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  • 251.
    Zhang, Qinglin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Energy and Furnace Technology.
    Wu, Yueshi
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Energy and Furnace Technology.
    Dor, L.
    Yang, Weihong
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Energy and Furnace Technology.
    Blasiak, Wlodzimierz
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Energy and Furnace Technology.
    A thermodynamic analysis of solid waste gasification in the Plasma Gasification Melting process2013In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 112, p. 405-413Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plasma Gasification Melting is a promising technology for solid waste treatment. In this work, a thermodynamic analysis has been conducted to evaluate the advantages and limitations of the PGM technology. According to the characteristics of the PGM, the whole process was divided into four sections such as drying, pyrolysis, char gasification and inorganics melting. The energy and exergy in each section has been calculated. According to different usage of syngas, two kinds of energy and exergy efficiencies are defined. The results show that the PGM process produces a tar-rich syngas. When considering the raw syngas (syngas with tar), the energy and exergy efficiency of PGM process is very high. The effects of operating conditions on the thermodynamic performance of the PGM process have been analyzed. Considering the energy and exergy of clean syngas, it is beneficial to increase sensible heat input to the PGM system. However, high sensible heat input or high steam injection is not suggested when considering the energy and exergy efficiency of raw syngas.

  • 252.
    Zhang, Yang
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Lundblad, Anders
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Comparative study of hydrogen storage and battery storage in gridconnected photovoltaic system: Storage sizing and rule-basedoperation2017In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 201, p. 397-411Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper studies grid-connected photovoltaic (PV)-hydrogen/battery systems. The storage componentcapacities and the rule-based operation strategy parameters are simultaneously optimized by theGenetic Algorithm. Three operation strategies for the hydrogen storage, namely conventional operationstrategy, peak shaving strategy and hybrid operation strategy, are compared under two scenarios basedon the pessimistic and optimistic costs. The results indicate that the hybrid operation strategy, whichcombines the conventional operation strategy and the peak shaving strategy, is advantageous in achievinghigher Net Present Value (NPV) and Self Sufficiency Ratio (SSR). Hydrogen storage is further comparedwith battery storage. Under the pessimistic cost scenario, hydrogen storage results in poorer performancein both SSR and NPV. While under the optimistic cost scenario, hydrogen storage achieves higher NPV.Moreover, when taking into account the grid power fluctuation, hydrogen storage achieves better performancein all three optimization objectives, which are NPV, SSR and GI (Grid Indicator).

  • 253.
    Zhang, Yang
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes. Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Yang, Ying
    Stridh, Bengt
    Lundblad, Anders
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes. Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Energy flexibility from the consumer: Integrating local electricity and heat supplies in a building2018In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 223, p. 430-442Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing penetration level of renewable energy requires more flexibility measures to be implemented in future energy systems. Integrating an energy consumer's local energy supplies connects multiple energy networks (i.e., the electrical grid, the district heating network, and gas network) in a decentralized way. Such integration enhances the flexibility of energy systems. In this work, a Swedish office building is investigated as a case study. Different components, including heat pump, electrical heater, battery and hot water storage tank are integrated into the electricity and heat supply system of the building. Special focus is placed on the flexibility that the studied building can provide to the electrical grid (i.e., the building modulates the electricity consumption in response to the grid operator's requirements). The flexibility is described by two metrics including the flexibility hours and the flexibility energy. Optimization of the component capacities and the operation profiles is carried out by using Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP). The results show that the system fully relies on electricity for the heat demand when not considering the flexibility requirements of the electrical grid. This suggests that district heating is economically unfavorable compared with using electricity for the heat demand in the studied case. However, when flexibility requirements are added, the system turns to the district heating network for part of the heat demand. The system provides great flexibility to the electrical grid through such integration. The flexibility hours can be over 5200 h in a year, and the flexibility energy reaches more than 15.7 MWh (36% of the yearly electricity consumption). The yearly operation cost of the system slightly increases from 62,273 to 65,178 SEK when the flexibility hours increase from 304 to 5209 h. The results revealed that flexibility can be provided from the district heating network to the electrical grid via the building.

