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  • 251.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Congestion Charging in Urban Networks: Modelling Issues and Simulated Effects2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the major challenges cities face today, in their development towards sustainable urban areas, is the need for an efficient and environmentally friendly transport system. This transport system should manage to tie together the city without strong adverse impact on urban environment, air-quality and climate change. The specialized labour (and leisure) market, typical of a large urban area, exaggerates the need for efficient travel, as it is increasingly difficult to live and work within short distances.   

    The use of demand management tools has become more frequent in transport planning with this development towards more sustainable cities. Whereas investing in new capacity was previously the main response to increased demand for travel, there is a much broader range of policies in use today. One of these demand management tools is congestion charging. Singapore was first to implement congestion charging and during the last decade it was followed by London and Stockholm, with increasing support from the citizens as a consequence. Many other cities have performed feasibility studies for introduction of congestion charging. 

    The development of transport models for prediction of demand management tools, such as congestion charging, has however not been able to keep up with this change in kind of policy. Transport models that were developed for prediction and evaluation of infrastructure investments, such as new motorways, are often used to forecast effects of policies aimed at managing demand, which too often results in poor prediction.

    This thesis focuses on the needs for modelling of congestion charging. The state-of-practice models used before implementation in Singapore, London and Stockholm are reviewed, as well as more advanced dynamic models developed for prediction of congestion charging and other demand management tools. A number of gaps in the modelling of congestion charging are described and a new model called SILVESTER is developed, which closes some of these gaps. In particular, SILVESTER involves dynamic mesoscopic modelling of traffic flows, flexible departure times and users with heterogeneous preferences.

    The thesis describes the implementation of SILVESTER and considers and compares different methods of demand aggregation in order to reduce run-time of the large-scale dynamic model (Paper I). It also describes how preferred departure times of road users can be determined in calibration such that consistency exists between the departure time choice model and dynamic traffic flows which are input to assignment (Paper II). The unique implementation of congestion charging in Stockholm gives the possibility to validate SILVESTER on real-world measurement of reductions in traffic flow and behavioural adjustments to the charges (Paper III). SILVESTER is then used to analyse several modified versions of the Stockholm congestion charging scheme and to compare welfare and equity effects of the different schemes. It is shown that the welfare of the current scheme could be improved if charges were allowed to differ by location and driving direction (Paper IV). It is shown that the benefits of congestion charges calculated using SILVESTER are greater than the benefits calculated with a static model. Finally, the reasons for the greater benefits are investigated (Paper V).

  • 252.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Impacts of time-varying cordon pricing: Validation and application of mesoscopic model for Stockholm2013In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 28, no SI, p. 51-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses a simulation model to compare traffic and welfare effects of changes to the charging schedule currently in use in Stockholm. In particular, a step toll is compared to its flat counterpart at two charging levels. The increments between steps are also increased in a peaked step toll scenario. Furthermore, results from simulation of the current toll ring are compared to real-world measurements in a first attempt to validate model predictions regarding impacts of a time-varying congestion charging scheme. In the model, car users have the possibility to respond to congestion charging by changing departure time, route or switch to public transport and travel times are calculated using mesoscopic traffic simulation. Validation shows that departure time choice adjustments because of congestion charging are overestimated by the model that is based on stated preference data. This warrants further research on discrepancies between stated and revealed adjustments to congestion charging. The current step toll reaches the highest social benefit estimate in model predictions, but differences in traffic effects between the current step toll and its flat counterpart are rather small. Furthermore, results show that demand changes occur in the model to a considerably greater extent for trips with low value of time. The differences in welfare effects is for that reason large for different trip purposes, indicating the importance of accounting for heterogeneous trips when modelling effects of congestion charges.

  • 253.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Engelson, Leonid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Alternativa vägavgiftssystem och individers resval2011Report (Other academic)
  • 254.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Engelson, Leonid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Alternative Congestion Charging Schemes and their Equity Effects: Results of Simulations for Stockholm2011In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 255.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Engelson, Leonid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Alternative road pricing schemes and their equity effects: Results of simulations for Stockholm2011In: Proceedings of the TRB 90th Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C., 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses a newly developed transport model to analyze effects of alternative road pricing schemes. The responses to road pricing included in the model are departure time, mode and route choice. Traffic analysis is performed on a large urban network of Stockholm using mesoscopic simulation. The compared pricing schemes differ in toll location and charged amount. Through calculation of consumer surplus per geographical zone, effects of the road pricing schemes are analyzed per income group and geographical area in order to study equity effects. Simulation results suggest that road pricing can be both regressive and progressive depending on the design of the pricing scheme, this even before the use of revenues to compensate users. Results also indicate that there can be a disagreement between which pricing scheme is preferable from a congestion mitigating point of view and which is preferable when looking at equity effects.

  • 256.
    Lei, Wei
    et al.
    Wuhan University of Technology.
    Ma, Xiaoliang
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Chen, Hui
    Wuhan University of Technology.
    Assessment of Traffic Environment using Fine-tuned Dynamic Vehicle Emission Models2010In: IEEE Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, Proceedings, ITSC, 2010, p. 1237-1242Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to assess environmental impacts of local traffic flow, a two-stage parameter tuning approach is proposed for recalibration of the Comprehensive Modal Emission Model (CMEM) using on-road emission measurements collected in Chinese cities. Based on the procedure comprising of grid search and nonlinear simplex optimization, the fuel- and emission-related parameters in the model are estimated to minimize the Mean Square Error (MSE) between model outputs and real measurements. In addition, a regression-based emission model is calibrated using the same data samples to compare performance. It is shown from the numerical results that the tuning process is able of improving the model prediction accuracy, especially concerning the CO emission, when comparing with the original CMEM model and the regression-based model. In addition, the emission models are, after the tuning process, applied together with a traffic simulation model to evaluate dynamic environmental effects of traffic in a case study.

