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  • 251.
    Alias, Klara
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Hur en introduktion vid nyanställning kan bli ännu bättre2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 252.
    Schaber, Emma
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Husockupationer i Barcelona2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 253.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Johansson, Klas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Konceptutveckling i bostadsbranschen – en möjlighet till innovation och mervärdeskapande2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 254.
    Ndayizeye, Fernand
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Kön Skillnader i risktagande på svenska PPM-systemet2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Retirement is one part of life that everybody will sooner or later come too. It is very important

    to prepare and plan for it by looking for the best possible alternative(s) to save and invest

    money in order to get enough capital to live on when it is time to retire. In Sweden like in

    many other countries women tend to have lower wages than men and the maternity leave is a

    life event that can affect the income of women during their labour time. This can then result in

    women having less disposable income during the retirement period. In general, women are

    living longer than men therefore they should get more money to live on but this is not the case

    in most of the time.

    In finance taking high risk can be rewarded by high return. Several researches that have been

    conducted in different fields came to the same conclusion that women are more risk averse

    than men. This risk averse can be explained by physiological, psychological, social and

    intellectual aspects. In this thesis I study the investment behaviour of both genders in

    Premium Pension Funds managed by the Swedish Pension Authority (PPM). In contrary to

    what many researches in several fields have come to, I found that men tend to invest less than

    women when the risk level involved in investing in Premium Pension Funds increases. This

    observation can be seen as an attempt of the women to increase their pension capital in a

    shorter of time by investing in riskier pension funds.

    A further study on this subject will be suitable in order to confirm if the women’s attempt to

    increase their pension capital by engaging in riskier pension funds is rewarded by a higher

    return by including annually returns as an additional independent variable

  • 255.
    Bleppony, Ruby
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    LEASE VERSUS BUY DECISION OF REAL ESTATE FOR FOREIGN DIPLOMATIC MISSIONS IN STOCKHOM, SWEDEN2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 256.
    Kindbom, Marcus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Sandblom, Oskar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Lönsamhet vid renovering av miljonprogrammet – En fallstudie av Svenska Bostäders investeringar på Järvafältet2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A large share of the existing multi-family housing units built during the Swedish million homes programme includes a major amount of neglected maintenance. Several municipal housing companies have initiated large and costly investments within their stock of million program units. The extent of which kind of measures that is undertaken by each company varies and it is uncertain if the measures are profitable in the long term. A large share of residents within these areas undergoes marginalization as a result of heavily developed segregation. Investments are therefore estimated to not only affect real estate companies but also provide an opportunity to change the development of the society within these areas.

    This paper aims to evaluate profitability of these investments through a case study of the municipal housing company Svenska Bostäder AB and its renovation program of socially exposed housing areas within the northern parts of Stockholm. Since 2011 it is however unclear if social investments within the area can be justified by municipal housing companies due to a legislative change. The analysis differentiates profitability on single property level from profitability on municipal level. The method, which is used on single property level, is based on valuation of the real estate asset before and after renovation. Maximum level of investment on single property level which could be seen as profitable comprises of the difference in value of the asset before and after renovation. Effects on the society from increased employment, reduced criminality is estimated through a cash flow analysis and the present values of reduced costs are added to the existing analysis on property level.

    The result shows that the investments are not profitable for the society according to the method that has been used. However, an extension of the cash flow period and addition of extra variables could lead to profitability. Further, it is stated that Svenska Bostäder AB obtains lower net operating income compared to private real estate companies for similar quality improvements within their renovations; this could affect the value of the real estate asset in a longer run. Despite the fact that the analysis do not show any proof of profitability from these investments, the conclusion that there is room for potential improvements in how these renovations are executed could still be drawn. It should also be possible to lower the costs of operation and administration further. The municipal housing companies also have a great potential to contribute to further progress of social wealth fare within these areas through their size as clients and through coordination with other real estate companies.

  • 257.
    Edin, Jacob
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Sandberg, Alexander
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Markanvisningar: ett effektivare system med policys2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 258.
    Dratos, Alexander
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Suvilehto, Joakim
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Marknadsyttrande – Hyresnämndens bedömning av marknadshyra2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Hyresnämnden är den myndighet i Sverige dit lokalhyresmarknadens parter kan hänskjuta tvister beträffande de villkor som görs gällande för ett fortsatt lokalhyresförhållande. Nämndens huvudsakliga uppgift är att medla mellan hyresgästen och hyresvärden för att och på så vis underlätta en förlikning. Detta åstadkommer hyresnämnden genom att kalla parterna till ett sammanträde i vilket parterna ges möjlighet att presenteras sina yrkanden samt de invändningar som finns till motpartens yrkade material. I de fall parterna inte kan nå en överenskommelse ska hyresnämnden på begäran, avge ett marknadsyttrande, vilket är en myndighetsutövning och vars bedömning ska vara konsekvent och förutsebar.

    Detta examensarbete har som syfte att studera förfarandet i hyresnämnden och då framförallt den process som leder fram till ett marknadsyttrande. Studiens huvudsakliga frågeställning är att undersöka om hyresnämnden värderar hyreskontraktens klausuler, och om så görs, vilka metoder och teorier ligger till grund för denna bedömning. Studien har utgått från elva intervjuer som innefattar representanter från hyresnämnden och juridiska ombud som representerar parterna i processen.

    Slutsatserna i examensarbetet visar på att hyresnämnden inte använder sig av några ekonomiska modeller eller teorier vid bedömning av marknadshyran. Det är istället hyresrådets och intresseledamöternas erfarenhet och subjektiva bedömningar som ligger till grund för marknadsyttrandet. I denna bedömning beaktas framförallt fysiska attribut medan kontraktuella klausuler behandlas som bakgrundsmaterial. Vidare kan det konstateras att hyresnämnden inte företar några större justeringar för att möjliggöra en jämförelse mellan de inlämnande lokaler, med undantaget för taxebundna kostnader som justeras med schablonbelopp. Detta får anses anmärkningsvärt eftersom examensarbete har presenterat ekonomiska modeller som möjliggöra en jämförelse genom användandet av den ekvivalenta hyran.

    Avslutningsvis kan det konstateras att de intervjuade parterna anser att hyresnämnden fyller sin funktion som en medlande part och underlättar således ett förlikningsöverenskommelse mellan hyresgästen och hyresvärden.

