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  • 251.
    Kihlander, Ingrid
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Janhager, Jenny
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Ritzén, Sofia
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Navigating in uncertainty: identifying dependence factors in concept decision makingIn: Design Studies, ISSN 0142-694X, E-ISSN 1872-6909Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 252.
    Kihlander, Ingrid
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Innovationsledning.
    Lundh Gravenius, Åse
    Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset.
    Innovation management system implementation at a university hospital2020Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 253.
    Kihlander, Ingrid
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Magnusson, Mats
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Product Innovation Technology.
    Role of Certification in Establishment of an Innovation Management Profession2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A professionalization within the area of innovation management is taking place, and this paper presents a study on the phenomenon of personal certification as an innovation management professional. The study has investigated motivations for taking a personal certification as an innovation management professional, and impacts from it, addressing certified individuals, their organizations, and potential contributions to professionalization. The study was conducted in Sweden related to the personal certification of innovation management professionals launched in 2017 by the Swedish Association for Innovation Management Professionals (Innovationsledarna) and RISE Research Institutes of Sweden as a third-party certification body. Identified motivational factors covered desired knowledge enhancement, measuring of competence level, a strive for legitimacy, and curiosity. Impact from taking the certifications were for example increased knowledge, enhanced professional communication about innovation management, boosted self[1]confidence, expanded network, and more opportunities to influence. The current situation was also analyzed from a professionalization perspective as well as discussed in terms of innovation maturity and innovation diffusion.

  • 254.
    Kihlander, Ingrid
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development. Department of Certification, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Magnusson, Mats
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development. Department of Certification, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Certification of Innovation Management Professionals: Reasons for and Results from Acquiring Certification2022In: Journal of Innovation Management, E-ISSN 2183-0606, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 58-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses how personal certification in innovation management can contribute to the ongoing professionalisation within the innovation management discipline. The empirical study focused a project in Sweden initiated to develop qualification, specifically personal certification, of innovation management professionals. The project resulted in a certification process and a first batch of certified innovation management professionals. The study aimed to capture the individuals’ reasons for, as well as results and effects from, choosing to acquire a voluntary personal certification within innovation management. A wide range of reasons for taking the certifications was reported such as willingness to learn more; willingness to formalise innovation management competence; a wish to clarify roles, but also to promote the discipline itself. Certification was apprehended as a trustworthy format to achieve this. Identified effects were establishment of a common language, increased visibility of individuals, and innovation management professionals to feel more confident in their jobs.

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  • 255.
    Kihlander, Ingrid
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.). KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Magnusson, Mats
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Product Innovation Technology.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Reasons for and effects of certification of innovation management professionals2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 256.
    Kihlander, Ingrid
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Nilsson, Susanne
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Lund, Katarina
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Ritzén, Sofia
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Norell Bergendahl, Margareta
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Planning Industrial PhD projects in practice: Speaking both 'Academia' and 'Practitionese'2011In: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED11): Design Education / [ed] Culley, S.J.; Hicks, B.J.; McAloone, T.C.; Howard, T.J. & Ion, B., Copenhagen, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discuss the planning and organising of research conducted by Industrial PhD students, i.e. PhD students conducting research studies aiming for a PhD while employed in industrial companies. Industrial PhD projects within engineering design research in Sweden can be considered a phenomenon, i.e. existing but sparsely documented. This paper provides empirical illustrations by presenting three Industrial PhD projects conducted in three companies with product developing operations in Sweden. The specific research design of Industrial PhD projects provides benefits such as an effective bridging between academia and industry. Additionally, this type of research projects face challenges, such as having two-folded aims of the project: both academic and industrial goals. Based on experiences from these projects, implications for planning and organising of future Industrial PhD projects are discussed. Finally, we suggest that Industrial PhD projects are effective means, if used properly, for assimilation of research findings to industry, and for academia to understand the industrial practice.

  • 257.
    Kihlander, Ingrid
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Ritzén, Sofia
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Compatibility before completeness - Identifying intrinsic conflicts in concept decision making for technical systems2012In: Technovation, ISSN 0166-4972, E-ISSN 1879-2383, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 79-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the practice of concept decision-making, i.e. making decisions on technical solutions in early product development stages. An empirical study was conducted in a Swedish automotive company, using a qualitative approach. The study reveals that a major challenge in concept decision-making is to achieve compatibility between systems in the product before the system solutions are completely developed. Managers and product developers need to know that conceptual solutions are good enough to progress into detailed development without performing detailed analysis. In the concept-decision process a number of intrinsic conflicts that these actors have to address are identified: understanding of the overall development process as iterative or stepwise; developing satisfying or optimized solutions; using defined or interpreted criteria when comparing solutions; and composing a complete car from different systems solutions, prioritizing project targets or long-term system targets. Consequences of these intrinsic conflicts, omnipresent in the process, are characterized and discussed. The authors suggest a number of means to address these intrinsic conflicts, such as enhancing actors' awareness of psychological biases. The authors also suggest to have clear and well-communicated visions regarding both product and development process, in order to guide individuals' daily judgments and trade-offs that have to be made.

  • 258.
    Kihlander, Ingrid
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Ritzén, Sofia
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Deficiencies in Management of the Concept Development Process: Theory and Practice2009In: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED'09, Design Society / [ed] Norell Bergendahl, M.; Grimheden, M.; Leifer, L.; Skogstad, P.; Lindemann, U., 2009, p. 267-278Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concept development is a key success factor in product development and in theory concept development means that a number of concept solutions are generated and evaluated in an objective way using a systematic evaluation method. This paper presents identified deficiencies in both theoretical models and industrial product development. The aim is to supplement previous research, by increasing the understanding of how concept decisions are managed in product development in practice, in order to suggest proposals for improvement of management procedures. Empirical studies have been performed in two large product developing companies that act on the global market. The results imply that actors in the concept development, instead of evaluating different alternatives (as recommended in theory), rather are struggling with developing a solution that will fulfill the specifications. Decisions concerning concepts are found to be embedded in a complex weave of actors and activities that characterizes concept development. It is concluded that changes are required in theory as well as in working procedures in practice in order to actually support the actors in product development.

