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  • 251.
    Laurenti, Rafael
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Integrerad produktutveckling. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Redwood, Michael
    Puig, Rita
    Frostell, Bjorn
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Measuring the Environmental Footprint of Leather Processing Technologies2017Inngår i: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 21, nr 5, s. 1180-1187Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The selection of materials and manufacturing processes often determines most of the environmental impact that a product will have during its life cycle. In directing consumption toward products with the least impact on the environment, measuring and comparing material alternatives with site-specific data is a fundamental prerequisite. Within the apparel and footwear industry, some famous brands have recently been basing their advertising on the claim that vegetable-tanned leather is more environmentally friendly than chromiumtanned leather. However, there is a lack of scientific research assessing and comparing vegetable-and chromium-tanned leather in a wider context than the toxicity of chromium. To fill this gap, this study measured and compared the carbon, water, and energy footprint of vegetable and chromium leather processing technology and intermediate processing stages in 12 selected tanneries in seven different countries worldwide. Each tannery proved to be very individual, and therefore attempting to perform this type of analysis without simply producing meaningless generalities is a challenge for companies, researchers, and regulators. The variability in results demonstrates that secondary data for the tanning phase should be utilized with caution in a decision-making context. The use of primary data would be advisable for life cycle assessment studies of leather goods. No significant differences were found in the footprint of vegetable and chromium leather processes, but these are only indicative findings and need confirmation in further studies. An important area needing investigation is then how a fair comparison can be made between renewable natural materials and nonrenewable materials used in both leather-processing technologies.

  • 252. Lavers, Alexandra
    et al.
    Kalmykova, Yuliya
    Rosado, Leonardo
    Oliveira, Felipe
    Laurenti, Rafael
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Integrerad produktutveckling. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Selecting representative products for quantifying environmental impacts of consumption in urban areas2017Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 162, s. 34-44Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Populations are becoming more urban than rural, creating concentrated areas with high consumption of products. Understanding and influencing the environmental impact of consumption within cities becomes therefore increasingly important. Although there have been several studies evaluating the environmental impact of consumption at the global, national, and regional scale, there are few methods currently available to estimate impact at the urban level. There is therefore a need for a systematic approach to select appropriate, region-specific representative products. This study combines material flow analysis with life cycle assessment to select representative products that can be used as proxies to assess the environmental impact of urban areas using life cycle impact factors. The selection was based on the following criteria: the top consumed products within a product category, consistent products with respect to time and geography, and product types with known high environmental impact. The representative products were identified for three Swedish cities: Stockholm, Gothenburg and Malmo, using sixteen years of annual urban-level material flow analysis data (1996–2011). A total of 71 products across 44 categories, were identified as representative of the 10,000 product types consumed in the urban areas analyzed. The method described in this study can be used by practitioners to identify representative products in any urban area with material flow data and allows for a more comprehensive and tailored analysis that what has been previously available.

  • 253. Laxman, K.
    et al.
    Myint, M. T. Z.
    Al Abri, M.
    Al-Gharibi, L.
    Al Namani, B.
    Bourdoucen, H.
    Dutta, Joydeep
    Sultan Qaboos University, Oman.
    Efficient desalination of brackish ground water via a novel capacitive deionization cell using nanoporous activated carbon cloth electrodes2015Inngår i: Journal of Engineering Research, ISSN 1726-6009, Vol. 12, nr 2, s. 22-31Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sea water intrusion in ground water sources has made brackish water desalination a necessity in Oman. The application of capacitive deionization (CDI) for the deionization of ground water samples from wells in Al-Musanaah Wilayat is proposed and demonstrated. A CDI cell is fabricated using nanoporous activated carbon cloth (ACC) as the electrodes and is shown to be power efficient for desalting ground water samples with total dissolved solids (TDS) of up to 4,000 mg/l. The CDI cell was able to remove up to 73% of the ionic scaling and fouling contaminants from brackish water samples. The power consumption for deionization of brackish water was estimated to be 1 kWh/m3 of desalinated water, which is much lower than the power required to process water with equivalent TDS by the reverse osmosis processes. The CDI process is elaborated, and observations and analysis of the ion adsorption characteristics and electrical properties of the capacitive cell are elucidated.

  • 254.
    Lazarevic, David
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Aoustin, Emmanuelle
    Buclet, Nicolas
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Plastic waste management in the context of a European recycling society: Comparing results and uncertainties in a life cycle perspective2010Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 55, nr 2, s. 246-259Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of life cycle assessment (LCA) studies have been undertaken within the last 15 years comparing end-of-life treatment options for post-consumer plastic waste, including techniques such as: mechanical recycling, feedstock recycling, incineration with energy recovery and landfilling. These have attempted to support decisions in the formulation of waste management strategies and policies. In light of the introduction of life cycle thinking into European waste policies, specifically in relation to the waste hierarchy, a literature review of publically available LCA studies evaluating alternative end-of-life treatment options for plastic waste has been conducted. This has been done in order to: establish if a consensus exists as to the environmentally preferable treatment option for plastic waste; identify the methodological considerations and assumptions that have led to these conclusions; and determine the legitimacy of applying the waste hierarchy to the plastic waste stream. The majority of the LCA studies concluded that, when single polymer plastic waste fractions with little organic contamination are recycled and replace virgin plastic at a ratio of close to 1:1, recycling is generally the environmentally preferred treatment option when compared to municipal solid waste incineration. It has been found that assumptions relating to the virgin material substitution ratio and level of organic contamination can have a significant influence upon the results of these studies. Although a limited number of studies addressed feedstock recycling, feedstock recycling and the use of plastic waste as a solid recovered fuel in cement kilns were preferred to municipal solid waste incineration. Landfilling of plastic waste compared to municipal solid waste incineration proved to be the least preferred option for all impact categories except for global warming potential. Due to the uncertainty surrounding some assumptions in the studies, it cannot be said with confidence that the waste hierarchy should be applied to plastic waste management as a general rule.

  • 255.
    Lazarevic, David
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi (flyttat 20130630). CNRS Troyes University of Technology, France; Veolia Environnement Recherche et Innovation, France.
    Buclet, Nicolas
    University of Technology, Troyes.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi (flyttat 20130630).
    The influence of the waste hierarchy in shaping European waste management: the case of plastic waste2010Inngår i: Regional Development Dialogue, ISSN 0250-6505, Vol. 31, nr 2, s. 124-148Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Waste management in Europe has experienced significant changes since the 1970s. The majority of Member State waste management regimes have shifted from policies based on the control of waste disposal activities, to include goals for waste prevention and recovery. The rapid increase of plastic packaging recycling in Germany had a number of unintended consequences. In the first years of the Packaging Ordinance, the majority of plastic packaging collected was exported to China, Eastern Europe, and other EU Member States due to lack of national capacity. The setting of high recycling targets for plastic packaging waste between 1991 and 1998 and the prohibition of incineration with energy recovery was a key driver of recycling technology innovation in Germany. When adopting new principles to serve as the foundation of belief, they should synchronize with the existing waste management myths of individual regions, as myths may differ from region to region illustrating different cultural ideals.

