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  • 251. Suau-Sanchez, P.
    et al.
    Voltes-Dorta, A.
    Rodríguez-Déniz, Hector
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    An assessment of the potential for self-connectivity at European airports in holiday markets2017In: Tourism Management, ISSN 0261-5177, E-ISSN 1879-3193, Vol. 62, p. 54-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a context of intense airport and airline competition, a few European airports have recently started offering self-connection services to price-sensitive holiday passengers travelling with a combination of tickets where the airline/s involved do not handle the transfer themselves. This paper provides an exploratory analysis of the potential and implications of self-connectivity for European airports and airlines using a case study of air travel routes to holiday destinations in the Mediterranean. With the help of a forecasting model based on a zero-inflated Poisson regression, we identify the airports and airlines that have the highest potential to facilitate self-connections in the selected markets. The results also explore some implications of the widespread development of self-connection services in Europe.

  • 252.
    Sung Jung, Jae
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Passengers´perspectives on advanced bus systems in Sweden2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Passengers’ perspectives on advanced bus system in Sweden – the title of this thesis work

    can be re-written as next question: ‘What can we learn from today’s advanced bus systems

    for tomorrow’s BRT systems?’

    In order to get an answer to this question, several examples of ‘advanced’ bus systems

    currently running in Sweden were investigated. Among them, Stockholm’s double-decker

    route (SL 676) and MalmoExpressen were selected for more in-depth studies. Survey works

    were proposed on these systems as well as their appropriate reference routes with ordinary

    fleet and operational characteristics.

    Questionnaires for survey works were designed in a way that almost every moment in a

    modal choice could be included: attitude, perception, preference and satisfaction. In order to

    measure the passengers’ thoughts, the stated preference method (SP) was also included.

    In total 635 surveys were carried out: 363 on Stockholm double-decker and reference

    routes, 272 on MalmoExpressen and its reference routes. The result shows that both

    advanced bus systems have influenced their passengers in positive ways so far: on their

    attitudes, perceptions, preferences and levels of satisfaction. Especially the passengers on

    those advanced bus systems are satisfied with advanced features of the fleet as well as nonfleet

    features of respective bus system. For the former there are comfort, noise level, high

    capacity and temperature. For the latter there are attributes such as punctuality, travel time,

    etc.

    The important attributes of a bus system were also asked along with question on level of

    satisfaction. The passengers in these two region want to have a on-time, clean and welltempered

    bus system. From the correlation analysis between satisfaction and importance,

    there are measures which should be taken on ordinary bus systems: frequency, punctuality,

    travel time, noise level, temperature and cleanliness.

    Passengers’ willingness to pay for a better fleet were calculated as SEK 135 per month in

    Stockholm double-decker and SEK 18 per month for MalmoExpressen. The difference might

    be caused by the different route characteristics: regional and urban.

    It was not possible to define ’Swedish’ passengers’ preferences by this study. It might be

    possible through a similar, comparative study with other bus systems in the world.

  • 253.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    The influence of parent’s perceptions and residential self-selection to the children’s travel modes at single parent households2015In: Sustainable Urban Transport / [ed] Stephen Ison and Jon Shaw, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2015, p. 43-64Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - This chapter investigates the impacts of households’ residential self-selection, parents’ perceptions and travel patterns on their children’s daily travel mode shares, among single parent households. Methodology/approach - To capture the complexity of the relationships between parent and children daily travel mode choices, an integrated model structure is introduced and the model estimated with simultaneous equation modelling. Findings - The results show that, beside the daily activity-travel engagements of the parent, both parent’s perceptions and his/her residential self-selection reasons play significant roles in influencing their children daily travel mode shares. The parent’s perceptions play more significant roles in influencing children’s travel modes shares, whilst the residential self-selection reasons have more significant influence on the parent’s travel mode choice. Research limitations/implications - The finding of this study reveals a fact that wherever the children live, their travel behaviour tend to be ‘neutral’ and open to influence by their parents throughout their childhood. Originality/value - This study adds to our understanding of the interactions between parents’ attitudes and behaviours with their children’s travel patterns. This study focuses on single parent households, on which there is very little literature.

  • 254.
    Susilo, Yusak
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Diana, Marco
    Hrin, Gabriela Rodica
    Woodcock, Andree
    Implementing a Behavioural Pilot Survey for the Stage-Based Study of the Whole Journey Traveler Experience2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European project, METPEX, aims to develop and validate an evaluation tool for the whole journey experience that takes into consideration the point of view of the passenger. The traveller experience is a broader concept compared to the standard notion of the ‘trip’ or one journey, as it embraces pre-trip information acquisition process and ends when the traveller arrives at the final destination. The focus on the whole journey experience thus represents the first distinguishing characteristic of our data collection effort. An additional feature is the inclusion of questions tailored to special user groups within a survey designed for the general public. The third innovating aspect is related to the collection of self-related information (attitudes, perceptions etc.) at the stage- rather than at the trip-level. The fourth innovation is the use of the same variables across five different instruments (face to face interviews, on line questionnaire, web app, game and focus groups).

     

    A pilot survey has been implemented to help identify what kind of information should be collected to sufficiently characterize the different phases of the traveller experience. Five categories of variables that were expected to influence overall travellers’ evaluations were identified and tested: individual attributes, contextual variables, attitudes, travel experience and satisfaction aspects. Administering the pilot survey resulted in a total of 554 interviews in eight different cities across Europe. The experience that was gained from the pilot survey implementation was supplemented by consultation of 45 different stakeholders that reviewed the tool. Potentialities and shortcomings that emerged from these assessment activities are discussed.

