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  • 251.
    Darmani, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Hållbarhet och industriell dynamik. Universidad Politecnica de Madrid.
    Annika, Rickne
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Hållbarhet och industriell dynamik.
    Hidalgo, Antonio
    Universidad Politecnica de Madrid.
    Arvidsson, Niklas
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Hållbarhet och industriell dynamik.
    When outcomes are the reflection of the analysis criteria: A review of the tradable green certificate assessmentsManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The tradable green certificates (TGC) framework is a prevalent policy-support scheme enacted to stimulate investments in electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E). In several countries, including Sweden and Norway, the TGC framework is currently under reevaluation. In this process, academic literature plays a crucial role by assessing the outcomes of this policy framework. The outcomes, however, are often limited by the analysis criteria, which reflect what has been accounted for or disregarded and also stress what is considered a successful outcome. Given the importance of such criteria, this paper presents an extensive and systemic literature review of academic publications assessing the performance of the TGC framework using the Web of Science database. The findings are to provide an overview of the publications’ analysis criteria and outline their outcomes. We also provide descriptive statistics for the publications and examine the average citation record of the publications that use various analysis criteria in order to explore their relative impact on later studies. These findings can help policy makers place the assessments into perspective when reevaluating a country’s TGC system. They also suggest several intriguing directions for future studies in this field. 

  • 252.
    Darmani, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Hållbarhet och industriell dynamik.
    Niesten, Eva
    Manchester University.
    Hekkert, Marko
    Utrecht University.
    Which Investors Drive the Development of Wind Energy?2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to facilitate the transition to electricity sectors with low CO2 emissions, it is important to understand which firms invest in new renewable energy technologies, and which firms are responsive to energy policies. This study concentrates on the heterogeneous characteristics of investors in wind power that are embedded in the investors’ dynamic capabilities. The paper explores which type of investors display a positive reaction to the undifferentiated policy, and thus build up more assets in wind power. Empirical data is collected on investments in the Swedish wind energy industry in the Swedish tradable certificate system. The findings demonstrate that the cumulative wind power assets are indeed influenced by investors’ characteristics. Investors with a greater resource endowment, higher investment experience and a mixed generation portfolio hold higher share of assets in wind. The results also indicate that the investors’ age in the wind industry has a negative relation with the cumulative assets in wind, offering evidence on the important role of new entrants in this industry. This study offers insights for policy makers on which investors are responsive to the certificate system and invest in wind. It also implies that a more diversified set of policies could stimulate a greater variety of firms to invest in wind power. 

  • 253.
    Darmani, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Hållbarhet och industriell dynamik. Universidad Politecnica de Madrid.
    Niesten, Eva M. M. I.
    Manchester University.
    Hekkert, Marko P.
    Utrecht University.
    Which investors contribute to the transition to a more sustainable electricity industry?: Evidence of investments in Swedish wind powerManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to facilitate the transition to electricity industries with low CO2 emissions, it is important to understand which firms invest in renewable energy technologies, and which firms are responsive to energy policies. This study concentrates on the heterogeneous characteristics of investors in wind power that are embedded in the investors’ dynamic capabilities. The paper explores which investors respond to changes in energy policy aimed at a more sustainable electricity industry, and accordingly invest in wind power. Empirical data is collected on investments in the Swedish wind power industry and on prices in the Swedish tradable certificate system. The findings demonstrate that the cumulative wind power assets are influenced by investors’ characteristics. Investors with higher investment experience and a mixed generation portfolio whose business is dedicated to electricity generation hold a higher share of assets in wind. The results also indicate that the investors’ age in the wind power industry has a negative relation with the cumulative assets in wind, offering evidence on the important role of new entrants in this industry. This study offers insights for policy makers by showing, which investors are responsive to the certificate system and invest in wind. We also argue that a more diversified set of policies may stimulate a greater variety of firms to invest in wind power. 

  • 254.
    Darmani, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Hållbarhet och industriell dynamik.
    Rickne, Annika
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Hållbarhet och industriell dynamik.
    Arvidsson, Niklas
    Hidalgo, Antonio
    How did we assess the outcomes of tradable green certificates? A review2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the European policy debate, Tradable Green Certificates (TGC) system has been considered as a superior support scheme to stimulate investments in Electricity from Renewable Energy Sources (RES-E). The TGC system even had been suggested as an option for a harmonized support scheme for the European electricity industry.

    At present, after more than a decade of having TGC systems in the European electricity sectors, several countries including Sweden and Norway, are reevaluating their TGC system.  In this reevaluation process, scholarly articles can contribute to the knowledge for policymakers on the current outcomes and consequences of TGC systems in different European countries. Nevertheless, how did researchers examine outcomes of the TGC system relating to investments in RES-E?

    In order to address this, we conduct an extensive and systematic literature review based on the Web of Science database. Our review reveals the topics that have been investigated intensively. However, our results also indicate other important key topics and issues, as outcomes of the TGC system that have been neglected. Specifically, our results show that economy of investments as an outcome of the TGC system has been studied intensively.  However, there is less research available on societal consequences of the TGC system, for example in which way a TGC system has influenced different group of potential RES-E investors. Recent literature identifies RES-E investors as heterogeneous groups of actors with different industrial backgrounds and motives. This heterogeneity has a message behind that has not been investigated in studies on TGC schemes. Our findings create several intriguing opportunities for future research.