  • 257.
    Lindahl, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Infrastruktur för flexibel tågföring – Kapacitetsanalys av förbigångar på en dubbelspårssträcka2002Report (Other academic)
  • 258.
    Lindahl, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Resandeundersökningar på trafiken Stockholm–Bollnäs–Östersund–Åre för Atlantbanan1999Report (Other academic)
  • 259.
    Lindfeldt, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Heterogeneity Measures and Secondary Delays on a Simulated Double-Track2013In: Proceedings of the 5th International Seminar on Railway Operations Modelling and Analysis, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2013, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The demand for transportation on railways grows for each year and many railway lines are already used close to maximum capacity. One way to increase capacity is to reduce traffic heterogeneity. Heterogeneity is introduced when train services with different speeds operate on the same line. There are many definitions of heterogeneity in literature. Good measures are important in order to be able to quantify capacity lost due to heterogeneity, and consequently how capacity can be gained by reducing it. This paper analyse some of the existing measures as well as introduces a new one, Mean Pass Coefficient (MPC). Other measures analysed are: number of speed levels (SL), speed ratio of fastest to slowest train (SR), mean difference in free running time (MDFR) as well as sum of shortest headway reciprocals (SSHR) and sum of arrival headway reciprocals (SAHR).

    Two infrastructure models of double-track lines with overtaking stations spaced at different intervals are simulated. A large number of timetables are created where traffic density as well as the mix of slower and faster trains is varied. Each timetable is characterized using the different definitions of heterogeneity and the results are used in regression analyses to determine their explanatory value with respect to secondary delays created in the simulations. Results show that MPC performs best closely followed by MDFR and SR, while SL is worse when it comes to explaining secondary delays. SSHR and SAHR also show good performance. The performance of the measures increases when primary delays are high, but is unaffected by interstation distance.

  • 260.
    Lindfeldt, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Investigating The Impact Of Timetable Properties On Delay Propagation On A Double-Track Line Using Extensive Simulation2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today many railway lines are operated close to maximum capacity. A common question asked is: “How is the quality of operation affected if one additional train/h is scheduled?” With the upcoming deregulation of operation, the necessity to be able to answer this question accurately increases when service operators that are denied train slots due to congestion demand a motivation.

    The objective of this paper is to investigate how secondary delays on a congested double-track line depend on several parameters such as:

    • Number of trains/h.

    • Timetable heterogeneity (speed difference).

    • Primary delay levels.

    • Inter-station distance.

    Each combination of settings of the parameters is investigated to capture possible interaction effects.

    The infrastructure model consists of a fictitious double-track line with overtaking stations at regular intervals. A program that generates timetables and perturbation data according to specified input settings is developed. The output of the program is data files that can be read directly by the well-known simulation tool RailSys. This process makes it possible to simulate the hundreds of different timetables that are the result when the parameters investigated are varied. The outcome of the simulations is analysed to find the influence of the investigated parameters on the secondary delays.

  • 261.
    Lindfeldt, Olov
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    An analysis of double-track railway line capacity2011In: Transportation planning and technology (Print), ISSN 0308-1060, E-ISSN 1029-0354, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 301-322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, rail traffic is almost never separated according to speed. On several double-track lines the mix of heavy freight, regional and high speed trains imposes severe capacity problems. In order to evaluate the capacity for different traffic mixes, a combinatorial model - Timetable Variant Evaluation Model (TVEM) - has been developed. In this model both infrastructure and timetable are modelled as variables. Traffic is divided into train patterns according to a presumed regular timetable and then scheduled systematically in different time locations. The timetable variants are evaluated with regard to: mean values of capacity that give the number of trains/hr for the required mix, variance measures that show how the capacity depends on the timetable and scheduled delays that show the extension of run times imposed by overtaking. The paper shows how the important distance between adjacent overtaking stations can be sampled from Weibull distributions. TVEM has been used to evaluate three different operational cases with mixed traffic. The analysis shows that the impact on capacity from the infrastructure increases with speed difference and frequency of operation for passenger trains, while the importance of the infrastructure decreases when traffic is more heterogeneous. The impact from the timetable is strongest when the speed differences are low and/or the frequency of passenger trains is low. Capacity loss due to increased speed differences can be compensated for by additional overtaking stations. The slower trains suffer from a considerable increase in scheduled delays when speed differences increase.

  • 262.
    Lindström, Gustaf
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Is GSM-R the limiting factor for the ERTMS system capacity?2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The European Rail Traffic Management System, ERTMS, is introduced as a common signalling system

    for the European railway network. ERTMS consist of two main parts, the signalling part ETCS and the

    radio transmission system GSM-R, based on the well-established GSM standard.

    The question to be answered in this thesis is if the capacity of GSM-R is limiting the ETCS part in any

    way. If that is the fact, how can the limitations be overcome?

