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  • 251.
    Högselius, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Tillbaka till framtiden2011In: KTH&Co, ISSN 1653-2872, no 4Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 252.
    Högselius, Per
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Uppfinningen som fick Frankrike att stråla2014In: Svenska DagbladetArticle, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 253.
    Högselius, Per
    et al.
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Avango, Dag
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Small countries and European resource colonialism2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 254.
    Högselius, Per
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Avango, Dag
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Under the Ice: The Quest for the Arctic’s Energy Resources, 1870-20132013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 255.
    Högselius, Per
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Hommels, Anique
    Maastricht University, The Netherlands.
    Kaijser, Arne
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Van der Vleuten, Erik
    Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    The Making of Europe's Critical Infrastructure: Common Connections and Shared Vulnerabilities2013Book (Refereed)
  • 256.
    Högselius, Per
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Kaijser, Arne
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Använt kärnbränsle som resurs: exemplen Tyskland, Ryssland och Japan2007In: SKB Samhällsforskning 2007, Stockholm: SKB , 2007, p. 121-151Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 257.
    Högselius, Per
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Kaijser, Arne
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    När folkhemselen blev internationell: Elavregleringen i historiskt perspektiv2007Book (Refereed)
  • 258.
    Högselius, Per
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Long, Vicky
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Dynamics.
    The Dynamics of ICT Innovation in Transition Economies: A Comparative Study of International Patenting in China and Eastern Europe2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 259.
    Högselius, Per
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Åberg, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Kaijser, Arne
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Natural Gas in Cold War Europe: The Making of a Critical Infrastructure2013In: The Making of Europe’s Critical Infrastructure / [ed] Per Högselius, Anique Hommels, Arne Kaijser, and Erik van der Vleuten, Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013, 1, p. 27-61Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 260.
    Högselius, Per
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Åberg, Anna
    Kaijser, Arne
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Natural Gas in Cold War Europe: The Making of a Critical Infrastructure2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 261.
    Höhler, Sabine
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Ecospheres: Model and Laboratory for Earth's Environment2018Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The idea of a sealed habitable sphere has and continues to inform how life itself is understood. Tracing the historical roots of the miniature modeling of regenerative life systems and ecologies, historian of science Sabine Höhler encapsulates the varied technoscientific motives and consequences of experimenting with self-contained ecospheres and how they relate to the concept of life on Earth.

  • 262.
    Höhler, Sabine
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Edens, Arks and Spaceships: Visions of Whole Earth since the Environmental Revolution2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 263.
    Höhler, Sabine
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    From Exceptional to Periodic: Southern Oscillation Satellite Data between Climate Change and Predictability2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    El Niño denotes a periodical warm water stream in the Pacific Ocean. But who knew about this phenomenon, where, how, and to what avail? El Niño “the boy” emerged as a fabric of local stories of origin and experiences of extreme weather events: tropical winter storms, floods and droughts, dying fish populations, poor harvests and famines in the coastal states of South America, Indonesia and Asia. The rich cultural history on the regional scale went largely unnoticed in the Northern Hemisphere. Only in the 1980s and 1990s did El Niño acquire global recognition as a part of the oceanic and atmospheric temperature cycles in the eastern tropical Pacific region. As the oceans moved from a marginal to a central position in the discourse on the earth’s environment and biospheric cycles, ENSO – the El Niño Southern Oscillation – became a major reference in rising world ocean temperature curves and an indicator of global climate change.

     

    This paper explores the epistemic, economic and political rationalities that constituted the transition of the El Niño phenomenon from a local explanandum to an explanans of global climate change. Satellite oceanography will be addressed as the critical technoscientific practice effecting this transition. As satellites reconnected space politics to geopolitics they became an obligatory passage point in the configuration of legitimate research questions and results of earth observation. While records of the El Niño phenomenon go back to the 18th century, the single observations from ships did not connect to synoptic pictures in immediate ways. Satellite measurements in contrast outbalanced problematic “top skin” data by breadth of areal coverage. Through satellite oceanographic data, sporadic, elusive and disruptive weather events became climatic periods of high intensity, succession and duration. The paper looks at the practice of high-resolution sea surface temperature measurements that since the 1990s solicited new views on the oceanic-atmospheric climate cycle. Both spatially and temporally, El Niño shifted from anomaly to normality. As a regular world climate engine the Southern Oscillation combined the exceptional with the periodic, inviting images both of climate catastrophe and of climate predictability.