  • 255.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Abenoza, R.
    Implementing various different tools to measure the door-to-door travel satisfaction2016In: Designing Mobility and Transport Services: Developing Traveller Experience Tools, Taylor & Francis, 2016, p. 99-112Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 256.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Joewono, Tri Basuki
    Vandebona, Upali
    Reasons underlying behaviour of motorcyclists disregarding traffic regulations in urban areas of Indonesia2015In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 75, p. 272-284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last decade, motorcycle use has been rapidly increasing in Indonesia as have violations of traffic rules committed by motorcyclists. This study aims to explore the impacts of motorcyclists' attitudes, habits, preferences, and travel patterns on their behaviour in disregarding traffic regulations in three cities in Indonesia. The theory of planned behaviour and structural equation modelling are employed to explore these relationships. Consistent with results from previous studies in developed countries, an individual's beliefs and attitudes, social norms and perceived behaviour control significantly influence behaviour in disregarding traffic rules. Young adults and students are found to be more likely to frequently violate traffic regulations. However, unlike previous findings from developed countries, in Indonesia, males are less likely to disregard traffic rules than females. Overall, pushing the motorcycle through a (very) narrow gap, speeding, driving recklessly, and overtaking on the wrong side are the most frequent traffic violations that make up repetitive violation behaviour among urban motorcyclists in Indonesia. The results highlight the need to revisit Indonesian National Traffic Law traffic violation classification and penalties and separate violations that are likely to cause fatal results, thus requiring tougher law enforcement, from violations that are unlikely to have fatal consequences.

  • 257.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Liu, Chengxi
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Examining the relationships between individual's time use and activity participations with their health indicators2017In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 9, no 2, article id 26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Using a three-week household activity-travel survey, this paper explores the relationship between individuals’ self-reported physical, mental and social health conditions and their time allocation for different types of in-home and out-of-home time activities. Methods: A path model is developed to investigate the roles of activity-travel time use on the self-reported health conditions, while the socio-demographics and residential environment characteristics are also considered. Results: The model results reveal heterogeneous impacts of different types of activities and intensities on individual’s self-reported health conditions. This study, however, did not find evidence of positive relationship between cycling and walking and self-reported physical health condition, which has been found in many developed countries. Presumably this is because in developing countries like Indonesia the individuals who walk and cycle are likely to be a part of economically disadvantaged groups who have less awareness to their own health conditions. Conclusion: Beside activity and travel time use factors, age and working status were found significantly affecting the self-reported health conditions, regardless of respondents’ gender and income. Neighbourhood characteristics, such as population density, are also found positively correlated to self-reported respondents’ physical, social and mental health conditions.

  • 258.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Liu, Chengxi
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    The influence of parents' travel patterns, perceptions and residential self-selectivity to their children travel mode shares2016In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 357-378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using the UK National Travel Survey from 2002 to 2006, this paper investigates the influence of households' residential self-selectivity, parents' perceptions on accessibilities and their travel patterns on their children daily travel mode share. In doing this, this study introduces a model structure that represents the complex interactions between the parents' travel patterns, their perceptions on public transport services and their reported residential self-selectivity reasons and the children travel mode shares. This structure is analysed with structural equation modelling. The model estimation results show that parents' residential self-selectivity, parents' perceptions and satisfactions on accessibilities and their daily travel patterns significantly influence the children's daily travel mode shares. However, the effects are not uniform across household members. This study has revealed that households' residential self-selectivity behaviours have more correlations with the children's non-motorised mode shares, whilst the parents' perceptions and satisfactions on transport infrastructure and public transport service qualities have more correlations with parents' mode shares. The results also confirm that parents' non-motorised modes use in travelling is highly correlated with the children's physically active travel mode shares. However, at the same time, the results also show that the effects of mothers' car use to the children travel mode shares is more apparent than fathers'.

  • 259.
    Susilo, Yusak
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Woodcock, Andree
    Liotopoulos, Fotis
    Duarte, Andre
    Osmond, Jane
    Abenoza, Roberto
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Anghel, Lucian Emanuel
    Herrero, Dolores
    Fornari, Federico
    Tolio, Virginie
    O'Connell, Eileen
    Markuceviciute, Ieva
    Kritharioti, Chrysoula
    Pirra, Miriam
    Deploying traditional and smartphone app survey methods in measuring door-to-door travel satisfaction in eight European cities2017In: WORLD CONFERENCE ON TRANSPORT RESEARCH - WCTR 2016 / [ed] Ulengin, F Li, K Boltze, M, 2017, p. 2262-2280Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study describes the lessons learned from designing, deploying and analysing the results from different travel satisfaction survey tools which measures the travellers' door-to-door travel satisfaction. The travel satisfaction measurement survey tools tested consisted of two types of smartphone applications (a satellite navigation app and a game app), an on-line survey, a paper based semi-structured questionnaire and a focus group questionnaire. Each of the measurement tools comprised the same set of basic questions, but in different formats, aimed at exploring the pros and cons of each tool among different groups of travellers. The data collection was carried out at eight different European cities and five FIA motorist networks. 5,275 valid responses were gathered from the survey. Further analysis results show that different survey methods performed better in different sites. The satisfaction that was gathered via main trip leg does not necessarily correspond with overall satisfaction of the door-to-door journey. The results of this study highlight the need for more inclusive, complete, door-to-door, travel survey measurements.

  • 260.
    Svensson, Kristofer
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Mot framtiden, utan händerna på ratten: Ett kandidatarbete om hur närvaron av autonoma fordon påverkar kapaciteten på Stockholms motorvägar2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det pågår idag försök att introducera autonoma fordon på allmän väg och exempelvis Google har kommit längst med ett hundratal fordon i trafik och många miljoner kilometer körda. Den autonoma trafiken sägs föra många fördelar med sig som högre kapacitet, högre trafiksäkerhet och högre medelhastigheter i vägnätet. I projektet NESTA undersöker Movea Trafikkonsult AB, på uppdrag av Trafikverket, hur närvaron av autonoma fordon, AV-fordon, påverkar tra-fikmiljön i Stockholm. Syftet med denna rapport är att ta fram en metodik för simulering av AV-fordon i ett storskaligt nätverk och sedan använda denna metod för att studera AV-fordons effekter på kapacitet och flöde.