  • 255.
    Dawkins, Elena
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier. Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Klocker Larsen, Rasmus
    Andre, Karin
    Axelsson, Katarina
    Retracing the footsteps: how do footprint indicators support learning about sustainable consumption among Swedish policymakers?Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Consumption-based or environmental footprint indicators give a sense of society’s progress towards sustainable consumption. Studies of the role that sustainability indicators play in policy making report that they contribute to learning and conceptual thinking. This literature provides insights into the types of learning outcome that indicators contribute to, such as instrumental, policy-oriented, governmental, political, or societal learning. But few studies have looked specifically at consumption-based indicators or at the learning process itself, of how indicator use supports different actors in changing their ideas, perceptions, and practices – and potentially affects wider social and organizational structures to prompt the desired move to sustainable consumption.

    To address this, we draw on the theory of expansive learning to investigate the potential for learning about sustainable consumption by Swedish public officials using consumption-based indicators. Data were collected in a series of interviews, focus groups and workshops. The results suggest that consumption-based indicators do help officials to learn about the concept of sustainable consumption and encourage them to push forward the sustainable consumption agenda. This is not, however, so much due to indicators per se, but rather to the creativity and agency of committed government officials. To enhance learning and change in practices further, public officials must be supported by the necessary institutions and authority to promote sustainable consumption.

  • 256.
    de Alwis, Manudul Pahansen
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg.
    Lo Martire, Riccardo
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Ang, Bjorn O.
    Garme, Karl
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg.
    Development and validation of a web-based questionnaire for surveying the health and working conditions of high-performance marine craft populations2016Ingår i: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 6, nr 6, artikel-id e011681Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background High-performance marine craft crews are susceptible to various adverse health conditions caused by multiple interactive factors. However, there are limited epidemiological data available for assessment of working conditions at sea. Although questionnaire surveys are widely used for identifying exposures, outcomes and associated risks with high accuracy levels, until now, no validated epidemiological tool exists for surveying occupational health and performance in these populations. Aim To develop and validate a web-based questionnaire for epidemiological assessment of occupational and individual risk exposure pertinent to the musculoskeletal health conditions and performance in high-performance marine craft populations. Method A questionnaire for investigating the association between work-related exposure, performance and health was initially developed by a consensus panel under four subdomains, viz. demography, lifestyle, work exposure and health and systematically validated by expert raters for content relevance and simplicity in three consecutive stages, each iteratively followed by a consensus panel revision. The item content validity index (I-CVI) was determined as the proportion of experts giving a rating of 3 or 4. The scale content validity index (S-CVI/Ave) was computed by averaging the I-CVIs for the assessment of the questionnaire as a tool. Finally, the questionnaire was pilot tested. Results The S-CVI/Ave increased from 0.89 to 0.96 for relevance and from 0.76 to 0.94 for simplicity, resulting in 36 items in the final questionnaire. The pilot test confirmed the feasibility of the questionnaire. Conclusions The present study shows that the web-based questionnaire fulfils previously published validity acceptance criteria and is therefore considered valid and feasible for the empirical surveying of epidemiological aspects among high-performance marine craft crews and similar populations.

  • 257. De Cock, C.
    et al.
    Fleming, P.
    Rehn, Alf
    KTH.
    Organizing revolution?2007Ingår i: Management & Organizational History, ISSN 1744-9359, E-ISSN 1744-9367, Vol. 2, nr 2, s. 107-114Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 258.
    De La Torre Sebastián, Ane
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Cities and climate change actions: Comparison between five european cities2009Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last few years cities are taking the lead against climate change. Theyare aware of the big contribution they can make to mitigate the climate change, so theyare working actively in this field. This thesis’ aim is to study what cities are doing andthe chance they have to be successful. The cities selected for this thesis were Madrid,Barcelona, London, Manchester an Dublin. The method followed to active the aim wasto read all the information available from the selected cities’ Councils about themeasures they are carrying out. Then, transform that information to a way that all thecities’ information can be compared. As a result, it can be seen that there are fewdifferences in their lines of action,excluding some punctual facts. All the cities areworking actively to reduce transport sector’s emissions, to improve the energy use athomes and to increase the importance of the renewable energies. Spanish cities’emissions reduction targets are still not ambitious enough, while London’s are the mostambitious among the studied cities. As a conclusion, it can be said that cities shouldwork together to face the challenge of climate change, because there’s still much to do,targets have to be more ambitious and measures stricter.

  • 259.
    de Lange, Geertje
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Bringing people together through housing and combatting loneliness: Understanding the role of housing in stimulating social support and combatting loneliness among elderly and young adults2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The high prevalence of loneliness, especially among elderly and young adults, calls for measures to connect people and strengthen social support networks. Housing models that bring people together and reduce loneliness are seen as a solution. The theory implies a causal relation in which the building design can stimulate social interaction, contribute to social support, and combat loneliness. This research aims to get an insight in the way different housing models for elderly and young adults can stimulate social support and combat loneliness, by looking at social contact design principles. The research consists of six qualitative case studies spread over Sweden, the Netherlands and Austria. Among the case studies there are two nursery homes, two student accommodations and two co-housing initiatives. The data is collected within a period of five weeks, using the go-along method, in-depth interviews and diaries. The research confirms the causal relation between building design, social interactions and social support. However, it was found that loneliness must be considered separate from this. While housing models cannot combat loneliness, they can stimulate social interactions between residents that help to build a social support network. In addition, the housing situation cannot cause loneliness, but it can reinforce an already existing feeling of loneliness among residents by hindering possibilities for residents to interact and build social support networks. Based on the research findings, two policy recommendations are made. First of all, future housing models should aim to integrate students and elderly within the wider society. Second, future housing models should offer a building design and organizational structure that stimulate social interaction and social support between residents.