  • 264.
    Höhler, Sabine
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    From Extreme Experience to Climate Engine: The Satellite Story of El Niño2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the 1980s and 1990s a local weather phenomenon called El Niño acquired global fame as a part of the Southern Oscillation, the umbrella term for oceanic and atmospheric temperature cycles in the eastern tropical Pacific region. Today, El Niño is the reference and indicator of global climate change. This paper explores satellite oceanography as a critical science and technology in the process of turning El Niño from a local explanandum to an explanans of global environmental change. Satellite high-resolution infrared sea surface temperature measurements established new knowledge about the oceanic-atmospheric climate cycle, spatially and temporally, since the 1990s. In the practice of outbalancing problematic “top skin” data by breadth of areal coverage a synoptic picture emerged. El Niño no longer signified the sporadic, elusive and disruptive event but the regular world climate engine. The phenomenon changed from an anomaly to a normality that also gave rise to probing climate predictability.

  • 265.
    Höhler, Sabine
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Local Disruption, Global Condition: El Niño as Weather and as Climate Phenomenon2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    El Niño denotes a periodical warm water stream in the Pacific Ocean. But who knew about this phenomenon, where and how? El Niño “the boy” emerged as a fabric of local experiences and stories of extreme weather events: tropical winter storms, floods, droughts and famines in the coastal states of South America, Indonesia and Asia. This rich cultural history went largely unnoticed in the Northern Hemisphere. Only in the 1980s and 1990s did El Niño acquire global recognition as an effect of the oceanic and atmospheric currents in the tropical Pacific region. As the oceans moved from a marginal to a central position in the discourse on the earth’s climate cycles, ENSO – the El Niño Southern Oscillation – became an indicator of global climate change.

     

    This paper explores El Niño “the boy” and ENSO El Niño Southern Oscillation as juxtaposed and superposed environmental experiences. While El Niño the boy conveyed catastrophic experiences on the human scale, ENSO became known through terrific scientific views of earth from space. The paper will study satellite oceanography as a practice of concentrating distanced local events into new data fabrics. The case of the US-French orbital remote sensing satellite mission of TOPEX/Poseidon during the El Niño winter of 1997-98 demonstrates that science did not prevent catastrophic events; it removed the catastrophic from the new picture of regularity. From the data sets of remote sensing satellites, recurring local disruptions emerged as a periodic global climate condition. In this picture El Niño became the anomaly, a part of climate pattern with potential predictability.

     

  • 266.
    Höhler, Sabine
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Local Disruption or Global Condition?: El Niño as Weather and as Climate Phenomenon2017In: GEO Geography and Environment, ISSN 2054-4049, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 1-11, article id e00034Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    El Niño denotes a periodical warm water stream in the Pacific Ocean. But who knew about this phenomenon, where and how? El Niño ‘the boy’ emerged as a fabric of local experiences and stories of extreme weather events: tropical winter storms, floods, droughts and famines in the coastal states of South America, Indonesia and Southeast Asia. In the Northern Hemisphere this rich cultural history went largely unnoticed. Only in the 1980s and 1990s did El Niño acquire global recognition as an effect of the oceanic and atmospheric currents in the tropical Pacific region. As the oceans moved from a marginal to a central position in the discourse on the Earth’s climate cycles, ENSO – the ‘El Niño Southern Oscillation’ – became part of a global climate pattern. This paper explores El Niño ‘the boy’ and ENSO El Niño Southern Oscillation as juxtaposed and superposed environmental perceptions. While El Niño the boy conveyed horrific weather experiences on the human scale, ENSO became known through terrific scientific views of Earth from space. Earth observation by remote sensing satellites collected vast arrays of local measurements into new data fabrics. Studying the case of the US–French orbital satellite mission of TOPEX/Poseidon, this paper examines both the imagery from satellite data and the forecasting effortspreceding the strong El Niño winter of 1997–8. From the data and image sets of remote sensing satellites, recurring local disruptions emerged as a periodic global climate condition. Local experiences of El Niño and scientific perceptions of ENSO as a global climate cycle did not translate easily into each other. The paper discusses some of the epistemological tensions across spatial scales. While El Niño’s shift from exception to regularity fed into the framing of ‘climate change’ as a global disaster, the emerging ENSO regime obscured disaster locally.

