies impact sales prices in non-distressed residential real estate auctions. Furthermore, the paper is the first that tries to explicitly quantify how these strategies affect the probability of a winner’s curse in such auctions. The findings support the results in the general auction literature that the winning bid and the probability of a winner’s curse is increasing in the number of bidders. The results further supports the notion of “auction fever” since high-paced auctions (where unexperienced bidders may resort to emotional bidding) increase selling price and the probability of a winner’s curse. The results with respect to jump bidding and list price setting are mixed. Jump bidding has the intended effect of scaring off bidders, but not sufficiently to reduce the winning bid and the probability of a winner’s curse. Lowering the list price to market value ratio (the degree of underpricing) increases the number of bidders, but not sufficiently to counteract the anchoring effect of the list price leading to a reduction of the winning bid and the probability of a winner’s curse. In summary, the findings in this paper show that the unfolding of auctions of non-distressed residential real estate has a significant impact on selling price and the probability of a winner’s curse.

  • 269.
    Hungria-Gunnelin, Rosane
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Empirical studies of auctions of non-distressed residential real estate2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Real estate auctions have become a popular sales mechanism in Sweden in the past couple of decades when the internet facilitated the marketing of properties for sale. With the possibility to display several exterior and interior pictures of the property rather than the single façade picture style of traditional newspapers advertisements, and a more detailed description of the object, brokers significantly increased the number of potential buyers at the showings of properties for sale. The increase in the number of visitors has, especially in the larger cities in Sweden, increased the frequency of bidding wars, in which the winning bid ends far above the list price. Many auction participants, especially those who are inexperienced, perceive the auction-based sales mechanism as very stressful considering that the purchase of a home is for most buyers the largest investment they will ever make. Therefore, the auction mechanism for selling homes is regularly debated in media, among politicians and by regulatory bodies. The scientific literature analyzing auctions of non-distressed homes is, however, very limited. Hence, the debate and analysis of the Swedish auction-based sales mechanism has little empirical evidence to lean on. A main reason for the lack of scientific work in this area is the difficulty to obtain sufficiently detailed auction data to study how sellers’ list price strategy and auction participants bidding strategies affect the outcome of real estate auction auctions and the occurrence of a winner’s curse.

    The overall aim of this thesis is to study how sellers’ list price strategy and bidding strategies of auction participants affect the outcome of auctions of non-distressed residential homes. The thesis is empirical and comprises four papers that analyze the housing markets in Stockholm and Gothenburg. Papers 1 and 2 analyze sales of condominium apartments in Central Stockholm, while Paper 3 analyzes sales of single-family homes in Stockholm County. Paper 4 analyzes sales of condominium apartments in Gothenburg.

    Papers 1, 2 and 3 contribute to the empirical auction literature by studying how the number of bidders, the seller’s list price strategy and auction participants bidding strategies affect the unfolding of auctions and the resulting transaction price. Using a hedonic model Paper 1 analyzes how the number of bidders affects the transaction price. Paper 2 extends the database in Paper 1 to cover a longer time period and develops the hedonic model in Paper 1 by adding explanatory variables describing the seller’s list price strategy and auction participants bidding strategies. Paper 3 develops the hedonic model in Paper 2 by incorporating a more thorough analysis of possible omitted variable bias and further employs methods used in the previous empirical literature to mitigate omitted variable bias by including as explanatory variable the residuals from a price regression of previous sales, as well as the residuals from a list price regression. Furthermore, the paper estimates how list price and bidding strategies affect the probability of a winner’s curse.

    Paper 4 studies auctions of condominiums in Gothenburg, but with a different focus than Papers 1, 2 and 3 since detailed auction data was not available. The paper instead focuses on how sellers’ list price strategy affect sales price and time-on-market, and how information asymmetry between brokers and sellers, combined with brokers’ commission fee structures, affect the choice of list price.

  • 270.
    Hungria-Gunnelin, Rosane
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Impact of Number of Bidders on Sale Price of Auctioned Condominium Apartments in Stockholm2013In: International Real Estate Review, ISSN 1029-6131, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 274-295Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper empirically tests the effect of the number of bidders on the sale price of condominium apartments in Stockholm by using data gathered during 2010. The results show that the number of participants in a real estate auction plays a significant role in the final auctioned price. The average price per square meter paid by every extra bidder has an increasing but decelerating growth, starting with an approximate 4 percent increase when going from one to two bidders.