  • 259.
    Kihlander, Ingrid
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Ritzén, Sofia
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Improving the concept decision-making process: a study of an automotive company2011In: 12th International CINet Conference, Aarhus, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 260.
    Kihlander, Ingrid
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Ritzén, Sofia
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Leda och organisera för innovation2014Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 261.
    Kihlander, Ingrid
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.). KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Rodda Srinivasan, Harshitha
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Jyotsna Jospeh, Neelima
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Certificication as an Innovation Management Professional - the new normal?2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the area of innovation management, an increase of new job roles, and development of standards and certifications, signals an ongoing professionalization. This paper shares findings from studying the emerging phenomenon of personal certification as innovation management professionals (IMP). The study aimed to investigate motivational factors related to entering (or not entering) a process of IMP certification, as well as perceived impact and effects on innovation management quality and practice from such certification. The study was conducted through interviews, including a comparative element interviewing both certified IMPs and non-certified IMPs. Both intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors for IMP certification were identified, but also amotivation related to not favouring standardization. Several examples of effects from IMP certification were reported, where the most significant was revolving around the IMP being more self-confident, based on both external validation and knowledge enhancement.

  • 262.
    Kling, Alexander
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Hur påverkas motivationen inom produktutveckling av virtuell interaktion?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s increasingly rapid-changing business environment, it is necessary for companies to be innovative,especially in the field of product development. One of the most acknowledge way for companies isto stay in business is to remain innovative, but in order to be innovative, creative employees is requiredand for them to endure that for a longer period of time, motivation is requires to execute a task. Motivationis thus an essential part of product development, while not only motivates employees but alsobenefits the company in terms of commitment, efficiency, increased margins from reduced staff turnoverand greater likelihood for more applications of talented recruits which been affected of positive and dedicatedemployees. The virtual interaction in the form of mail, instant messaging, social media, phonesand videoconferences etc. is a key feature for most businesses in today’s globalized market. Researchersfor all over the globe have thoroughly studied both motivation and virtual interaction and each coherenteffect, but we have not found any widespread hypothesis or studies made regarding the link betweenthem. As motivation is so central and virtual interaction so common it is thus interesting to investigatehow virtual communication in workspaces is used and if it has an influence on motivation. This reportpresents a bachelor thesis made at The Royal Institute of Technology during the spring semester of 2017with a primary purpose to investigate how and when virtual interaction is used in the workplace as well aspossible impact on motivation. The study has been conducted in two stages with an initial literature studyregarding the two fields followed by a qualitative empirical study of three established companies in theproduct development industry from which two respondents each been interviewed. The empirical materialhas then been analyzed using the theoretical framework from the literature, after which conclusionsbeen drawn. The work was partly performed by a workgroup of three people and partly individually. Theintroduction, theory and method was developed together after which each person was responsible for onecompany with two respondents form which the empirical data was analyzed and conclusions was drawn.The study shows small indications of what could have an affekt on motivation regarding certain forms ofvirtual interaction, such a higher degree of efficiency, creative thinking as well as increased number ofmisunderstandings, but some conclusion for a lager and more general trend could not be drawn.

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  • 263.
    Knudsen, Mette Præst
    et al.
    SDU, Department of Marketing & Management.
    Magnusson, Mats
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Frederiksen, Marianne Harbo
    SDU, Dept. of Technology and Innovation.
    Björk, Jennie
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Unleashing the Power of Internal Crowds2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Much is already known about why and what firms can gain from external crowdsourcing of ideation activities, whereas internal crowdsourcing where firms seek ideas for innovation among its employees has so far received less attention. The rationale for using external and internal crowds has thus been assumed to be the same, to collect a diversity and large number of ideas. This article pinpoints that the design principles known from the external crowdsourcing literature cannot simply be used for internal crowds. In fact, an attempt to do so entails a need for considering several tradeoffs. Drawing on the extant theory and the knowledge that we have accumulated over the years from researching large firm’s use of IT-based ideation systems, we identify these trade-offs, propose several design decisions to consider, which are linked to the innovation ambition of a firm, and develop a model of employee engagement in internal crowdsourcing.

  • 264.
    Lai, Kevin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Sundman, Lina
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Hållbarhetsintegrering i tre dimensioner: En studie av Scanias hållbarhetsarbete2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Integration of sustainability is becoming more important for product development companies. But sustainability is not all about finding climate-smart solutions. For companies to be competitive in the market and attractive employers, they need to integrate the three sustainability aspects: ecological-,economic- and social sustainability. The need to integrate sustainability in the product development process without any of the aspects being overshadowed. Scania is a global manufacturer of heavy vehicles with a big focus on integrations of sustainability. They have a number of ongoing projects involving developing new climate-smart auto trucks. This study aims to get an insight of Scania, if it manages to integrate all the aspects of sustainability in their product development process and in such cases how they work to accomplish this. This study is based on a literature- and empirical study. The literature study mainly consists of scientific articles as well as some course literature from the three first years of the Master of Science inengineering, with majors in mechanical engineering and design and product realization at Royal Institute of Technology (KTH). The empirical study consists of interviews with four respondents, three representatives from Scania and one representing the department of Sustainable Production Development at KTH. The study shows that Scania succeeds in integrating all three sustainability aspects in their product development process, however, it is difficult for the company to integrate all of the aspects to the same extent. In addition, internal and external social sustainability do not receive the same focus. The study also shows that integrating one aspect may effect the other two aspects in a positive manner. In order to integrate all three aspects of sustainability, it is important to establish a plan for how to manage the integration and also try to fulfill the desires and needs of all the stakeholders.  

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  • 265.
    Langbroek, J. H. M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Hagman, Jens
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Coping with a growing number of e-taxis in Greater Stockholm: A stated adaptation approach2020In: Case Studies on Transport Policy, ISSN 2213-624X, E-ISSN 2213-6258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The introduction of electric vehicles in taxi companies has shown that operating electric taxis can be profitable and useful already under current circumstances. However, a significant future increase of electric taxis within relatively short time could impose severe challenges to the system. In this paper, current charging patterns and demand for electric taxi rides were analysed to design future scenarios with a significantly higher number of electric taxis and changes in fast charging technology and pricing. A qualitative stated adaptation experiment was carried out among taxi drivers and carriers in order to explore important human factors for coping with changing driving and charging conditions in scenarios with significantly more electric taxis or potential policy changes. The main findings are that hired drivers and carriers react differently to temporal price differentiation. Hired drivers make more use of faster but more expensive charging infrastructure than carriers do. Speed and convenience of charging events seems to be more important for hired drivers than for carriers. An increasing number of electric taxis is likely to increase the strains on urban public charging infrastructure, thereby stimulating charging at home or at currently less popular charging infrastructure. Moreover, there is a risk that the already existing imbalance between carriers and hired drivers could escalate in the future.