    Mycket forskning har utförts tidigare om AV-fordons påstådda effekter och studier visar på att en stor andel AV-fordon ger effektivitets- och kapacitetsvinster. De juridiska aspekterna har också studerats och det finns viss problematik i frågan om vem som bär ansvaret vid en olycka där ett AV-fordon är inblandat.

    Simuleringar har utförts på ett nätverk bestående av motorvägar i området runt Stockholm. Ett flertal scenarion har skapats för att studera olika parametersättningars effekter på resultatet. Scenarierna introducerar olika andel AV-fordon i systemet och vissa scenarier studerar också fordonskolonners påverkan på vägnätet vad gäller ovanstående frågeställning.

    Resultaten som erhållits visar alla på svårigheterna att simulera AV-fordons beteende i trafi-ken. Resultaten visar tydligt att då 100% av fordonen i ett nätverk är AV-fordon ökar kapa-citeten mycket och fördröjningen minskar till nära noll. Detta pga. AV-fordonens förmodade förmåga att kunna hålla mycket korta tidsluckor till framförvarande fordon. Vid mindre andel AV-fordon i systemet är effekterna dock inte möjliga att utläsa av de resultat som erhållits i rapporten. Dessa resultat visar också på svårigheter vad gäller introduktionen av fordonsko-lonner i stadsnära motorvägsmiljö med många av- och påfartsramper. Det visar sig att vid vissa flaskhalsar kan kolonnerna inte väva in bland resten av trafiken vilket ger stora fördröj-ningseffekter. Försök att lösa detta genom större tidsluckor nära dessa flaskhalsar har visat sig ge förvärrande effekter.

  • 261. Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    et al.
    Algers, Staffan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. Centre Transport Studies, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Willingness to accept commuting time within the household: stated preference evidence2016In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 219-241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, stated preference data is used to derive estimated values of commuting time (VOCT). Both spouses in two-earner households are individually making trade-offs between commuting time and wage; both with regard to their own commuting time and wage only, as well as when both their own commuting time and wage and their spouse's commuting time and wage are simultaneously changed. Thus, we are able to compare how male spouses and female spouses value each other's commuting time. When only ones own commuting time and wage are attributes, the empirical results show that the estimated VOCT is plausible with a tendency towards high values compared to other studies, and that VOCT does not differ significantly between men and women. When decisions affecting commuting time and wage of both spouses are analyzed, both spouses value the commuting time of the wife highest. Further analysis show that this result is driven by households where the man has the highest income. If VOCT were to be gender specific in policy implications, the value might be higher for women than for men in two-earner households.

  • 262.
    Söderström, Simone
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Svenska cykelöverfarter, en konfliktdesign?2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Along with an increase of environmental awareness in Sweden, the usages of green transports

    including cycling are increasing. Therefore the prioritization of the design of an attractive and

    sustainable transport system would be up to date. Many Swedish cities are planning to

    increase cycling by organizing attractive cycle routes, and dense networks. In the same way

    that intersections are a natural part of the motor transport network, cycle crossings are a

    natural part of the cycle routes. Today, there are some tools in the planning process; rules and

    recommendations. However, studies of behavior for Swedish crosswalks and bicycle

    crossings are missing. Intersections between modes of transport should be easy to grasp and

    easy to use. Interaction zones, including pedestrians and cyclists are expected. The

    observations leading to the conclusions and suggestions of this report found that the

    interactions mainly occur at the bicycle crossings, which is unwanted and unplanned due to

    the danger connected to it.

    In order to create a higher level of understanding of the interactions that occur and how to

    remedy them, the report has been divided into three parts. The first part is a literature review

    of Swedish and international planning ideals, where the focus was on identifying other

    countries' solutions of bicycle crossings. The second part, an observational study aimed to

    identify the types of interactions that occurred and why they occur. In this study, four

    common signal-controlled crossings in Stockholm were observed. Thereby, the study should

    be useful in places other than in Stockholm. The last part is a regression analysis, i.e a

    statistical investigation of factors affecting bicycle crossings accessibility; in this case it is

    limited to the cyclists' speeds.

    The result shows that the deficiencies in the design partly were a cause of pedestrians using

    the crossing instead of the crosswalk. Another reason was that pedestrian and cycle paths are

    not naturally connected to the crosswalk or crossing. Certain crossings offer multiple accesses

    to the waiting surface, creating confusion amongst the users. The planning ideals for the

    studied countries are in many cases quite different from Swedish methods. In some cases the

    cyclists shared intersection with motor vehicles and in other cases they were completely

    separated from pedestrians. The examination and comparison of successful international

    tendencies are valuable when constructing secure and efficient Swedish bicycle crossings,

    even though experiences and behaviors are likely to differ between countries. The regression

    analysis resulted in a model with two variables. The factors that affected the speeds were

    experience (upplevelse) and time of green signal (gröntid).

    The planning of cycle transports must be given higher priority. As of today, Swedish planners

    struggle with a major defect when planning bicycle crossings: they have few

    recommendations and regulations to start from, meaning that the execution will vary.

    Accessibility for cyclists should be given priority in the same way as other modes previously

    were prioritized. In order to enforce compliance, the bicycle crossings must be designed in

    such way that they are clear to all users

  • 263.
    Tarazona Ibáñez, Ana
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Metro user evaluation of crowding during rush hours: Case study: Stockholm2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Millions of people use public transport daily. Specifically, 1,204,000 is approximately the

    number of boardings per contract area a winter's day in Stockholm. Since the capacity and

    frequency of the metro service are already quite good in this city, this thesis does not focus on

    improve that. Its aim is to know the assessment made by metro users of the crowding

    produced during rush hour. This evaluation is performed by two questionnaires, one shorter

    that is carried out on board and one longer, online. But before starting with the surveys, this

    work introduces some general information about public transport in Stockholm and it

    distinguishes capacity and crowding concepts.