  • 271.
    Hungria-Gunnelin, Rosane
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Real Estate Auctions - An Empirical Analysis of Auction Strategies2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 272.
    Hungria-Gunnelin, Rosane
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Kopsch, Fredrik
    Lunds Universitet, Fastighetsvetenskap.
    Enegren, Carl Johan
    NREP, Sweden.
    Real estate agents' list price strategies: Higher sales price, shorter time on the market or asymmetric information?Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of list price is often discussed in a narrative describing seller’s preferences or price expectations. With this paper we want to argue that list price belongs to a set of strategies that real estate brokers have available to influence the outcome of the sale. By adopting a narrative of the real estate broker, a number of hypotheses are formulated with regard to different expected outcomes that depend on list price. We test three hypotheses for the underlying incentives in the choice of list price from the real estate broker’s perspective: (1) lower list price compared to market value leads to higher sales price, (2) lower list price compared to market value leads to a quicker sale, (3) lower list price compared to market value can be explained by an information asymmetry between the seller and the real estate broker. The results show that the first hypothesis is rejected and the third does not receive support. The second hypothesis receives support.  This supports the idea that a low list price leads to a shorter time-on-market, which can also lie in the interest of the real estate broker. They may therefore be tempted to recommend a list price significantly below the selling price in order to minimize their effort while showing a high turnover of apartments.

  • 273.
    HÄHLE, GUSTAV
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    SUSTAINABLE COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES IN THE INDUSTRY OF MOBILE GAMBLING2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates how firms in the mobile gambling industry can develop long-term competitive advantages through utilizing firm specific resources and capabilities. The aim of this research is to connect classical theoretical knowledge with the challenges the modern industry of mobile gambling is facing. Earlier research within the subject are limited, however previously findings indicates that fast response time, logic site mapping and security are important factors when consumer are choosing supplier for mobile gambling. Data is collected through a consumer survey and interviews with three industry experts, moreover; a theoretical framework from previously conducted research are underpinning the study. The results show that firms should focus internal resources and capabilities to develop a superior technology. A superior technology can generate numerous of competitive advantages, as well as working as a leverage effect in other areas. Moreover, superior technology will also likely be sustainable over time by being governed by isolating mechanisms. Lower price is discussed as a competitive advantage in the mobile industry, however findings indicates several of long run negative effects enabled through a lower price. Future research needs to investigate how customization and dynamic offerings can optimize a firm’s profit. Future research should also investigate what kind of negative effects mobile gambling could have on the social welfare in terms of total effects.

  • 274.
    Håkansson, Cecilia
    Dep. of Forest Economics, SLU, Sweden.
    Lax till högstbjudande2008In: Miljöforskning : Formas tidning för ett uthålligt samhälle, ISSN 1650-4925, Vol. 2, p. 30-31Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 275.
    Håkansson, Cecilia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Vindelälvens kostnader och nyttor2009In: MiljötrenderArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 276.
    Håkansson, Cecilia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Värdering av kustmiljöer: Kan politiska mål vara förenliga med ekologisk och ekonomisk kunskap?2010In: Thule: Kungl. Skytteanska samfundets årsbok. 2010 / [ed] Roger Jacobsson, Umeå: Kungl. Skytteanska samfundet , 2010, p. 90-96Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 277.
    Håkansson, Cecilia
    et al.
    Dep. of Forest Economics, SLU.
    Johansson, Per-Olof
    Dep. of Economics, HHS.
    Kriström, Bengt
    Dep. of Forest Economics, SLU.
    Cost-Benefit Analysis of Environmental Change: Linking Theory to Empirical Observations2004In: Collected Conference Papers: Monte Veritá Conference on Sustainable Resource Use and Economic Dynamics June 6-10, 2004, Zurich: CER-ETH , 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a Cost-Bene¯t Analysis (CBA) of environmental change, in which theory and empirical work are closely knit together. The theoretical framework is used to derive a cost-bene¯t rule for projects that a®ect wild salmon survival. In contrast to many similar studies, we use this dynamic cost-bene¯t rule in structuring the contingent valuation study. Data comes from an ongoing project regarding a potential salmon passage- hydropower con°ict in the northern Swedish river UmeÄalven and its largest salmon producing tributary VindelÄalven. Daily water °ow data are com- bined with daily data on the number of salmon (1974-2000) that pass the hydropower plant Stornorrfors. Detailed ecological studies are used to build the contingent valuation scenario and to study the opportunity costs of re- leasing more water to the potential bene¯t of salmon upstream migrants. We present results from pilot-studies on the value Swedes place on increasing the amount of wild salmon in this particular river.