  • 259.
    Liu, Nan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Measures of Affordable Housing and Applications on Beijing Data 2004-20132015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the change in political and economic situations, increased urbanization and the growing population in China leads to extended housing needs, which results in various problems for the real estate market, such as the pronounced rise of housing price and unreasonable housing supply system.

    At present, the major issue that the government is facing with is how to improve the housing availability and provide space to the urban residents to solve the problem that many urban residents are unable to afford housing. In order to fully understand the housing market in Beijing city, this paper adopted quantitative methods of Housing Price to Income Ratio, Residual Income, and the Housing Affordability Index to examine the housing affordability of Beijing urban residents from 2004 to 2013, based upon the data collected from Beijing Statistic Yearbook mostly. The analysis revealed that there is a declining trend of housing affordability in Beijing and the gap between residential housing prices and urban households’ incomes and the difference between the poor and the rich is obvious.

  • 260.
    Markmeyer, Carlo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Mechanisms for green concept development in the residential market - How a project developer can get a foot in the door2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 261.
    Amsih, Sama
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Metod att mäta vakansgraden inom handeln - En fältstudie2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 262.
    Diaz Jernberg, Jenny
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Miljöbilaga till fastighetsvärderingsutlåtanden: Förslag på checklista 2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 263.
    Wallström, Therese
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Öberg Axelson, Louise
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Miljödifferentierad fastighetsskatt2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 264.
    Sedell, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geodesy and Satellite Positioning.
    Network-RTK - A comparative study of service providers currently active in Sweden2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Network-RTK is a method of relative measuring using GNSS that provides users in alarge area with an easy way obtaining low uncertainties in their measurements. Regularnetwork-RTK does not meet the requirements of the Swedish Transport Administration(STA) regarding its larger and/or more complex projects, leading to the concept ofproject-based network-RTK being introduced in Sweden by the STA, in collaborationwith the network-RTK service provider SWEPOS back in 2004. This concept improvesupon regular network-RTK by decreasing the uncertainties and increasing reliabilitieswithin the project area. SWEPOS has since the collaboration back in 2004 supplied theSTA with project-based network-RTK services.The market is not the same today as it was in 2004 and there are more service providersactive in Sweden. This thesis intends to find out if this new market means that there areother alternatives to SWEPOS with regards to the STA’s requirements for project-basednetwork-RTK. This is done through a technical comparison of the different serviceprovider’s measurement uncertainties and their measurement accuracies as well as acomparison of their surrounding infrastructure and the subjective user experience.Similar studies have been conducted before (Edwards et al., 2010) (Martin andMacGovern, 2012) (Saeidi, 2012), but never in Sweden nor with SWEPOS as one of theservice providers as it is only available in Sweden. Neither have they had a focus onmeasurement uncertainties and accuracies in a project-based network-RTK net. Theyhave all concluded that there were no significant differences between any of the serviceproviders compared, in both the measurement uncertainties and accuracies.For the technical part of this thesis, measurements were conducted at four sites: two atdifferent locations within the area of a former, STA project-site, one within the regularnet and the final site outside the entire net, with the amount of collected data varying forthe different sites. Five different GNSS receivers of different brands were used for themeasurements to make it as general as possible.The results show that there are slight differences in the height uncertainty, but the scopeof this thesis does not permit the full correlation study needed to determine if thesedifferences are significant. There does not seem to be any differences in the accuracies ofthe service provider. Some of the sites with less data collected show contradictoryevidence to this statement, but it is deemed that these deviations are more likely relatedto something other than the service providers, such as human interference or errors.Large differences exist in the user experience and surrounding infrastructure, an areawhere SWEPOS at the moment has a clear lead. This is believed to be due to SWEPOSprimarily being a network-RTK service provider and thus allocating more resources andpersonnel, whilst the other service providers also serve as equipment vendor andmaintainers.Combining the two comparison parts leads to the overall conclusion that with theservice providers in their current state with the requirements of the STA specified intheir current state, only SWEPOS is a viable alternative as a supplier of project-basednetwork-RTK. But this is something that could change with relative ease depending on ifthe other service providers allocate more resources.

  • 265.
    Bärlund, Johnny
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geodesy and Satellite Positioning.
    Numerical Investigation on Spherical Harmonic Synthesis and Analysis2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis work the accuracy of the spherical harmonic synthesis and analysis are investigated, by simulated numerical studies.The main idea is to investigate the loss of accuracy, in the geopotential coeffcients, by the following testing method. We start with a synthesis calculation, using the coefficients(EGM2008), to calculate geoid heights on a regular grid. Those geoid heights are then used in an analysis calculation to obtain a new set of coeffcients, which are in turn used to derive a new set of geoid heights. The difference between those two sets of geoid heights will be analyzed to assess the accuracy of the synthesis and analysis calculations.The tests will be conducted with both point-values and area-means in the blocks in the grid. The area-means are constructed in some different ways and will also be compared to the mean value from 10000 point values as separate tests. Numerical results from this investigation show there are signifi…cant systematic errors in the geoid heights computed by spherical harmonic synthesis and analysis, sometimes reaching as high as several meters. Those big errors are most common at the polar regions and at the mid-latitude regions.

  • 266.
    Persson, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Nyttomaximering av samverkansprojekt ur ett kontraktteoretiskt perspektiv2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The goal with the report is to investigate how the partnering process can be performed to maximize the satisfaction of all engaged actors within the project. This will be done by focusing on three main parts; partnering as definition and the markets perception of the concept. The procurement phase, how should it be constructed in order to be able to select the tender which will provide the highest satisfaction for the project in total? The contract, how should it be formed to make all parts engaged and strive together for the same goal, which benefits all actors and the project as a whole? Besides these questions it will also be investigated how risks which stems from contract theory are noticed and dealt with.

    Theory suggests that the main factors behind a successful partnering project are; trust, monitoring and controls. These instruments could be described as soft parameters, therefore questions has been constructed to investigate how projects are planned in order to increase the quality of the soft parameters.

    The investigation is performed by holding 14 interviews including clients, contractors and subcontractors. From the interviews it can be concluded that the markets conception of partnering is relatively uniform. What has turned out to be the biggest difference between the projects is if they choose to include the subcontractor within the partnering contract or not. When it comes to the procurement it has been discussed how the law of public procurement could affect the result. The importance of a well-functioning grading system for the tenders has also turned out to be of key importance. Furthermore the individual’s importance within the project has been voiced, which increases the importance of how to select the project organization.