  • 256.
    Lazarevic, David
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi. Environmental Policy Centre, Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Finland.
    Martin, Michael
    LCA and Environmental Management, IVL-Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Life cycle assessments, carbon footprints and carbon visions: Analysing environmental systems analyses of transportation biofuels in Sweden2016Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 137, s. 249-257Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To ensure the sustainable production and consumption of biofuels, an increasing body of scientific literature has become available in recent years focusing on the environmental impacts of biofuels. Whilst the climate change mitigation is perhaps the primary driver behind the promotion of biofuels, climate change is not the only crucial impact associated with biofuel production and consumption systems. This study aims at analysing the extent of the dominant focus on climate impacts in Swedish research applying environmental systems analysis (ESA) tools to investigate the environmental impacts of biofuels, and why this may exist. A systematic literature review of Swedish research applying ESA tools in the study of transportation biofuels between 2000 and 2015 was conducted; identifying 64 studies. The results indicate that studies using life cycle assessment include a range of impact categories in addition to climate impacts, e.g. acidification and eutrophication. However, when also considering environmental footprints (i.e., carbon and water footprints) and material flow analyses, the dominance of carbon footprints leads to an overly dominant focus on climate impacts at the expense of other impact categories. The consideration of environmental impacts other than those related to climate impacts is discussed in terms of the influence of the dominant science-policy framework in Sweden and study dependent variables, such as data uncertainty and methodological limitations. Whilst biofuel production is inextricably linked to climate policy, the environmental impacts of Swedish biofuel production and consumption should also consider the broader context of the Swedish National Environmental Objectives.

  • 257.
    Levi, Lea
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik. Department of Physical Geography and the Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Applied Hydraulics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Geodesy, University of Split, Split, Croatia.
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Department of Physical Geography and the Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Data-driven analysis of nutrient inputs and transfer through nested catchmentsManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A data-driven screening methodology is developed for estimating nutrient inputs, deliveries and retentions in catchments with measured water discharges and nutrient concentrations along the river network. The methodology is also specifically applied to the Sava River Catchment (SRC), a major transboundary catchment in the Southeast Europe. A characteristic regional value emerges for nutrient input per unit area of around 30 T/yr/km2 for dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and 2 T/yr/km2 for total phosphorus (TP) in the relatively large nested catchments (>40 000 km2) of the SRC; fluctuating values are obtained for smaller nested catchments (of around 10 000 km2). The applied methodology also identifies hotspot catchments for nutrient input per unit area, in the range of 158 T/yr/km2 for DIN and 13 T/yr/km2 for TP, within the SRC. Furthermore, relative nutrient delivery is found to be scale-dependent, exhibiting power-law decay with increasing catchment area, with exponents of around 1.4-1.7 for both DIN and TP. At the largest catchment scale with available data within the SRC the relative delivery is around 0.08 for DIN and 0.03 for TP. Overall, the SRC nutrient data show similar nutrient relations to driving hydro-climatic conditions (runoff for nutrient loads) and socio-economic conditions (population density and farmland share for nutrient concentrations) as in the compared Baltic region.

  • 258.
    Levi, Lea
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik. Department of Physical Geography and the Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Applied Hydraulics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Geodesy, University of Split, Split, Croatia..
    Destouni, Georgia
    Department of Physical Geography and the Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Multi-model projections of future hydro-climatic and nutrient-load evolution in the Sava River CatchmentManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The direct output of the multi-model ensemble of the Coupled Model Intercompariosn Project, Phase 5 (CMIP5) for the Sava River Catchment shows high uncertainty of hydro-climatic changes for the two future scenarios but exhibits overall agreement with the direction of the changes with results of some previous studies conducted for the SRC. Of particular importance are runoff changes induced by climate change as they might influence nutrient pollution in the catchment and as such cause water quality issues on a subcatchment to catchment scale. Such changes might have impact not only for the waters of the SRC but also the Danube River Catchment and the Black Sea. As none of the models shows to out-perfom any other model in reproducing observed temperature and water fluxes or their changes, nutrient yield calculation based on the ensemble mean and particular models show wide range of results and make any possible conclusions challenging and potentially misleading.

  • 259.
    Li, Hailong
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Energiprocesser.
    Flores, Servando
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Energiprocesser.
    Hu, Yukun
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Energiprocesser.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Energiprocesser.
    Simulation And Optimization Of Evaporative Gas Turbine With Chemical Absorption For Carbon Dioxide Capture2009Inngår i: International Journal of Green Energy, ISSN 1543-5075, E-ISSN 1543-5083, Vol. 6, nr 5, s. 527-539Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article studied the integration of an evaporative gas turbine (EvGT) cycle with chemical absorption for CO2 capture. Two systems of EvGT cycle without CO2 capture and EvGT cycle with CO2 capture were simulated and optimized. The impacts of key parameters such as the water/air ratio (W/A), the stripper pressure, and the flue-gas condensing temperature were studied regarding the electrical efficiency and CO2 reduction. Simulation results show that (1) there always exists an optimum point of W/A for both EvGT and EvGT combined with CCS; (2) although lowering the stripper pressure would lower the heat quality requirement of reboiler, it increases the quantity more obviously. Therefore increasing the operating pressure of stripper would help to increase the total electrical efficiency; but the efficiency improvement becomes smaller if stripper pressure is high; (3) adding a flue-gas condenser to condense out the excessive water is another method to increase the total electrical efficiency. There is also an optimum point of condensing temperature considering the concentration of mono ethanol amine (MEA) and inlet temperature of stripper; and (4) comparatively the combined cycle has a higher gross electricity generation and electrical efficiency than the EvGT cycle no matter if combined with CO2 capture or not.

  • 260.
    Liljenström, Carolina
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Data for separate collection and recycling of dry recyclable materials2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this report is to present environmental and economic data for some collection and recycling processes in Sweden. The data can be used in Life Cycle Assessment and Life Cycle Costing analysis as well as other tools for assessing environmental and economic impacts of different waste management systems and strategies. The report provides data on kerbside collection of plastic and metal packaging, and beverage cartons in Sweden. For each material fraction the source segregation efficiency and quality of the separated waste streams is presented, followed by data on the processes collection at the kerbside, handling at transfer and sorting stations, and primary reprocessing at the recycling plant. The waste streams are followed to the point in which the secondary material can replace virgin materials.

    For each process the following data is included (as relevant for each process): electricity, heat and fuel use, generation of waste and by products, transportation work, material input per tonne material output, process related CO2-emissions, and economic costs. The chapters that cover reprocessing at the recycling plants also include a discussion on which materials that can be replaced by waste, by-products, and the secondary material.