  • 267.
    Höhler, Sabine
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Local Disruption or Global Condition?: Satellite Stories of El Niño2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 268.
    Höhler, Sabine
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Local Disruption or Global Condition?: The Satellite View of El Niño2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 269.
    Höhler, Sabine
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Local Weather Event, Global Climate Condition: Satellite Translations of El Niño2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    El Niño denotes a periodical warm water stream in the Pacific Ocean. But who knew about this phenomenon, where and how? El Niño “the boy” emerged as a fabric of local experiences and stories of extreme weather events: tropical winter storms, floods, droughts and famines in the coastal states of South America, Indonesia and Asia. In the 1980s and 1990s El Niño acquired global recognition as an effect of the oceanic and atmospheric currents in the tropical Pacific region. As the oceans moved from a marginal to a central position in the discourse on the earth’s climate cycles, ENSO – the El Niño Southern Oscillation – became an indicator of global climate change.

     

    This paper asks how satellite data and satellite images have mediated between El Niño as a local disruptive weather event and ENSO as global climate pattern. While El Niño “the boy” conveyed environmental experiences on the human scale, ENSO El Niño Southern Oscillation was studied and narrated through distant satellite views of earth from space. The science and technology of satellite oceanography concentrated distanced local events into new data fabrics. The paper will take the case study of the US-French orbital remote sensing satellite mission of TOPEX/Poseidon during the El Niño winter of 1997-98 to argue that the science and technology of observing and mapping the El Niño phenomenon did not prevent catastrophic events; instead science and technology removed the catastrophic from the new picture of regularity. From the data sets of remote sensing satellites, recurring local disruptions emerged as a periodic climate condition. El Niño became part of a global climate pattern with potential predictability.

  • 270.
    Höhler, Sabine
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Myths of Spatial Conquest: Air and Sea Between Obscurity and Enlightenment2015In: Myths, Gender and the Military Conquest of Air and Sea / [ed] Katharina Hoffmann, Herbert Mehrtens, Silke Wenk, Oldenburg: BIS Oldenburg, 2015, p. 113-129Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 271.
    Höhler, Sabine
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Review of Macekura, Stephen J., Of Limits and Growth: The Rise of Global Sustainable Development in the Twentieth Century2016In: H-Soz-u-Kult, H-Net ReviewsArticle, book review (Other academic)
  • 272.
    Höhler, Sabine
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Review of Maria Paula Diogo and Dirk van Laak: Europeans Globalizing: Mapping, Exploiting, Exchanging. Basingstoke/New York: Palgrave Macmillan 2016.2018In: NPL Neue Politische Literatur. Berichte aus Geschichts- und Politikwissenschaften, ISSN 0028-3320, Vol. 63, no 1, p. 70-72Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 273.
    Höhler, Sabine
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Smart, Compact, Sustainable?: Challenging the Techno-Ecological Model City as a Global Solution for Urban Sustainability2016Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 274.
    Höhler, Sabine
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Survival: Mars Fiction and Experiments with Life on Earth2017In: Environmental Philosophy, ISSN 1718-0918Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores examples of Mars fiction of “terraforming”—of creating Earth-like environments in space—against the background of the Earth’s environmental degradation and restoration. Visions of Mars settlement offered an escape route for a threatened humanity and a blueprint for the eco-technological recreation of the Earth’s environment. This paper aims to outline the Anthropocene as an epoch that not only compromised the Earth but also essentially transformed the understanding of Earthly life to a minimalist principle of survival through infinite metabolic conversions. This understanding of immortality conjoined images of recreation and creation, of paradisiacal pasts and eco-technological futures.