  • 260. de Magalhaes, J P
    et al.
    Sandberg, Anders
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Numerisk Analys och Datalogi, NADA.
    Cognitive aging as an extension of brain development: A model linking learning, brain plasticity, and neurodegeneration2005Ingår i: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, ISSN 0047-6374, E-ISSN 1872-6216, Vol. 126, nr 10, s. 1026-1033Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Differences in cognitive aging rates among mammals suggest that the pace of brain aging is genetically determined. In this work, we investigate the possibility that brain aging is an extension of brain development. It is possible that a subset of developmental mechanisms are extreme cases of antagonistic pleiotropy in that they are necessary for reaching adulthood and yet later cause age-related diseases. We derive a model linking development and brain aging in which childhood events essential for brain development later result in neurodegeneration. The hypothesis presented herein involves brain plasticity in which the same mechanisms that shape the adult phenotype continue at later ages contributing to cognitive dysfunction and eventually dementia. The same genetic program that decreases brain plasticity at early ages to focus our mind to the surrounding environment may continue in adulthood resulting in cognitive aging. Experimental implications for understanding neurodegeneration in this context are also discussed. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 261. Deiaco, Enrico
    et al.
    Broström, Anders
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Entreprenörskap och Innovation.
    Geschwind, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskaplig kommunikation och lärande (ECE), Lärande.
    Högskola och region - ett trevande förhållande: reflektioner över exemplet Västra Götalandsregionen2007Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 262.
    Dias Batista, Edgard
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Bicycle Sharing in Developing Countries: A proposal towards sustainable transportation in Brazilian median cities2010Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Bicycle-sharing programs are a new trend in urban transportation. The main difference of a bicycle-sharing program with a regular bicycle rental is that is possible to get a bicycle in one station and return it in any other station. There are many models of bicycle sharing, each model with its pros and cons. This study analyzes the bicycle-sharing models in order to build a proposal of a bicycle-sharing program suitable for Brazilian median cities. The study begins with an overview of bicycle transportation, followed by the analysis of different bicycle-sharing programs. The last chapter formulates a proposal of a bicycle-sharing program suitable for Brazilian median cities. This study uses both quantitative and qualitative methods. The analysis includes a case study on the bicycle-sharing program in Stockholm. This case study is based on interviews with the manager of the program in the company in charge, and with the responsible official in Stockholm municipality. A questionnaire was moreover handed out to users of the program. This case study is complemented with a questionnaire sent by email to managers of bicycle-sharing programs in some cities around the world, this in order to provide more examples on how bicycle sharing can be organized. Finally, another case study was carried out in a Brazilian median city in order to evaluate the local awareness concerning bicycle transport, and the possibility of implementing a bicycle-sharing program there. A questionnaire was handed out to a sample of the local population and an interview was made with the local transport authority. The analysis of all data results in a proposal for a bicycle-sharing program suitable for the Brazilian context. The proposal comprises the choices of bicycles, stations, equipment related to the hiring process and service vehicle. It includes a complete financial appraisal with the necessary capital for implementing and managing the program. It shows that it is possible to build an affordable bicycle-sharing program adapted to Brazilian median cities. The program will create job opportunities and can contribute to a changed view of bicycle transportation in these cities. The proposal could also be applied in countries with the same characteristics as Brazil.

  • 263.
    Diaz Arguelles, Eric
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Inventory Management at North Bay Product Company – Atlas Copco’s Geotechnical Drilling and Exploration Division (GDE): Improving inventory management and stock allocation of mining and underground exploration products to increase customer satisfaction levels2010Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis project has been conducted in partnership with Atlas Copco and its, Geotechnical Drilling and Exploration Division (GDE). The subject matter covers inventory management in one of the division’s product companies based in North Bay, Canada. The products in question are known as Diamond Bits and ITH (in-the-hole) products used for mining and underground exploration applications. The current challenges outlined in this thesis relate to ineffective inventory management of the products mentioned above. The result of this is that

    GDE is having difficulties in meeting customer demand on time as order to delivery leadtimes are quite long in many cases. Hence, a Proof of Concept, or strategy, has been developed to tackle the current challenges faced by North Bay in overcoming its inventory woes.

    These difficulties in managing their inventories stem from the financial crisis and canceled

    orders leading to tied up capital and finished goods remaining in stock for long periods of time. Furthermore, there are apparent weaknesses within North Bay’s supply chain(s) and inventory management practices. GDE’s Divisional management has decided to approach the problem by developing the capability for North Bay to forecast future sales and improve the parameters by which products are manufactured and stocked to anticipate customer demand.

    The Proof of Concept (PoC) centers on the implementation of an inventory management system with the capacity to forecast product demand based primarily on historic sales. GDE is deciding between two systems, the SO99+ and the SCC (Supply Chain Concept). One of which will be selected and implemented in the near future based on comparing forecast results and suggested stocking parameters.

    This thesis report will outline the inventory management problems and reveal four findings: 1) The current situation at North Bay and how Diamond Bits and ITH products are managed in terms of how they are stocked. 2) How and where the PoC fails to properly improve and instill better control of inventory management and address all the problems in the supply chain that allow for improved inventory management performance. 3) Identify the main problems within the supply chain and demonstrated how they dilute any gains achieved by the PoC to forecast sales and suggest which products to stock, in what quantity, when and where. 4) Suggest how to add value to the PoC to properly tackle the problems in the supply chain which impact North Bay’s ability to effectively manage inventories.

    The findings demonstrate that North Bay, even if it implements the Proof of Concept, will not be in a much better position to manufacture products in the right quantity to meet forecasts. The suggestions part of this thesis provide actions that should be taken to improve North Bay’s supply chain, particularly on the supply side to support the Product Company’s inventory management and customer satisfaction levels.