  • 261.
    Liljenström, Carolina
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Malmqvist, Tove
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Erlandsson, Martin
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Fredén, Johanna
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Adolfsson, Ida
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Larsson, Gustav
    Skanska Sverige AB, Grön affärsutveckling.
    Brogren, Maria
    Sveriges Byggindustrier.
    Byggandets klimatpåverkan: Livscykelberäkning av klimatpåverkan och energianvändning för ett nyproducerat energieffektivt flerbostadshus i betong2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 262.
    Liljenström, Carolina
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Toller, Susanna
    Swedish Transport Adm, Borlange, Sweden..
    Åkerman, Jonas
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Annual climate impact and primary energy use of Swedish transport infrastructure2019Inngår i: European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research, ISSN 1567-7133, E-ISSN 1567-7141, Vol. 19, nr 2, s. 77-+Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    By 2045, Sweden is to have zero net emissions of greenhouse gases. To reach this goal, stakeholders involved in planning and construction of Swedish transport infrastructure aim to half their climate impact by 2030. Planning for emission reduction measures require network level studies showing environmental impacts of the infrastructure network. Previous studies do not allow assessment of current hotspots in the infrastructure network, which limits their relevance for decision-support in this question. The aim of this paper is to assess the current annual climate impact and primary energy use of Swedish transport infrastructure by using a methodological approach based on life cycle assessment. The scope includes new construction and management (operation, maintenance, and reinvestment) of existing roads, railways, airports, ports, and fairway channels. The annual climate impact was estimated to 2.8 million tonnes carbon dioxide equivalents and the annual primary energy use was estimated to 27 terawatt hours. Mainly road and rail infrastructure contributed to these impacts. Environmental hotspots of the infrastructure network were management of the infrastructure stock (particularly reinvestment of road and rail infrastructure) and material production (particularly production of asphalt, steel, and concrete). If climate targets are to be met, these areas are particularly important to address. Additional research on impacts of small construction measures, the size of biogenic carbon emissions (in standing biomass as well as soil carbon), and the use and impacts of asphalt for road construction and management would further increase the understanding of impacts related to Swedish transport infrastructure at the network level.

  • 263.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Högskolan i Kalmar.
    Engineering designers’ experience of design for environment methods and tools: Requirement definitions from an interview study2006Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 14, nr 5, s. 487-496Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite an increasing number of Design for Environment (DfE) methods and tools, industrial utilization is still limited. Identifying Engineering Designers' requirements is a useful way to increase the utilization of DfE methods and tools. This paper is based on existing literature and a semi-structured interview study at an industrial equipment company. Different reasons why engineering designers utilize methods and tools are presented, as well what makes a method or tool actively utilized. Several engineering designer requirements for methods and tools are identified and described. Several identified requirements that a DfE method ought to fulfill are listed and described.

  • 264.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinkonstruktion (Avd.).
    Engineering Designers' Requirements on Design for Environment Methods and Tools2005Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Given a special focus on Design for Environment (DfE) methods and tools, the objectives of this thesis are to, “Identify basic design-related requirements that a method or tool should fulfill in order to become actively used by engineering designers”, and to “Investigate how those basic requirements could be used to make DfE methods and tools more actively used in industry among engineering designers”.

    The research has shown that designers in general have three main purposes for utilizing methods and tools, of which the last two could be seen as subsets of the first one. The purposes are to: (1) facilitate various kinds of communication within the product development process; (2) integrate knowledge and experience into the methods and tools as a know-how backup; and (3) contribute with structure in the product development process. The low degree of follow-up implies a risk that methods and tools are used that affect the work within the company in a negative way. In order to be able to better follow-up methods and tools regarding both their utilization and usefulness, there is a need for a better definition of requirements for methods and tools.

    Most of all designers’ related requirements are related to their’ aims to fulfill the product performance and keep down the development time. This can be concluded as four major requirements, that a DfE method or tool, as well as a common method or tool, must exhibit: (1) be easy to adopt and implement, (2) facilitate designers to fulfill specified requirements on the presumptive product, and at the same time (3) reduce the risk that important elements in the product development phase are forgotten. Both these two latter requirements relate to a method or tool’s degree of appropriateness. The second and the third requirements are related to the fourth requirement, which is found to be the most important: that the use of the method or tool (4) must reduce the total calendar time (from start to end) to solve the task. The conclusion is that DfE methods and tools must be designed to comply to a higher degree with the main users - in this case the designers’ requirements for methods and tools

  • 265.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Högskolan i Kalmar.
    Environmental effect analysis: how does the method stand in relation to lessons learned from the use of other design for environment methods2001Inngår i: Environmentally Conscious Design and Inverse Manufacturing, 2001. Proceedings EcoDesign 2001: Second International Symposium on Environmentally Conscious Design and Inverse Manufacturing, 2001, s. 864-869Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents Environmental Effect Analysis (EEA), which is a qualitative method for DfE. This method has been developed in close co-operation with the industry. The method is designed to be used in the early phases of product development and also considers the economical and technical aspects. The paper starts with a literature review of general lessons learned from the use of DfE methods. Then it gives a presentation of the EEA method. Finally the paper discusses the development in comparison to other DfE methods and describes experiences from the use of the EEA method

  • 266.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet.
    User requirements for Design for Environment methods and tools2004Inngår i: Journal of Sustainable Product Design, ISSN 1367-6679, E-ISSN 1573-1588Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 267.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    et al.
    Högskolan i Kalmar.
    Skoglund, Linda
    Högskolan i Kalmar.
    Svensson, Jenny
    Högskolan i Kalmar.
    Karlsson, Reine
    Högskolan i Kalmar.
    Use and perception of Design for Environment (DfE) in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in Sweden2003Inngår i: 2003 3RD INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON ENVIRONMENTALLY CONSCIOUS DESIGN AND INVERSE MANUFACTURING - ECODESIGN '03, 2003, s. 723-730Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to give an image of the utilization and perception of DfE and methods and tools within some Swedish Small and Medium Sized Enterprises. The background is the large number of existing methods and tools in relation to the low utilization in the industry. The research method has been qualitative research interviews in ten companies. Some of the material is based on a Master Thesis written by Skoglund and Svensson (2002).

    The education level about DfE is very low and the overall motivation for DfE in the companies seems to be low or nonexistent. The DfE method and tool utilization is zero. One reason for this lack of interest seems to be the low interest in environmental questions and DfE among customers. The number of environmental and DfE requirements are low.

    The authors noted that environmental improvements have been made but not considered as environmental work, e.g. weight and fuel minimization but they are driven by for example quality or economical reasons.

    There are two ways to get environmental improvements by using methods and tools, by specific DfE methods and tools and by integration of environmental considerations in the ordinary design methods and tools.

  • 268.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Kemi.
    Åkermark, Ann-Marie
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Maskinkonstruktion.
    Experience of and requirements on methods for product development: An interview survey at a major Swedish vehicle companyManuskript (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 269.
    Lindström, David
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Hedberg, Yolanda
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Chromium(III) and Chromium(VI) Surface Treated Galvanized Steel for Outdoor Constructions: Environmental Aspects2010Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 1086-931X, E-ISSN 1520-6912, Vol. 44, nr 11, s. 4322-4327Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The long-term degradation of chromium(III) (Zn-Cr(III)) and chromium(VI)-based (Zn-Cr(VI)) surface treatments on galvanized steel and their capacities to hinder the release of zinc induced by atmospheric corrosion at non-sheltered urban and marine exposure conditions for two years are investigated.

    Compared to bare zinc sheet, both surface treatments revealed high corrosion protection abilities and capacities to hinder the release of zinc, still evident after two years of exposure. The zinc barrier properties of the thinner Zn-Cr(VI) (10 nm) treatment were during the first 100 days of urban exposure slightly improved compared with Zn-Cr(III) (35 nm). However, their long-term protection capacities were inversed. 

    Released concentrations of total chromium correspond to annual release rates less than 0.000032 (Zn-Cr(III)) and 0.00014 g Cr m-2yr-1 (Zn-Cr(VI)) after one year of urban exposure. Ageing by indoor storage of the surface treatments prior to outdoor exposure reduced the released Cr concentrations from the surface treatments. No Cr(VI) was released from the aged surfaces but from the freshly exposed Zn-Cr(VI).  