  • 275.
    Höhler, Sabine
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Top Skin Data and Model Images: El Niño as Seen by Satellite Oceanography2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 276.
    Höhler, Sabine
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    "Total Life Support": Systems Stability and Visions of Sustainability in Space2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Cold War era of extremes, systems stability and equilibrium became key concepts. Visions of politically and ecologically balanced worlds stimulated high hopes in works of science and in works of science fiction. Particularly prominent was the vision to create a self-sustaining system, on the small scale of closed artificial life support systems and ultimately on the scale of an entire planet. Space research provided the experimental setup to link these scales. The space capsule, a high-tech minimized and an optimized vehicle, brought together subsistence-based and innovation-based solutions. The space capsule merged sufficiency and efficiency visions of environmental sustainability.

    This paper explores the intersections of space technology and ecological research by studying three projects of experimentalizing the earth’s life cycles in the form of self-contained and self-maintained metabolic systems to be operated on earth and beyond. The first project is the experiment of terraforming Mars described in the film Red Planet (2000). The second is the BIOS (USSR, 1960s-1970s) project that conceptualized human life as biotic mass. In a closed habitat human elements and algae entered a symbiotic relationship to maintain a viable atmosphere. Finally, the project of Biosphere 2 (USA, 1980s-1990s) technologically recreated the major biospheric cycles of the earth on a miniature scale, complete with cycles of soil, air, mineral, water and waste. All these projects inserted humans into short-circuited supply systems for long-range survival. They reconsidered humans’ place in nature in different but related ways, as part of the earth’s life cycles and as top of and in control of its food chains.

  • 277.
    Höhler, Sabine
    et al.
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Wormbs, Nina
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Remote sensing: Digital data at a distance2017In: Methodological Challenges in Nature-Culture and Environmental History Research / [ed] Jocelyn Thorpe, Stephanie Rutherford, L. Anders Sandberg, London, New York: Routledge, 2017, p. 272-283Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 278. Impagliazzo, J.
    et al.
    Lundin, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Wangler, B.
    History of nordic computing 3: Third IFIP WG 9.7 conference, HiNC 3 Stockholm, Sweden, october 18–20, 2010 revised selected papers2011In: 3rd IFIP WG 9.7 Conference on History of Nordic Computing, HiNC 2010, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 279. Jernelöv, Arne
    et al.
    Wormbs, Nina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Unexptected technological futures2005In: Framtider, ISSN 0281-0492, no 2Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 280.
    Kaijser, Arne
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Att återställa förtroendet2009In: Fjärrvärmetidningen : en tidning om fjärrvärme, kraftvärme och fjärrkyla, ISSN 1401-7687, no 3Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 281.
    Kaijser, Arne
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Den hjälpsamma handen: Staten och infrastrukturen2008In: Då förändras Sverige: 25 experter beskriver drivkrafter bakom utvecklingen / [ed] Eric Giertz, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2008, p. 65-74Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 282.
    Kaijser, Arne
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Elektrifieringens apostlar: Propaganda för elektrisk matlagning 1927-19522007In: Samhällsförändrarna: Livsmönster, idéer och teknisk förändring / [ed] Lars Elenius och Kristina Söderholm, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2007, p. 136-151Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 283.
    Kaijser, Arne
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Fast i infrasystemen2005In: Spelet om staden / [ed] Gun Frank, Stockholm: Formas , 2005, p. 79-87Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 284.
    Kaijser, Arne
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Från stora tekniska system till tekniska komplex: Digitaliseringen av den svenska kraftförsörjningen2016In: Historikere i oppdrag: Festskrift till Trond Bergh, Sverre Knutsen, Lars Thue i anledning 70-årsdagene i 2015 og 2016 / [ed] Harald Espeli og Finn Erhard Johannessen, Oslo: Novus Forlag, 2016, p. 35-61Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Artikeln handlar om utvecklingen och införandet av datorsystemet TIDAS, Total Integrerat DAtor System, som introducerades av Vattenfall år 1977 för övervakning av det svenska kraftnätet. Artikeln ger en bakgrund om kraftnätets framväxt och växande komplexitet, analyserar den nästan tio år långa processen för att specificera, utveckla och driftsätta TIDAS samt skisserar datorsystemets effekter för det svenska och nordiska kraftsystemet.