  • 278.
    Håkansson, Cecilia
    et al.
    Dep. of Forest Economics, SLU.
    Johansson, Per-Olof
    Dep. of Forest Economics, SLU.
    Kriström, Bengt
    Dep. of Forest Economics, SLU.
    Lundqvist, Hans
    SLU-Umeå.
    Leonardsson, Kjell
    SLU-Umeå.
    Salmon and Hydropower: Dynamic Cost-Benefit Analysis- an Overview2004In: Aquatic habitats: analysis & restoration: fifth international symposium on ecohydraulics, September 12-17, 2004, Madrid, Spain / [ed] Diego Garcia de Jalón Lastra, Pilar Vizcaíno Martínez, Madrid: IAHR , 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 279.
    Hårsman, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Daghbashyan, Zara
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Avkastning på högre utbildning bland examinerade vid Stockholms lärosäten2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna rapport är att uppskatta avkastningen på högre utbildning för olika utbildnings- grupper examinerade från lärosäten i Stockholms län och att härvid beakta både grundutbildning och forskarutbildning.

  • 280.
    Hårsman, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics (Closed (20130101). KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Daghbashyan, Zara
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics (Closed (20130101). KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Entrepreneurship and Arts Related Education2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to shed light upon entrepreneurship among university graduates having different kinds of arts related education. After demonstrating the large differences between the nine groups concerning entrepreneurship rates, a dynamic model for occupational choice is outlined. The choice is assumed to be governed by the related demand and income and by the match between the skills required and the skills supplied implying that an alternative providing a better match might be preferred to one providing a higher income. Using data for Swedish graduates we show that the probability of becoming entrepreneur is strongly influenced by the area of education. We further show that compared to engineers artists are more interested in using their special skills and ready to “sacrifice” higher income against the possibility to express their talent.

  • 281.
    Hårsman, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Daghbashyan, Zara
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Karriärvägar bland examinerade vid Stockholms lärosäten2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten beskriver och analyserar karriärutveckling och entreprenörskap bland sysselsattaakademiker med fokus på dem som har examinerats från universitet och högskolor i Stockholms län.Tre av fyra akademiker med examen från ett lärosäte i Stockholms län arbetar i den störrependlingsregion – Stockholmsregionen – där även delar av Uppsala och Södermanlands län igår.Regionen är starkt kunskapsorienterad. Den svarar för en dryg fjärdedel av Sveriges sysselsättning mendär arbetar 48 procent av alla forskarutbildade och nästan 40 procent av alla akademiker.Stockholmsregionens andel av landets lågutbildade sysselsatta är betydligt lägre, nämligen 22 procent.Den övergripande slutsatsen av vår karriäranalys är att akademiker med examen från lärosäten iStockholms län lyckas väl på arbetsmarknaden. Jämfört med dem med examen från annat håll har deoftare en anställning med krav som motsvarar utbildningen, de har högre löner och de är i störreutsträckning verksamma som entreprenörer.Det är svårt att säga vad dessa tre skillnader till fördel för dem med en examen från Stockholms länberor på. Våra analyser av hur bilden förändras om andra förklarande faktorer tillförs tyder dock påföljande. Lönerna förblir någon eller några procent högre för dem med examen från länet. Likasåförblir sannolikheten att vara entreprenör signifikant om än marginellt högre. Dock gäller attövertaget avseende andelen som har ett akademiskt yrke ”försvinner” när hänsyn tas till andraförklaringsfaktorer.