    Marine exposure conditions resulted in a faster reduction of chromate to chromium(III)oxide compared with urban conditions, and a significantly lower amount of both chromium(III) and chromium(VI) released from Zn-Cr(VI) at the marine site compared with the urban site.

  • 270.
    Lindström, Riitta
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    A hydrogeological database for flow and transport modelling with em-phasis on Swedish conditions2005Inngår i: Water resources management, ISSN 0920-4741, E-ISSN 1573-1650Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 271.
    Lindström, Riitta
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630).
    A system for modelling groundwater contamination in water supply areas - chloride contamination from road de-icing as an example2006Inngår i: Nordic Hydrology, ISSN 0029-1277, E-ISSN 1996-9694, Vol. 37, nr 1, s. 41-51Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A system for modelling groundwater contamination in water supply areas is presented, consisting of the flow and transport models, MACRO for the unsaturated zone and MOC for the groundwater zone, coupled to the geographical information system, IDRISI. A graphical user interface links the different parts of the system. The system was applied to a water supply area located close to a major road south of Stockholm. Chloride was used as an indicator in determining the risk for groundwater contamination from the road. The future chloride concentration in the aquifer was predicted and the effects of different pumping rates on the chemistry of the water supply well were tested. Modelling results showed that the chloride concentration in the aquifer will increase substantially due to road de-icing and that it will take decades to lower the chloride concentration down to the original background values after an end to the use of de-icing salt. The system may serve as a valuable tool in a planning context. Potential groundwater contamination scenarios can be simulated, and alternative groundwater management strategies can be evaluated.

  • 272.
    Lindström, Riitta
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Groundwater vulnerability assessment using process-based models2005Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this thesis is on groundwater vulnerability assessment by process-based simulation models and data acquisition for these assessments. A modelling system for intrinsic groundwater vulnerability assessment in water supply areas was developed, consisting of flow- and transport models for the unsaturated zone and the groundwater zone, coupled to a geographical informa-tion system. The system was applied to a water supply area located close to a major road south of Stockholm. Chloride was used as an indicator in determining the vulnerability for groundwater contamination from the road. The approach was useful to illustrate the dynamic change of chlo-ride concentrations both during the stage of continuous application and after the applications was terminated. A structure and content of a database for flow and transport modelling, based on hydrogeological environments, was outlined. An existing hydrogeological parameter database, HPAR at the Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU), was examined as a potential source of data for the new database. Values for some important parameters needed for groundwater modelling, such as hydraulic conductivity and effective porosity, were lacking in the three municipal HPAR databases that were studied. It was suggested that these data should be added, together with information on the hydrogeological environments, for all geographical positions of interest. Without such minimum information, the efficient use of modelling tools could not be expected.

    Typical profiles of three common Swedish hydrogeological environments (sand deposits, glacial till and clay covered areas) were used to represent generic input data to model simulations in the unsaturated zone so that the importance of soil, vegetation type and groundwater levels on turn-over times of conservative contaminants transported by natural recharge could be examined. The same profiles were used to predict the penetration depth of accidental liquid spills that occur at the land surface level. In the case of contaminant transport by natural recharge, water storage in the soil profile and vegetation type played an important role for turnover times. For liquid spills, the hydraulic con-ductivity was found to be of major importance, while the water retention properties were of less importance. Modelling, together with available data sources, were successfully used to demon-strate the vulnerability of different environmental conditions.

  • 273.
    Lindström, Riitta
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Jansson, Per-Erik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Prediction of high rate infiltration in typical Swed-ish soil profilesArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 274. Liu, Qingquan
    et al.
    Wang, Li
    Xiao, Anguo
    Gao, Jingming
    Ding, Wenbing
    Yu, Haojie
    Huo, Jia
    Ericson, Mårten
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Templated preparation of porous magnetic microspheres and their application in removal of cationic dyes from wastewater2010Inngår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 181, nr 1-3, s. 586-592Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Porous magnetic microspheres with large particle size (350-450 mu m) were prepared with sulfonated macroporous polydivinylbenzene as a template. The preparation process included ferrous ion exchange and following oxidation by hydrogen peroxide. The results showed that the weight fraction of magnetic nanoparticles exceeded 20 wt% in microspheres after the preparation process was repeated three times. X-ray diffraction profiles indicated that the crystalline phase of as-formed magnetic nanoparticles was magnetite (Fe3O4). TEM images revealed rod-like magnetite crystal after the first oxidation cycle, however, the crystal morphologies were transferred into random shape after more oxidation cycles. The applicability of porous magnetic microspheres for removal of cationic dyes from water was also explored. The results exhibited that basic fuchsin and methyl violet could be quickly removed from water with high efficiency. More importantly, the magnetic microspheres could be easily regenerated and repeatedly employed for wastewater treatment. Therefore, a novel methodology was provided for fast removal cationic dyes from wastewater.

  • 275. Liu, Qingquan
    et al.
    Wang, Li
    Xiao, Anguo
    Yu, Haojie
    Ericson, Mårten
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Regeneration Research of Porous Magnetic Microspheres during Treatment of Wastewater Containing Cationic Dyes2010Inngår i: Separation science and technology (Print), ISSN 0149-6395, E-ISSN 1520-5754, Vol. 45, nr 16, s. 2345-2349Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The application feasibility of porous magnetic microspheres in the removal of cationic dyes from wastewater was investigated. Various desorption solutions were employed for the recovery of cationic dyes from absorbents and regeneration of porous magnetic microspheres. The results showed that 1M NaCl or 1M KCl in water/methanol co-solvent had excellent desorption ability for methyl violet. This fact was further demonstrated in the removal cationic gold yellow from its aqueous solution. Overall, this provided a simple methodology for the treatment of wastewater containing cationic dyes and the regeneration of porous magnetic microspheres.

  • 276.
    Lundberg, Kristina
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Miljöbedömning och -förvaltning.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Miljöbedömning och -förvaltning.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Miljöbedömning och -förvaltning.
    Framework for environmental performance measurement in a Swedish public sector organization2009Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 17, nr 11, s. 1017-1024Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental performance measurements are an important component in strategies for achieving ecologically sustainable development. However, models and frameworks for performance measurement are primarily developed for business and may not be directly applicable to public organizations. This study aimed to contribute to the development of environmental performance measurement tools for public sector organizations by developing an appropriate framework. The study is based on a case study of the Swedish Rail Administration. The main method for data collection was focus group interviews. The proposed framework presents important features of an environmental performance measurement for the public sector and is illustrated by results from the case organization. The framework was constructed using the causal-chain framework pressure-state-response (PSR) and the management system management-by-objectives (MBO), respectively measuring and managing performance towards both strategic and operational objectives. An environmental management system serves as a toolbox, encompassing and coordinating the environmental objectives and the tools for performance measurement.