    When it comes to the contract the conclusion is that incentives is neither being used to any extent, nor is it appreciated when used in partnering. But bonus on the other hand, is said to be a good medium to govern quality when discussing the soft parameters. If bonus or incentives are used it is of importance that the parameters who are connected to them are clear, and that the system which decides if the goals for the bonus is reached is well-functioning and continuously updated. This is important in order for the contractors to know how close they are of reaching the goals. Furthermore the contract could help clarify the cooperation, by structuring every actor’s responsibility and clarify the actor’s expectations of each other, this is important to reduce misunderstandings and eventual conflicts further on in the project. This leads to a better working climate and hopefully a better end result. It is also a direct necessity to reach a target price which is reasonable for all parts in order to achieve a successful project.

    When it comes to risks within contract theory it has been observed that is it not discussed at any further extent. There is a minor awareness of its existence but focus is on economic and time related risks.

  • 267.
    Jia, Yanjing
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geodesy and Geoinformatics.
    Object-based Land Cover Classification with Orthophoto and LIDAR Data2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Image classification based on remotely sensed data is the primary domain of automatic mapping research. With the increasing of urban development, keeping geographic database updating is imminently needed. Automatic mapping of land cover types in urban area is one of the most challenging problems in remote sensing. Traditional database updating is time consuming and costly. It has usually been performed by manual observation and visual interpretation, In order to improve the efficiency as well as the accuracy, new technique in the data collection and extraction becomes increasingly necessary. This paper studied an object-based decision tree classification based on orthophoto and lidar data, both alone and integrated. Four land cover types i.e. Forest, Water, Openland as well as Building were successfully extracted. Promising results were obtained with the 89.2% accuracy of orthophoto based classification and 88.6% accuracy of lidar data based classification. Both lidar data and orthophoto showed enough capacity to classify general land cover types alone. Meanwhile, the combination of orthophoto and lidar data demonstrated a prominent classification results with 95.2% accuracy. The results of integrated data revealed a very high agreement. Comparing the process of using orthophoto or lidar data alone, it reduced the complexity of land cover type discrimination. In addition, another classification algorithm, support vector machines (SVM) classification was preformed. Comparing to the decision tree classification, it obtained the same accuracy level as decision tree classification in orthophoto dataset (89.2%) and integration dataset (97.3%). However, the SVM results of lidar dataset was not satisfactory. Its overall accuracy only reached 77.1%. In brief, object-based land cover classification demonstrated its effectiveness in land cover map generation. It could exploit spectral and spatial features from input data efficiently and classifying image with high accuracy. 

  • 268.
    Reuterswärd, Agnes
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Områdeseffekter av ett renoveringsprojekt i Stockholm CBD : - Fallstudie av Diligentias fastighet Sveavägen 44 2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Stockholm has a historical population growth and a time of reconstruction and densification is to be expected for the metropolitan area of Stockholm. This change contributes strongly to extension of the CBD. There are many projects under construction or in the planning process in city. One of these projects is the refurbishment of Diligentia’s profile property Sveavägen 44 in the northern parts of the CBD.

    There have been projects implemented in the outskirts of CBD before. In the Central Station area a number of large projects have been carried out. At Blasieholmen there was a big investment in three properties. These projects have been successful in terms of its impact on the area and they have more or less been a starting point for a larger real estate development in its area. Both areas are part of what is today considered as CBD.

    This master thesis aims to investigate whether, and if so, how much impact the renovation of Sveavägen 44 has on the surrounding area. So far, Sveavägen 44 is relatively isolated from the city center and alone of its high standard in the area. The question is if Diligentia’s large investment in Sveavägen 44 could motivate more players in the area to refine their properties and these projects will end up having a big impact on the area. The development of the northern CBD will be discussed in terms of area development, rental development, value creation and the vacancy rate.

    The conclusion of the study is that the impact Sveavägen 44 has on the area is positive but limited in the extent to which the area as a whole has had an impact. The biggest impact on the area in northern CBD Sveavägen 44 has had is on the rental development. In line with the increased rental levels in CBD, together with the fact that Diligentia is demanding rents over the average rental level for the area, has contributed to a strong positive rental development.

    The demands for retail and office space in the area have increased, especially for the former. Shops in the area are facing a larger development in the future; the increased demand will likely compel supply improvement. Besides the refinement of retail premises the development of the area is assessed to otherwise stand still. The low vacancy rate of space and relatively high standard for the properties in the area will hold back a movement of upgrading the premises. It is possible for the difficult room structured properties, suffering from high vacancies, to be converted into residential. The status of the area as Stockholm’s China Town, yet not widely used, will fade and an area further north alongside Sveavägen, outside the border of CBD, will be consolidated as Stockholm’s China Town.

  • 269.
    Zoghi, Sedigheh
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geodesy and Satellite Positioning.
    On the statistical tests over Fennoscandian GNSS/levelling networks2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Geodesy and Surveying we work with a large amount of observations which alwayscontains different types of errors. The errors decrease the quality of the observations andpropagate to the results. Therefore, detection and removing the gross errors are of vitalimportance. The Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) can be used to measure theellipsoidal height and by subtracting an existing geoid height from that, the orthometric heightcan be determined. There is a simple linear relation amongst these triple heights, whichcannot be fulfilled due to the presence of different types of error. One of the important sort ofthese errors is gross errors.This study concerns about investigation and detection of blunders or gross errors on the 4346GNSS/levelling points over Fennoscandia. Each country has its own data set with specificprecision. The well-known gravity model EGM08 is used to compute the geoid heights withrespect to WGS84 reference ellipsoid. We have a large amount of data and we expect thattheir errors follow the normal distribution. The main aim of this thesis is to apply some datascreening methods both before and after adjustment process in such a way that the normaldistribution of the data set is achieved by eliminating the erroneous data. This will be done byperforming the pre- and post-adjustment data screening. For the pre-adjustment we performeddata filtering, test of normality of observations and test of their variances for theGNSS/levelling data over Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland. We used the 4-, 5- and 7-parameter corrective surfaces for modelling the systematic trends of the differences betweenthe EGM08 geoid model and the ellipsoidal and orthometric height differences. The test ofnormality of residuals, global test of variance, Baarda’s data snooping and Tau test will beperformed after the removal of the trends. Numerical studies show that the GNSS/levellingdata of Sweden, Denmark and Finland are of good qualities, but the claimed errors for thedata are rather optimistic. The situation was complicated for the data of Norway and we couldnot see the normality of the data and even the claimed accuracies seem to be optimistic.