  • 285.
    Kaijser, Arne
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    How to Describe Large Technical Systems and Their Changes over Time?2005In: Urban Transport Development: A Complex Issue / [ed] G. Jönsson & E. Tengström, Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2005, p. 12-19Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 286.
    Kaijser, Arne
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    I fäders spår2006In: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, no 2006-03-04Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 287.
    Kaijser, Arne
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Minnen från folkomröstningskampanjen2008In: Daedalus: Tekniska Museets Årsbok, Tekniska Museet , 2008Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 288.
    Kaijser, Arne
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Nature's Periphery: Rural Transformation by the Advent of Infrasystems2006In: Taking Place: The Spatial Contexts of Science, Technology and Business / [ed] E. Baraldi, H. Fors, A. Houltz, Sagamore Beach: Science History Publications Ltd., 2006, p. 151-186Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 289.
    Kaijser, Arne
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Nya vägar i europeisk historieskrivning2007In: Tvärsnitt, ISSN 0348-7997, no 2Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 290.
    Kaijser, Arne
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Nätverksneutralitet i historiskt perspektiv2008In: Nätverksneutralitet i Sverige: En summering av ett Teldok 2.0 seminarium / [ed] Stefan Görling & Peter Nou, Teldok , 2008, p. 39-50Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 291.
    Kaijser, Arne
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Redirecting infrasystems towards sustainability2017In: Individual and Structural Determinants of Environmental Practice, London: Taylor & Francis, 2017, p. 152-179Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter argues that the success of infrasystems can be summarized in the words: cheap, convenient and reliable. It deals with mental, legal and other immaterial frameworks forming barriers for people changing their habits and lifestyles in an environmentally sustainable direction. The chapter suggests that a prerequisite for redirecting infrasystems towards sustainability is an understanding of their developments in the past and of their influence on settlement patterns. A common characteristic of infrasystems is that they facilitate movements of different kinds. The institutional shaping of an infrasystem can be seen as the result of an encounter between technology and society. A first lesson is that infrasystems are socio-technical systems, in which the institutional frameworks and the system culture are as important as the technical components. In the public debate, there is generally a lack of understanding of the importance of these 'soft' parts of infrasystems and a strong belief in 'technical fixes'.

  • 292.
    Kaijser, Arne
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Staten stärker greppet om infrastrukturen2008In: Då förändras Sverige: 25 experter beskriver drivkrafter bakom / [ed] Eric Giertz, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2008, p. 127-137Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 293.
    Kaijser, Arne
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Swedish energy imports in the 20th century: The geopolitics of a small nation2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Throughout the 20th century Sweden has imported more than half of its energy needs, except for a few years during the WWI and WWII. In the 1970s imports reached a level of almost 80 % and today we still import almost 2/3 of our energy needs. There has been much historical research focusing on the development of domestic energy sources like hydro power, nuclear power, biofuels, wind power and about the conflicts surrounding these, not least concerning environmental impacts. But very little about the predominance of energy imports and what these have meant.

    This dependency on energy imports from many parts of the world has implied a major vulnerability that became manifest a number of times. Both World War I and II implied huge obstacles for coal imports. Other critical periods were in 1956, when the Suez crisis cut off oil supplies from the Middle East, and in 1973 and 1979, when oil prices sky rocketed due to the Yom Kippur War and the Iranian revolution, respectively.

    Sweden has of course not been alone in its dependence on imported fuels. The world’s energy resources are very unevenly distributed, and since the mid-19th century the pursuit of coal, oil, gas and uranium has been an important constituent of international politics and economics. The strongest nations have used economic, political and if necessary military means to control energy sources in far-away territories in order to secure their energy supplies at home. This is often referred to as the geopolitics of energy, and there has been quite some research about it. There has been much less research on how small nations have tried to handle their dependencies on far away countries using “soft” means rather than “hard” ones.

    This paper will discuss the geopolitics of a small nation by looking at the strategies that Swedish actors of different kinds have pursued to try to reduce the vulnerability of energy imports: by increasing the number of export countries and by developing trustful relations with exporting countries and companies; by cooperating with other importing countries to get a stronger bargaining position vis-à-vis exporters; by participating in prospecting and exploration of energy abroad; by storing energy fuels to be used in case of interruptions in energy imports; and by building flexible heat and power plants that can use different kinds of energy carriers.