  • 277.
    Lundberg, Ludvig
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Lärande för hållbar utveckling: En tvärsnittsstudie om hållbar utveckling i svensk gymnasieskola2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    A subset of Agenda 2030 (Colglazier 2015) is to ensure that all students get the skills needed to promote sustainable development. This study aims at examining Swedish upper secondary school experiences of teaching sustainable development. The purpose of this study is to investigate Swedish upper secondary schools and teachers’ thoughts and experiences of teaching sustainable development, thereby creating a basis for a distance course in say Learning for Sustainable Development. To investigate this, a cross-sectional study has been conducted consisting of interviews by a focus group consisting of principals and teachers from a secondary school and a principal from another upper secondary school. The results of this study revealed a number of different aspects that upper secondary schools experience can make difficult in learning about sustainable development, including its difficulty in defining and evaluating a value-based topic such as sustainable development. There were also a number of aspects that are important in designing a course in Sustainable Development, addressed to high school teachers, such as a clear gain for the participating upper secondary teachers and the ability to customize the content to their own subjects.

  • 278.
    Lundmark, Annika
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Modelling the impacts of deicing salt on soil water in a roadside environment2005Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This study tested a dynamic modelling approach based on salt application, meteorological data and generic descriptions of hydrogeological environments for describing the spread of deicing salt to the surroundings and the corresponding increase in chloride storage in soil. Both the amount of chloride storage and the annual variation pattern were significantly altered due to deicing salt application and spread to the roadside environment. Data from field investigations comprising different hydrogeological environments and different methods of measurement were used to examine the variability of the salt deposition pattern in the vicinity of the road, and to test the performance of the model with respect to different soils and vegetation types. The use of typical hydrogeological environments to represent inputs to the model was shown to be useful to demonstrate the importance of soils, vegetation type and groundwater conditions for modelling the impact of deicing salt on soil water and the response to environmental changes in the vadose zone. However, the use of hydrogeological environment could also be misleading in view of the high degree of variability at the field scale. The different methods of measurements and simulations represented different spatial and temporal scales that were shown to be complementary useful to quantify the different pathways of deicing salt in the roadside environment. Continuous simulations complemented with selected field monitoring should therefore be promoted.

  • 279. Löfgren, Stefan
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Miljögeokemi och ekoteknik.
    Bringmark, Lage
    Decreasing DOC trends in soil solution along the hillslopes at two IM sites in southern Sweden: Geochemical modeling of organic matter solubility during acidification recovery2010Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 409, nr 1, s. 201-210Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous studies report increased concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) during the last two decades in boreal lakes and streams in Europe and North America Recently a hypothesis was presented on how various spatial and temporal factors affect the DOC dynamics It was concluded that declining sulphur deposition and thereby increased DOC solubility is the most important driver for the long-term DOC concentration trends in surface waters If this recovery hypothesis is correct the DOC levels should increase both in the soil solution as well as in the surrounding surface waters as soil pH rises and the ionic strength declines due to the reduced input of SO42- ions In this project a geochemical model was set up to calculate the net humic charge and DOC solubility trends in soils during the period 1996-2007 at two integrated monitoring sites in southern Sweden showing clear signs of acidification recovery The Stockholm Humic Model was used to investigate whether the observed DOC solubility is related to the humic charge and to examine how pH and ionic strength influence it Soil water data from recharge and discharge areas covering both podzols and riparian soils were used The model exercise showed that the increased net charge following the pH increase was in many cases counteracted by a decreased ionic strength, which acted to decrease the net charge and hence the DOC solubility Thus the recovery from acidification does not necessarily have to generate increasing DOC trends in soil solution Depending on changes in pH ionic strength and soil Al pools the trends might be positive negative or indifferent Due to the high hydraulic connectivity with the streams the explanations to the DOC trends in surface waters should be searched for in discharge areas and peat lands.

  • 280.
    Lövehagen, Nina
    et al.
    Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Bondesson, Anna
    Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Evaluating sustainability of using ICT solutions in smart cities: methodology requirements2013Inngår i: ICT4S 2013: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies for Sustainability, ETH Zurich, February 14-16, 2013 / [ed] Lorenz M. Hilty, Bernard Aebischer, Göran Andersson, Wolfgang Lohmann, Zürich, 2013, s. 175-182Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need for verification of the sustainability potential of an increasing number of smart city initiatives. This paper discuss a set of requirements necessary to consider when developing a methodology intended to evaluate the environmental and socioeconomic sustainability impact of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) solutions at a city level. A smart city definition is chosen and a model of the city is proposed, dividing the city into service sectors where ICT solutions are expected to be implemented. Requirements on a quantitative methodology for assessing the sustainability potential of ICT solutions in cities are listed, including transparency in selection of city boundary and results, and the importance of setting realistic scenarios and using publicly available data. The methodology activities presented include defining system boundaries, building scenarios and assessing the solution at a city level, and scaling the solution between cities.

  • 281.
    Magnusson, Mimmi K.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Teknisk geologi och geofysik.
    Geoelectrical imaging for interpretation of geological conditions affecting quarry operations2008Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Determination of the subsurface geology is very important for the rock quarry industry. This is primarily done by drilling and mapping of the surface geology. However in Sweden the bedrock is often completely covered by Quaternary sediments making the prediction of subsurface geology quite difficult. Incorrect prediction of the rock-mass quality can lead to economic problems for the quarry. By performing geophysical measurements a more complete understanding of the subsurface geology can be determined. This study shows that by doing 2D-parallel data sampling a 3D inversion of the dataset is possible, which greatly enhances the visualization of the subsurface. Furthermore the electrical resistivity technique together with the induced polarization method proved to be very efficient in detecting fracture frequency, identification of major fracture zones, and variations in rock-mass quality all of which can affect the aggregate quality. With this technique not only the rock-mass quality is determined but also the thickness of the overburden. Implementation of geophysics can be a valuable tool for the quarry industry, resulting in substantial economic benefits.

  • 282.
    Magnusson, Mimmi K.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Teknisk geologi och geofysik.
    Fernlund, Joanne
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Teknisk geologi och geofysik.
    Dahlin, Torleif
    Department of Engineering Geology, Lund University.
    Geoelectrical imaging in the interpretation of geological conditions affecting quarry operations2010Inngår i: Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, ISSN 1435-9529, E-ISSN 1435-9537, Vol. 69, nr 3, s. 465-486Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Determination of the subsurface geology is very important for the rock quarry industry. This is primarily done by drilling and mapping of the surface geology. However in Sweden the bedrock is often completely covered by Quaternary sediments making the prediction of subsurface geology quite difficult. Incorrect prediction of the rock-mass quality can lead to economic problems for the quarry. By performing geophysical measurements a more complete understanding of the subsurface geology can be determined. This study shows that by doing 2D-parallel data sampling a 3D inversion of the dataset is possible, which greatly enhances the visualization of the subsurface. Furthermore the electrical resistivity technique together with the induced polarization method proved to be very efficient in detecting fracture frequency, identification of major fracture zones, and variations in rock-mass quality all of which can affect the aggregate quality. With this technique not only the rock-mass quality is determined but also the thickness of the overburden. Implementation of geophysics can be a valuable tool for the quarry industry, resulting in substantial economic benefits.

  • 283.
    Malmodin, Jens
    et al.
    Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Bergmark, Pernilla
    Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Lundén, Dag
    Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    The future carbon footprint of the ICT and E&M sectors2013Inngår i: ICT4S 2013: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies for Sustainability, ETH Zurich, February 14-16, 2013 / [ed] Lorenz M. Hilty, Bernard Aebischer, Göran Andersson, Wolfgang Lohmann, Zürich, 2013, s. 12-20Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we forecast the future carbon footprint of the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and Entertainment and Media (E&M) sectors in the year 2020 including the ICT and E&M related impact from a networked society, i.e. a society where both people and things are connected and communicate with each other. We also discuss sector boundaries, the full impact from the networked society,uncertainty, use of the Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP) as data source and important perspectives when assessing ICT.