  • 270.
    Bergkvist, Joel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geodesy and Satellite Positioning.
    Optimal Design of Network for Control of Total Station Instruments2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis uses the Minimum Norm Quadratic Unbiased Estimation (MINQUE) to estimatestandard deviation of observations of a total station. Different setups are created byaltering the number of stations and targets and their relative position in the network tostudy the effect that different setups have to the estimation and define what are importantto minimize the effect of the setup to the estimation.A lot of research has been done around methods for estimation of variance and covariancecomponents, since it is useful in many fields. Various approaches exists to solve theproblem of variance components estimation. Geodesy is a special case, were their often isa apriori knowledge of how well an instrument is able to record measurements. There isan ISO-standard for testing and verification of geodetic instrument but also an alternativeapproach the KTH-Total Station Check.For the estimation three main types of setups were defined and used in the simulation.These main types were then altered to see how different changes to the setup effect theoverall estimation. The alterations were changes in distance between station and targets,changes in vertical distance between stations and targets and the amount of observationscarried out by adding more stations and targets to the setups.The result of the simulations shows that the tested changes in the setups do effectthe estimation. It was not possible to determine by how much for each change, becausea change in vertical displacement also meant a change in angles and distance betweenthe station and the target. Increasing the amount of stations and targets or one of themshows that standard deviation of the estimation becomes smaller. The effect can be seenindependent of which type of setup that is used. The most important factor to how goodthe estimation will be is the amount of observations.

  • 271.
    Gallosti, Lorenzo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Optimization of Commercial Retail Leases – A New Model2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 272.
    Oseenius, Bryan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Portfolio Bias of Real Estate Companies Vs. Financial Markets2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study will apply the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) to help understand the relationship between traded real estate companies and their respective financial markets. The aim will be to quantitatively explain the link between real estate companies holding different asset types within their portfolio and their traded financial markets using betas from CAPM. Some companies have preferences towards one type of real estate assets; which could be referred to as "portfolio bias." On the other hand some companies have a portfolio bias towards diversification and hold a portfolio of diversified assets. This study will examine how diversification plays a role in both correlation to the market and overall return. The idea is that a real estate company holding a more diversified portfolio performs more like the market and therefore acts more like the market portfolio made up of value weighted stocks and securities within the financial market. A more diversified portfolio should pose less risk and perform better over the long term which many studies have shown to be the case in financial markets. This study will also explore the connection between underlying asset types using residential, retail and diversified assets compared to their traded financial markets to determine the role of portfolio bias.

  • 273.
    Mernissi Granlind, Yasmine
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Kosovic, Valentina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Pris och prisutveckling på premiumvarumärken på bostadsmarknaden– en fallstudie av ett premiumfastighetsbolag i Stockholms innerstad 2005-20152015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to a rapid increase in housing prices at the Stockholm housing market there is a stated interest to further examine the differences in price development. A study of historical data from a premium property development company has been conducted. With theoretical models describing price determinants as a background data has been analyzed to find variances in price development. The study is primarily quantitative.

    By comparing historical data with price indices, differences in price development have been identified. The company showed greater price development than both the Stockholm index and each SAMS-area index. This results in a higher return, compared to index, for those who invest in an apartment from the studied company.

    A regression analysis has been conducted to test the hypothesis that a premium brand has a positive influence on property prices. The variable premium brand turned out to be significant according to the model and the hypothesis could be confirmed.

    A change in preferences, a strong brand and a relatively unique concept can explain a lot of the differences in price development in this study. To be able to determine that the differences really are due to these factors requires further research on premium property development companies. To summarize, a premium brand has a positive influence on both price and price development.

  • 274.
    Bohman, Mickael
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Real Estates Stocks' correlation to their underlying property portfolio and the stock market2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 275.
    Arvidsson, Marcus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Serviced apartments in Sweden: Is there a growth opportunity?2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The common drivers for hotel accommodation are tourism and business travel and hotel demand seem to outstrip supply in many places. More than 50 % of visitors to Sweden stay at a traditional hotel but is there room for alternate accommodation like serviced apartments besides the traditional hotel for people visiting? These are usually referred to as extended stay or long-stay accommodation. The aim of this thesis project is to explore whether there are growth opportunities for serviced apartments in Sweden. A secondary aim of the thesis project is to identify challenges (if any) to this segment and also to identify the major operators of serviced apartments in Sweden. The research has been conducted through literature review, survey and interviews. The findings are that there seem to be growth opportunities particularly in the Stockholm area, even though there are issues that need to be addressed by the industry such as its fragmented nature and to keep up with company traveler programs and policies. The research also found that the major operators in Sweden are small, independent and national.

    Efterfrågan på hotellrum drivs framförallt av turist och affärsresenärer och på manga ställen verkar efterfrågan vara större än efterfrågan. Mer än hälften av turisterna som kommer till Sverige bor på ett traditionellt hotell när de kommer på besök och övernattar men finns det utrymme för alternativt boende som lägenheter med självhushållning? Syftet med detta examensarbete är att undersöka huruvida det finns tillväxtmöjligheter för segmentet självhushållda lägenheter (s.k. long-stay) tillhandahållna av operatörer. Syftet är också (om än sekundärt) att identifiera utmaningar för denna bransch samt vilka de största operatörerna är? Information har samlats in via genomgång av befintlig litteratur på ämnet, via enkätundersökning och intervjuer. Slutsatsen är att det verkar finnas tillväxtmöjligheter, framförallt i Stockholm även om branschen står inför flera utmaningar såsom tydlighet med produkten. Operatörerna i Sverige är identifierade som små, fristående och nationella.

  • 276.
    Jonsson, Tobias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geodesy and Satellite Positioning.
    Snake Grid och andra objektanpassade projektioner för svensk infrastruktur2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the applicability of tailored map projections for the design, construction and maintenance of long objects, such as roads and railways, in Swedish infrastructure. Special emphasis is on the Snake Grid projection, developed by University College London in collaboration with Network Rail, the organization responsible for construction and maintenance of the railway network in Great Britain.

    The ongoing Swedish investments in expansion and upgrades of the country’s railway network poses new challenges for surveyors, as the constructions are becoming increasingly complex and tolerances more narrow. Track design is usually carried out with software with the built-in assumption that the construction will be made in a three-dimensional space with coordinate axes pointing to the north and the east, and with a vertical axis perpendicular to those. Problems arise when this flat-Earth assumption meets the reality of a curved surface and hilly terrain.