    Any human behavior begins with the attitudes and perceptions that people show to any

    particular aspect, from which and through their preferences, they define their behavior acting

    in one way or another. And once they have made their decision and have chosen to use a

    service, they will be able to evaluate it by their satisfaction level. All these concepts are studied

    here as the basis for the surveys' development. After its writing and conduction to students,

    KTH workers, etc. the results obtained are analyzed by using SPSS statistical software. From

    the users' attitudes, their perceptions, preferences and satisfaction levels, the metro system

    weaknesses are identified and some improvements are proposed, in addition to making

    proposals for future research.

  • 264.
    Troche, Gerhard
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    EvaRail - Activity-based transport cost model for evaluation of improvements in the rail freight system2009In: 16th ITS World Congress, World Congress on Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS), 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increased need for cost information about rail freight, both among railway undertakings as well as among actors outside the sector. In the scientific field improved cost information is crucial not least as input for mode choice and freight forecasting models. This paper presents EvaRail, a cost model for rail freight developed by the author at the Royal Institute of Technology Stockholm (KTH). The model is based on an Activity-Based Costing approach and covers a wider variety of production systems in rail freight. It allows cost calculations and analyses both on flow-level and on system-level.

  • 265.
    Tympakianaki, Athina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Koutsopoulos, Hans N.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, United States .
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    c-SPSA: Cluster-wise simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation algorithm and its application to dynamic origin-destination matrix estimation2015In: Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, ISSN 0968-090X, E-ISSN 1879-2359, Vol. 55, p. 231-245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation (SPSA) algorithm has been used in the literature for the solution of the dynamic origin-destination (OD) estimation problem. Its main advantage is that it allows quite general formulations of the problem that can include a wide range of sensor measurements. While SPSA is relatively simple to implement, its performance depends on a set of parameters that need to be properly determined. As a result, especially in cases where the gradient of the objective function changes quickly, SPSA may not be as stable and even diverge. A modification of the SPSA algorithm, referred to as c-SPSA, is proposed which applies the simultaneous perturbation approximation of the gradient within a small number of carefully constructed "homogeneous" clusters one at a time, as opposed to all elements at once. The paper establishes the theoretical properties of the new algorithm with an upper bound for the bias of the gradient estimate and shows that it is lower than the corresponding SPSA bias. It also proposes a systematic approach, based on the k-means algorithm, to identify appropriate clusters. The performance of c-SPSA, with alternative implementation strategies, is evaluated in the context of estimating OD flows in an actual urban network. The results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed c-SPSA algorithm in finding better OD estimates and achieve faster convergence and more robust performance compared to SPSA with fewer overall number of function evaluations.

  • 266. Van Wee, B.
    et al.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    How to make CBA more suitable for evaluating cycling policies2015In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 44, p. 117-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we argue that there is no reason to a priori reject the use of CBA for the evaluation of cycling policies. A CBA can be very helpful to ex ante evaluate the impacts of candidate cycling policies although the outcomes need to be carefully examined and could be misleading. This is firstly due to current practice and modelling tools which do not address cycling well, key issues being the poor inclusion of cycling in transport models even in countries with high bicycle levels, and the use of aggregate average risk data which do not reflect marginal risk changes in specific cases. In addition it is doubtful whether the value of travel time gains can be captured by the cyclist's willingness to pay. Secondly, some important effects are generally ignored, typically difficulties in quantifying and monetizing the potential impacts on the urban environment, social exclusion and the option value. We point out some research and modelling challenges essential for improving CBA for the evaluation of cycling policies.

  • 267.
    Vasilevskaya, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Port intermodal transportation: Port of Stockholm hinterland scenario analysis2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Population growth, urbanization, globalization of human migration, consumerism; technical and

    information technology development - are just a few trends of the modern society that set challenges

    to transport geography.

    To meet growing market demands new technologies and services were developed. With the

    introduction of ISO containers shipping performance got a tremendous boost for development.

    Container standardization made it possible to unify transportation and transshipment technologies, to

    rationalize ship space utilization and develop sustainable logistic chains between countries and

    continents.

    Intermodal transportation is proven to be profitable and sustainable on the long distances, while on

    short distances road transportation is still more attractive and is continued to be used for high varieties

    of purposes. This master thesis is an attempt to show that intermodal transport may be successfully

    used for some special cases of short-distance transportation. One of these special cases is intermodal

    transportation from ports located in urban areas.

    The aim of this project was to analyze feasibility of the intermodal short distance transportation in

    regards to the port of Stockholm. For this purpose, the current logistic system of the port of Stockholm

    was analyzed and an intermodal system that can be used for the future port operation was evaluated.

    The goal of the case study conducted in the thesis was to understand how efficiency and

    environmental factors of port logistics network may be improved. To achieve these goals an extensive

    analysis was performed concerning current demand and flow distributions, available and proposed

    infrastructure in the region.

  • 268. Viggiano, Cecilia
    et al.
    Koutsopoulos, Haris N.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Attanucci, John
    User Behavior in Multiroute Bus Corridors Analysis by a Web-Based Survey2014In: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, no 2418, p. 92-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multiroute corridors are a common feature of bus networks. In these corridors, passengers select a route from a set of parallel routes that serve the desired destinations. Understanding how passengers make these decisions can help measure passenger experience and inform network and service planning. A web-based survey was used to collect information on users of a multiroute corridor in London that includes both local and limited-stop bus service. The survey was used both as a tool to understand behavior and as a demonstration case for the viability of web-based surveys, a relatively new methodology for data collection on public transport user behavior. The representativeness and the accuracy of the survey responses were analyzed. The results revealed that online surveys could collect detailed information from a large, fairly representative sample of bus passengers. The responses to questions in the survey were used to categorize passenger behavior by route choice strategy. Passengers could either wait for a bus of a specific route or take the first bus to arrive that serves their destination. The survey data showed that passengers' route choice strategies were influenced by several factors, including trip length, trip purpose, passenger income, use of countdown next-bus information, passenger attitudes toward crowding, and levels of risk aversion.