    Looking forward, will public mobile system with high transmission capacity like GPRS, LTE etc

    influence GSM-R? GSM-R year 2020: how will it look?

    The thesis describes the basic functions of ETCS and GSM-R, and the way they are interconnected.

    The study shows that the capacity of GSM-R is sufficient for signalling on the line, even for high speed

    traffic. Problems occur with a high density of GSM-R users in a limited area, for example at large

    stations and marshalling yards. Also the combination of a station, with many but slowly moving units,

    and a main line, with few but fast moving units, passing through the same area can cause problems.

    The thesis describes various ways to solve this issue. Right now these problems are solved with

    advanced cell-planning and the use of lower level implementation of ERTMS, not depend on GSM-R.

    In the longer run the main solution is to introduce higher capacity packet-switched solutions like

    GPRS.

    An even greater problem at the moment is that public mobile operators providing high-speed data

    services in the near-by frequency bands interfere with GSM-R. The solution to this problem is

    presented as well as the problems the solution itself is causing.

    In the long term perspective ERTMS will depend more and more on reliable data communication by

    radio and packet-switched high speed radio solutions, which will definitely be a part of ERTMS.

    To address the question raised in the thesis title: is GSM-R the limiting factor for the ERTMS system

    capacity?

    NO, considering the actions taken and the sometimes unconventional solutions used based on

    engineering expertise and creativity, GSM-R is not the limiting factor in ERTMS right now.

    YES, in the long run and with broader usage of ERTMS, GSM-R has to have a higher capacity, more

    functionality and be a more standardized system: more “plug&play” than “plug&pray”.

     

  • 263. Lo, J. C.
    et al.
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Measuring group situation awareness in a multiactor gaming simulation: A pilot study of railway and passenger traffic operators2013In: Proc Hum Factors Ergon Soc, 2013, p. 177-181Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides initial results for the gaming simulation design and measurement of group situation awareness (SA) through a low-tech multi-actor board gaming simulation for the Dutch railway operation. Group situation awareness is measured in this study, as railway operations consist of many dyadic teams and predominantly unique roles. Gaming simulations are herein defined as a simulation of a system using gaming methods, in which humans take part. This particular type of gaming simulation provides a relative fast and low-cost alternative to measure situation awareness in a multi-actor environment compared to the traditional human-in-the-loop-like simulator environment for SA measurements. However, due to variations in their abstraction level, exploration is needed on the validity for measurements of situation awareness in these environments. Thus, the main aim in this study is to determine whether, and if so, how, group SA can be measured in gaming simulations up to a quality that provides significant data for research. The results show potential for SA measurements in low-tech board gaming simulations, although improvement is needed with regards to the different validity types for gaming simulation. This may be achieved through the explicit use of gaming simulation design principles for SA. Future work should focus on further validation and research on the theoretical implications of group situation awareness.

  • 264. Lo, J. C.
    et al.
    Meijer, Sebastiaan A.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Gaming simulation design for individual and team situation awareness2014In: Frontiers in Gaming Simulation: 44th International Simulation and Gaming Association Conference, ISAGA 2013 and 17th IFIP WG 5.7 Workshop on Experimental Interactive Learning in Industrial Management, Stockholm, Sweden, June 24-28, 2013. Revised Selected Papers, Springer, 2014, p. 121-128Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Situation awareness is a key concept in understanding operator behaviour. Shortly, it can be described as knowing what is going on. For the past decades, human-in-the-loop simulators have been the traditional type of gaming simulations for studying or training situation awareness. The overall characteristic of gaming simulations is that they are a simulation of a system using gaming methods in which humans take part. Depending on a range of design choices, these gaming simulations take upon different visualizations and approaches to simulate aspects of the real world. Thus, a fundamental question is: what are the minimal requirements of a game to ensure natural levels of (team) situation awareness? This paper aims to capture and define the boundaries and limitations of gaming simulation design, in which the situation awareness of individuals and teams can be simulated and measured.

  • 265.
    Lo, Julia C.
    et al.
    Delft Univ Technol, Fac Techol Policy & Management, Delft, Netherlands..
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Situation Awareness Measurement Techniques for Gaming Simulations: An Overview and Application for Railway Traffic Controllers2013In: 2013 IEEE INTERNATIONAL MULTI-DISCIPLINARY CONFERENCE ON COGNITIVE METHODS IN SITUATION AWARENESS AND DECISION SUPPORT (COGSIMA), IEEE , 2013, p. 238-245Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides an extended gaming simulation framework and methods overview for the selection and development of situation awareness (SA) measurement techniques in gaming simulations. Gaming simulations are here defined as a simulation of a system through the use of gaming methods. Unlike SA measurements in human-in-the-loop simulators like cockpits, measurements for situation awareness in multi-actor gaming simulation environments are little investigated as a methodological approach. The aim of the framework is to bridge the gap between the theoretical implications of gaming simulations design elements and SA measurement techniques. Secondly, to provide key elements in game design and evaluation for the development of situation awareness measurement techniques. The framework is applied to determine a set of situation awareness measurement techniques for Dutch railway traffic controllers, in which the Dutch railway sector is increasingly using gaming simulation methods to investigate influences of new innovations for the railway system before innovations are put into the operations. Different sets of situation awareness measurement techniques for individuals and team/groups in railway traffic control are selected.