  • 282.
    Ihnatovich, Hanna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Predicting the development of the construction equipment market demand using economic indicators: Artificial Neural Networks approach.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Demand forecasting plays an important role for every business and gives companies an opportunity to prepare for coming shifts in the market. The empirical findings of this study aim to support construction equipment manufacturers, distributors, and suppliers in apprehending the equipment market in more depth and foreseeing market demand to be able to adjust their business strategies and production capacities, allocate resources more efficiently, optimize the level of output and stock and, as a result, reduce associated costs, increase profitability and competitiveness. It is demonstrated that demand for construction equipment is heavily influenced by changes in economic conditions and country-specific economic indicators can serve as reliable input parameters to anticipate fluctuations in the construction equipment market. The Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) forecasting technique has been successfully employed to predict sales of construction equipment four quarters ahead in selected countries (Germany, The United Kingdom, France, Italy, Norway, Russia, Turkey and Saudi Arabia) with country related economic indicators used as an input.

  • 283.
    Iqbal, Asifa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Wilhelmsson, Mats
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Park proximity, crime and apartment prices2018In: International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis, ISSN 1753-8270, E-ISSN 1753-8289, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 669-686Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose There is a lack of understanding in the literature on the relation between parks and house price in relation to crime in Scandinavian context. This paper aims to investigate the effect of the amenity value of accessibility to parks on apartment prices with reference to crime rates in parks in Stockholm. Design/methodology/approach This paper analyses the effects of park proximity and crime in parks on apartment prices by using geographic information systems and hedonic modelling. Findings Findings show that the proximity of parks as an environmental amenity has an effect on apartment prices. The results also demonstrate that the impact of parks on apartment prices is different in the different segments of the apartment market in Stockholm. Moreover, various types of parks may differ in their impact, for instance, grass parks and park blocks are more desirable in Stockholm than landscape parks and neighbourhood parks. The effects of crimes in parks influence apartment prices negatively. Originality/value This paper provides a new methodology by using the shortest distance to a park as a main variable. The shortest distance to a park variable is considered a better choice than using park as an aggregate measure. To the best of the author's knowledge, this is the first study that investigates the effect of specific park types, for instance, grass parks, neighbourhood parks, landscape parks and park blocks, in Stockholm housing market.

  • 284.
    Isacs, Lina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Palander, Sara
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Steen, Bengt
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Widerberg, Anna
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Wikström, Anna
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Ingen vet kostnaden för utsläpp2014In: Dagens industri, ISSN 0346-640XArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 285.
    Isacsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Transport Economics Unit, National Road and Transportations Research Institute, Borlänge, Sweden.
    Karlström, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Transport Economics Unit, National Road and Transportations Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The value of commuting time in an empirical on-the-job search model: An application based on moments from two samples2013In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 45, no 19, p. 2827-2837Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article estimates the Value of Commuting Time (VOCT) among Swedish males in an empirical on-the-job search model. It uses a large sample of employee-establishment linked data obtained from administrative registers. The sample lacks information on mode choice for the journey to work. We therefore estimate a mode choice model on another sample and use this model to link the administrative data to the relevant set of travel times, costs and distances. The VOCT is found to be 1.8 times the net hourly wage rate in the sample. The relatively high estimate results from a high VOCT among cohabiting men.

  • 286.
    Iychettira, Kaveri
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    NATIONAL RENEWABLE POLICIES IN AN INTERNATIONAL ELECTRICITY MARKET: A SOCIO-TECHNICAL STUDY2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 287.
    Jain, Sandeep
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    The Effects of Austerity on the Sustainability of the Greek Public Debt2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The current Greek debt crisis has forced the Greek government to adopt austerity measures. In this paper, the most favourable debt reduction strategies among all the other strategies, for both Greece and its creditors will be examined. These strategies have been recently suggested in the economic world, to help achieve deficit reduction and enhance the growth rate of Greece. This is very important for the economic world - to avoid the insolvency of Greece and to find the best debt reduction strategy which is favourable for both the parties, so that the Greek public debt-to-GDP ratio can reach a level of sustainability within a reasonable timespan. In an endeavour to answer the research question, a simulation framework has been carried out based on the economic model as given by Cline, (2011). When using this economic model, g has been made endogenous and it is dependent on the extent of austerity. This has been taken into consideration while carrying out the simulation exercises for this paper. Furthermore, three different debt reduction strategies (the lowering of interest rates, debt write-off and increasing the primary surplus) have been implemented, considering the different scenarios of the economy, when executing these simulation exercises. After carrying out the simulation framework, it has been concluded that the further reduction of the interest rate would be the most favorable debt reduction strategy for both Greece and its creditors. This interest rate strategy would not only lower the Greek public debt-to-GDP to a sustainable level within a reasonable time period, but will also keep the growth rate positive in the long run during this period of weak economic recovery.