  • 284.
    Malmodin, Jens
    et al.
    Ericsson Research, Ericsson AB Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bergmark, Pernilla
    Ericsson Research, Ericsson AB Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lövehagen, Nina
    Ericsson Research, Ericsson AB Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ercan, Mine
    Ericsson Research, Ericsson AB Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bondesson, Anna
    Ericsson Research, Ericsson AB Stockholm, Sweden.
    Considerations for macro-level studies of ICT´ s enablement potential2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores how companies and other stakeholders could assess the macro-level enabling potential of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), in other words, the ability of ICT to reduce the negative sustainability impact of other industry sectors at a society level, and identifies some important considerations for such assessments including impact trends, addressable emissions, boundary setting and ICT solution categories of particular interest.  To illustrate the complexity of performing macro-level estimates of ICT’s enabling potential, this paper also discusses the 2020 enabling potential proposed by GeSI in their SMARTer2020 report. In addition, it investigates how organizations present GHG emissions reductions in different sectors where such reductions have already been achieved and finds that the claimed GHG emission reductions and energy savings would often need more details on calculations, methodology and background data.

  • 285.
    Malmodin, Jens
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. Ericsson Research, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Lundén, Dag
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. TeliaSonera, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms). KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Andersson, Greger
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. TeliaSonera, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Nilsson, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. TeliaSonera, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Life Cycle Assessment of ICT: Carbon Footprint and Operational Electricity Use from the Operator, National, and Subscriber Perspective in Sweden2014Inngår i: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 18, nr 6, s. 829-845Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of information and communication technology (ICT) is growing throughout society, and new products and solutions are developed at an increasing rate. To enable environmental assessment of specific ICT products and other products that rely on ICT in some way, a more complete, detailed, and up-to-date study based on real measurements is needed. To date, similar studies have not been readily available or fully comprehensive. This study assessed the overall operational electricity use and life-cycle-based carbon footprint (CF) relating to ICT in Sweden, including activities not commonly addressed previously, such as shared data transport networks and data centers and manufacturing of network infrastructure. Specific, detailed inventory data are presented and used for assessment of the Internet Protocol core network, data transmission, operator activities, and access network. These specific data, in combination with secondary, more generic data for end-user equipment, allow a comprehensive overall assessment. The majority of the ICT network CF is the result of end-user equipment, mainly personal computers, followed by third-party enterprise networks and data centers and then access networks. The parts closest to the user proved to be clearly responsible for the majority of the impact. The results are presented for Swedish ICT networks and for ICT networks in general based on a global average electricity mix.

  • 286.
    Malmodin, Jens
    et al.
    Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys. Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Lundén, Dag
    Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys. Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Lövehagen, Nina
    Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Greenhouse gas emissions and operational electricity use in the ICT and entertainment & media sectors2010Inngår i: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 14, nr 5, s. 770-790Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The positive and negative environmental impacts of information and communication technology (ICT) are widely debated. This study assesses the electricity use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to the ICT and entertainment & media (E&M) sectors at sector level, including end users, and thus complements information on the product level. GHGs are studied in a life cycle perspective, but for electricity use, only the operational use is considered. The study also considers which product groups or processes are major contributors. Using available data and extrapolating existing figures to the global scale for 2007 reveals that the ICT sector produced 1.3% of global GHG emissions in 2007 and the E&M sector 1.7%. The corresponding figures for global electricity use were 3.9% and 3.2%, respectively. The results indicate that for the ICT sector, operation leads to more GHG emissions than manufacture, although impacts from the manufacture of some products are significant. For the E&M sector, operation of TVs and production of printed media are the main reasons for overall GHG emissions. TVs as well as printed media, with the estimations made here, led to more GHG emissions on a global level in 2007 than PCs (manufacture and operation). A sector study of this type provides information on a macro scale, a perspective easily lost when considering, for example, the product-related results of life cycle assessments. The macro scale is essential to capture changes in total consumption and use. However, the potential of the ICT sector to help decrease environmental impacts from other sectors was not included in the assessment.

  • 287.
    Malmqvist, Tove
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Glaumann, Mauritz
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Selecting aspects and indicators in environmental assessment methods for buildings2007Inngår i: PORTUGAL SB07 - SUSTAINABLE CONSTRUCTION, MATERIALS AND PRACTICES: CHALLENGE OF THE INDUSTRY FOR THE NEW MILLENNIUM / [ed] Braganca L; Pinheiro M; Jalali S; Mateus R; Amoeda R; Guedes MC, AMSTERDAM: I O S PRESS , 2007, s. 326-333Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is tacitly understood that comprehensive environmental assessment methods cover the most significant environmental aspects of the intended assessment conditions. However, depending on the purpose and target-group of the method, more or fewer aspects and indicators may be included. In the development process of a Swedish environmental rating method for buildings, different approaches for selecting aspects were discussed and tested. In addition, possible indicators that measure the selected aspects were tested with regard to their environmental relevance, cost-effectiveness, etc. This procedure thus enabling a discussion of the appropriateness of different indicators used in existing environmental assessment methods for buildings. The analysis of this paper is restricted to indoor environmental quality (IEQ) but can be applied on all assessment areas of similar methods.

  • 288.
    Malovanyy, Andriy
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Ammonium removal from municipal wastewater with application of ion exchange and partial nitritation/Anammox process2014Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Nitrogen removal from municipal wastewater with application of Anammox process offers cost reduction, especially if it is combined with maximal use of organic content of wastewater for biogas production. In this study a new technology is proposed, which is based on ammonium concentration from municipal wastewater by ion exchange followed by biological removal of ammonium from the concentrated stream by partial nitritation/Anammox process. In experiments on ammonium concentration four the most common ion exchange materials were tested in packed bed columns, namely strong and weak acid cation exchange resins, natural and synthetic zeolites. Experiments with synthetic wastewaters with different content and municipal wastewater showed that strong acid cation resin is the most suitable for ammonium concentration from municipal wastewater due to its high exchange capacity and fast regeneration. Since NaCl was used for regeneration of ion exchange materials, spent regenerant had elevated salinity. Experiments with activity determination showed that both nitritation and Anammox bacteria are inhibited by NaCl, where effect on Anammox bacteria is more severe. Adaptation of partial nitritation/Anammox biomass was studied using two strategies of salinity increase and it was possible to adapt the biomass to NaCl content of 10-15 g/L. The technology was tested in batch mode using strong acid cation resin for ammonium concentration from pretreated municipal wastewater, and partial nitritation/Anammox biomass for nitrogen removal from concentrated stream. It was shown that it is possible to remove 99.9% of ammonium from wastewater with ion exchange while increasing concentration of ammonium in spent regenerant by 18 times. Up to 95% of nitrogen from spent regenerant was removed by partial nitritation/Anammox biomass in batch tests. Moreover, possibilities of integrati on of the technology into municipal wastewater treatment technology, challenges and advantages were discussed.