  • 266. Lo, Julia
    et al.
    Van den Hoogen, Jop
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Using gaming simulation experiments to test railway innovations: Implications for validity2013In: Proceedings of the 2013 Winter Simulation Conference - Simulation: Making Decisions in a Complex World, WSC 2013, IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, p. 1766-1777Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gaming simulation in the railway sector often uses the same conceptual model as in computer simulation, and enables operators to interact with this model during a simulation run. Therefore, gaming simulation validation poses different challenges. This paper aims to answer the question to what extent gaming simulation can be used as an experimental research setting, due to its loosely demarcated experimental features. Focusing on validity issues, we study five cases in which the Dutch railway sector used gaming simulation to test innovations in a controlled environment. The results show that in addition to traditional external validity issues, human game players inherently open up this controlled environment, bringing in many confounding variables. By signaling what the specific validity threats are, this paper strives to improve gaming simulation for testing innovations that tackle social and technical elements of a system.

  • 267. Lukosch, H.
    et al.
    Van Bussel, R.
    Meijer, Sebastiaan A.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    A serious game design combining simulation and sandbox approaches2014In: Frontiers in Gaming Simulation: 44th International Simulation and Gaming Association Conference, ISAGA 2013 and 17th IFIP WG 5.7 Workshop on Experimental Interactive Learning in Industrial Management, Stockholm, Sweden, June 24-28, 2013. Revised Selected Papers, Springer, 2014, p. 52-59Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has proven the usefulness of serious gaming for learning and advancing motivation by a combination of visuals, audio, text, and entertaining elements. Nevertheless, a broadly accepted, practical instructional design approach to serious games does not yet exist, especially when focusing on vocational edu-cation. The authors introduce a new instructional design model developed for this massive field of education, and argue some advantages compared to other design approaches. The first application is presented in mechanics mechatronics edu-cation to illustrate the close match of timing and provision of information that the instructional design model prescribes and how this has been translated to a rigidly structured serious game design. The structured approach answers the learning needs of applicable knowledge within the target group. It combines advantages of gaming simulations related to the transfer of knowledge from and to the workplace with a sandbox approach, an integrated fun-part of the game, which is aiming at motivating the students in in the best possible way.

  • 268. Lukosch, Heide
    et al.
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Van Bussel, Roy
    A Game Design Framework for vocational education2013In: Journal of Communication and Computer, Vol. 10, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Serious gameshave provento be a useful instrument to engage learners and increase motivation. Nevertheless, a broadly accepted, practicalinstructional design approach to serious games does not exist. In this paper, we introduce the use of an instructional design model that has not been applied to serious games yet, and has some advantages comparedto other design approaches.We present the case ofmechanics mechatronics education to illustrate the close match with timing and role of knowledge and information that the instructional design modelprescribes and how thishas been translatedto a rigidlystructured game design.The structured approach answers the learning needs of applicable knowledge within the target group. It combines advantages of simulations with strengths of entertainment games to foster learner’s motivation in the best possible way. A prototype of the game will be evaluated along a well-respectedevaluation method withinan advanced test settingincluding test and control group.

  • 269. Lukosch, Heide
    et al.
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Van Bussel, Roy
    A Game Design Framework for vocational education2012In: International Journal of Human and Social Sciences, ISSN 1307-8046, Vol. 6, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 270.
    Lundberg, Anna-Ida
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Nelldal, Bo-Lennart
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Konkurrens och samverkan mellan tåg och flyg, Del 2: Tidsserieanalys i Sverige2011Report (Other academic)
  • 271.
    Lykogianni, Georgia Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Österlind, Malin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    An electrified road future.: A feasibility study of electric road systems (ERS) for the logistic sector in Sweden.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Electrification of transportation could be one pathway into sustainability since the

    electricity production can originate from renewable and low carbon energy sources.

    Electrifying the road could also reduce the battery dependence and further increase the

    vehicle efficiency in sense of energy consumption and load capacity when thinking of

    storage of electric energy in vehicle batteries. Not only is the Electric Road System

    (ERS) a rather new concept, it also raises concerns about consequences on health,

    safety, environment and public acceptance.

    The aim of this master thesis, within the logistics domain, is to interdisciplinary investigate the

    concept of electrified roads and to define potential blockers and in various extents investigate

    their feasibility. The potential blockers are assessed at a system level meaning that the depth of

    analysis of each aspect depends on the amount of data available and the relative importance

    according to the experts. Given the limits of research time, points that require more investigation

    have been indicated. This study will have a focus on freight vehicles since that is the vehicle

    considered to lack alternative solution towards decarbonization.

    The areas chosen for a closer analysis are health, safety and environment. The information

    available regarding the ERS impact on those areas is very limited even though they seem to

    constitute crucial factors for gaining the public acceptance. By investigating energy usage and

    CO

    2 emissions in different phases of the ERS, the feasibility of the environment is assessed.

    Investigating the Electromagnetic Fields (EMF) produced by the inductive on-road charging

    technology, part of the ERS, approaches the possible health effects of ERS. Health effects of

    particles and pollutants are also touched upon. Accidents involving Electric Vehicles (EVs) and

    the transportation of dangerous goods through ERS will also be analyzed in the safety chapter.

    Ongoing projects and available technologies are used and taken into consideration throughout

    the study. Feedback from the industry and people involved with the ERS concept contribute in

    defining the fields facing significant uncertainties. In the last part, two scenarios are being

    analyzed in the sense of testing the feasibility of the inductive on-road charging in city logistics

    and for the big city triangle.