  • 288.
    Jaworska Persson, Alexander
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Internet of Things and connected home living: - A case study on how manufacturing firms in the kitchen and furniture industry is implementing and developing IoT products and services2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis provides insight to the dynamics that come with the emergence of IoT in the furniture and kitchen manufacturing industry. The study is empirically grounded in an explorative case study that involves interviews with six manufacturing companies in the different industry sectors. The purpose has been to shed light on how incumbent companies adapt and implement IoT and the study highlight product features, aspects and challenges that companies are investigating and dealing with as they set out to work with IoT and connected products. The results indicate that companies are viewing IoT as an enabler that better can respond to customer needs and provide users with new experiences. By implementing the concept of IoT companies are currently evaluating how internal knowledge and skillsets correspond to the new technical requirements that the emerging digital setting outlines and by directing internal research they are learning more about IoT and connected products as they proceed. One current major problem is that there are no open protocols that can connect all products regardless of supplier. Nevertheless, implementation of IoT does not solely involve technical aspects and companies are also faced with the dilemma on how to design and develop corresponding commercial processes. To this point early product implementations have arrived on the consumer markets and the future vision is to achieve full integration that imbeds connectivity and interaction among all products in the home.

  • 289.
    Johansson, Börje
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Parsing the Menagerie of Agglomeration and Network Externalities2005In: Industrial Clusters and Inter-Firm Networks / [ed] B. Johansson, C. Karlsson and R. Stough, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar , 2005, p. 107-147Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 290.
    Johansson, Börje
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Parsing the Menagerie of Agglomeration and Network Externalities2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Externalities have for a long time been perceived as awkward cases that are alien to wellstructured economic analyses. During recent decades ideas inherited from Marshall and others have regained interest in the analysis of specialisation and trade, urban formation and growth as well as innovation processes. A variety of contributions has brought about an equally varied set of externalities with labels such as localisation and urbanisation economies, industrial districts, innovative regions. This presentation attempts to bring order to the many ideas about externalities by classifying them with regard to the sources and consequences of the externalities, and to the externality mechanisms. A basic separation is made between those externalities that affect efficiency and those that generate development.

  • 291.
    Johansson, Börje
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Spatial Clusters of ICT Industries2006In: The Emerging Digital Economy / [ed] B. Johansson, C. Karlsson and R. Stough, Berlin: Springer-Verlag , 2006, p. 137-168Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 292.
    Johansson, Börje
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Transport Infrastructure Inside and Across Urban Regions: Models and assessment methods2008In: The Wider Economic Benefits of Transport: Micro-, meso- and macro-economic transport planning and investment tools / [ed] Round Table 140 , Transport Research Centre, Paris: OECD Publishing, 2008Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 293.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Andersson, Martin
    HETEROGENEOUS DISTRIBUTIONS OF FIRMS SUSTAINED BY INNOVATION DYNAMICS - a model with empirical illustration2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper develops a framework to appreciate the observed heterogeneity of firm size distributions and the entry and exit of products and firms associated with it. It is based on a model where new products are introduced by innovating firms in a quasi-temporal setting of monopolistic competition. The rate at which a firm innovates, according to a firm-specific Poisson process, is assumed to be influenced by the firm’s past experience and cumulated knowledge assets. The model assigns a fundamental role to entrepreneurship of existing and potential firms. The empirical analysis is based on detailed firm-level export data, which describes firm size in terms of products and markets, and firm dynamics in terms of changes in the supply pattern (varieties and markets) of existing firms in combination with entry/exit of firms. The empirical results are consistent with the model. First, the modeled innovation process imply a persistent distribution of heterogeneous firms. Second, the invariant size distribution of firms is associated with significant micro-dynamics, where firms continuously add and subtract varieties from their product mix, and new firms may enter while some exit. Third, an econometric analysis where firms’ introduction of new varieties is explained by firm attributes provides support for the assumption of a firm-specific and state-dependent stochastic innovation process.