  • 254.
    Zhong, Teng
    et al.
    Nanjing Normal Univ, Minist Educ PRC, Key Lab Virtual Geog Environm, Nanjing 210023, Peoples R China.;State Key Lab Cultivat Base Geog Environm Evolut, Nanjing 210023, Peoples R China.;Jiangsu Ctr Collaborat Innovat Geog Informat Reso, Nanjing 210023, Peoples R China..
    Zhang, Zhixin
    Nanjing Normal Univ, Minist Educ PRC, Key Lab Virtual Geog Environm, Nanjing 210023, Peoples R China.;State Key Lab Cultivat Base Geog Environm Evolut, Nanjing 210023, Peoples R China.;Jiangsu Ctr Collaborat Innovat Geog Informat Reso, Nanjing 210023, Peoples R China..
    Chen, Min
    Nanjing Normal Univ, Minist Educ PRC, Key Lab Virtual Geog Environm, Nanjing 210023, Peoples R China.;State Key Lab Cultivat Base Geog Environm Evolut, Nanjing 210023, Peoples R China.;Jiangsu Ctr Collaborat Innovat Geog Informat Reso, Nanjing 210023, Peoples R China.;Nanjing Normal Univ, Sch Math Sci, Jiangsu Prov Key Lab NSLSCS, Nanjing 210023, Peoples R China..
    Zhang, Kai
    Nanjing Normal Univ, Minist Educ PRC, Key Lab Virtual Geog Environm, Nanjing 210023, Peoples R China.;State Key Lab Cultivat Base Geog Environm Evolut, Nanjing 210023, Peoples R China.;Jiangsu Ctr Collaborat Innovat Geog Informat Reso, Nanjing 210023, Peoples R China..
    Zhou, Zixuan
    Nanjing Normal Univ, Minist Educ PRC, Key Lab Virtual Geog Environm, Nanjing 210023, Peoples R China.;State Key Lab Cultivat Base Geog Environm Evolut, Nanjing 210023, Peoples R China.;Jiangsu Ctr Collaborat Innovat Geog Informat Reso, Nanjing 210023, Peoples R China..
    Zhu, Rui
    Singapore MIT Alliance Res & Technol, Senseable City Lab, Future Urban Mobil IRG, 1 Create Way,09-02 Create Tower, Singapore 138062, Singapore..
    Wang, Yijie
    Nanjing Normal Univ, Minist Educ PRC, Key Lab Virtual Geog Environm, Nanjing 210023, Peoples R China.;State Key Lab Cultivat Base Geog Environm Evolut, Nanjing 210023, Peoples R China.;Jiangsu Ctr Collaborat Innovat Geog Informat Reso, Nanjing 210023, Peoples R China..
    Lu, Guonian
    Nanjing Normal Univ, Minist Educ PRC, Key Lab Virtual Geog Environm, Nanjing 210023, Peoples R China.;State Key Lab Cultivat Base Geog Environm Evolut, Nanjing 210023, Peoples R China.;Jiangsu Ctr Collaborat Innovat Geog Informat Reso, Nanjing 210023, Peoples R China..
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes. Mälardalen Univ, Sch Business Soc & Engn, S-72123 Västerås, Sweden..
    A city-scale estimation of rooftop solar photovoltaic potential based on deep learning2021In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 298, article id 117132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The estimation of rooftop solar photovoltaic (PV) potential is crucial for policymaking around sustainable energy plans. But it is difficult to accurately estimate the availability of rooftop area for solar radiation on a city-scale. In this study, a generic framework for estimating the rooftop solar PV potential on a city-scale using publicly available high-resolution satellite images is proposed. A deep learning-based method is developed to extract the rooftop area with image semantic segmentation automatically. A spatial optimization sampling strategy is developed to solve the labor-intensive problem when training the rooftop extraction model based on prior knowledge of urban and rural spatial layout and land use. In the case study of Nanjing, China, the labor cost on preparing the dataset for training the rooftop extraction model has been reduced by about 80% with the proposed spatial optimization sampling strategy. Meanwhile, the robustness of the rooftop extraction model in districts with different architectural styles and land use has been improved. The total rooftop area extracted was 330.36 km(2), and the overall accuracy reached 0.92. The estimation results show that Nanjing has significant potential for rooftop-mounted PV installations, and the potential installed capacity reached 66 GW. The annual rooftop solar PV potential was approximately 311,853 GWh, with a corresponding estimated power generation of 49,897 GWh in 2019.