    This study has its base in literature reviews and interviews with experts within the industry. The

    different ERS technologies are still under development why many specific parameters are

    confidential. This poses some unintentional limits to this study in the sense of difficulty drawing

    specific conclusions. Therefore factors such as commercialization of the vehicle, health, safety

    and development time remain uncertain. Others such as environmental impact seem to benefit

    from the ERS, while others motivates the introduction of ERS such as the battery

    manufacturing.

  • 272.
    Ma, Xiaoliang
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Optimal Controls of Fleet Trajectories for Fuel and Emissions2013In: Proceedings of the IEEE Intelligent Vehicle Symposium (IEEE IV13), IEEE , 2013, p. 1059-1064Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased demand for transport, coupled with energy, climate and environmental concerns, has put more and more pressure for improved performance on traffic systems. The recent development in vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communication provides an effective means for continuous management of vehicle driving. This study presents an essential step of the work towards a dynamic fleet management system that takes advantages of real-time traffic information and communication. Based on the optimal control theory, a methodological approach is developed to control the environmental impacts of live vehicle fleets. In particular, vehicle trajectories that minimize local environmental objectives are derived by applying a discrete dynamic programming method. Numerical examples show that the method is promising for local V2I based traffic management applications and can be further extended for more complex optimal control problems in dynamic fleet management.

  • 273.
    Ma, Xiaoliang
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Towards Intelligent Fleet Management: Local Optimal Speeds for Fuel and Emissions2013In: Proceedings of the 16th IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (IEEE ITSC 2013), Den Haag, Netherland: IEEE conference proceedings, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to fulfill the policy requirements on increased transport energy efficiency and reduced emission impacts, smart control and management of vehicles and fleets have become important for the evolution of green intelligent transportation systems (ITS). The emergence of new information and communication technologies (ICT) and their applications, especially vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communication, serves as an effective means for continuous management of real traffic fleet by providing vehicle driving support and guidance, and therefore affecting driver behavior. This study presents a recent Swedish R&D project for developing a dynamic fleet management system that incorporates real-time traffic information, eco-driving guidance and automated vehicle control in real-time heavy vehicle platooning. In addition to a general illustration of the main objectives of the project, the paper presents a methodological approach to developed local fleet control strategies so that the fuel and emissions of the managed vehicle fleet can be reduced. Speed trajectories minimizing predefined objectives are derived by applying a discrete dynamic programming method, and an instantaneous emission estimator is used for predicting fuel and emissions. Numerical examples show that the method is promising for real-time fleet management applications with support of V2I communication while the computational efficiency of the method needs to be enhanced. The adaptive speed control approach is implemented in a microscopic traffic simulation environment for further evaluation.

  • 274.
    Ma, Xiaoliang
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Andreasson, Ingmar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Driver reaction delay estimation from real data and its application in GM-type model evaluation2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 275.
    Ma, Xiaoliang
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Andreasson, Ingmar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Statistical analysis of driver behavioral data in different regimes of the car-following stage2007In: TRB 86th Annual Meeting Compendium of Papers CD-ROM, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 276.
    Ma, Xiaoliang
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Huang, Zhen
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Koutsopoulos, Haris
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    A Numerical Approach on Model Calibration for An Emission Simulation Platform2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 277.
    Ma, Xiaoliang
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Huang, Zhen
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Koutsopoulos, Haris
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Integrated Traffic and Emission Simulation: a Model Calibration Approach Using Aggregate Information2014In: Environmental Modelling and Assessment, ISSN 1420-2026, E-ISSN 1573-2967, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 271-282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental impacts of road traffic have attracted increasing attention in project-level traffic planning and management. The conventional approach considers emission impact analysis as a separate process in addition to traffic modeling. This paper first introduces our research effort to integrate traffic, emission, and dispersion processes into a common distributed computational framework, which makes it efficient to quantify and analyze correlations among dynamic traffic conditions, emission impacts, and air quality consequences. A model calibration approach is particularly proposed when on-road or in-lab instantaneous emission measurements are not directly available. Microscopic traffic simulation is applied to generate dynamic vehicle states at the second-by-second level. Using aggregate emission estimation as standard reference, a numerical optimization scheme on the basis of a stochastic gradient approximation algorithm is applied to find optimal parameters for the dynamic emission model. The calibrated model has been validated on several road networks with traffic states generated by the same simulation model. The results show that with proper formulation of the optimization objective function, the estimated dynamic emission model can capture the trends of aggregate emission patterns of traffic fleets and predict local emission and air quality at higher temporal and spatial resolutions.

  • 278.
    Ma, Xiaoliang
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Huang, Zhen
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Zaman, Abdul
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Andreasson, Ingmar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    A Prototype Distributed Simulation Platform for Online Traffic Emission Predictions2009In: proceeding and CD of the 10th International Conference in Computers on Urban Planning and Urban Managements, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 279.
    Ma, Xiaoliang
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Jansson, Magnus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing.
    A model identification scheme for driver-following dynamics in road traffic2013In: Control Engineering Practice, ISSN 0967-0661, E-ISSN 1873-6939, Vol. 21, no 6, p. 807-817Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The driver-following, or car-following, model is one of the most fundamental driver behavior models that are applied in intelligent transport applications. Its fidelity determines the applicability of microscopic traffic simulators, where the model is often implemented to mimic real traffic. Meanwhile, the behavioral model is fundamental to the development of advanced driving assistance systems (ADAS). This paper develops a dynamic model identification approach based on iterative usage of the extended Kalman Filtering (EKF) algorithm. Among other things, this allows to carry out model identification using a rather general optimization objective on the whole physical states of the following vehicle. In particular, the method is established on the basis of the equivalence between the Kalman filter and the recursive least squares (RLS) method in a specific context of parameter identification. To illustrate the method, two car-following models are studied in numerical experiments using real car-following data. The method has shown advantages in replication and prediction of vehicle dynamics in car-following over the conventional approaches. It has also the potential to be further extended for building tactical driving controllers in intelligent transportation applications.