  • 264.
    Ding, J.
    et al.
    National Science Library, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
    Shen, Z.
    National Science Library, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
    Ahlgren, Per
    Uppsala University, Department of Statistics.
    Jeppsson, Tobias
    KTH, Bibliotek.
    Minguillo, David
    KTH, Bibliotek.
    How does author ethnic diversity affect scientific impact?: A study of nanoscience and nanotechnology2019Ingår i: 17th International Conference on Scientometrics and Informetrics, ISSI 2019 - Proceedings, International Society for Scientometrics and Informetrics , 2019, s. 2606-2607Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 265.
    Dong, Fang
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Mechano-Sorptive Creep: Structural Originon the Single Fiber Level2009Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The consuming of paper and fibrous products is nowadays tremendous in our dailylife. The raw material used in the paper industry is mainly wood fibers. A betterunderstanding of properties of these fibers will help to improve the performance ofthe paper industry. Fiber deforms with time when subjected to a load, which has to be compensated for in packaging materials by the use of thicker papers thus morematerial. This deformation increases in the variable climate. This well-known complex phenomenon is called mechano-sorptive creep and leads to large losses in the paper industry every year.

    In order to understand the influence on the creep phenomenon of different fibermorphology, and how and to what extent the fibril angle affects the mechano-sorptive creep, the creep behavior of four series of fibers from spruce were measured by DMA(Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer) at a constant humidity climate followed by animmediately cyclic humidity. The fibers used were mature latewood fibers, matureearlywood fibers, juvenile latewood fibers and juvenile earlywood fibers. The CLSM(Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy) was used to determine the microfibril angle ofthe fibers. The results of the tests show a higher creep rate at cyclic humidity than thatat constant humidity. The comparisons among fibers show that latewood fibers havehigher mechano-sorptive creep ratio (creep rate at cyclic humidity/ creep rate atconstant humidity) than earlywood fibers and that juvenile wood fibers have highercreep ratio than mature wood fibers. One of the main conclusions drawn in this study was that the higher the fibril angle, the lower was the mechano-sorptive creep ratio.

  • 266.
    Doyle, Andrew
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Lärande. University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland..
    Seery, Niall
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM). University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland..
    Canty, Donal
    University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland..
    Exploring the relationship between technology teachers orientations towards teaching and their associated professional life phases2016Ingår i: PATT-32 Proceedings: Technology Education for 21st Century Skills / [ed] de Vries, Marc J; Bekker-Holtland, Arien; and van Dijk, Gerald, Utrecht, the Netherlands, 2016, s. 141-149Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It is widely agreed that developed pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) is a knowledge base unique to teachers. Therefore, the successful development of a teacher can be evaluated in terms of an evolved PCK. However, research has shown that teachers in later professional life phases (PLP’s) are at a greater risk of being less effective (Day & Gu, 2007). Given that the rational and grade point-orientated nature of the Irish education system hinders the development of an integrated pedagogy (Commission on the Points System, 1999; Hennessy, Hinchion, & Mcnamara, 2011), this paper explores the relationship between technology teachers’ PLP and their orientations towards teaching as a critical construct of PCK.The study cohort consisted of practicing technology teachers (n=9) ranging in experience from 4 to 31 years of classroom practice. An interpretive research methodology was employed whereby participants were involved in semi-structured interviews focused on eliciting an understanding of participants’ knowledge and beliefs around the purposes and goals of teaching technology. The findings suggest that technology teachers’ orientation towards teaching varies as teachers’ progress through their teaching career. It emerged that participants in earlier PLP’s are more likely to display a pupil-centred orientation towards teaching whereas teachers in later PLP’s are inclined to adopt transmission pedagogies suggesting a teacher-centred orientation towards teaching.

  • 267.
    Drakenberg, Olof
    et al.
    Göteborgs Miljövetenskapliga Centrum.
    Nilsson, David
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Historiska studier av teknik, vetenskap och miljö.
    Droits de l’Homme à l’Eau et à l’Assainissement au Burkina Faso: Evaluation des droits humains et utilisation d’approches basées sur les droits humains dans la théorie et la pratique2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [fr]

    D’énormes progrès ont été constatés au Burkina Faso depuis les années 1990 en termes d’accès à l’eau potable. Quelques progrès- mais moindres- peuvent être également observés dans l’accès à un assainissement adéquat. Lorsque l’on utilise les définitions du PCS de l’OMS/UNICEF en matière de couverture d’un meilleur approvisionnement en eau, alors le Burkina Faso atteint déjà les objectifs des OMD en matière d’eau. L’accès à l’assainissement est encore très faible ; entre 11% et 20% selon que l’on utilise les définitions nationales ou celles du PCS. Il y a donc, une réalisation progressive des droits à l’eau et à l’assainissement, bien que les progrès en matière d’assainissement soient non satisfaisants.Les engagements de l’Etat en matière d’eau et d’assainissement sont clairement indiqués au Burkina Faso par le biais des conventions internationales et des législations nationales. Les quatre principes de redevabilité, de transparence, de participation et de non- discrimination des droits humains sont à des degrés divers intégrés dans les institutions formelles, l’organisation et les opérations du secteur. Toutefois, subsistent d’énormes lacunes quant à la manière dont ils sont mis en pratique. La redevabilité est un problème majeur, particulièrement aux niveaux régional et national. Les mécanismes de participation existent au niveau local, mais la participation des femmes et des autres groupes marginalisés demeure faible en bien des endroits et des décisions clés sont prises à d’autres niveaux, mettant en péril la signification de la participation aux endroits où elle se passe. Bien que la plupart des informations soit ouvertes au public, cela ne signifie pas qu’elles soient facilement accessibles. Les mécanismes de non-discrimination, par exemple dans la budgétisation, peuvent être renforcés en utilisant les données déjà existantes en matière d’inégalité.Le Burkina Faso a, dans plusieurs aspects, respecté et dépassé les critères normatifs internationaux (normes minimales) des droits humains aux services d’eau et d’assainissement. Alors que des critères normatifs plus ambitieux sont louables à long terme, ils sont également plus coûteux et par conséquent, le taux de réalisation sera plus lent. Une norme inférieure et plus flexible pourrait accélérer la réalisation des droits particulièrement liés à l’assainissement.Dans l’ensemble, d’importantes opportunités existent pour la réalisation du droit à l’eau et à l’assainissement et pour l’utilisation d’approches basées sur les droits humains dans le secteur de l’eau et de l’assainissement au Burkina Faso.