  • 269.
    Vigren, Andreas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Cost efficiency in Swedish public transport2016In: Research in Transportation Economics, ISSN 0739-8859, E-ISSN 1875-7979, Vol. 59, p. 123-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last couple of years, costs in Swedish public transport have increased substantially, and there is little knowledge in what affects cost efficiency. This study aims at determining how different contractual and environmental factors affect cost efficiency, and whether cost efficiency differs between Public Transport Authorities (PTA). A stochastic frontier analysis is conducted using contract-level data for the 21 PTAs and year 2013

    The main findings are that cost efficiency is lower if a contract is operating in areas with high population density, or if the traffic is supplied by a publicly owned operator without using competitive tendering. Furthermore, no major differences in cost efficiency are found across PTAs, with the exception of the counties of Stockholm and Skåne, both counties with high population density, and the county of Västmanland, where all public transport is provided without competitive tendering. The finding of lower cost efficiency in high-density areas calls for further investigation into why this is. Potential explanations are the need for higher peak capacity, or more complex transportation systems. Finally, usage of direct-awarding of public transport should be clearly motivated, as this affects cost efficiency negatively.

  • 270.
    Vigren, Andreas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering. Statens Väg- och Transportforskningsinstitut, Sweden.
    Cost Efficiency in Swedish Public Transport2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 271.
    Vigren, Andreas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering. Statens Väg- och Transportforskningsinstitut, Sweden .
    Costs for Swedish Public Transport Authorities2014Report (Other academic)
  • 272. Voltes-Dorta, Augusto
    et al.
    Rodríguez-Déniz, Héctor
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Suau-Sánchez, Pere
    Vulnerability of the European air transport network to major airport closures from the perspective of passenger delays: Ranking the most critical airports2017In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 96, p. 119-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the vulnerability of the European air transport network to major airport closures from the perspective of the delays imposed to disrupted airline passengers. Using an MIDT dataset on passenger itineraries flown during February 2013, full-day individual closures of the 25 busiest European airports are simulated and disrupted passengers then relocated to minimum-delay itineraries. Aggregate delays are used to rank the criticality of each airport to the network, with the possibility of disaggregating the impact across geographical markets. The results provide useful reference values for the development of policies aimed at improving the resilience of air transport networks.

  • 273.
    Wallmark, Wilhelmina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Intermodala transportsystem i Sverige: En fallstudie över Göteborgs hamns logistiklösning2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna rapport studeras intermodala transportsystem i Sverige. Projektet är

    uppbyggt i tre huvuddelar. Först en inledande del med allmän beskrivning av logistik

    och dess koppling till transporter. Därefter en beskrivande del av intermodala system,

    deras uppbyggnad och olika ingående transportsätt. Den avslutande delen är en

    fallstudie gjort i Göteborgs hamn för att studera hamnens logistiklösning. Den slutliga

    delen som inkluderar en empirisk studie resulterade i utstakning av ett par

    nyckelfaktorer som varit viktiga för systemets uppbyggnad och lönsamhet. Med

    utgångspunkt i dessa nyckelfaktorer studeras slutligen möjligheter och hinder med ett

    intermodalt system i Stockholm och Mälardalsregionen.

    Nyckelfaktorerna som bestämdes av den empiriska studien är avstånd, enkelhet,

    säkerhet, korta ledtider och godsflöden. Sammanfattningsvis blev slutsatsen att

    Stockholm och Mälardalsregionen idag inte uppfyller dessa faktorer och att det alltså

    inte skulle vara lönsamt att införa ett system. Slutsatsen blev att det vore bättre att

    förbättra och utvidga det befintliga systemet med utgångspunkt från Göteborgs

    hamn.

  • 274. Wang, A.
    et al.
    Arver, S.
    Flanagan, J.
    Mellbin, L. G.
    Gyberg, V.
    Malmberg, K.
    Norhammar, A.
    Näsman, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Ritsinger, V.
    Ryden, L.
    Testosterone in patients with acute myocardial infarction and glucose abnormalities and in matched controls: a report from the GAMI study2015In: Diabetologia, ISSN 0012-186X, E-ISSN 1432-0428, Vol. 58, p. S556-S557Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 275.
    Warg, Jennifer
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. Järnvägsgruppen.
    Timetable evaluation with focus on quality for travellers2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Punctuality and reliability are important for travellers. Railway lines with heterogeneous and dense traffic have proved to be prone to generate delays. Faster services and increased traffic have to be counterbalanced with measures for increased reliability. Efficient timetable planning can improve the use of such lines. Usually, that aim is treated from either a capacity or a socio-economic point of view. Because both are important, this thesis aims to combine the fields. A new method to evaluate timetable alternatives is developed. Commonly used methods are combined in a novel way to reveal values for different variables as input for evaluation of alternatives. That enables the comparison of timetable strategies using relevant input data. The idea is to estimate the benefits of a timetable for a traveller by expressing them as a timetable performance index (TTPI). For this purpose, quality indicators and methods to reveal them are identified. In the next step, traditional valuations for relationships between the indicators are used to test different model configurations for evaluation of alternatives, for example alternative departures on the same line or different timetables. 