  • 280.
    Ma, Xiaoliang
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics. ITekn Solutions, Sweden.
    Jin, Junchen
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Lei, Wei
    Multi-criteria analysis of optimal signal plans using microscopic traffic models2014In: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 32, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing concerns on environment and natural resources, coupled with increasing demand for transport, put lots of pressure for improved efficiency and performance on transport systems worldwide. New technology nowadays enables fast innovation in transport, but it is the policy for deployment and operation with a systems perspective that often determines success. Smart traffic management has played important roles for continuous development of traffic systems especially in urban areas. There is, however, still lack of effort in current traffic management and planning practice prioritizing policy goals in environment and energy. This paper presents an application of a model-based framework to quantify environmental impacts and fuel efficiency of road traffic, and to evaluate optimal signal plans with respect not only to traffic mobility performance but also other important measures for sustainability. Microscopic traffic simulator is integrated with micro-scale emission model for estimation of emissions and fuel consumption at high resolution. A stochastic optimization engine is implemented to facilitate optimal signal planning for different policy goals, including delay, stop-and-goes, fuel economy etc. In order to enhance the validity of the modeling framework, both traffic and emission models are fine-tuned using data collected in a Chinese city. In addition, two microscopic traffic models are applied, and lead to consistent results for signal optimization. Two control schemes, fixed time and vehicle actuated, are optimized while multiple performance indexes are analyzed and compared for corresponding objectives. Solutions, representing compromise between different policies, are also obtained in the case study by optimizing an integrated performance index.

  • 281.
    Ma, Xiaoliang
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Lei, Wei
    Andreasson, Ingmar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Chen, Hui
    An Evaluation of Microscopic Emission Models for Traffic Pollution Simulation Using On-board Measurement2012In: Environmental Modelling and Assessment, ISSN 1420-2026, E-ISSN 1573-2967, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 375-387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a result of the continuously increasing numbers of motor vehicles in metropolitan areas worldwide, road traffic emission levels have been recognized as a challenge during the planning and management of transportation. Experiments were conducted to collect on-road emission data using portable emission measurement systems in two Chinese cities in order to estimate real traffic emissions and energy consumption levels and to build computational models for operational transport environment projects. In total, dynamic pollutant emissions and fuel consumption levels from dozens of light duty vehicles, primarily from four different vehicle classes, were measured at a second-by-second level. Using the collected data, several microscopic emission models including CMEM, VT-Micro, EMIT, and POLY were evaluated and compared through calibration and validation procedures. Non-linear optimization methods are applied for the calibration of the CMEM and EMIT models. Numerical results show that the models can realize performance levels close to the CMEM model in most cases. The VT-Micro model shows advantages in its unanimous performance and ability to describe low emission profiles while the EMIT model has a clear physics basis and a simple model structure. Both of them can be applied when extensive emission computation is required in estimating environmental impacts resulting from dynamic road traffic.

  • 282.
    Ma, Xiaoliang
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Lei, Wei
    Chen, Hui
    Environmental Impact of Road Transport: Emission Modeling for Evaluation of Urban Traffic Controls2010In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE FIRST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SUSTAINABLE URBANIZATION (ICSU 2010), HK, China, 2010, p. 1563-1571Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Road traffic emission has been widely concerned as a big challenge for urban transportation planning and management. In order to quantitatively analyze traffic emission and fuel consumption in the urban area and build computational models for operational traffic environment projects, we have been focused on microscopic emission modeling using on-road dynamic emission data collected by potable emission measurement systems (PEMS) in Chinese cities. Two widely known micro-scale emission models, CMEM and VT-Micro, are evaluated and compared through the model calibration and validation procedures. In addition, by integrating traffic simulation and emission models, we are able of analyzing environmental impacts, in terms of emission and fuel consumption, of a local intersection in Wuhan under different signal control strategies. The proposed method has the potential to be extended for evaluation of urban transport planning as well as other dynamic traffic controls.

  • 283.
    Ma, Xiaoliang
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Lei, Wei
    Koutsopoulos, Haris
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Evaluation of signal plans for sustainability using microscopic traffic impact models2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 284.
    Ma, Xiaoliang
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Lei, Wei
    Robles, Danny
    Multi-objective evaluation of optimal signal plans using a microscopic modeling framework2011In: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 285.
    Ma, Xiaoliang
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Mårtensson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Optimal control of vehicle trajectory based on vehicle to infrastructure Information2012Report (Other academic)
  • 286.
    Ma, Xiaoliang
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Mårtensson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Optimal controls of vehicle trajectories in fleet management using V2I information2012In: Proceedings - 2012 International Conference on Connected Vehicles and Expo, ICCVE 2012, IEEE , 2012, p. 256-260Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given the raised focus on transport energy and traffic-induced environmental issues, the ability of reducing vehicular environmental impacts is of great importance for intelligent traffic management. The recent development in vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communication provides an effective means for continuous management of vehicle driving. This study presents an essential step of the work towards a dynamic fleet management system that takes advantages of real-time traffic information and communication. Based on the optimal control theory, a methodological approach is developed to control the environmental impacts of live vehicle fleets. In particular, vehicle trajectories that minimize local environmental objectives are derived by applying a discrete dynamic programming method. Numerical examples show that the method is promising for local V2I based traffic management applications and can be further extended for more complex optimal control problems in dynamic fleet management.