  • 268.
    Drakenberg, Olof
    et al.
    Göteborgs Miljövetenskapliga Centrum.
    Nilsson, David
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Historiska studier av teknik, vetenskap och miljö.
    Human Rights to Water and Sanitation in Burkina Faso: Assessing human rights and use of human rights based approaches in theory and practice2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Great progress has been noted in Burkina Faso since the 1990s in terms of access to safe drinking water. Some – but much smaller – progress can also be seen in access to adequate sanitation. When using the WHO/UNICEF JMP definitions of coverage of improved water supply, then Burkina Faso has already met the MDG targets on water. The access to sanitation is still very low; between 11% and 20% depending on whether one uses the national definitions or the JMP definitions. There is thus progressive realisation of the rights to water and sanitation although progress on sanitation is non-satisfactory.

    The obligations of the State for water and sanitation are clearly stated in Burkina Faso through international conventions and national legislation. The four human rights principles of accountability, transparency, participation and non-discrimination are to a varying extent integrated in the formal institutions, organisation and operations of the sector. However, there are serious weaknesses in how they are practically implemented. Accountability is a key problem, especially at regional and national level. Participatory mechanisms exist at local level but participation of women and other marginalised groups remain weak in many places and key decisions are made at other levels, jeopardizing the meaningfulness of participation where it occurs. While most information is open to the public it does not mean it is easily accessible. Mechanisms for non-discrimination e.g. in budgeting can be strengthened using already existing data on inequity.

    Burkina Faso has in several aspects met and overshot international normative criteria (minimum standards) of human rights to WSS. While more ambitious normative criteria are commendable in the long run, it is also more costly and thus the rate of realisation will be slower. A lower and more flexible norm could speed up the realisation of rights especially related to sanitation. On the whole, significant opportunities exist for realising the right to water and sanitation and the use of human rights based approaches in the water and sanitation sector in Burkina Faso. 

  • 269.
    Dubois, Isabelle
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Holgersson, S
    Malmström, Maria
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Radionuclide Sorption on Granitic Material: Effect of the BET surface area and particle size2009Ingår i: 4th Asia-Pacific Symposium on Radiochemistry (APSORC-09), 2009Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 270.
    Duchêne, Damien
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Superblocks: A Study of Public Life in Barcelona2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här uppsatsen utgår från en övertygelse om kvaliteten på livet i det offentliga rummet har en avgörande roll för att frigöra urbanitetens kvaliteter och skapa ett samhälle som kan hantera sociala och ekologiska utmaningar. Livet i det offentliga rummet är en komplex fråga som behöver studeras så mycket som möjligt för att kunna förstå de mekanismer som påverkar det. Syftet med denna uppsats är att beskriva det offentliga livet som det ter sig i de nya offentliga rum som skapats i Barcelona i och med genomförandet av det storskaliga stadsomvandlingsprogrammet Superblocks. Superblocks (”Superkvarter”) består av ett antal stadskvarter där de mellanliggande gatorna omvandlas och frigörs till bilfria offentliga rum samtidigt som hela transportnätverket organiseras om. Undersökningen syftar till att synliggöra hur livet i det offentliga rummet skiljer sig mellan två Superblocks och resten av staden, genom att jämföra dem med liknande områden som inte omvandlats. Undersökningen baseras på två veckors direkt observation enligt metoder utveckla av Jan Gehl, och följdes av djupanalys av den data som inhämtats och som beskriver det offentliga livet uppdelat inom de två kategorierna rörelse och stillastående aktiviteter. Studien visar att det offentliga livets kvalitet påverkades av omvandlingen till Superblocks, samtidigt som förändringen varierade betydligt mellan de två studieobjekten med tydliga kontextuella skillnader.

  • 271. Dwyer, T
    et al.
    Elgstrand, Kaj
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Petersson, Nils F
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Summary and Reflections2010Ingår i: OSH & Development 2010, ISSN 1653-5766, nr 10, s. 97-105Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 272.
    Dymek, Mikolaj
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Avd.) (stängd 20130101).
    Content strategies of the future: Between games and Stories - Crossroads for the video game industry2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The video game industry is the combination of two worlds: technology (IT) and show-biz/media/cultural industries. This paper explores this tension by exposing the shortcomings of the culture economics perspective and its lack of understanding for the unique characteristics of the video game medium, thus subsequently proposing a deeper analysis of the medium by turning to literary theoretical perspectives on games, such as ludology and narratology. Due the lack of technological dimensions in its theoretical framework, narratology is deemed less fruitful as an analytical tool and ludology is preferred. Ludology, with Espen Aarseth's cybertext theory elucidates aspects of "interactivity ", author-medium-reader power relations and the mechanical organization of textual machines, which provides perspectives on practice in the video game industry.