    The classical solution of this dilemma is to work with map projections, in order to make a local or regional approximation of a flat Earth for mapping and design purposes. The size of the projection zone and the local topography decides the maximum distortions that will be in the map. For purely geodetic purposes, such as topographic surveying or establishment of control point networks, corrections can be applied to the measurements to fit them to the projected map, but when it comes to construction design, where dimensions should be correct and one meter in the blueprint should correspond to one meter in reality, things get more complicated.

    For some constructions, the scale distortions on the outskirts of the official projection zones for the Swedish national grid SWEREF 99 are too large. One way to deal with that is to instead tailor a map projection, specific for that construction object, which will minimize scale distortions along the object. In Great Britain, Network Rail has adopted this approach to managing their railway network, and together with University College London developed a special kind of map projection for this purpose, known as Snake Grid.

    The principle of Snake grid is to force the scale to unity along a sinuous trend line, following the track geometry, and in the process adjust for scale distortions due to both projection and height above the ellipsoid. Each main line has been assigned its own horizontal coordinate system in that way, minimizing scale distortions in proximity to the tracks to a negligible level. As a result, construction designers and surveyors can work from a flat Earth assumption.

    This thesis deals with the questions whether the benefits of using Snake Grid are significant compared to tailoring other map projections, like Transversal Mercator, Oblique Mercator or Lambert Conformal Conic, and whether there are any large differences in methods or organization between Sweden and the UK that might influence the suitability of this approach and whether the pros outweigh the cons such as increased administration and risks in communication.

    To give Swedish readers a more detailed introduction to the concept, the theoretical description of Snake Grid is relatively comprehensive in this thesis. It also contains short descriptions of a small selection of alternative methods. After that, a comparative analysis of the methods is made by way of calculation, testing a few infrastructure projects to see which strengths and weaknesses the different map projections possess, and what magnitude of scale distortions can be expected. The examined projects are the West Coast and East Coast Main Lines, the Øresund bridge, the Stockholm Bypass, the Gothenburg-Borås railway, the Eastern link railway (Ostlänken) and the railway between Sundsvall and Trondheim.

    The results of the calculations indicate that, in most cases, traditional map projections such as Transversal or Oblique Mercator can be tailored to a project, with results comparable to reported results for the Snake Grid method. The tailoring, however, requires specialist competence that is hard to come by, and in the practical daily application it will also put some requirements on the competence of the end user. One of the advantages of Snake Grid is that it is a package solution with user support available.

    The thesis also describes the responsibilities of Network Rail, and which government bodies are involved in the maintenance of the British railway network. The existing geodetic infrastructure in Great Britain, in the form of reference systems, and control point networks is also described. An evaluation has also been made, whether tailored map projections can be used in accordance with current Swedish rules and regulations for road and railway construction. The purpose of these investigations has been to determine if there are any decisive differences between Sweden and the UK with regard to the regulatory circumstances surrounding the use of object specific map projections.

    The result of this comparison is that there are no substantial differences that would make the use of Snake Grid or other object specific map projections less suitable in Sweden. The usage of object specific projections in railway projects would however require exemptions from or changes to the current Swedish railway regulations.

  • 277.
    Ljung, Alexander
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Frögelius, Malin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Social hallbarhet inom bostadsutveckling --‐ en analys av kommuner i Stockholms lan2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 278.
    Olsén, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Stopner, Sonja
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Spekulationsköp av nyproducerade bostadsrätter i Stockholm2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Speculative buying of newly constructed condominiums has turned to be more common and the number of speculative buyers has increased in recent years. Through literature studies, surveys and interviews with developers as well as speculative buyers and real estate brokers within sales of new housing development, the speculation market of newly built condominiums in Stockholm have been investigated.

    In general, the most frequent speculation buyer is a man between 25-35 years with variable capital strength who want to make quick and easy money. Areas that are most attractive for speculative buyers to invest in are central Stockholm and the inner suburbs. The developers are unanimous in that speculative buying today is a problem mainly with respect to the company's business risk. The brokers do not experience speculative buying as a problem. Both developers and brokers see, however, difficulties in preventing speculative buying of new construction due to that it is difficult to identify who is a speculative buyer. To deal with the problem the developers would have to interact and share customer records, which is contrary to existing law.

    After examination of the buying process of new construction, the authors consider that the most risky speculative buyers can be prevented by delaying the concession and at that point also allow the buyer to pay the full purchase price fee. Today, buyers pay around 10 percent of the total purchase price as a concession fee up to 6 months before access. This means that today's buyers of new construction does not need to pay the entire purchase price until the access but can still sell the apartment to another person after the concession and before the access. This opens up for trade of high yield with a low effort.

  • 279.
    Persson, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Stambyte eller relining -en studie om ekonomisk och social hållbarhet vid renovering av fastigheter2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 280.
    Sjöberg, David
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Martling, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Strategier för bostadsbyggande i C--‐områden2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 281.
    Stürzebecher, Emanuel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Petersson, Robin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Strategiska partnerskap mellan banker och byggföretag. – En studie av Stockholms aktörer.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is an initial attempt to investigate the relationship between banks and developers in Stockholm and its regions. It gives a good impression about the field of construction and project developments in terms of the finance and the negotiations associated with these types of projects. Main actors of the Stockholm’s construction financing market were of major interest for this study. On this regard, the relationships and ramifications of this group were investigated by using a qualitative and quantitative research method. The aim of the study was to analyze the attitudes of banks and developers, their partnerships and individual expectations. This empirical study was conducted between January and April 2015.

    In order to give a brief overview of the construction market in Stockholm, the study starts with an explanation of different characteristics and unique features of the real estate and construction field. Based on this, the study continues with a detailed presentation of the financing process with its loan terms, negotiations and regulations. In a subsequent chapter, the risk part within construction will be emphasized and explained.

    The theory part of the study closes with an exposition of the transaction cost theory and strategy as well as with a portrayal of the decision-making process of banks and developers in a construction project, the different types of partnerships and the according advantages and disadvantages. While keeping the above listed aspects in mind, all study participants were asked for their opinion on partnerships between banks and developers.