    To treat this multidisciplinary task, several case studies were performed on the Swedish Southern and Western Main lines. As part of a study focussing on methods to measure and evaluate capacity based on travellers’ valuations, the importance of delays was analysed in a questionnaire study and relationships between several variables describing the timetable were found. The other case studies aimed to identify relevant variables and use them to evaluate alternatives. Static and dynamic variables are distinguished. The static ones describe the timetable before operation, the dynamic ones the result of operation or estimated outcome revealed by means of, for example, simulation. Empirical delay data is used in one study, simulation with the microscopic tool RailSys in the others. In one of the studies, analysis is combined with the macroscopic timetabling tool TVEM (Lindfeldt, 2010). The case studies showed the characteristics of the analysed lines described by the chosen variables and which methods and variables are relevant to use for a comparison of timetable slots or evaluation of effects of changes in the timetable. An evaluation method was developed where simulation and timetable analysis reveal the variables. The idea is to construct an analytical function using traditional weights for relationships between the variables to convert the values of the variables into a performance index (PI). Based on a PI for each train slot (TSPI), the TTPI for the whole timetable is estimated. It describes the quality of a timetable in terms of timetable time, i.e. the resulting value is a time that is comparable to the scheduled travel time of one train departure, but includes additional information. With this method, complex timetables can be evaluated regarding their robustness to perturbations, which is valuable for socio-economic analysis of effects of measures applied on the railway system.

    As shown in a one of the case studies, quality in terms of punctuality and reliability is important for travellers, at the same time as the design of the timetable has significant impact on these aspects. Timetable analysis and simulation are relevant methods to reveal variables that describe these characteristics and evaluation with the presented method is recommended. The configuration of the TTPI is essential for the outcome whereas it is important to choose variables and parameters adequately. If this is taken into account, the approach can be an efficient way to adjust timetables and choose the best alternative, for instance if a train path or timetable change is to be chosen among several.

  • 276.
    Warg, Jennifer
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Utvärdering av tidtabellsalternativ med hjälp av simulering2015In: Transportforum, Linköping, 2015, 2015Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 277.
    Warg, Jennifer
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Bohlin, Markus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering. Mälardalens Högskola.
    The Use of Railway Simulation as an Input to Economic Assessment2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Capacity is an important factor for assessing a railway. Capacity limitations restrict the possibilities to adjust the service supply to the market demand and can lead to disturban­ces that affect the travellers negatively. For this reason, it is important that the available capacity and the effects of using it are estimated and assessed when benefits are analysed. However, estimations often focus on either socio-economic or capacity aspects only.

    In this paper, a method for evaluating timetable alternatives using time equivalents by combining economic assessment and capacity analysis is developed. Parameters describing each alternative´s characteristics and their effect are stepwise added to an existing model. Both real and simulated delay statistics for express trains on a double-track line with dense, mixed traffic are used to first determine relevant input parameters and calibrate the model, and later compare different alternatives. The results show that the choice of input parameters for the delays and the way how to include them in the model affected the result to a large extent. That highlights the importance of making adequate classifications of data and choosing the right parameters. Simulation is suitable for estimating the effect of changes on reliability which is an important input in an estimation model combining capacity and socio-economic aspects.

  • 278.
    Warg, Jennifer
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Bohlin, Markus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    The use of railway simulation as an input to economic assessment of timetables2016In: Journal of Rail Transport Planning & Management, ISSN 2210-9706, E-ISSN 2210-9714Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessment of capacity for highly-used railways is an important and challenging task. This paper describes a method for evaluation of timetables based on capacity and economic assessment. Common methods from both fields are combined. For developing and analysing purposes, the model is first tested with historical delay data for express trains on a double-track line with dense, mixed traffic in Sweden. An assessment aiming to compare the departures is made by combining common weights for different variables. Differences in the results based on the model structure are discussed. In the second step, microscopic simulation is used to reveal delay characteristics of timetable alternatives that are then compared and discussed in a similar way to step 1.

    The presented method using simulation makes it possible to reveal and evaluate characteristics that are important for both timetable planning and economic analysis, for example evaluation of strategies. Timetable and delay times are important input variables that affect the travellers' choice. Using simulation and other methods from capacity planning gives the opportunity to find characteristics for analysing alternatives and improve economic evaluation, at the same time as the use of economic parameters provides more possibilities to make a relevant capacity analysis.

  • 279.
    West, Jens
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. Sweco.
    Congestion Effects in Transport Modelling and Forecasting2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Transport investments and policies are increasingly turned towards dealing with transport congestion rather than with shortening the potential free flow travel time. However, appraisal methodologies for projects meant to reduce congestion are relatively less well developed compared to methodologies for projects aiming to reduce travel times. Static assignment models are for instance incapable of predicting the build-up and dissipation of traffic queues and capturing the experienced crowding caused by uneven on-board passenger loads. Despite of the availability of dynamic traffic assignment and despite of fairly concrete ideas of how integration with demand models could take place, only few model systems have been developed for real applications.

    The predicted reduction of traffic volume across the Gothenburg congestion charge cordon in the peak, 11%, turned out to be an accurate estimate of the observed reduction, 12%. The reduction in the off-peak, however, was overpredicted, as it was also in the Stockholm case. To analyse congestion charges in Stockholm it is necessary and fully possible to integrate DTA with the demand model. In the performed tests it could be seen that both tested models had problems replicating the flow on the main bypass early in the morning but otherwise performed well. A case study of a metro extension in Stockholm demonstrated that congestion effects constitute more than half of the total benefits and that these effects are excessively underestimated by a conventional static model. Effects of various operational measures can be analysed with BusMezzo and the results have been validated against observed data. The findings indicate that all three tested measures in a case study (boarding through all doors, headway-based holding and bus lanes) had an overall positive impact on service performance and that there are synergetic effects.

    Using a continuous VTT distribution and hierarchical route choice was demonstrated as a successful method of modelling the multi-passage rule implemented in Gothenburg congestion charges and was shown to give realistic predictions of route choice effects. First results from integration of DTA with a travel demand model for the Stockholm region show that even without systematic calibration the DTA is in reasonable agreement with observed traffic counts and travel times. The presented experiments did not reveal a striking difference between using a macroscopic and a microscopic assignment package. While travel time savings are often the only benefit included in public transport project appraisals, the best practice assigns weighted value of time to average load/capacity measures. However, failure to represent dynamic congestion effects may lead to substantial underestimation of the benefits of projects primarily designed to increase capacity rather than reduce travel times. The impact of small operational measures should not be underestimated. These measures are relatively cheap compared to investments in new transit infrastructure and large societal gains can therefore be achieved by their implementation.