  • 273.
    Dymek, Mikolaj
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.).
    Exporting wars: Literature theory and how it explains the video game industry2007Ingår i: 3rd Digital Games Research Association International Conference: "Situated Play", DiGRA 2007, 2007, s. 664-671Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The video game industry is the combination of two worlds: technology (IT) and show-biz/media/cultural industries. This paper explores this tension by exposing the shortcomings of the culture economics perspective and its lack of understanding for the unique characteristics of the video game medium, thus subsequently proposing a deeper analysis of the medium by turning to literary theoretical perspectives on games, such as ludology and narratology. Due the lack of technological dimensions in its theoretical framework, narratology is deemed less fruitful as an analytical tool and ludology is preferred. Ludology, with Espen Aarseth's cybertext theory elucidates aspects of " interactivity", author-medium-reader power relations and the mechanical organization of textual machines, which provides perspectives on practice in the video game industry.

  • 274.
    Dymek, Mikolaj
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Avd.) (stängd 20130101).
    Lennerfors, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Avd.) (stängd 20130101).
    Among pasta-loving mafiosos, drug-selling Columbians and noodle-eating triads: Race, humour and interactive ethics in Grand Theft Auto III2005Ingår i: Proceedings of DiGRA 2005 Conference: Changing Views - Worlds in Play, 2005Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the intersection of race, humour and interactivity in Grand Theft Auto 3. We argue that video games not only diffuse cultural and symbolic meanings, but also provide new loci for reflection and critique of issues of inter alia race. Two different analytical perspectives are juxtaposed when studying racial issues of GTA3. The first perspective is Critical Race Theory (CRT). The second perspective derives from the phthonic and incongruity theory of humour (Morreall 1986). We will argue that the CRT perspective is consistent with the phthonic theory of humour, while the incongruity theory goes beyond CRT presenting a novel way of interpreting games. This theoretical framework is applied when analysing the controversial game GTA3. By presenting stereotypical images of race in GTA3 as humorous, the player is provided with cues for reflecting and evaluating his/her own perspectives on issues of race.

  • 275.
    Dymén, Christian
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Engendering Spatial Planning: A Gender Perspective on Municipal Climate Change Response2014Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    While climate change mitigation has been on the agenda of spatial planning practitioners for over two decades, adaptation has only become influential in spatial planning practice in recent years. This trend is evident not only at the municipal levelbut also at the regional and national levels. The revised planning and building law from 2011 states that municipalities must consider climate change. In parallel, a body of research focusing on the relationship between gender and concern for environmental and climate change and arguing that women are more concerned and proactive with respect to environmental issues has emerged. However, this research has been criticized for being essentialist and for stigmatizing women and men. The long-term aim of the present dissertation is to contribute to knowledge on how a gender perspective on municipal spatial planning can contribute to efficient and well-informed climate change response, as well as on how a gender perspective, as an analytical framework, can be developed to analyze, on the one hand, spatial planning related to climate change and, on the other, spatial planning more generally. One of the main contributions of my dissertation is to demonstrate that, by including a gender perspective in municipal climate change response, aspects that may be important for achieving efficient and well-informed spatial planning related to climate change response that are not typically prioritized can be afforded prominent places on the agenda. In this dissertation, I refer to these aspects as feminine values and perspectives—or attributes. I also contribute to the development of an analytical framework that can be used by policy makers and scientists to assess how a gender perspective is and can be integrated within municipal spatial planning processes related to climate change response, as well as spatial planning more generally. Furthermore, in addition to the development of efficient and well-informed responses, a dimension of gender equality must be considered. My dissertation contributes to the understanding that planners who adopt a gender perspective must consider the general level of gender equality in a country. Although the primary objective of this dissertation is to contribute to the development of efficient and well-informed policy, issues of equality and democracy cannot be overlooked. As I argue in my dissertation, participatory approaches to spatial planning are imperative for municipal efforts related to climate change. Nonetheless, participatory approaches require spatial planners to ensure that democracy and equality, on the one hand, and efficient and well-informed policy delivery, on the other, do not conflict.

  • 276.
    Dymén, Christian
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Andersson, Måns
    Langlais, Richard
    Gendered dimensions of climate change response in Swedish municipalities2013Ingår i: Local Environment: the International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, ISSN 1354-9839, E-ISSN 1469-6711, Vol. 18, nr 9, s. 1066-1078Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article elaborates on and discusses gendered dimensions of climate change response in Swedish municipalities. There are indications that attitudes and behaviour to the environment and climate change are gendered. This evidence together with our own work further indicates that gender awareness is most probably an important influence on how municipalities respond to climate change. The aim of this study was to investigate if and how gendered aspects of climate change response are integrated in the Swedish response to climate change. The potential causal relationships between a high level of awareness of the gendered aspects of climate change and the levels of climate change response were investigated. We asked whether there is a positive relationship between gender awareness and the quality of the communities’ climate change policies and practice. Indications of such a relationship prompt a change in research priorities – paying more attention to gender – and in subsequent policy developments.

  • 277.
    Dymén, Christian
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Langlais, Richard
    Adapting to Climate Change in Swedish Planning Practice2012Ingår i: Journal of planning education and research, ISSN 0739-456X, E-ISSN 1552-6577, Vol. 33, nr 1, s. 108-119Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mitigation measures, especially municipal energy infrastructure transformation, have been the focus of Sweden’s climate change responses. Recently, adaptation measures have grown in priority and planners are challenged to integrate mitigation and adaptation. In our study, we observe how synergies and conflicts in adaptation, mitigation, and other social and economic dimensions of spatial planning are grappled with in municipalities. We draw primarily from interviews with municipal planners and regional agencies as well as a review of policy documents. Our conclusion is that municipalities could be assisted in their climate change planning by stronger regional and national involvement.