    In general, the study results prove the existence of a significant interest in partnerships between banks and developers. For both parties, a close relationship provides many benefits like a lower time-consumption or smoother loan negotiations. However, the following analysis also shows that due to reserved attitudes and a low interest of banks to change their investment strategies in construction and development projects, it seems very difficult to meet the full expectations of both parties on a level where both sides would agree on entering a strategic partnership.

  • 282.
    JÖNSSON, ANNIKA
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    GLANZMANN, JOHANNA
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Systematic technological development in bridge construction2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry is characterized by low productivity. Lean is a well-known

    improvement strategy for an individual company, used in the manufacturing industry to

    increase productivity. Despite major differences between the construction industry and the

    manufacturing industry, Lean is an interesting approach for the construction industry as well

    in order to achieve an increased productivity. Studies have however shown that the low level

    of Lean implementation in the construction industry is due to deficiencies in knowledge,

    education and communication.

    The main purpose of this thesis is to explore the potentials for increased productivity for

    bridge project by mapping the reinforcement process in order to identify potentials and

    obstacles for the implementation of a more industrialized reinforcement process. This has

    been done through a literature review, interviews, a case study and a study visit.

    The Swedish Transport Administration manages 20 600 bridges, the majority of which are

    reinforced concrete bridges. Roughly 200 bridges are built each year in Sweden to hold the

    stock. In addition to this, the stock is also expanding. Work dedicated to reinforcement

    constitutes a large part of bridge projects, almost half of the time in both design and production

    phase. Furthermore, the reinforcement process has been identified as a process with a

    number of non-value adding activities. A way to increase the productivity for the reinforcement

    work is to industrialize the process, for example by implementing BIM and use a high

    degree of prefabricated reinforcement. Demonstrated advantages of prefabricated reinforcement

    include shorter construction time, improved health and safety on-site and the possibility

    for improved quality assurance. These benefits results in lower construction costs and a higher

    turnover of projects. However, there are some consequences to the use of prefabricated

    reinforcement and these can be summarized in an increased need for communication and

    collaboration, reduced flexibility and fewer opportunities for late changes on-site and a need

    for standardized processes.

    The construction industry is a project-based industry that is influenced by weather conditions,

    fragmented organization and supplier structure, conservative mentality and uniqueness of

    projects. These factors are reasons to why a transition from craft-based production to masscustomization

    is hard to achieve unless the construction industry's current organizational

    structures, production strategies and information structures undergo a change.

  • 283.
    Axelius, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Söktermsdata som ledande indikator för bostadsmarknaden2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluates the potential in using Google search term data as a leading indicator of

    prices on the real estate market in Stockholm. The predictive content of the search term data

    from Google Trends is contrasted against a more classic forecasting model using

    macroeconomic variables. The ability of each data source to generate powerful forecasts is

    demonstrated by measuring the deviation in a pseudo-forecast.

    The main finding is that the results support the hypothesis on predictive content in Google

    data, mainly forecasts with up to six months’ horizon. By using Google data, forecasts can be

    made with less deviation from the actual time series than forecasts built on macroeconomic

    variables. The results point to the usability of search term data from Google as a leading

    indicator for prices on the real estate market in Stockholm.

  • 284.
    Inggårde, Jennifer
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Fors, Viktoria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Transaktioner av bostadsbyggrätter2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis aims to describe and analyze transactions of residential building rights. For

    this purpose a closer study of transactions on the private market and municipal land

    allocations are necessary. The master thesis comprises a broad investigation of issues related

    to transactions of residential building rights in order to describe and analyze the current

    process. This requires a consideration of parameters related to when, why and how

    transactions take place, but also the timing and setup of pricing and payment. In addition, the

    relationship between private actors and municipalities are investigated as well as their

    attitudes towards the occurrence of transactions of residential building rights. The aim is also

    to study potential areas of improvements regarding transactions of residential building rights.

    The master thesis is mainly based on a qualitative study. Interviews target municipalities and

    developers in the Stockholm residential property market. The study indicates that transactions

    of residential building rights can be affected by a variety of factors. Each transaction has more

    or less unique conditions, making it difficult to unambiguously describe residential building

    right transactions. However, some general conclusions have been presented.

    During the process of describing transactions of residential building rights a number of topics

    for discussion and possible improvements were identified. The interviews indicate that prices

    of residential building rights are high, but there is not sufficient evidence to determine if

    prices are too high. An interesting area of improvement regarding transactions of residential

    building rights in the private market is the flexibility of detailed development plans. It can

    however be discussed what consequences an increased use of more flexible detailed

    development plans would have and if municipalities have strong enough incentives to

    increase flexibility. The result of this master thesis also demonstrates a number of possible

    improvements related to the collaboration between municipalities and developers during the

    planning process.

    When analyzing transactions of residential building rights it is interesting to discuss the

    handling of the municipal “planning monopoly”. Developers are dependent on having a good

    relationship with the municipalities, however the rights of municipalities to punish actors for

    undesirable behavior can be discussed. Finally, the master thesis brings attention to the need

    of increased demands for transparency within transactions of residential building rights,

    including both developers and municipalities. In order to increase predictability and enable

    better collaborations, it is also important for developers and municipalities to establish a

    common approach to transactions of residential building rights.

  • 285.
    Jama, Zeinab
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Utvärdering av reformen om mark- och miljödomstolar – Jämförelse av fastighetsmål före och efter reforme2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The reform to establish land and environment courts went into effect on the 2 May,

    2011. Amongst other things, it meant a consolidation of the property-, environmental

    courts and cases according to the planning and building law that was previously

    litigated under the administrative law. The Government’s aim with the reform to

    establish the land and environment courts was to simplify, coordinate and to make the

    handling and judicial proceedings more effective.

    The purpose of this thesis is to evaluate how successful the reform on the establishment

    of land and environment courts has been, through hypotheses comparing property cases

    that have been litigated in other instances, before and after the reform. For comparison,

    information on the number of review permits, the number of appeals rejected, the

    number of deferred property cases and the processing time for property cases will be

    used.

    Verdicts made during period 2009-01-01 to 2010-12-31 and the period 2012-01-01 to

    2014-12-31 in the court of appeals/Land and Environmental Court of Appeal will be

    compared.

    One conclusions made is that the processing time in court was reduced through the

    establishment of the land and environment appeals court. The thesis argues that the

    prohibition of appeal has meant a reduction in the number of review permits at the

    Supreme Court. Furthermore, the trend seems to be that there is an unchanged number

    of approved review permits to the Supreme Court.