  • 266.
    Larsen, Katarina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Nilsson, Susanne
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Blaus, Johan
    KTH.
    Snickars, Folke
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Impact and beyond in research centres: university-industry collaboration in material sciences2015In: Proceedings XIII Triple Helix conference, Beijing, August 2015. Panel session: University-Industry relationships, Beijing, China, 2015, Vol. Panel 5, p. 158-177Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is concerned with the role of research centres in realising universities‟ impact strategy. From the university management‟s perspective, this raises questions about how a university more systematically can organize and manage effective environments to stimulate both academic excellence and societal impact. The analysis draws on experiences from a centre in the area of material sciences with an explicit ambition to generate impact through engaging in research and education activities together with industry. The study aims to build knowledge on what type of impact goals these centres are targeting and what impact mechanisms that are considered important in order to achieve these goals. The results show that the centre has established mechanisms for close-knitted collaborative research, which also create an in-depth understanding among collaborators about areas of application of new materials and the diverse range of research work in the centre. This facilitates translation activities to form more fundamental research questions from industry‟s practical needs. Four areas of impact are identified: 1) tools and methods saving time, money and materials 2) skilled people 3) solutions of theoretical problems; and 4) development of absorptive capacity and science-signalling trough co-publications between industry partners and centre researchers. Conclusions about scope of impact, in the Swedish case, are presented in relation to recent university policy in UK, also discussing key themes of centres as impact creators.

  • 267.
    Larsen, Maria Stoettrup Schioenning
    et al.
    Department of Materials and Production, Aalborg University, Fibigerstraede 16, Aalborg, Denmark; Department of Technology and Business, University College of Northern Denmark, Sofiendalsvej 60, Aalborg, Denmark..
    Magnusson, Mats
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Lassen, Astrid Heidemann
    Department of Materials and Production, Aalborg University, Fibigerstraede 16, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Industry 4.0 Holds a Great Potential for Manufacturers, So Why haven’t They Started?: A Multiple Case Study of Small and Medium Sized Danish Manufacturers2022In: Towards Sustainable Customization: Bridging Smart Products and Manufacturing Systems: Proceedings of the Changeable, Agile, Reconfigurable and Virtual Production Conference and the World Mass Customization & Personalization Conference World Mass Customization & Personalization Conference, Springer Nature , 2022, p. 721-729Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the potential of Industry 4.0 and the increasing interest from the manufacturing industry, the adoption of Industry 4.0 is still lacking behind in SMEs in the manufacturing industry. In this paper, we explore why this is happening. The research is based on a multiple case study of 24 small and medium sized Danish manufacturing companies, which have all started their Industry 4.0 journey. We analyze the case data from the perspective of dynamic capabilities. Our findings show that the companies experience multiple barriers related to the sensing and seizing capabilities, which hinder their engagement with Industry 4.0. The lack of capabilities to sense and seize opportunities in relation to Industry 4.0 leads us to question whether manufacturers understand Industry 4.0 as a strategic asset or a set of disconnected technology improvements which may bring benefits to the operations, but do not utilize the systemic potential of Industry 4.0.

  • 268.
    Laurenti, Rafael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Barrios Acuña, Fernando Manuel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Exploring antecedents of behavioural intention and preferences in online peer-to-peer resource sharing: a Swedish university setting2020In: Sustainable Production and Consumption, ISSN 2352-5509, Vol. 21, p. 47-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Resource-optimization platforms appear as a valid option to more sustainable modes of consumption. The success of these platforms mostly depends on the capability to comprehend the potential users’ motives for engagement. We developed and tested a conceptual model based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to investigate the relative significance of consumer motives for and against using a peer-to-peer (P2P) sharing platform. Qualitative interviews of an elicitation study (n=7) followed a quantitative survey (n=325) with potential users. The size of the demand for accessing specific products and services and the type of transaction mode preferred were also investigated. Attitude towards using a P2P sharing platform is the strongest predictor of behavioural intention among the TPB constructs. Ecological sustainability, sense of belonging, trust in other users, and familiarity are the most critical factors determining the attitude towards using the potential platform; process risk concerns were identified as the main hinder. There were more providers than takers to all likely items enquired, and accommodation and car-sharing had the most significant asymmetric ratios remarkably. Services in general and study materials were the items with the highest potential demand and supply. The preferred mode of exchange for the platform is a free system which includes donation and second-hand sales, and transfer of points or money. This study contributes to a better understanding of consumer motivations and desires to engage in sharing resources for sustainability transformations.

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  • 269.
    Laurenti, Rafael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Martin, Michael
    IVL.
    Stenmarck, Åsa
    IVL.
    Developing Adequate Communication of Waste Footprints of Products for a Circular Economy: A Stakeholder Consultation2018In: Resources, E-ISSN 2079-9276, Vol. 7, no 4, article id 78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Relatively few consumers are conscious of the waste generated in the course of producing the goods that they consume, although most are aware of the amount of waste they dispose of. This article reports on a small-scale survey (N = 28) among stakeholders aimed at developing adequate communication of preconsumer waste footprints of consumer goods in the context of the circular economy. Life cycle assessment (LCA) practitioners and consumers assessed five methodological details of an approach for calculating and communicating a product waste footprint (PWF). Most of the respondents expressed that the guidelines described in the proposed PWF methodology are good enough for the purposes of differentiating waste and byproducts, and defining which material flow shall be accounted for. Some LCA practitioners declared that the proposed streamlined method may not be adequate for conveying the environmental significance of waste types. The respondents also expressed that the PWF concept would be primarily useful and/or needed for consumers and government, and in the contexts of improving environmental awareness of consumers, environmental policy making, visualizing waste flows in a circular economy, and improving resource efficiency in industry, and less useful/needed in a business-to-business context. The PWF has been successfully used by diverse stakeholder groups in Sweden mostly to promote sustainable production and consumption across society. A notable example is the ‘invisible waste’ (#invisiblewaste) campaign of the Swedish Waste Management Association (Avfall Sverige). The concerns of the LCA experts have therefore not held true. The symbolic power and parsimony of the PWF concept appears to be effective in sensitizing consumers towards waste issues so that circular economy strategies beyond recycling are possible to be fully realized.