  • 287.
    Mach Rufí, Ferran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Optimization analysis of the number and location of holding control steps: A simulation-based evaluation of line number 1, Stockholm2011Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Summary

     

    The growing congestion problems in big cities result in growing need for public transport services. In order to attract new users, public transport operators are looking for methods to improve  their performance  and level of service.   Service reliability  is one of the main

     

    objectives   of  public  transport   operators.   Various   sources   of  service

     

    uncertainty   can

     

    causebus  bunching:  buses  from  the same  line tend  to bunch  together  due to a positive feedback  loop,  unless  control  measures   are  implemented.   The  most  commonly   used strategy for preventing service irregularity is  to define holding points along the bus route. The design of the holding strategy involves the determination  of the optimal number and location of holding points, as well as the holding criteria. These strategies are classified to schedule-  or  headway-based.   Previous  studies  showed  that  headway-based   strategies have the potential  to improve  transit  performance  from both passengers  and operators perspectives.

     

    This thesis analyzes the performance of optimization algorithms when solving the holding problem. The optimization process involves the determination  of time point location for a given  headway-based   strategy.   The  evaluation   of  candidate   solutions   is  based  on  a mesoscopic  transit simulation.  The input data for the simulation  corresponds  to the bus line number 1 in Stockholm city.

     

    The  objective  function  is  made  up  of  the  weighted  sum  of  all  time  components  that passengers  experience:  in-vehicle  riding  time,  dwell  time,  waiting  time  at stop  and  on- board holding time.The optimization was carried out by greedy and genetic algorithms.  In addition, a multi-objective  function that incorporated  the performance  from the operator perspective was solved using a multi-objective genetic algorithm.

     

    The results demonstrate  the potential benefits from optimizing the location of time point stops.  The  best  solution  results  in  an  improvement   of  around  11%  in  the  objective function value. Interestingly, the results indicate that wrongly chosen time point stops can yield transit performance that is worse off than having no holding control.

     

  • 288.
    Majeed Baloch, Abdul
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Development of high speed rail in Pakistan.2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 289. Mannaerts, Aster
    et al.
    Van Daalen, Els
    van Luipen, J.
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Supporting policy analysis in the Dutch rail sector using System Dynamics2013In: Proceedings of the System Dynamics conference 2013, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With a sizeable expected growth of demand for rail transport in the Netherlands in the coming decades, and limited resources for expansion of the rail network, intensified utilization of the infrastructure is to be expected. To adequately manage this growth, appropriate tools for policy analysis are needed. The possibilities and pitfalls of using System Dynamics for policy analysis in the Dutch rail system have been explored by performing a modelling study into the interrelations of modal split, mobility and operations using System Dynamics. Additional scrutiny is placed on the method, because of the unstructuredness of many problems in the rail sector, and decision-making in a network type environment. Results show that the reliability of infrastructure is a major component in the extent of delays. Furthermore, the effect of unreliability in a train trip and the characteristics of a car trip are important for the choice between train and car. Although classical policy analysis has proven to be possible, modelling the operational part of the system has proven challenging due to the spatial and discrete characteristics of parts of the system. Recommendations are given to improve the model and model use to better suit the unstructuredness of the problems.

  • 290.
    Martínez cámara, Marta
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Comparison of high-speed train market between Spain and Sweden.: Madrid-Barcelona vs Stockholm-Copenhagen.2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, several aspects have been studied and compared between Spain and Sweden in

    what respects to planned and existing High-Speed (HS) line, respectively: Stockholm-

    Malmö/Copenhagen and Madrid-Barcelona AVE.

    Population aspects have been studied with the result of a big difference between both

    corridors; however, it has been also found out that the impact of the lower populated Swedish

    cities along the corridor is not as negative as it is expected because of the regional and

    medium distance service that the new HS line will provide. In relation with the economic

    aspects, although indexes like GPD and income per inhabitant are similar along both

    corridors, the service sector is more developed along the Swedish HS line. This results in a

    better predisposition of the Swedish regions to take advantage from the HS.

    On the other hand, it has been realized a study about the Spanish AVE supply along the

    corridor, analysing it from before the HS stars up to nowadays, paying special attention to its

    competition with the plane. According to the studied data, the high speed became the railway

    from an obsolete mode of transport into a competitive one along the corridor, competing

    directly versus the plane.

    The research about the previous situation of the Spanish corridor before the HS and the

    research made on the Swedish current scenario, involving the reason that brought Spain to the

    construction, have been analyzed and concluded that the picture in both countries was and is

    different between each other; both in the previous conditions of the track and the supply

    intentions toward the future.