  • 255.
    Zhou, Chunguang
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Technology.
    Rosén, Christer
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Technology.
    Engvall, Klas
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Technology.
    Biomass oxygen/steam gasification in a pressurized bubbling fluidized bed: Agglomeration behavior2016In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 172, p. 230-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the anti-agglomeration abilities of Ca- and Mg-containing bed materials, including dolomite and magnesite, in a pressurized bubbling fluidized bed gasifier using pine pellets and birch chips as feedstock, is investigated. The most typical bed material-silica sand-was also included as a reference for comparison. The sustainability of the operation was evaluated via analyzing the temperatures at different levels along the bed height. During the performances, the aim was to keep the temperature at the bottom zone of the reactor at around 870 °C. However, the success highly depends on the bed materials used in the bed and the temperature can vary significantly in case of agglomeration or bad mixing of bed materials and char particles. Both Glanshammar and Sala dolomites performed well with no observed agglomeration tendencies. In case of magnesite, the bed exhibited a high agglomeration tendency. Silica sand displayed the most severe agglomeration among all bed materials, even when birch chips with a low silica content was fed at a relatively low temperature. The solid samples of all the bed materials were inspected by light microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) detector was used to detect the elemental distribution in the surface. The crystal chemical structure was analyzed using X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Magnesite agglomerates glued together by big molten ash particles. There was no coating layer detected on magnesite particles at bed temperatures - below 870 °C. But when the temperature was above 1000 °C, a significant amount of small molten ash particles was deposited on the magnesite particles, indicating a pronounced tendency for formation of a coating layer in case of long-term operation. An increasing trend of Si on the surface of dolomite particles was observed. Simultaneously, potassium deposition on the surface is not obvious. The analyses, based on the XRD diffraction and the K2O-SiO2-MgO and K2O-SiO2-CaO ternary diagrams, suggest that the observed decreases in the risks for agglomeration using dolomite, cannot be attributed to formation of alkali-containing compounds with higher melting points, but to the reaction between dolomite and silica, consuming a considerable portion of silicon and thus hinder the formation of low-melting potassium silicate, as well as its ability to stabilize the temperatures under pressurized conditions.

  • 256.
    Zhou, Chunguang
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Energy and Furnace Technology.
    Zhang, Qinglin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Energy and Furnace Technology.
    Arnold, Leonie
    Yang, Weihong
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Energy and Furnace Technology.
    Blasiak, Wlodzimierz
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Energy and Furnace Technology.
    A study of the pyrolysis behaviors of pelletized recovered municipal solid waste fuels2013In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 107, p. 173-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pelletized recovered solid waste fuel is often applied in gasification systems to provide feedstock with a stabilized quality and high heating value and to avoid the bridging behavior caused by high moisture content, low particle density, and irregular particle size. However, the swelling properties and the sticky material generated from pyrolysis of the plastic group components also tend to trigger bridging in the retorting zone. It is well known that the plastic group materials, which occupy a considerable proportion of municipal solid waste, can melt together easily even under low temperature. This study investigates the pyrolysis behaviors of typical recovered solid waste pellets, including the devolatilization rate, heat transfer properties, char properties, and swelling/shrinkage properties, in a small fixed-bed facility over a wide temperature range, from 900 degrees C to 450 degrees C. The results are also compared with those from wheat straw pellets, a typical cellulosic fuel. Moreover, the SEM images and BET analysis of the char structure are further analyzed to provide additional explanation for the mechanisms of swelling/shrinkage phenomena observed during heating.

  • 257. Zhou, Wei
    et al.
    Yang, Hongxing
    Rissanen, Markku
    Nygren, Bertil
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Decrease of energy demand for bioethanol-based polygeneration system through case study2012In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 95, p. 305-311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Economic competitiveness of bioethanol production strongly depends on the amount of heat and power consumed during the production process. Integration of different energy conversion processes by polygeneration is one of the solutions to minimize the use of energy resources to best meet user's energy demands. In this study, a biogas generation system, a Fuel Cell system and a green house are integrated in the bioethanol plant to form a polygeneration system. At the same time, in order to further reduce the consumption of external energy sources, possibilities of heat energy integration, which looks for the best utilization of energy flows generated or consumed inside the process, have been investigated. Simulation of the polygeneration system is carried out by Simulink; energy saving potential for the polygeneration plant is analyzed to find the optimum configuration to maximize the electricity production while producing sufficient heat from both the Fuel Cell unit and pellets combustion to satisfy the energy requirements of the whole plant. Based on the simulation results, detailed energy and mass flow processes of the whole polygeneration plant was presented.