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  • 270.
    Laurenti, Rafael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Redwood, Michael
    Puig, Rita
    Frostell, Bjorn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Measuring the Environmental Footprint of Leather Processing Technologies2017In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 1180-1187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The selection of materials and manufacturing processes often determines most of the environmental impact that a product will have during its life cycle. In directing consumption toward products with the least impact on the environment, measuring and comparing material alternatives with site-specific data is a fundamental prerequisite. Within the apparel and footwear industry, some famous brands have recently been basing their advertising on the claim that vegetable-tanned leather is more environmentally friendly than chromiumtanned leather. However, there is a lack of scientific research assessing and comparing vegetable-and chromium-tanned leather in a wider context than the toxicity of chromium. To fill this gap, this study measured and compared the carbon, water, and energy footprint of vegetable and chromium leather processing technology and intermediate processing stages in 12 selected tanneries in seven different countries worldwide. Each tannery proved to be very individual, and therefore attempting to perform this type of analysis without simply producing meaningless generalities is a challenge for companies, researchers, and regulators. The variability in results demonstrates that secondary data for the tanning phase should be utilized with caution in a decision-making context. The use of primary data would be advisable for life cycle assessment studies of leather goods. No significant differences were found in the footprint of vegetable and chromium leather processes, but these are only indicative findings and need confirmation in further studies. An important area needing investigation is then how a fair comparison can be made between renewable natural materials and nonrenewable materials used in both leather-processing technologies.

  • 271.
    Laurenti, Rafael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development. HERUS Laboratory for Human Environment Relations in Urban Systems, EPFL Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Singh, Jagdeep
    The International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics (IIIEE), Lund University, 221 00 Lund, Sweden.
    Cotrim, Joao
    ISCTE-IUL Business School, University of Lisbon, 1649-004 Lisbon, Portugal.
    Toni, Martina
    Department of Business Studies, University of Roma Tre, 00154 Roma, Italy.
    Sinha, Rajib
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Characterizing the Sharing Economy State of the Research: a Systematic Map2019In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 20, article id 5729Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sharing economy is an emerging niche for innovation capable of disrupting established socio-technical and economic regimes. Because of this potential to cause radical changes in a wide array of domains, research in multiple disciplines addressing various aspects entailing this phenomenon is proliferating. In this emerging body of literature, the understanding and framing of the sharing economy are often different. Without knowledge about the current state of the research related to the sharing economy, delineating research trends, gaps, and needs for directing effectively primary research are not possible. This study aimed to synthesize the state and distribution of existing publications related to the sharing economy in multiple disciplines. We used the systematic mapping technique to scope, identify, and classify the publications at a fine level of granularity. We reviewed 589 journal articles (published from 1978 to 2017), and 454 met the selection criteria. The journal articles reviewed were published in 284 different journals. Intriguingly, 15 journals published five to 13 publications each and 221 journals had a single article about the topic. Journals belonging to the subject areas “business, management and accounting” (42.1%) and “social sciences” (35.2%) published more than 70% of the reviewed publications. Accommodation (19.8%) and car and ridesharing (17.2%) were the two most prominent sectors; 50.2% of the publications addressed C2C transactions (10.6% B2C, 24.4% more than one type); 62.3% were about accessing resources, and 5.1% concerned transfer of ownership (i.e., second-hand or donation); and 19.2% covered access and transfer of ownership simultaneously. While empirical studies were the majority (53.1%, when comparing with conceptual ones), qualitative approaches were most common (51.5% against 24.9% quantitative and 17.4% mixed methods). Literature review (22.9%), survey (13.2%), case study (7.3%) and interview (7%) were the most frequently used methods. User behavior (26.4%), business models and organizational aspects (22.7%), institution and governance system (18.7%), conceptualization matters (17%), and sustainability evaluation (15.3%) are research clusters identified from a grounded approach. The link between user behavior and net environmental impacts of sharing options was the largest gap found in the research needing attention from a sustainability perspective. Accordingly, multidisciplinary investigations quantifying behavioral root causes, magnitude, and likelihood of environmental rebound effects using real-world data are strongly encouraged.

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    fulltext
  • 272.
    Laurenti, Rafael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development. EPFL Swiss Fed Inst Technol Lausanne, ENAC Sch Architecture Civil & Environm Engn, HERUS Lab Human Environm Relat Urban Syst, GR C1 455,Batiment GR,Stn 2, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.;IVL Swedish Environm Res Inst, Valhallavagen 81, S-11427 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Singh, Jagdeep
    Lund Univ, IIIEE, Tegnersplatsen 4, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Frostell, Björn
    Ecoloop AB, S-11646 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Sinha, Rajib
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Binder, Claudia R.
    EPFL Swiss Fed Inst Technol Lausanne, ENAC Sch Architecture Civil & Environm Engn, HERUS Lab Human Environm Relat Urban Syst, GR C1 455,Batiment GR,Stn 2, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    The Socio-Economic Embeddedness of the Circular Economy: An Integrative Framework2018In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 7, article id 2129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global economies have been characterised by a large dependency of material inflows from natural stocks, an exponential growth of material stock-in-use in the built environment, and the extensive disposal of waste material outflows to anthropogenic sinks. In this context, the concept of the circular economy has emerged, promising to circulate the stock-in-use of materials and transforming output waste material flows back into useful resources while promoting job and value creation. These promises have drawn the attention and interest of policymakers and industry, and gained popularity across society. Despite its apparent emergent legitimacy and diffusion, a few essential adjustments still need to be addressed so that circular economy initiatives can actually deliver on their promises without leading to negative unintended effects. First, a complete entanglement with the existing formal economy is fundamentally needed; this implies valuing the preservation of natural stocks and pricing material input flows adequately. Secondly, a recognition of its socio-economic embeddedness is essentially necessary. The decision-making of societal actors affects material configuration, which in turn affects societal actors; this important feedback loop needs to be explicitly taken into account in circular economy initiatives. The aim of this short communication paper is to explore these pervasive challenges in a broad context of sustainable physical resource management. An integrative framework for recognising the socio-economic embeddedness of the circular economy in practice and the role of the formal economic system in realising its ambitions is proposed.