  • 294.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Andersson, Martin
    PRODUCT INNOVATION, EXPORT AND LOCATION OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces a model where new products are introduced by entrepreneurs or innovating firms in a quasi-temporal setting. Market conditions are characterized by monopolistic competition between varieties belonging to the same product group, where varieties can become obsolete over time and hence disappear from demand. Firms that innovate have to make an R&D investment, and a firm’s decision to export a variety to a given market is associated with a market channel investment. The model is used to predict export behavior by firms in different regional milieus, and these predictions are compared with observations from a rich data set describing export activities of Swedish firms. The data set contains firm level information about export flows, where the flow of each variety is associated with the exporting firm’s location, export value, price and destination. In the empirical analysis we examine how the arrival of innovation ideas varies across regions and how this variation depends on regional characteristics.

  • 295.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Andersson, Martin
    PRODUCT INNOVATION, EXPORT ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND REGIONAL CHARACTERISTICS: an analysis of innovation ideas in regions2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on how characteristics of regions pertaining to local information about product varieties and markets as well as networks for the transmission of information about innovation opportunities influence the arrival of innovation ideas to existing and potential entrepreneurs. We formulate a model where entrepreneurs or innovating firms introduce new products in a quasi-temporal setting. Market conditions are characterized by monopolistic competition between varieties belonging to the same product group, in which there is entry and exit of varieties. Firms innovate in response to the arrival of innovation ideas. To realize these ideas firms have to make an R&D investment and a firm’s decision to export a variety to a new market is associated with a market channel investment. The theoretical model is used as a reference when formulating two regression models, with which we estimate factors that can explain the introduction of new export varieties by firms in different regional milieus. In one model we examine the emergence of new export firms, and in the second model we investigate the appearance of new export varieties. Results are consistent with the assumption that knowledge and information flows have a positive influence on the frequency of arrival of innovation ideas to firms.

  • 296.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Andersson, Martin
    REGIONAL POLICY AS CHANGE MANAGEMENT: A theoretical discussion with empirical illustrations2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper focuses on challenges and potentials for policy in the presence of fundamental change processes that influence the long-term evolution of regions. The perspective in the paper implies that policy can be viewed as ‘management of change’. We present a conceptual model for understanding the nature of fundamental change processes, which emphasizes slowly changing regional characteristics and invariant self-organized response mechanisms. It is supported by empirical examples of the invariant character of regional development and innovation phenomena, such as long-term population growth, export dynamics and persistence in new firm formation across regions in Sweden. The examples are put in perspective by studying the behavior of dynamic systems. A discussion of how policy may support new trajectories are provided.

  • 297.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Andersson, Å. E.
    Mathematical Models in Spatial Economics2007In: Mathematical Models in Economics in the Encyclopedia of Mathematical Sciences, Paris: Unesco, 2007Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 298.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Ebersberger, H.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    The Impact of Foreign Takeovers on Innovation and Productivity Performance2007In: Entrepreneurship and Development – Local Processes and Global Patterns / [ed] I. Johansson, George Mason University, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 299.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    EJERMO, OLOF
    Process Innovations in a Duopoly with Two regions2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Most models of duopolies with a spatial dimension refer to the ’linear’ or ’circular’ city. Moreover, in duopoly models with innovations, the spatial dimension is usually dropped. We bridge this gap by constructing a model with two regions, each hosting production of a differentiated quality (high and low quality). In addition, consumers are heterogenous with different willingness to pay for quality. The analysis focuses on the incentives for process innovations, which affect the unit cost of production. The model captures two common trends in the urbanization process, and their effects on the incentive for process innovations. The first is regional enlargement or reduced transport costs. We find that such changes raise the proportion of process R&D in the region producing the low-quality good relative to process R&D from the high-quality region. Second, we examine the effect on optimal process R&D of moving consumers from the low-quality to the high-quality region. This lowers the optimal amount of process R&D undertaken in the low-quality region, while it is raised in the high-quality region.

  • 300.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Forslund, Ulla
    The Analysis of Location, Co-Location and Urbanisation Economics2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Location analysis has two major perspectives. The first is concerned with where toplace a given economic activity or facility, defined as optimization problem, wherethe properties of the economic environment are taken as a given fact. The secondperspective motivates a different question: how can the entire landscape of activitylocations be understood and explained? Both approaches can be associated with anequilibrium framework. However, the second perspective also stimulates the studentto think about the evolution of location patterns. How do they emerge and which arethe adjustment processes?

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