    Both in the Spanish and Swedish corridor, a comparison based on the transport variables:

    cost, time, accessibility, comfort and frequency have been done attending three different

    passenger profiles: business, leisure and low-fare. The results from the Swedish cases: current

    line and future HS, show some changes of the different modes suitability, where the train goes

    from the second place to the first one.

    Besides, a simple accessibility analysis on the southern main Swedish railway line has been

    carried out in order to see how the HS will change accessibility. They show that the line will

    reinforce the north/south connection and substantially increase the accessibility in some

    regional centres. Finally, in order to complete the future impact of the high speed in Sweden,

    several international experiences from well establish high speed lines have been gathered and

    compared with the Swedish scenario.

  • 291.
    Mattsson, Lars-Göran
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Network vulnerability analysis with special reference to transport systems2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 292.
    Mattsson, Lars-Göran
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Weibull, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.).
    Lindberg, Per Olov
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Extreme values, invariance and choice probabilities2014In: Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, ISSN 0191-2615, E-ISSN 1879-2367, Vol. 59, p. 81-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the pioneering work of McFadden (1974), discrete choice random-utility models have become work horses in many areas in transportation analysis and economics. In these models, the random variables enter additively or multiplicatively and the noise distributions take a particular parametric form. We show that the same qualitative results, with closed-form choice probabilities, can be obtained for a wide class of distributions without such specifications. This class generalizes the statistically independent distributions where any two c.d.f.:s are powers of each others to a class that allows for statistical dependence, in a way analogous to how the independent distributions in the MNL models were generalized into the subclass of MEV distributions that generates the GEV choice models. We show that this generalization is sufficient, and under statistical independence also necessary, for the following invariance property: all conditional random variables, when conditioning upon a certain alternative having been chosen, are identically distributed. While some of these results have been published earlier, we place them in a general unified framework that allows us to extend several of the results and to provide proofs that are simpler, more direct and transparent. Well-known results are obtained as special cases, and we characterize the Gumbel, Frechet and Weibull distributions.

  • 293.
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Gaming Simulations for Railways: Lessons Learned from Modeling Six Games for the Dutch Infrastructure Management2012In: Infrastructure Design, Signalling and Security in Railway / [ed] Xavier Perpinya, Rijeka: InTech, 2012, p. 275-294Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 294.
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Introducing gaming simulation in the Dutch railways2012In: Transport Research Arena 2012 / [ed] Papaioannou, P, London, United Kingdom, 2012, p. 41-51Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation in the Dutch railways in the domain of capacity management and traffic control is increasingly difficult to implement because of the large interconnectedness of all processes and separation into different institutions and organizations. Meanwhile there is a push for quality improvements leading to more robustness and resilience as well as a significant capacity increase. In the years 2009 - 2010, the gaming group of Delft University of Technology was asked to introduce gaming simulation methodology at ProRail, the Netherlands' rail infrastructure manager, to support innovation projects. Three initial trial projects ran so successful that the organization asked the Delft researchers to identify where in the organization large-scale implementation of gaming simulation methodology would be most promising. Based upon a series of interviews through the organization, ProRail and TU Delft jointly formulated a four-year research and implementation proposal that is now in operation. The first gaming session in this new collaboration proved the essence of the fit of gaming simulation for innovation at the Dutch railways. Unique for gaming simulation is the highly detailed simulation of both the more technical and process variables of rail infrastructures as the decision and communication function of real people in their real roles. The method does not assume models of decision-making but draws upon the real-world knowledge of professionals in the operation. The paper gives lessons learned on methodological challenges resulting from the four projects described.

  • 295.
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    The Power of Sponges: High-tech and Low-tech Gaming Simulation for the Dutch Railways2012In: Journal Simulation & Gaming, ISSN 1046-8781, E-ISSN 1552-826XArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 296.
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Hofstede, Gert Jan
    Wageningen University.
    Gaming simulation as a research method:  reflecting on two studies in supply chains in networks2009In: Learn to Game - Game to Learn / [ed] GY Kin & Y Cai, Singapore: National University Singapore , 2009, p. 1-19Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 297.
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Hofstede, Gert Jan
    Wageningen University.
    Simulation games for improving the human orientation of production management2003In: Current trends in production management: Proceedings of IFIP WG 5.7 Working conference on human aspects in production management,, Shaker Verlag, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 298.
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Hofstede, Gert Jan
    Logistics, Decisions and Informatics, Wageningen University.
    The Trust and Tracing game2003In: Proceedings of the 7th international Workshop of the IFIP WG 5.7, May 22-24, 2003. / [ed] J.O. Riis, R.Smeds, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 299.
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Omta, S.W.F. (Onno)
    Wageningen University.
    Beers, George
    Wageningen University.
    Hofstede, Gert Jan
    Wageningen University.
    The organization of transactions: research with the Trust and Tracing Game2009In: Leadership, innovation and entrepreneurship: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Management in AgriFood Chains and Networks. - Wageningen, Wageningen: Wageningen Academic Publishers, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 300.
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Poelman, Ronald
    Supervisor: a 3D serious game for hazard recognition training in the oil industry2012In: Bonds & Bridges: Facing the Challenges of the Globalizing World with the Use of Simulation and Gaming. / [ed] Bielecki, Witold; Gandziarowska-Ziołecka, Jagoda; Pikos, Anna; Wardaszko, Marcin, Warschau, Poland, 2012, p. 209-221Conference paper (Refereed)
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