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    fulltext
  • 273. Lindahl, M.
    et al.
    Sundin, E.
    Öhrwall Rönnbäck, A.
    Ölundh Sandström, Gunilla
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Integrated Product Service Engineering (IPSE) project: Final report2009Report (Refereed)
  • 274. Lindahl, M.
    et al.
    Sundin, E.
    Öhrwall Rönnbäck, A.
    Ölundh Sandström, Gunilla
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Integrated Product Service Offerings (IPSO)2008Report (Refereed)
  • 275. Lindahl, M.
    et al.
    Sundin, E.
    Öhrwall Rönnbäck, A.
    Ölundh Sandström, Gunilla
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Östlin, J.
    Hur skapa mervärde med integrerade produkt- och tjänsteerbjudanden2006In: Uppfinnaren, konstruktören : tidskrift för skapande människor, ISSN 0284-9682, no 5, p. 38-44Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 276. Lindahl, M.
    et al.
    Sundin, E.
    Öhrwall Rönnbäck, A.
    Ölundh Sandström, Gunilla
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Östlin, J.
    Integrated Product and Service Engineering: the IPSE project2006In: Proceedings: Perspectives on Radical Changes to Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP) / [ed] Maj Munch Andersen, Arnold Tukker, 2006, p. 315-324Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 277. Lindahl, M.
    et al.
    Ölundh Sandström, Gunilla
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Sundin, E.
    Öhrwall Rönnbäck, A.
    Östlin, J.
    Learning networks: a method for Integrated Product and Service Engineering - experiences from the IPSE project2008In: Manufacturing Systems And Technologies For The New Frontier / [ed] Mitsuishi, M; Ueda, K; Kimura, F, Springer-Verlag New York, 2008, p. 495-500Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim with the Integrated Product and Service Engineering (IPSE) project is to develop a methodology for companies that want to make the journey of moving from selling products to also sell Integrated Product and Service Offerings. In order to achieve that major changes are needed in the companies. In this paper the learning network approach is described as well as the content of the workshop series that the companies participated in. The findings show that a learning network approach is beneficial methodology for achieving changes in the companies, since the participants learn from each other and from the researchers.

  • 278.
    Lindberg, Emma
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Wärmegård, Lisa
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Product and Service Design.
    Energieffektiv grill2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis of 30 hp has been performed in collaboration with the non-profit organizationCreative Entrepreneurs Solution (CES) based in Ondangwa in northern Namibia. MarieJohansson, the initiator of CES had identified a need for more energy efficient barbecues at theopen markets in Namibia since firewood constitutes a large cost for the actors selling food at themarket. The aim of this project has therefore been to develop a concept that decreases thefirewood consumption.To get further understanding of the conditions that apply in Namibia, a field study wasperformed during two months. User involvement has been an important part during the project,interviews and observations were therefore conducted at open markets in Ondangwa andneighboring cities. To wider the perspectives the whole process of cooking at markets and inhomes was studied. Also aspects like material and manufacturing methods were examined alongwith possible ways of distribution.The most important finding during the field study was that it is common to use two or more firesat the same time to be able to both barbecue and cook in pots. Firewood constitutes 18% of thetotal cost for barbecuing and cooking food at the open market and the vendors have an averageprofit of N$ 13 per day for selling barbecued meat. The findings from the field study resulted ina specification of requirements and thereafter a concept combining cooking and barbecuing wasdeveloped.The concept was demonstrated at the open market in Ondangwa to let the users give theiropinion on the concept and to get ideas of what refinements could be made. Some adjustmentswere made and a second prototype was built and tested in Sweden. Since the concept combinesboth cooking and barbecuing only one fire is needed which reduces the firewood consumptionwith approximately 30% meaning the vendors at the open market would save N$ 8 per day.

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    Energy Efficient Barbecue
  • 279. Lindmark, S.
    et al.
    Magnusson, Mats
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Renga, F.
    Factors influencing the development and diffusion of new mobile services – the case of telematics in Western Sweden2005In: Mobile Virtual Work, a new paradigm? / [ed] Andriessen, E. Vartiainen, M., Springer Publishing Company, 2005, p. 319-341Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 280.
    Lindskog, Pernilla
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Hemphälä, Jens
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Eriksson, Andrea
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Lean in healthcare: Engagement in development, job satisfaction or exhaustion?2016In: Journal of Hospital Administration, ISSN 1927-6990, E-ISSN 1927-7008, Vol. 5, no 5, p. 91-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conclusions about implementing the management concept lean in healthcare are contradictory and longitudinal studies are scarce. In particular, little is known of how working conditions contribute to the sustainability of lean in healthcare. The aim of this article is to identify to what extent lean tools (visual follow-up boards, standardised work, 5S [housekeeping], and value stream mapping [VSM]) promote working conditions for employees and managers in healthcare organisations (outcomes: engagement in development, job satisfaction and exhaustion), while considering the context (i.e., job resources and job demands) and aspects of the implementation process. A longitudinal quantitative study was conducted that involved employees and managers in two hospitals and one municipality (n = 448). Applying the job demands-resources model, multiple linear regression models were used. VSM, standardised work and 5S promoted employees and managers’ working conditions when supported by job resources. When no support was provided, visual follow-up boards were inhibiting employees and managers’ job satisfaction. VSM and standardised work were seen as central lean tools. In this sample, the application of lean cannot be considered sustainable as employees and managers’ working conditions deteriorated under the implementation of lean.

  • 281.
    Lindskog, Pernilla
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Hemphälä, Jens
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Eriksson, Andrea
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Lean Tools Promoting Individual Innovation in Healthcare2016In: Creativity and Innovation Management, ISSN 0963-1690, E-ISSN 1467-8691Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lean is a management concept that has been implemented in different sectors, including healthcare. In lean, employees continuously improve the work processes, which is closely associated with small step innovation. In moving away from the ambiguity surrounding lean in healthcare, this empirical study expands upon lean tools and innovation enabling job resources, as a contextual prerequisite, promoting healthcare employees’ individual innovation at work. Three public sector entities in Sweden participated in a longitudinal quantitative study (n=281). Idea generation and idea implementation, as individual innovation, were analysed using four-level multiple linear regression models. 5S and value stream mapping facilitated employee individual innovation. Hence, these lean tools are considered job resources for such innovation in the initial phase of implementing lean. After controlling for the lean context, job resources and job demands, visual follow-up boards and standardised work had no significant influence upon individual innovation, while development resources and information as participation promoted individual innovation. This study contributes to the understanding of how individual innovation is associated with lean tools and other innovation-related resources in healthcare. These results add to the knowledge of methods and resources promoting individual innovation when initiating a lean implementation.