  • 286.
    Olsson, Philip
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Volatilitetsprognoser på den svenska aktiemarknaden: Tillämpning av Arch Typ modeller2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 287.
    Pettersson, Kajsa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Stenius, Roine
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Värdeförändringar på bostadshyresfastigheter vid reformerad hyresreglering Dagens situation och Alternativa modeller2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The current rental housing market in Stockholm is anything but functional. The supply of rental housing is low, which has resulted in long queues, an extensive black rental market and lock in effects. The ill-functioning rental market raises the question whether it is time to reform or abandon the current rental system, in favor of a new approach in the rental market where a new alternative rent setting model would be introduced. A model that hopefully reduces the negative effects we see on the rental market today.

    The report sets out to describe the current rental system and outline potential rental models. Both current and potential models are all relatively well explained from a rental perspective, but none have been investigated from a market value perspective. Two of the investigated models involve a change toward market rents. Valuation simulations are performed to capture the potential market value change these models entail.

    To make informed assumptions in the simulations, national and international data have been collected from IPD and Newsec, as well as knowledge from interviews. The collected data showed a proportionate relation of 0.5 to 1.5 percent difference in yield between residential and office markets around Europe, where the rental housing market to some extent is deregulated. The corresponding ratio in Stockholm is 2.0 to 3.0 percent.

    Results from the simulations showed that an introduction to market rents do not result in a significant increase in the market value. Yields and operating - and maintenance costs is assumed to counteract the increased rent, making the value impact less significant. The greatest value impact is recorded in the existing stock where the amplitude between the outgoing rent and market rent is greatest.

  • 288.
    Segerlund, David
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Värdering av byggrätter - Om hur valet av metod och antaganden påverkar värderingen2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis is presented how the choice of valuation model and the assumptions made by the

    real estate appraiser affects the valuation of land. By studying a number of valuations we find

    that the method of choice when valuing land is by a sales comparison method, to complement

    this method a calculation based model is sometimes used. It is shown that the assumptions

    made by appraiser to a large degree affect the valuation when using a calculation based

    model. To a lesser degree the valuation will depend on the choice of valuation model.

  • 289.
    Jansson, Magnus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Ändamålsdriven överlämning av installationsinformation från projekt till förvaltning med stöd av BIM.: En kvalitativ studie av behoven av installationsinformation i fastighetsförvaltning samt en fallstudie för att beskriva en förvaltningsenhets kommande steg i BIM-mognadsdiagrammet2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    From an overview study published in 2014 it is concluded that although new information technology

    and standards are a strong driving force towards a more efficient and profitable facility management

    it is just as important to identify what types of information, in which manner, and to what extents

    the information is supposed to be shared to different business processes and disciplinary actors [1].

    In the attempt to achieve a more automated facility management and integrated-life cycle approach

    of buildings the handover of building information is a major bottleneck [2].

    Delimited to building services for HVAC, plumbing and electricity this study aims to investigate which

    needs related to installation information there are in facility management of buildings and that are

    possible and should be included in the handover from projects to facility management. Furthermore

    the study aims at in depth (through a case study) describe current ways of performing installation

    information handovers. New ways of working for the case study organisation according to higher

    levels of BIM maturity [3, 4] is described and analysed.

    From the results of a series of interviews (informants: [5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10]) it is concluded that the two

    most valued sets of information related to building services are:

    Warranty information: warranty start date, warranty period and warranty terms (description

    of what types of service and maintenance that are included in the acquisition of the asset).

    All three properties need to be nationally standardized.

    Air quality in spaces: Space objects where occupants spend time should include information

    about the air types, its quantities and how the airflows are controlled over time in that space.

    Furthermore informants ask for a description of the designed function of the space and some

    ask for the number of persons the space is designed for. A national standardization of an

    information model describing the mentioned variables is necessary in the future.

    To be able to describe installed products regarding what (manufacturer, model and/or type) and

    where (location in the building) was almost as prioritized. Thereafter was the issue of the expected

    useful life of the products of concern for products with maintenance actions that would involve

    substantial costs.

    3

    The organization in the case study needs to move on to completely digital ways of working for

    enabling BIM. Additionally they need to state requirements on the structure and content of the

    objects in both the proprietary formats as well as on the open formats (IFC [11]) of the CAD models

    that are handed over to them from the projects. There is a possibility (but not utilized) for the

    organisation today to map IFC files to their facility management software system [12]. In the future

    they should utilize BIM model servers with cloud services [13] that are integrated with their facility

    management software system.

  • 290.
    Sahlström, Christian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Severin, Christian
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Är framtidens kontor här för att stanna?2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 291.
    de Lange, Michael
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    A closer look into the feasibility of future large scale land reclamation.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the fact that on average less children are being born and calming messages that the population issue has basically solved itself, the world population is continuously growing. Around mid century it is estimated that approximately 70 per cent of the world’s population will be living in urban environments. This translates to an absolute increase of roughly 3.6 billion urban citizen today, to nearly 8 billion urban citizen by mid century. This unprecedented growth is going to have major impact on today’s urban societies and administrative boundaries. Especially coastal cities will feel an increased pressure while the urbanization takes another upsurge.

    The geographical limitations and scarcity of land in these coastal areas pushes the extension of administrative city boundaries sea inward, making land reclamation a popular tool for these governments. Nevertheless, this expected growth and the increased popularity of land reclamation seriously endangers the remaining natural wetlands. Alternative solutions of creating artificial "human made" land by reclaiming, could be a possible direct solution for modern urbanism. As a result of the unprecedented growth, natural resources are getting rapidly depleted and sustainability is being compromised. Over the total run of history, approximately 65 per cent of the world’s wetlands have been in fractioned, polluted, destroyed, altered or lost by human activities.

    This master’s thesis consists out of a deep, qualitative, integrative and contextual literature review. The literature review is focused on population forecasts, urbanization and growth trends, followed by an analyses of various land reclamation cases around the world. Though, the research will include a quantitative data overview this research is a qualitative research. The collection of the quantitative data regarding urbanization and growth trends will be done by using the database of United Nations, World Bank and Gapminder.

    Land reclamation, as a proposed solution, sets off a certain type of trade off mechanism. Large reclamation projects on one hand serve as great boosters for the economy and urban development, while on the other hand, these projects have severe implications on natural habitat from both marine and land species. Social benefits can both be realized through economic gains by land reclamation or social benefits from natural preservation. This implies land reclamation has basically two dimensions: a socioeconomic dimension and a socio-environmental dimension. A tradeoff between these two dimensions determine whether or not a land reclamation project for a specific geographical location could be economically, socially and environmentally feasible. With proper integrated and inter related governmental land planning processes, strong environmental considerations and increased public involvement, land reclamation could be sustainably feasible.