  • 278.
    Dymén, Christian
    et al.
    Nordic Centre for Spatial Development, Nordregio, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Langlais, Richard
    Cars, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Engendering Climate Change: The Swedish Experience of a Global Citizens Consultation2014Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, ISSN 1523-908X, E-ISSN 1522-7200, Vol. 16, nr 2, s. 161-181Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on gender dimensions of climate change response is needed if we are to succeed in providing decision-makers with a relevant scientific basis for climate change policy. Although action at the municipal level has become a high priority for Swedish climate change response, knowledge of how gender perspectives affect that response is scarce. This paper contributes knowledge of how to integrate a gender perspective in planning for climate change response, through the modification and application of a system of gender categorization that was originally developed for evaluating the World Bank's performance of environmental impact assessments. That system is used, in this paper, to analyse the Swedish component of a global citizen consultation, World Wide Views on Global Warming. The research is based on analysis of our participation in the World Wide Views as well as interviews and documentation. A conclusion from our analysis is that the Swedish part of the citizen consultation was driven by an approach that, according to the system of gender categorization, strongly demonstrated both feminine and masculine attributes. The results show that an approach that incorporates not only masculine attributes, but also feminine ones, is likely to generate a more robust and concrete climate change response.

  • 279.
    Ebba, Elmlund
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi (flyttat 20130630).
    Edstedt, Linda
    Utformning av Citybanans miljöledningssystem2005Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Citybanan är en dubbelspårig järnvägstunnel som mellan 2005 och 2011 kommer att byggasunder Stockholms stadskärna. Citybanan projekteras på uppdrag av regeringen och är ettprojekt under Banverkets Östra banregionens projektenhet, och lyder således underBanverkets bestämmelser. Citybanans projektledning tog tidigt ett beslut om att ettmiljöledningssystem enligt ISO 14001 skulle implementeras i projektet. Uppdraget med attstrukturera ett enkelt och kortfattat miljöledningssystem för Citybanan utformades som ettexamensarbete på 20 poäng för två studenter på Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.

    ISO 14001 är en internationell standard för miljöledningssystem och ingår i IS0 14000-serien.Standarden bygger på fem grundelement: miljöpolicy, planering, införande och drift, kontrolloch korrigerande åtgärder samt ledningens genomgång. Miljöledningssystem ska leda till etteffektivare och mer strukturerat miljöarbete som resulterar i ständiga förbättringar. Underexamensarbetets gång kändes ISO-standarden i vissa fall svår att anpassa till ett projekt, ochspråket i standarden upplevdes ibland vilseledande och byråkratiskt.

    Genom intervjuer och studier av andra miljöledningssystem, särskilt inom Banverkets regi,kunde miljöledningsrutiner utformas. Citybanans miljöledningssystem kan inte helt följa ISO-14001 eftersom projekt Citybanan arbetar efter ett arbetssätt med andra fasindelningar. För attfå en översiktlig bild av miljöarbetet i projektet formulerades rutinen ”Miljöledning i projektCitybanan” som beskriver de miljödokument som upprättats och i vilken ordning de etableratsi projektet. Eftersom finansieringen för Citybanan ännu inte är klar och inga entreprenörer ärupphandlade har ett par rutiner inte kunnat färdigställas. Flertalet av verksamhetsrutinernakommer entreprenören själv att upprätta, men Citybanan kommer att kontrollera att dessarutiner finns och efterlevs. Under examensarbetet har vi bland annat upprättat följandemiljöledningsrutiner och förteckningar som finns i bilagor till rapporten:

    • Rutin: Miljöledning i projekt Citybanan

    • Rutin: Miljöaspekter

    • Förteckning: Betydande miljöaspekter i byggskedet

    • Rutin: Lagar och andra krav

    • Förteckning: Lagar och andra krav

    • Rutin: Miljömål

    • Rutin: Organisation och ansvar

    • Rutin: Utbildning och erfarenhet

    • Rutin: Kommunikation

    • Rutin: Dokumentation, dokumentstyrning och redovisande dokument

    • Rutin: Ledningens genomgång

    Våra rekommendationer till projekt Citybanan är bland annat att snarast definiera enkontrollorganisation samt att skriva rutiner för kontroll och korrigerande åtgärder. Rutiner föravvikelsehantering och nödlägesberedskap måste också upprättas. Vi råder även projektet attutforma handlingsplaner för de upprättade miljömålen, enligt ISO 14001 ett så kallatmiljöledningsprogram, vilket underlättar uppföljning av miljömålen. Projektledningensengagemang för miljöfrågor är idag stort och vi tillråder att detta engagemang ska fortsättaäven under byggskedet.

  • 280.
    Eder, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Trier.
    Mutsaerts, Christopher
    BearingPoint.
    Sriwannawit, Pranpreya
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.).
    Mini-grids and renewable energy in rural Africa: How diffusion theory explains adoption of electricity in Uganda2015Ingår i: Energy Research and Social Science, ISSN 2214-6296, Vol. 5, s. 45-54Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    With diffusion theory as the point of departure, this study analyses the factors that influence the adoption of renewable electricity from individual households’ perspectives. The analysis is based on a case study provided by a Swedish energy service company operating in rural Uganda. The company distributes electricity to rural households via a mini-grid powered by a biomass gasification system. Three critical dimensions are identified to be crucial for adoption: technical, economic, and social. First, there is an emphasis on the relative advantages of the new technology. Second, there are economic requirements regarding a viable financial system for adopters, especially in such a low-income market. Third, the social dimension is critical, particularly the importance of foreign firms collaborating with local actors. We further suggest that a lack of understanding of local communities can lead foreign companies to fail in diffusion attempts. While we focus on Uganda, the results of our research are highly relevant for foreign actors who attempt to penetrate rural markets in developing countries in general.