  • 282.
    Lund, Katarina
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Creativity just in time?: The effects of delivery precision in product development2012In: Proceedings of the 13th International CINet conference, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results from a quantitative study of the product development environment at Scania, a Swedish manufacturer of heavy trucks and buses. The focus of the study has been on exploring the relationship between delivery precision and creativity. Given today’s increasingly competitive market, companies must be able to cut both lead time and time to market while maintaining high creativity and innovativeness in the organization. This study is an attempt to increase our understanding of how one means of cutting lead time, the imposition of high demands on delivery precision, affects the creation of novel ideas in the industrialization phase of product development. The results point to an interesting relationship in which the imposition of high demands on delivery precision actually increases the perception of the creation of novel ideas. The results also have interesting implications for project planning and the role of time dedicated to exploratory tasks in product development.

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    JustInTime
  • 283.
    Lund, Katarina
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Process management in R&D - Doom or Salvation for Creativity?2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    R&D organizations of today must constantly seek ways to becomemore efficient in order to stay competitive. To accomplish thismany organizations turn to process management approaches suchas lean product development. But how does the use of processmanagement influence the creativity of the people in theorganization? How will they manage both the creative search andexploration of future opportunities and the efficient exploitation ofcurrent offerings simultaneously? Previous research has shown thatcompanies often fail in this quest and that exploration is at risk ofbeing neglected in favour of exploitation where the feedback andreturn on invested work are more immediate.This thesis sets out to study how the combination of exploration interms of creativity, and exploitation in terms of processmanagement, plays out at Scania, a developer and manufacturer ofheavy trucks. The research builds on data collected by means of aquestionnaire study where a large part of the R&D organizationparticipated. The results reveal surprisingly positive relationshipsbetween process management and creativity. Firstly, the existenceof clear routines showed a positive relationship with several aspectsof ideation. The results, however, stress the importance of havingdynamic routines where the organization is open to changing theexisting routines when needed. Secondly, strong demands ondelivery precision was positively related to the creation of novelideas in the industrialization process. Thirdly, the use of continuousimprovement efforts was positively related to aspects of creativity.These results indicate that routinization can benefit creativity andthat mangers should encourage the mapping and continuousimprovement of routines. Furthermore, goals for innovationinfluence how much time is spent on exploratory activities.Managers with innovation aspirations should therefore make clearto the organization that innovation is an important part of theoperations. Finally, managers and employees should formulatespecific product innovation goals and demand high deliveryprecision also for deliverables of exploratory nature.

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    ThesisSummary
  • 284.
    Lund, Katarina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Glav, Ragnar
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    Strategies for managing micro-level contextual ambidexterity: Combining exploration and exploitation in R&D2015In: Proceedings of the 15th annual CINet conference, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we study the achievement of contextual ambidexterity at the individual level, i.e. the micro-level. We explore how employees in four different teams in an automotive company use different strategies to prioritise time between, on the one hand exploration such as pre-development activities and research and, on the other hand exploitation such as realising set concepts in the later phases of the product development process. Based on our findings we argue that the status of exploratory activities must be elevated to equal levels with exploitation activities if ambidexterity is to achieved without using separation as the main strategy. We propose that clear goal setting, stricter follow-up of exploratory activities, and high levels of endurance among managers in change initiatives are ways to achieve a contextually ambidextrous organisation.

  • 285.
    Lund, Katarina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Magnusson, Mats
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Slack: a driver of innovation in R&D?2011In: 12th International CINet conference: Continuous Innovation: Doing more with less, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Reaching an efficient yet innovative R&D organization is key in today’s competitive market. Many firms use inspiration from lean manufacturing methods to reach that goal. A large potential lies in a balanced application of such work methods, but applied in its extreme it may cause more harm than good. In this paper we explore how two central concepts in lean product development; slack and standardization are related to innovation. The quantitative analysis of questionnaire data from an automotive manufacturer with a long history of applying lean inspired work methods reveal an interesting relationship between the investigated variables. It also reveals means for managers to further ensure that slack time is used to its best potential in order to reach innovative products.

  • 286.
    Lund, Katarina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Magnusson, Mats
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    The delicate coexistence of standardized work routines and innovation2012In: Proceedings of the 19th International Product Development Management Conference, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the emergence of Scientific Management a century ago, standardization of routine tasks has been held forward as an important means to reach high efficiency in many types of operations, with its main advances in manufacturing. Research and Development (R&D), normally of a less repetitive nature than manufacturing, has yet to discover the full potential of standardization, and there are many pitfalls along the way to avoid. With innovation being a fundamental goal of the R&D operations, careful consideration not to harm creative ability and innovation capacity needs to be taken. The results from this study shows that work routines can exist side by side with ideation and autonomy, and even increase the organization’s ability to generate ideas and act on those ideas.

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    WorkRoutinesAndInnovation
  • 287.
    Lund, Katarina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Norell Bergendahl, Margareta
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Oddsson, Lars
    Sister Kenny Research Center.
    Medtech design in interdisciplinary clinical innovation teams2009In: Journal Medical Devices, ISSN 1932-619X, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 27516-Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Interdisciplinary settings have been highlighted for creative user-close development of products and services. Similarly, user involvement in the actual design process has been presented as a way to make attractive products that will earn market shares. But will an interdisciplinary setting in itself generate the beneficial spin-offs we expect? Will including the end-user on the development team ensure better products that are more successful on the market? A study has been set up to create a work model for Clinical Innovation Teams (CIT) at the Sister Kenny Research Center in Minneapolis, MN, to facilitate the research and development process, and provide guidance to work in a creative and innovative way around rehabilitation technology development. The CITs consist of clinicians, such as nurses, occupational therapists, physical therapists, physicians, engineers and engineering students, and in some cases patients. The CITs combine the interdisciplinary setting and end-user involvement with a custom work-model. The work-model emphasizes the strengths of the teams and provides tools to overcome the obstacles and challenges that these kind of teams face. The technological depth and clinical experience is combined with a structured project work-model. The teams work interdisciplinary by pairing research with actual patient needs to develop rehabilitation technology and medical devices to address those needs. The first tool in the work model is an Innovation Handbook for development projects at the Sister Kenny Research Center, especially written for this specific setting. The second tool is a report with recommendations to the management on how to create a work environment where innovation can occur and where creative ideas are welcome, as well as how to engage clinicians into research. The report also addresses aspects of workplace design, recommendations on how to deal with uncertainties that come when moving between clinical care and research and ideas of how to ensure quality of care and maintain productivity when clinicians engage in research activities. The third tool in the work model is a schematic illustration of how the important elements of innovation management is paired with the design process, and how a project will benefit from good management and where it will suffer from insufficient support. This project has been supported by the City of Minneapolis, the Sister Kenny Research Center and the Product Innovation Engineering Program of Sweden (PIEp). Corresponding author: L. Oddsson; e-mail: lars.oddsson@allina.com