  • 280.
    West, Jens
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. Sweco, Sweden.
    Modelling and Appraisal in Congested Transport Networks2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Appraisal methodologies for congestion mitigation projects are relatively less well developed compared to methodologies for projects reducing free flow travel times. For instance, static assignment models are incapable of representing the build-up and dissipation of traffic queues, or capturing the experienced crowding caused by uneven on-board passenger loads. Despite the availability of dynamic traffic assignment, only few model systems have been developed for cost-benefit analysis of real applications. The six included papers present approaches and tools for analysing traffic and transit projects where congestion relief is the main target.

    In the transit case studies, we use an agent-based simulation model to analyse congestion and crowding effects and to conduct cost-benefit analyses. In the case study of a metro extension in Stockholm, we demonstrate that congestion and crowding effects constitute more than a third of the total benefits and that a conventional static model underestimates these effects vastly. In another case study, we analyse various operational measures and find that the three main measures (boarding through all doors, headway-based holding and bus lanes) had an overall positive impact on service performance and that synergetic effects exist.

    For the congestion charging system in Gothenburg, we demonstrate that a hierarchal route choice model with a continuous value of time distribution gives realistic predictions of route choice effects although the assignment is static. We use the model to show that the net social benefit of the charging system in Gothenburg is positive, but that low income groups pay a larger share of their income than high income groups. To analyse congestion charges in Stockholm however, integration of dynamic traffic assignment with the demand model is necessary, and we demonstrate that this is fully possible.

    Models able to correctly predict these effects highlight the surprisingly large travel time savings of pricing policies and small operational measures. These measures are cheap compared to investments in new infrastructure and their implementation can therefore lead to large societal gains.

  • 281.
    West, Jens
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. SWECO, Sweden.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    The Gothenburg congestion charges: CBA and equityManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 282.
    West, Jens
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. SWECO, Sweden.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Engelson, Leonid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Accuracy of the Gothenburg congestion charges2016In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 94, p. 266-277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the accuracy of the transport model forecast of the Gothenburg congestion charges, implemented in 2013. The design of the charging system implies that the path disutility cannot be computed as a sum of link attributes. The route choice model is therefore implemented as a hierarchical algorithm, applying a continuous value of travel time (VTT) distribution. The VTT distribution was estimated from stated choice (SC) data. However, based on experience of impact forecasting with a similar model and of impact outcome of congestion charges in Stockholm, the estimated VTT distribution had to be stretched to the right. We find that the forecast traffic reductions across the cordon and travel time gains were close to those observed in the peak. However, the reduction in traffic across the cordon was underpredicted off-peak. The necessity to make the adjustment indicates that the VTT inferred from SC data does not reveal the travellers’ preferences, or that there are factors determining route choice other than those included in the model: travel distance, travel time and congestion charge.

  • 283.
    West, Jens
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. SWECO, Sweden.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Engelsson, Leonid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Ex-post evaluation of national transport model: Gothenburg congestion charges application2014Report (Other academic)
  • 284.
    West, Jens
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. SWECO, Sweden.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Individual and Synergetic Effects of Transit Service Improvement Strategies: Simulation and Validation2017In: Journal of transportation engineering, ISSN 0733-947X, E-ISSN 1943-5436, Vol. 143, no 6, article id 04017061Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessment of transit service improvements such as bus lanes, allowing boarding through all doors, and headway-based holding control requires detailed simulation capabilities. However, because the usage of models advanced enough to simultaneously analyze physical and operational measures has been limited, their validity has hitherto remained low. This paper assesses the implementation of several bus service improvement measures in a simulation model. The paper analyzes the effect of isolated and combinations of measures, and validates the model using field experiment data. The model predicted travel time improvements accurately (1–2% difference), while overestimating some of the headway variability effects. The three tested measures exercised negative synergy effects, with their combined effect being smaller than the sum of their marginal contributions, except for headway-based holding, which exercised positive synergy effects with the two other measures.

  • 285.
    West, Jens
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. SWECO, Sweden.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Modelling transit user adaptation and learningManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 286.
    Westin, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science. Centre for Regional Science, Umeå University.
    Franklin, Joel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Proost, Stef
    KU Leuven.
    Basck, Pierre
    LET, Université de Lyon.
    Raux, Charles
    LET, Université de Lyon.
    Achieving political acceptability for new transport infrastructure in congested urban regions2016In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 88, p. 286-303Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 287.
    Whitehead, Jake
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Energy Efficient Vehicle Policy: Lessons Learnt: An analysis of the effects of incentive policies on the demand, usage and pricing of energy efficient vehicles.2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Encouraging the uptake of energy efficient vehicles (EEVs) is an aspiration of critical importance in a day and age in which we are confronted with the increasingly dire consequences of human behaviour on our planet, and on the planet for generations to come. The transport sector is one of the highest contributors of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, whilst pollution from this sector is responsible for a large proportion of human deaths each and every year. Given the severity of these issues, it is more important than ever for policy-makers, and researchers alike, to encourage a transition within the community towards more sustainable lifestyles. Transportation is key to this change.

    As a service that every human being uses, almost every day of his or her life, the transport sector presents a unique opportunity for behavioural change. Through efficient and targeted policies, consumers can be incentivised to make more sustainable transport choices and to consider the consequences of their own actions. Foremost amongst these initiatives is that of encouraging a transition towards energy efficient vehicles.

    This thesis has been produced in order to shed further light on issues affecting this transition. In particular for policy-makers, this document includes a series of recommendations based on prevailing findings in the current literature, in addition to the novel and significant findings of this research effort. These include the various lessons learnt from government policies that have already been implemented in regions around the globe.

    As a thesis by publication, this document consists of four research articles that investigate factors affecting the EEV market, specifically in terms of: consumer demand, vehicle usage and product pricing. A number of other demographic and economic factors have also been examined, including the role of economies-of-scale. 