  • 292.
    Gustafsson, Bob
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Activity Based - a way of working for an activefuture2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The real estate industry is facing a major change. The activity based working is promoted

    heavily by real estate companies, brokers and consultants as the future workplace. Knowledge

    and information is however limited. Many concepts have a tendency to get mixed up when

    companies on the market choose to formulate their own concepts. The research is neglected,

    and more focused on health and design.

    This thesis focuses on describing how the market may evolve the knowledge and how to

    implement the activity based working in the workplaces.

    Purpose

    The thesis aims to conduct a study to clarify the question of what activity based working

    means. The focus will be to examining the current work that is proceeding on the market

    but also explore if it would be possible to facilitate the implementation of the activity based

    working by using explorative factor analysis.

    Primary questions

    • How to define activity based working?

    • Which theories support the discussion and definition of activity based working?

    • Which concepts are available on the market today and how are these promoted?

    Can the implementation of the activity based working be facilitated by using an activity

    based scale that measures needs and reactions in different workplace environments?

    Method

    The thesis consists of both a qualitative and a quantitative study. The qualitative study is based

    on interviews and a survey of how the market perceive the activity based working and with

    which keywords associated with the concept. In total, seven interviews were conducted. The

    quantitative survey consised of approximately 1000 surveys.

    Conclusions

    • Importance of a common definition and market approach for activity based working

    Manage the self interest in the market to ensure a good development of activity based

    working

    • Activity based working is not just about design and floorlayouts.

    Knowledge sharing should be prioritized

    • Organization, Technology and Premises are all very influencing aspects

    The implementation requires a lot of time and effort

    • Through exploratory factor analysis, is it possible to define the driving forxes within the

    organization.

    • The workplace is no longer a specific place. It is an activity that can be performed in

    multiple places.

    Future research

    Future research should focus to continuing efforts on create an overall overview of the activity

    based working, but also develop clear and efficient processes for the implementation of the

    activity based working.

    Other interesting aspects are the international dimension of the work. The development with

    activity based working will in the future not only be applied on offices. To therefore explore

    how various industries work with the concepts and if there are any specific needs to develop

    in the future.

    Definition

    In the analysis chapter the author presents a comprehensive definition of activity based working

    which is developed with the support by the qualitative and quantitative research:

    “Based on the activities that occur in the workplace, teadership, facilities, and technology are

    customized to effectively and in a structured way maximize the benefits and value of the work

    that the individuals performs”

  • 293.
    Bahceci, Derya
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Holmgren, Linnea
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Agile perspectives in construction projects – How to improve efficiency in the design phase2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The long project durations in construction projects usually includes changes. From the initial project idea to the end of the design phase, the requirements and expectations of the project tends to change. There could be many reasons for this, such as new or more thorough specifications from the client, or perhaps, changed factors in the surrounding. A problem is that changes might have consequences in terms of added costs, extended time and transformed scope. Hence, unwanted changes often mean that the resources are used in an inefficient way since re-work has to be done. This often affects the client satisfaction negatively since, as earlier mentioned, costs might increase, time might be extended or scope could have to be changed.

    The aim to work efficiently in the design phase of construction projects lays the foundation for this report. More specifically, this master thesis looks into how agile methodologies can make the program- and system-stages, of a construction project, more efficient and thereby increase the client satisfaction.

    Agile methodologies could be described as "the ability to rapidly respond to change". The agile methodologies are about realizing that projects are prone to changes because of changing circumstances. It is about realizing that we develop our knowledge and understanding of a project as it proceeds, which means that we must adapt to new information as it is gained. In one single word, agility is all about flexibility.

    The agile methodologies are suited for projects with high complexity and uncertainty. It is also suitable to work in agile ways when a project has unclear specifications, changing situations, complex project goals and results needs to be achieved continually or early in the project process

    Conclusions that have emerged through this master thesis are that agile methodologies could improve efficiency in the program- and system-stages. This can be possible by dividing each stage into shorter cycles. In this way, the stages would become more manageable since it is easier to get an overview of the closest upcoming work. Shorter cycles can also make it easier to keep the goal focus through the whole project process since more frequent reconciliations are being held.

    Working in shorter cycles gives the opportunity to have more frequent reconciliations with the client as well as with the project team. Reconciliations are held in the beginning and in the end of each cycle. This means that the client gets the opportunity to express wishes and requirements during the reconciliations which results in possibilities to make eventual changes throughout the stage. This prevents major changes from occurring in the end of the stage which means that resources can be used more efficiently. Also, when changes are made continually instead of after-the-fact, the costs of making unwanted changes becomes decreased. The client involvement and the agile approach could for these reasons affect the client satisfaction positively.

  • 294.
    Magnusson, Louise
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Sjöberg, Milja
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    An investigation about e-commerce integrated with shopping mall – How can a shopping mall integrate e-commerce?2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The shopping mall branch has estimated that the turnover of e-commerce will double within the upcoming ten years (NSCS, 2013). The growth can thus stop for shopping malls and there is a risk that some shopping malls end up being "dead-malls", completely losing their turnover.

    The thesis starts off with presenting the background for the factors of trade, i.e. e-commerce and shopping malls.

    This is followed by a presentation of which integration possibilities there are in Sweden today and by examples from the British market. Thereafter follows a section on integration possibilities that shopping malls can use in order to integrate e-commerce instead of regarding it as a threat. This can be done in several ways, e.g. by virtual shopping malls, portals, click and collect, check and reserve, showrooms or a virtual shopping wall. The thesis also considers the question of how one can evaluate integration possibilities efficiently.

    E-commerce will have an impact on shopping malls and some of these consequences are taken up and discussed. The consequences are amongst others a change in shopping space, rental contracts, tenant mix, the shopping mall visit experience, service, image, multi-channel strategy, lower in-shop prices etc.

    Then, some of the latest trends are revealed, gathered from a workshop that we organized together with WSP. That workshop was taken part in by some experienced guests within the shopping mall branch, e.g. JLL, Vasakronan, ElinderSten Arkitekter, NCSC and Centrumutveckling.

    The Thesis is concluded with a vision of how a typical shopping mall will look like in 2025.