  • 288.
    Lund, Katarina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Tingström, Johan
    Scania.
    Facilitating creative problem solving workshops: Empirical observations at a Swedish automotive company2011In: The 18th International Conference on Engineering Design / [ed] Culley, S.J.; Hicks, B.J.; McAloone, T.C.; Howard, T.J. & Badke-Schaub, P, 2011, p. 275-284Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Being creative often includes putting ideas together in new combinations and approaching problems in new ways. It is a process which can be difficult and frustrating since it demands that we challenge our usual ways of thinking. Facilitation is one means by which we can be aided in the process of breaking our thought patterns, and thereby reach further in our creative efforts. This article describes the planning, execution, evaluation, and consequent lessons learned from the facilitation of two creative problem solving workshops. In these workshops four different groups addressed problem solving with a set of innovation tools and the help of a facilitator. Our conclusion is that a product development team, working interdisciplinary on creative problem solving may benefit from facilitation in different ways. We saw that facilitation can, for example help create mission clarity and counteract behaviour that may otherwise inhibit the participants’ ability to come up with and share ideas. We also saw that entering a workshop with misleading preconceptions of workshop atmosphere may lead to insufficient time being spent on exploring potentially creative ideas.

  • 289.
    Lund Stetler, Katarina
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Innovation under pressure: Reclaiming the micro-level exploration space2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research & Development (R&D) departments are becoming increasingly structured and routine-based, with tight schedules and daily follow-ups. This way of working stems from increased demands for delivering products to customers quickly and with high quality at a low price. At the same time, these organisations are faced with the challenge of coming up with new ideas that can become the foundations of tomorrow’s innovations. This means that R&D departments must achieve both exploration, in terms of coming up with new ideas, and exploitation in terms of turning existing ideas into products available on the market. If these dual perspectives are to be met within a single work unit, the employees in that unit must achieve what we call contextual ambidexterity. Previous research has shown this to be difficult to achieve and has offered little guidance for organisations about how to organise and manage their operations in order to increase their chances of achieving contextual ambidexterity.The aim of this thesis is to explore challenges related to innovation that are encountered at the micro-level in contextually ambidextrous organisations and to shed light on factors that explain those challenges.This study has combined survey data with interview data from several organisations to analyse the relationship between aspects of efficiency and aspects of creativity. It was found that employees in a contextually ambidextrous organisation struggle to ensure enough micro-level exploration space, in other words, they have trouble finding time to explore ideas and making room for novel ideas.This research shows that a contextually ambidextrous approach in R&D will likely exert two main challenges related to innovation. The first challenge is a crowding out of exploratory activities in favour of exploitatory activities. One reason for this is the combination of using productivity goals for exploitation and not using any similar targets for exploration activities. Large discrepancies in how these two types of activities are treated runs the risk that the one that is less monitored – most often exploration – is likely to be crowded out in favour of the one that is more intensely monitored.A second possible challenge is the demand on predictability in project progress that is often built into organisations as a means to enhance exploitation. This aim for predictability might create a reluctance to introduce new projects with high levels of novelty because the introduction of novel ideas contains uncertainties that jeopardise the adherence to the project plan. The combination of this view of novelty in the later phases of product development and the crowding out of exploratory activities could possibly lead to insufficient room for novel ideas to gain ground in the organisation, and this could lead to less innovative output.

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    Innovation under pressure
  • 290.
    Lund Stetler, Katarina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Jennie, Björk
    Magnusson, Mats
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Myopic Creative Climate: The Result of Streamlining in R&D Organizations?2014In: Academy of management proceedings, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Creative climate has been proposed as a fundamental component of organizations displaying high innovation performance, and validated tools for measuring creative climate are today readily available. In the existing literature, however, the multi-dimensionality of the creative climate concept is not thoroughly reflected, but organizations have primarily been regarded to either have or not have a creative climate. In this article we attempt to bring a more nuanced perspective to creative climate – describing what can be seen as a myopic creative climate. This type of climate is characterized by a good working environment where people support each other’s ideas and trust each other. However the levels of risk taking and idea time are lower and, more importantly, this results in a significantly lower innovation performance than is found in a good creative climate. This alters the way we view creative climate by highlighting that not all dimensions are equally important. Even in a work environment where the majority of creative climate dimensions are at high levels, the organization may suffer from decreased levels of innovation.

  • 291.
    Lund Stetler, Katarina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Magnusson, Mats
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development. Institute for Management of Innovation and Technology, Sweden .
    Exploring the tension between clarity and ambiguity in goal setting for innovation2015In: Creativity and Innovation Management, ISSN 0963-1690, E-ISSN 1467-8691, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 231-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we analyse the role of goal setting for innovation in an R&D context. The literature on goal setting for innovation is inconclusive; some scholars claim that goals should be ambiguous in order to inspire novel ideas, but others claim that clear project goals are important in order to undertake innovation projects in an efficient manner. We aim to explain this inconsistency by taking a more fine-grained view of innovation where we study goal setting in relation to exploratory aspects such as idea generation separately from exploitatory aspects such as idea implementation. The results from an empirical survey study in the R&D department of an automotive company reveal that a general ambition to be innovative is positively related to all phases of innovation, but the effects of clear project goals are more complex. We found that idea novelty increases under conditions of either high or low levels of goal clarity, whereas mid-range levels of goal clarity are related to fewer novel ideas. These findings inform existing knowledge about goal setting and innovation, and in particular challenge the body of literature showing that only high levels of ambiguity in goal setting are a fruitful means for innovation.