  • 258.
    Zhu, Bin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Fan, Liangdong
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Lund, Peter
    Breakthrough fuel cell technology using ceria-based multi-functional nanocomposites2013In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 106, p. 163-175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent scientific and technological advancements have provided a wealth of new information about solid oxide-molten salt composite materials and multifunctional ceria-based nano-composites for advanced fuel cells (NANOCOFC). NANOCOFC is a new approach for designing and developing of multi-functionalities for nanocomposite materials, especially at 300-600 degrees C. NANOCOFC and low temperature advanced ceramic fuel cells (LTACFCs) are growing as a new promising area of research which can be explored in various ways. The ceria-based composite materials have been developed as competitive electrolyte candidates for low temperature ceramic fuel cells (LTCFCs). In the latest developments, multifunctional materials have been developed by integrating semi- and ion conductors, which have resulted in an emerging insight knowledge concerned with their R&D on single-component electrolyte-free fuel cells (EFFCs) - a breakthrough fuel cell technology. A homogenous component/layer of the semi- and ion conducting materials can realize fuel cell all functions to avoid using three components: anode, electrolyte and cathode, i.e. "three in one" highlighted by Nature Nanotechnology (2011). This report gives a short review and advance knowledge on worldwide activities on the ceria-based composites, emphasizing on the latest semi-ion conductive nanocomposites and applications for new applied energy technologies. It gives an overview to help the audience to get a comprehensive understanding on this new field.

  • 259.
    Zhu, Kai
    et al.
    Tianjin Univ Commerce, Tianjin Key Lab Refrigerat Technol, Tianjin 300134, Peoples R China..
    Li, Xueqiang
    Tianjin Univ Commerce, Tianjin Key Lab Refrigerat Technol, Tianjin 300134, Peoples R China.;Tianjin Univ, Sch Environm Sci & Engn, Tianjin 300350, Peoples R China.;Malardalen Univ, Sch Business Soc & Engn, SE-72123 Vastras, Sweden..
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Malardalen Univ, Sch Business Soc & Engn, SE-72123 Vastras, Sweden.;KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Li, Hailong
    Tianjin Univ Commerce, Tianjin Key Lab Refrigerat Technol, Tianjin 300134, Peoples R China.;Malardalen Univ, Sch Business Soc & Engn, SE-72123 Vastras, Sweden..
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE). Malardalen Univ, Sch Business Soc & Engn, SE-72123 Vastras, Sweden.
    Techno-economic feasibility of integrating energy storage systems in refrigerated warehouses2018In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 216, p. 348-357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work evaluates the techno-economic feasibility of integrating the cold energy storage system and the electrical energy storage system in a refrigerated warehouse for shifting the power consumption. A dynamic model has been developed in TRNSYS (R). Based on the dynamic simulation, the performance and benefit of those two types of energy storage systems were compared. Results showed that, the integration of a cold energy storage can reduce the electricity consumption and operational cost by 4.3% and 20.5%, respectively. Even though integrating a battery system will increase the electricity consumption by 3.9%, it can reduce the operational cost by 18.7%. The capacity of the energy storage systems, the battery price and the peak electricity price had been identified as key parameters affecting the performance and benefit. To achieve a payback period less than 3 year, for the integration of a cold energy storage system, the peak electricity price should be increased by 25% from the current level, while for the integration of a battery system, the battery price should drop to 0.7 kRMB/kWh.

  • 260. Zhu, Zhi-Shuang
    et al.
    Liao, Hua
    Cao, Huai-Shu
    Wang, Lu
    Wei, Yi-Ming
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    The differences of carbon intensity reduction rate across 89 countries in recent three decades2014In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 113, no SI, p. 808-815Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the recent decades, most countries' CO2 intensity has decreased, but their decline rates are significantly different. Based on the data set of 89 countries from 1980 to 2008, this paper tries to quantitatively investigate the potential reasons for their differences, and discusses the possibility for developing countries to maintain a high carbon intensity reduction rate in the future as before. The econometric analysis implicate that (1) the decline rate of CO2 intensity in countries with high initial carbon intensity will be higher, which means CO2 intensity across the world has a significant convergence trend; and (2) keeping fast and steady economic growth can significantly help CO2 intensity decline, yet total carbon dioxide emissions will grow dramatically. Therefore, with the two objectives of intensity reduction and total amount control, carbon abatement policies need to weigh one against another. The results are robust to the initial year selection and country classification.

3456 251 - 260 of 260
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