     

  • 289.
    Malovanyy, Andriy
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Plaza, Elzbieta
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Trela, Jozef
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Malovanyy, Myroslav
    Ammoniumremoval by partial nitritation and Anammox processes from wastewater with increased salinityManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 290.
    Malovanyy, Andriy
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik. Lviv Polytech Natl Univ, Dept Ind Ecol & Sustainable Environm Management, Ukraine.
    Plaza, Elzbieta
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Trela, Jozef
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Malovanyy, Myroslav
    Combination of ion exchange and partial nitritation/Anammox process for ammonium removal from mainstream municipal wastewater2014Inngår i: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 70, nr 1, s. 144-151Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a new technology of nitrogen removal from mainstream municipal wastewater is proposed. It is based on ammonium removal by ion exchange and regeneration of ion exchange material with 10-30 g/L NaCl solution with further nitrogen removal from spent regenerant by partial nitritation/Anammox process. Influence of regenerant strength on performance of ion exchange and biological parts of the proposed technology was evaluated. Moreover, the technology was tested in batch mode using pretreated municipal wastewater, strong acid cation (SAC) resin and partial nitritation/Anammox biomass. It was shown that with ion exchange it is possible to remove 99.9% of ammonium from wastewater while increasing the concentration of ammonium in spent regenerant by 18 times. Up to 95% of nitrogen from spent regenerant, produced by regeneration of SAC resin with 10 g/L NaCl solution, was removed biologically by partial nitritation/Anammox biomass. Moreover, the possibilities of integration of the technology into municipal wastewater treatment technology, and the challenges and advantages are discussed.

  • 291.
    Malovanyy, Andriy
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Sakalova, H.
    Yatchyshyn, Y.
    Plaza, Elzbieta
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Malovanyy, M.
    Concentration of ammonium from municipal wastewater using ion exchange process2013Inngår i: Desalination, ISSN 0011-9164, E-ISSN 1873-4464, Vol. 329, s. 93-102Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The scope of this study is concentration of ammonium from municipal wastewater using ion exchange process. Four types of ion exchange materials were tested in packed bed columns, namely strong and weak acid cation exchange resins and natural and synthetic zeolites. In total 23 runs of saturation and regeneration were done using synthetic wastewaters of different kinds and pretreated municipal wastewater. Due to its high exchange capacity and fast regeneration strong acid cation exchange resin was found to be the most suitable for ammonium concentration under condition that selectivity of ammonium removal is not of a main concern and it allows concentrating ammonium from 27 to 580mg NH4-N/L. If selective ammonium removal is required, natural zeolite should be used instead. Regeneration with 0.17M HCl and 0.17-0.51M NaCl was tested and suitability of different regenerants for different technologies of spent regenerant treatment was discussed. It was shown that electric conductivity measurements can be used for detection of breakthrough and estimation of ammonium concentration in outflow from an ion exchange column. Breakthrough curve fitting with Thomas and Adams-Bohart models was performed which gave information about the maximum exchange capacity of materials and kinetics of ion exchange.

  • 292. Manna, A. K.
    et al.
    Sen, M.
    Martin, Andrew R.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Pal, P.
    Removal of arsenic from contaminated groundwater by solar-driven membrane distillation2010Inngår i: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 158, nr 3, s. 805-811Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Experimental investigations were carried out on removal of arsenic from contaminated groundwater by employing a new flat-sheet cross flow membrane module fitted with a hydrophobic polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF) microfiltration membrane The new design of the solar-driven membrane module in direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) configuration successfully produced almost 100 per cent arsenic-free water from contaminated groundwater in a largely fouling-free operation while permitting high fluxes under reduced temperature polarization For a feed flow rate of 0120 m(3)/h, the 013 mu m PVDF membrane yielded a high flux of 74 kg/(m(2) h) at a feed water temperature of 40 degrees C and, 95 kg/m(2) h at a feed water temperature of 60 degrees C. The encouraging results show that the design could be effectively exploited in the vast arsenic-affected rural areas of South-East Asian countries blessed with abundant sunlight particularly during the critical dry season.

  • 293.
    Mao, Bo
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geoinformatik och Geodesi.
    Visualisation and Generalisation of 3D City Models2011Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    3D city models have been widely used in various applications such as urban planning, traffic control, disaster management etc. Efficient visualisation of 3D city models in different levels of detail (LODs) is one of the pivotal technologies to support these applications. In this thesis, a framework is proposed to visualise the 3D city models online. Then, generalisation methods are studied and tailored to create 3D city scenes in different scales dynamically. Multiple representation structures are designed to preserve the generalisation results on different level. Finally, the quality of the generalised 3D city models is evaluated by measuring the visual similarity with the original models.

     

    In the proposed online visualisation framework, City Geography Makeup Language (CityGML) is used to represent city models, then 3D scenes in Extensible 3D (X3D) are generated from the CityGML data and dynamically updated to the user side for visualisation in the Web-based Graphics Library (WebGL) supported browsers with X3D Document Object Model (X3DOM) technique. The proposed framework can be implemented at the mainstream browsers without specific plugins, but it can only support online 3D city model visualisation in small area. For visualisation of large data volumes, generalisation methods and multiple representation structures are required.

     

    To reduce the 3D data volume, various generalisation methods are investigated to increase the visualisation efficiency. On the city block level, the aggregation and typification methods are improved to simplify the 3D city models. On the street level, buildings are selected according to their visual importance and the results are stored in the indexes for dynamic visualisation. On the building level, a new LOD, shell model, is introduced. It is the exterior shell of LOD3 model, in which the objects such as windows, doors and smaller facilities are projected onto walls.  On the facade level, especially for textured 3D buildings, image processing and analysis methods are employed to compress the texture.

     

    After the generalisation processes on different levels, multiple representation data structures are required to store the generalised models for dynamic visualisation. On the city block level the CityTree, a novel structure to represent group of buildings, is tested for building aggregation. According to the results, the generalised 3D city model creation time is reduced by more than 50% by using the CityTree. Meanwhile, a Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) is employed to detect the linear building group structures in the city models and they are typified with different strategies. On the building level and the street level, the visible building index is created along the road to support building selection. On facade level the TextureTree, a structure to represent building facade texture, is created based on the texture segmentation.

     

    Different generalisation strategies lead to different outcomes. It is critical to evaluate the quality of the generalised models. Visually salient features of the textured building models such as size, colour, height, etc. are employed to calculate the visual difference between the original and the generalised models. Visual similarity is the criterion in the street view level building selection. In this thesis, the visual similarity is evaluated locally and globally. On the local level, the projection area and the colour difference between the original and the generalised models are considered. On the global level, the visual features of the 3D city models are represented by Attributed Relation Graphs (ARG) and their similarity distances are calculated with the Nested Earth Mover’s Distance (NEMD) algorithm.

     

    The overall contribution of this thesis is that 3D city models are generalised in different scales (block, street, building and facade) and the results are stored in multiple representation structures for efficient dynamic visualisation, especially for online visualisation.