  • 288.
    Whitehead, Jake
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Franklin, Joel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Washington, Simon
    Queensland University of Technology, Australia .
    Transitioning to energy efficient vehicles: An analysis of the potential rebound effects and subsequent impact upon emissions2015In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 74, p. 250-267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given the shift toward energy efficient vehicles (EEVs) in recent years, it is important that the effects of this transition are properly examined. This paper investigates some of these effects by analyzing annual kilometers traveled (AKT) of private vehicle owners in Stockholm in 2008. The difference in emissions associated with EEV adoption is estimated, along with the effect of a congestion-pricing exemption for EEVs on vehicle usage. Propensity score matching is used to compare AKT rates of different vehicle owner groups based on the treatments of: EEV ownership and commuting across the cordon, controlling for confounding factors such as demographics. Through this procedure, rebound effects are identified, with some EEV owners found to have driven up to 12.2% further than non-EEV owners. Although some of these differences could be attributed to the congestion-pricing exemption, the results were not statistically significant. Overall, taking into account lifecycle emissions of each fuel type, average EEV emissions were 50.5% less than average non-EEV emissions, with this reduction in emissions offset by 2.0% due to rebound effects. Although it is important for policy-makers to consider the potential for unexpected negative effects in similar transitions, the overall benefit of greatly reduced emissions appears to outweigh any rebound effects present in this case study.

  • 289.
    Zhang, Wei
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Ma, Xiaoliang
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Freight transport platoon coordination and departure time scheduling under travel time uncertainty2017In: Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, ISSN 1366-5545, E-ISSN 1878-5794, Vol. 98, p. 1-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper formulates and analyzes a freight transport platoon coordination and departure time scheduling problem under travel time uncertainty. The expected cost minimization framework accounts for travel time cost, schedule miss penalties and fuel cost. It is shown that platooning is beneficial only when scheduled arrival times differ less than a certain threshold. Travel time uncertainty typically reduces the threshold schedule difference for platooning to be beneficial. Platooning in networks is less beneficial on converging routes than diverging routes, due to delay at the merging point. The model provides valuable insights regarding platooning benefits for freight transport planning.

  • 290.
    Zhang, Wei
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Ma, Xiaoliang
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Planning of heavy-duty vehicle platoon formulation: basic scheduling problem considering travel time variance2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 291.
    Zhang, Yizhou
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Kottenhoff, Karl
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Impact of real-time crowding information: A Stockholm metro case study2017In: Public Transport, ISSN 1866-749X, E-ISSN 1613-7159, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 483-499Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper evaluates the impact of real-time crowding information (RTCI) provision based on a pilot study at a Stockholm metro station. During a 6-day test period, RTCI for each car in the next arriving train was provided through a visual display and speakers. The impact is evaluated in three dimensions: (1) passenger attention is analyzed using video analysis; (2) passenger valuation is evaluated with traveler surveys; (3) passenger action is analyzed with in-vehicle passenger load data. It is estimated that around 25% of the passengers noticed, understood and considered the provided information useful for their travel decisions. Further, RTCI had a statistically significant positive impact on the boarding distribution between cars and, as a result, on the downstream in-vehicle crowding in the trains. RTCI reduced the share of passengers boarding the first, most crowded car by 4.3% points for trains that were crowded on arrival, and increased the share of passengers boarding the second, less crowded car by 4.1% points. The findings also suggest that many passengers may value the provided crowding information positively even though it does not change their travel decisions. The results indicate that RTCI may be a useful technology for public transport operators and agencies for increasing the utilization of available train capacity and reducing crowding.

  • 292.
    Zhang, Yujin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Konstruktion av framtidsrobusta trafikupplägg2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The timetable planning process in Sweden today can be considered as an annual process. The process

    dictates that operators who wish to claim capacity on the national rail network should apply for it in

    April the year prior; capacity claim in this case means both operating railway traffic and also

    possession. The current timetable planning process implies that the operators’ general production

    planning process is also annual one because the infrastructure manager (Trafikverket in Sweden) only

    has to inform the operators about definite infrastructural changes one year at a time. The consequence

    of this is that an operator could not be certain of the definite conditions more than a year at a time

    and it is fully possible that a certain route may receive a supplement two years in time that will cause

    an established traffic system to collapse and thus needing to revise the production plan for that year.

    The aim of this degree project is to examine whether it is possible to generate a model or process chart

    to enable production planning several years ahead in time. The model should be able to take

    infrastructural changes into account and therefore guaranteeing the sustainability of a certain traffic

    system over a number of years. The degree project will use the Mälarbanan project as a case study.

    The method applied for the degree project is to first introduce the topic of timetable planning (chapter

    2). Because the timetable planning process is harmonized within greater parts of EU and follows certain

    standards, the processes in Switzerland and the Netherlands will also be described in chapter 2 and

    finally compared to the process in Sweden enlightening the differences. After having described the

    general process, the report will shift focus to focusing on how to construct such a model that fulfills

    the aim of the project (chapter 3). Much of the material and arguments made in chapter 3 are directly

    gathered from the author’s own professional experience as a traffic planner at SJ AB meaning that

    certain terms used in the chapter will also be SJ-specific. The author believes however that the process

    chart itself is applicable to any railway operator within the frames of Trafikverket’s timetable planning

    process. Chapter 4 of the report is dedicated to the Mälarbanan case study where the focus is set on

    describing the infrastructural conditions and how the model created in chapter 3 should be applied to

    Mälarbanan.

    The main result of the degree project is a process chart describing how a railway operator should plan

    its production several years in time given the infrastructural conditions today. The main result from

    the Mälarbanan case study is the assessment of two different traffic scenarios proposed at the

    moment. Because the Mälarbanan case study is still an ongoing investigation within SJ AB no definite conclusions and recommendations could be made at the time of this degree project’s submission.

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