  • 292.
    Lunner, Carl-Magnus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Worrmann, Emelie
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Introducing a Framework for Innovation Readiness Levels – A Framework to Evaluate Innovation Efforts2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When developing new products, it is important to be able to evaluate their readiness as this helps organizations manage three major challenges of product development, performance, schedule, and budget. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) discovered this in 1990 and developed a nine-level framework to measure the progression of technology development, Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs).  The framework has since then been adopted by many different industries, among them OEMs. However, there are more aspects of the innovation process than just technology. Research topics such as user centered design and business model innovation has lately gained much attention, indicating that user and business aspects of the innovation are important. Therefore, the purpose of his thesis was to propose a framework to evaluate the readiness of business, user and technology aspects.

    To do so, a case study was performed at the Swedish OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer) Husqvarna Group, a global producer of equipment for garden and park care, as well as for the construction industry. A literature study was performed to create an understanding of the current knowledge on the topic. Semi structured interviews were used to investigate how innovation is performed at the researched company. The result from these interviews was contrasted with the results from interviews at four other Swedish OEMs, to increase external validity. Lastly the findings were validated through focus group interviews at Husqvarna Group.

    The case study resulted in the identification of important steps when developing viable, desirable, and feasible products. From these, the nine most important for business and user was identified and frameworks for business and user readiness respectively were developed, along with attainment criteria for each level. The findings showed that the TRL framework still holds relevance, however the attainment criteria were adjusted to better suit OEMs. Together these three frameworks create the Innovation Readiness Level (IRL) framework.

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    fulltext
  • 293.
    Magnusson, Mats
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Boundary Management and the Dynamic Knowledge-Based Firm1999In: Proceedings of the CISTEMA conference: Mobilizing Knowledge in Technology Management: Competence Construction in the Strategizing and Organizing of Technical Change, 1999Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 294.
    Magnusson, Mats
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Exploring Interdependencies between Architectural Knowledge Creation and activities in the Value System1998In: Proceedings of the 5th International Product Development Management Conference, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 1998Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 295.
    Magnusson, Mats
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Organizing for Technology Creation and Exploitation – the Technology Executive System at Toshiba1999In: Proceedings of the 6th International Product Development Management Conference, 1999Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 296.
    Magnusson, Mats
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Supplier Involvement in Product Development - The Framing of Suppliers’ Product Development Tasks1996In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Product Development Conference, Fontainebleau, France, 1996Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 297.
    Magnusson, Mats
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Nilsson, Susanne
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Ölundh Sandström, Gunilla
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Hemphälä, Jens
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Prioritisation of innovation project ideas - Differences between individual and group processes2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 298.
    Magnusson, Mats
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Pasche, Maximilian
    A contingency-based approach to the use of product platforms and modules in new product development2014In: The Journal of product innovation management, ISSN 0737-6782, E-ISSN 1540-5885, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 434-450Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To face the challenges of increasing demand for variety, more specific customer demands and shortening product life cycles, firms increasingly adopt mass customization techniques. Two important such techniques are product modularization and product platform development, which allow firms to reach high levels of product variety, and at the same time, keep complexity and its related costs at a limited level. Often modularization and product platform development are treated as variants of the same basic idea. However, even if the concepts are closely related, they also have some fundamental differences, which influence their usefulness and applicability in different settings. One potential shortcoming of existing literature on modularization and product platforms is the present lack of research on their limitations and potential negative effects. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to identify and explore contingencies influencing the applicability of modularization and product platforms, respectively, taking their different economic effects as a starting point. Moreover, the paper addresses how different organizing solutions are interrelated with the use of modularization and product platform approaches. The empirical observations originate from studies of three Swedish manufacturing firms. The study reveals that important contingencies affecting the applicability of modularization and product platforms are demand side characteristics and the speed of environmental change. Furthermore, it is seen that firms need to organize themselves differently with respect to how they combine modularization and platforms, for example, in terms of degree of centralization, formalization, and allocation of decision-making authority, and that this poses challenges to the combined use of the two approaches.

  • 299.
    Malakhatka, Elena
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Sopjani, Liridona
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Lundqvist, Per
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Co-Creating Service Concepts for the Built Environment Based on the End-User's Daily Activities Analysis: KTH Live-in-Lab Explorative Case Study2021In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, no 4, article id 1942Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to synthesize the widely used theories about co-creation from two main perspectives: co-creation as an innovation process and co-creation as a design process applied to the service concept design in the built environment context. The architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC) industry do not have much application of end-user-oriented service design in general, especially with intensive co-creation processes. To facilitate such a process, we are using a living lab environment as a laboratorial model of the real built environment, but with the opportunity to have access to the end-users and different types of stakeholders. Using the KTH Live-in-Lab explorative case study, we were able to discuss the concept of co-creation by distinguishing between co-creation as innovation and co-creation as a design process, facilitating the process of co-creation of service concepts for the proposed built environment including methods from both perspectives: innovation and design, and evaluating the process of service concepts co-creation for the built environment from the point of innovation, knowledge transfer, sustainability, and user experience.

  • 300.
    Malvius, Diana
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Integrated information management in complex product development2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Where do companies begin their efforts when trying to improve information management in product development? In large companies involving many people, multiple processes and highly technological products several factors have an impact on efficiency. Interdisciplinary integration and structured information are two overall proposed key factors that have been identified as important to obtain efficient information management.

    Measurement of satisfaction level among information systems users is proposed as an angle of approach to identify key improvement areas from an operative perspective that are argued to be strategic for management to address. However, the need for adjustments to contextual prerequisites and a changing environment makes evaluation necessary prior to measurement. An evaluation framework is proposed to identify metrics that are tailored and kept in line with business and development strategies to ensure their relevancy.

    This research has aimed at taking a holistic approach to information management in complex product development. The research focus has been on the integration between engineering disciplines where software and electrical R&D departments at automotive companies have been the main source of the analysis material.

    Integrated information management entails support for activities within the engineering domain. Several strategies are discussed to manage trade-offs in organizations in order to succeed with integrated information management. A needs-based balance is one important approach proposed to resolve changing and conflicting needs. Furthermore, it is argued that operative and strategic goals should be allowed to co-exist.

    Providing the right infrastructure to support designers in their everyday work does not necessarily mean additional functionality to existing information systems or automated work activities by improved document templates. Rather, it is suggested that a shift in focus (from addressing detailed requirements management to reflecting on interrelationships between information objects and system inter-dependencies) would be a strong mechanism to succeed with information management. The transition into model-based development is argued to be a much needed change for organizations to obtain integrated information management, since a model-based approach is considered an important basis for structured information. Anticipated benefits with integrated information management are increased information availability, reduced information overflow, and enhanced communication and understanding of critical system dependencies

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