  • 294.
    Marklund, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Topographic Control of Groundwater Flow2009Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Gravity is the main driving force for groundwater flow, and both landscape topography and geology distribute the effects of gravity on groundwater flow.  The groundwater table defines the distribution of the potential energy of the water. In humid regions where the bedrock permeability is relatively low and the soil depth is sufficiently shallow, the groundwater table closely follows the landscape topography and, thus, the topography controls the groundwater circulation in these regions. In this thesis, I investigate multi-scale topography-controlled groundwater flow, with the goal of systematizing the spatial distribution of groundwater flow and assessing geological parameters of importance for groundwater circulation.  Both exact solutions and numerical models are utilized for analyzing topography-controlled groundwater flow. The more complex numerical models are used to explore the importance of various simplifications of the exact solutions. The exact solutions are based on spectral representation of the topography and superpositioning of unit solutions to the groundwater flow field. This approach is an efficient way to analyze multi-scaled topography-controlled groundwater flow because the impact of individual topographic scales on the groundwater flow can be analyzed separately.  The results presented here indicate that topography is fractal and affects groundwater flow cells at wide range of spatial scales. We show that the fractal nature of the land surface produces fractal distributions of the subsurface flow patterns. This underlying similarity in hydrological processes also yields a single scale-independent distribution of subsurface water residence times which have been found in distributions of solute efflux from watersheds. Geological trends modify the topographic control of the groundwater circulation pattern and this thesis presents exact solutions explaining the impact of geological layering, depth-decaying and anisotropic hydraulic conductivity on the groundwater flow field. For instance, layers of Quaternary deposits and decaying permeability with depth both increase the importance of smaller topographic scales and creates groundwater flow fields where a larger portion of the water occupies smaller and shallower circulation cells, in comparison to homogeneous systems.

  • 295. Marklund, S
    et al.
    Morling, Stig
    Biological phosphorus removal at temperatures from 3-degrees-c to 10-degrees-c - a full-scale study of a sequencing batch reactor unit1994Inngår i: Canadian journal of civil engineering (Print), ISSN 0315-1468, E-ISSN 1208-6029, Vol. 21, nr 1, s. 81-88Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Low temperature biological phosphorus removal technology was tested at a small village wastewater treatment plant near the Arctic circle. An aeration basin in a conventional activated sludge step was retrofitted to a sequencing batch reactor with a maximum volume of approximately 27 m3. The study period was November 1989 to June 1991. The wastewater temperature varied between 3 and 10-degrees-C during one full year and was below 5-degrees-C during approximately 240 days of the year. A total sequencing batch reactor cycle time of 6-12 hours produced a phosphorus reduction of 70-80%. During the same time, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD7) reductions varied between 70% and 90%. These reductions were achieved at supernatant suspended solid concentrations of 20-30 mg/L. Effluent soluble phosphorus concentrations were usually lower than 1.0 mg/L at water temperatures down to 5-degrees-C. At 4-degrees-C, a sharp increase to greater than 2.0 mg/L was evident. Supernatant soluble BOD7 was less than 8 mg/L and was found to be independent of temperature.

  • 296.
    Mattsson, Sara
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Eriksson, Hanna
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    En konsekvensanalys för Jåhkågasska tjielldes rennäring av den eventuella gruvetableringen i Kallak/Gàllok2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Gruvindustrin växer i norra Sverige och sedan början av 2000-talet har ansökningar om bearbetningskoncessioner ökat drastiskt. Planerande av gruvor kan dock vara problematiska när de sker i renskötselområden och företrädare för det samiska samhället har kritiserat gruvbolagen för att inte ta hänsyn till samebyarnas synpunkter i sina miljökonsekvensbeskrivningar för nya gruvprojekt. Denna rapport ämnar synliggöra samebyn Jåhkågasska tjielldes perspektiv angående påverkan för deras rennäring av en eventuell gruvetablering i Kallak/Gállok. Med hjälp av en litteraturstudie samt kartläggning i ArcGIS har en scenarioanalys gjorts för att kunna beskriva och bedöma möjliga framtidsscenarier för Jåhkågasska tjielldes rennäring. Därefter har en jämförelse gjorts mellan scenarioanalysen och gruvbolagets syn på gruvans påverkan på rennäringen. Scenarioanalysen visade att samebyn ser en större påverkan på rennäringen än vad gruvbolaget gör. Bidragande orsaker till det är att gruvbolagets miljökonsekvensbeskrivning saknar utredd påverkan av kumulativa effekter, den har en för snäv systemgräns samt att den inte har tagit med berörda renskötares kunskaper om rennäring. Detta gör att det saknas en helhetsbild av påverkan på rennäringen, vilket gör att olika uppfattningar och konflikter uppstått. 

  • 297.
    Melesse, Fentaw Degie
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering.
    EVALUATION OF PHOTOGRAMMETRIC TOTAL STATION2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Photogrammetry is a science which obtains reliable measurements by a means of pho-tographs, and it can be aerial or terrestrial. This study is done in KTH main Campus on L building located at Drottning Kristinas väg 30. It assessed the precision of Trim-ble total station S8 for photogrammetric point measurement relative to the coordi-nates measured with a total station. The steps performed in the study were: planning the measurements (selection of the study area, selection of the instruments, selection of the station points, selection of the software and putting the target points over the facade), data acquisition and finally data processing in TBC software. In the work, sys-tematic error tests were carried out, and the tests results show that there are systematic errors in easting and northing of the measurement result, however it was difficult to say there is or there is no systematic error in the elevation. The most likely source of these errors might be an incorrect orientation of the camera. It was seen that there were some factors influenced the precision of photogrammetric point measurements, such as image redundancy and parallax angle between images. The precision assess-ment was done by calculating photogrammetric points; from different parallax angles between images and from different numbers of images which were taken from differ-ent station points. The better results or smaller differences between the total station and photogrammetric coordinates were detected from five station points relative to four and three station points and from parallax angle in range 60-105 degree relative to parallax angles in range 30-60 and 0-30 degrees. In general, precise photogrammet-ric coordinates were obtained from parallax angle in range 60-105 degree and from five station points.Keywords: Photogrammetry; precision; station points, checkpoints, Trimble total sta-tion, Trible Business Center.

  • 298.
    Melesse, Fentaw Degie
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering.
    EVALUATION OF PHOTOGRAMMETRICTOTAL STATION2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 299.
    Milestad, Rebecka
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Svenfelt, Åsa
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Dreborg, Karl Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Developing integrated explorative and normative scenarios: The case of future land use in a climate-neutral Sweden2014Inngår i: Futures: The journal of policy, planning and futures studies, ISSN 0016-3287, E-ISSN 1873-6378, Vol. 60, s. 59-71Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Transition from the current oil-based world economy to an economy based on renewable resources can become a strong driving force for land use change. This paper describes the development of integrated explorative and normative scenarios for the analysis of future land use in a climate-neutral Sweden. The aim is to show how backcasting scenarios fulfilling far-reaching greenhouse gas reduction targets can be related to assumptions on possible external developments, in order to contribute to the discussion on future sustainable land use. A target-fulfilling scenario element was combined with an external scenario element, i.e. developments that cannot be influenced by the targeted actors. The scenarios were developed and analysed in collaboration with local actors. Four scenarios were used to describe how land in Sweden could be used when Sweden has achieved zero emissions of greenhouse gases in 2060. The explorative dimension stretched from a situation where there is no international climate agreement to one where there is an international agreement on reducing greenhouse gases. The backcasting dimension illustrated different strategies to achieve the target and stretches from a very influential municipal level to one where the national/EU level is most influential.

  • 300.
    Miliutenko, Sofiia
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Aggregate provision and sustainability issues in selected European cities around the Baltic Sea2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
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