    It will also reflect on the environmental implications of this energy import. How can we assess the magnitude of these environmental effects? And how come that this aspect of Swedish energy supply has been so little discussed in comparison to the environmental effects of domestic energy production?

  • 294.
    Kaijser, Arne
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    The Use of Computers for Controlling Electricity Flows in Sweden, 1950-19802011In: History of Nordic Computing 3 / [ed] J. Impagliazzo, P. Lundin, L. Wangler, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011, 3, p. 28-34Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An important application of computers from the 1950s and onwards has been for designing and operating complex infrastructural systems like air traffic, telephony, railways, and electricity. This paper tells the story about how computers from the 1950s and onwards became an important tool for designing and operating the Swedish power grid. It describes two phases of this development. In the 1950s and 1960s, computers were used for making complicated calculations for designing power grids in a reliable way and optimizing the use of the different power plants. In a second phase starting in the late 1960s, computer systems were developed for real time monitoring supporting human control of the power grid. The paper analyzes by whom and for what purposes computers became tools for controlling electricity flows. In the conclusion, it also discusses the wider implications of computers for the development of the Swedish power system.

  • 295.
    Kaijser, Arne
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Tom Hughes-International Scholar2014In: Technology and culture, ISSN 0040-165X, E-ISSN 1097-3729, Vol. 55, no 4, p. 953-957Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 296.
    Kaijser, Arne
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Träsklandet blev stormakt: Väderkvarnar mot Nederländernas översvämningar2006In: Forskning & Framsteg, ISSN 0015-7937, no 4, p. 42-47Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 297.
    Kaijser, Arne
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Under a Common Acid Sky. Negotiating Transboundary Air Pollution in Europe: Negotiating Transboundary Air Pollution in Europe2013In: Cosmopolitan Commons: Sharing Resources and Risks across Borders / [ed] Nil Disco and Eda Kranakis, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2013, p. 213-242Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 298.
    Kaijser, Arne
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Under the Damocles Sword: Coal import and the fear of energy shortage in Sweden2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    “Our country’s independence and economy has a Damocles sword constantly hanging over it”. This formulation was used by a Swedish parliamentarian in the year 1900 referring to Sweden’s dependency on coal import. The vulnerability this implied had become manifest in previous months, when coal prices had increased significantly following a major strike in British coal mines. And as coal provided almost half of total energy supply this price increase had a huge impact on the Swedish economy at large.

    Until the mid-19th century, Sweden had been almost self-sufficient in energy supply. In the mid-19th century a growing number of steam engines were installed in industries, trains, steamboats and urban gasworks were established in cities and towns. This created a growing demand for coal. In spite of ambitious coal prospecting and exploration in parts of the country, very few deposits were discovered, and Sweden started importing coal mainly from Great Britain. The organization of the industry became very fragmented. In the 1930s there were no less than 40 wholesale dealers and more than 5000 retailers on the Swedish coal and cokes market.

    In my paper I will study how the fear of coal shortage spurred developments of domestic energy sources before WWI and during the interwar years. Moreover, I will study how Swedish public and private actors coped with the actual coal shortages during the two world wars, focusing both on the large scale substitution of coal and coke with wood and peat and on negotiations with potential exporters. In both wars the state intervened very strongly in the fuel market with rationing of sales and large scale stock piling. During WWII Nazi Germany became Sweden’s main coal supplier and increased its export substantially, when imports from Britain had been cut off. In return Sweden increased its export of iron ore in proportion.

     

  • 299.
    Kaijser, Arne
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    When the grid became smart2010In: Proceedings of the Scientific Conference on Energy and IT at Alvsjo fair, Stockholm March 11-12, 2009 in connection with "Energitinget 2010", 2010, p. 151-165Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 300.
    Kaijser, Arne
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Fjæstad, Maja
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Högselius, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Åberg, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Under the Damocles Sword: Managing Swedish Energy Dependence2012Conference paper (Refereed)
3456789 251 - 300 of 569
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