  • 281.
    Eduards, Rasmus
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geoinformatik.
    Custom Base Maps for Utility Network Applications2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Web maps are today used more than ever. These are often displayed in geographical information system solutions. Web maps are often constructed in the terms of different layers where the bottom-most layer is called base map or background map. A specific kind of base maps are those that are the canvas for utility networks. These base maps can look vastly different from each other. Sometimes the base map can be overlooked. Currently there are different theories and opinions on how these base maps shall be designed and what information they shall contain. This thesis investigates a suitable base map design for utility network management and also creates some prototypes as a proof of concept. The thesis focus mostly on three factors, colour, information visualisation and symbology. This is investigated by using a user-centred design approach and comparing it to existing findings in literature and among map theories. The user-centred design process involves a case study performed with participants that work with utility networks in web map solutions. The research method is an iterative process where the participants are answering three quantitative surveys. The surveys includes prototypes which is refined for each step after analysing the participants answers. The thesis concludes that low saturated colours is good practise to enhance the network, this is both evident in literature as well as in the case study. Amount of lightness in the base map seem to be more of a opinionated matter and can highly differentiate depending on users device. Using hue is recommended to make borders between map elements more distinct. The base map shall only obtain the most relevant information and more specific information is recommended to be added through additional layers. Further studies need to be done in order to investigate the networks design and there is also a need to investigate how a map solution with several layers shall be design and how the relationships between those layers shall be constructed for utility network management

  • 282.
    Edvardsson, Ingi Runar
    et al.
    University of Akureyri.
    Rauhut, Daniel
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Heikkilä, Elli
    Institute of Migration.
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Johannesson, Hjalti
    University of Akureyri.
    Stamböl, Lasse
    Statistics Norway.
    Dall Schmidt, Torben
    University of Southern Denmark.
    Demographic Change, Labour Migration and EU-Enlargement – Relevance for the Nordic Regions.2007Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 283.
    Egeld, Åsa
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi (flyttat 20130630).
    Lyckeborg, Malin
    The Use and Impact of Pesticides in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam: an interview study and toxicity tests2000Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    En intervjustudie om användandet av bekämpningsmedel på risfält och toxicitetstest av två bekämpningsmedelpå fisk utfördes våren 1999. Intervjustudien utfördes i Mekong Deltat i södra Vietnam. I intervjustudien blev 40bönder intervjuade med frågeformulär. Bönderna var kategoriserade i fyra grupper; ris och ris-fisk bönder somanvände respektive inte använde IPM-programmet (Integrated Pest Management). Tillsammans använde de 40bönderna 39 olika bekämpningsmedel som innehöll 34 olika aktiva ämnen. Icke IPM risbönderna användesignifikant fler olika bekämpningsmedel än de andra grupperna. Under de senaste tre åren hade 80% av IPMböndernaminskat sin användning av bekämpningsmedel och ingen hade ökat sin användning. Av icke IPMböndernahade 10% minskat och 65% ökat sin användning av bekämpningsmedel. Alla IPM-bönder hade lärt sigatt använda bekämpningsmedel från utbildad personal och endast 50% av icke IPM-bönderna hade fått lära sigfrån utbildad personal. Alla bönder, förutom IPM-ris-fisk-bönderna, besprutade mest med pyrethroider. IPM-risfisk-bönderna besprutade mest med karbamater. IPM-bönderna var mer medvetna än icke IPM-bönderna ombekämpningsmedel de använde eftersom de visste att de kan påverka miljön negativt, döda skadedjurensnaturliga fiender, störa den ekologiska balansen och skapa resistenta stammar av skadedjur. Både IPMprogrammetoch fiskodling i risfält leder till mindre användning av bekämpningsmedel och gödning. Detta ledertill bättre miljö och kan kanske utgöra ett hållbart alternativ till intensiv risodling.

    Två olika toxicitetstest genomfördes; ett korttids test (96 h) i akvarium och ett långtidstest (28 dagar) imikrorisfält. Common carp yngel användes som försöksdjur i båda försöken. I korttidstestet användesbekämpningsmedlen Karate och ViBasa med de aktiva ämnen lambda-cyhalotrin respektive fenobucarb. Treolika koncentrationer testades; tillverkarnas rekommenderade koncentration; halv rekommenderad koncentrationoch dubbel rekommenderad koncentration. Korttidstestet visade att Karate var extremt giftigt för fisken eftersomalla fiskarna dog efter 24 timmar. ViBasa dödade inte några fiskar men de fiskar som exponerats för ViBasa varslöare än de i kontrollgruppen. Eftersom ViBasa verkade ha en negativ effekt på fisken, gjordes ett långtidstestmed ViBasa i en mer naturtrogen miljö. Inte heller i långtidstestet dog några fiskar och tillväxten på fiskarnaskilde sig inte signifikant.

  • 284.
    Ejigu, Alazar
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Bebyggelseanalys.
    Home-looseness in large residential neighbourhoods?: An Ethnographic Case StudyIngår i: Housing, Theory and SocietyManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    While many studies have been devoted to understanding large residential neighbourhoods, the approaches employed have mostly been disciplinary and the knowledge produced largely fragmented. Place and home are (re)introduced as concepts useful for integrated knowledge production in housing research. Aiming to contribute to this discussion, this article uses an ethnographic case study of recently built condominiums in Addis Ababa to explore how large residential estates (un)become home-places as a result or part of a process involving hegemonic production of spaces through forms and discourses and residents’ ways of home-making micro- practices through appropriating, location, shared spaces and uses, on the other. Effects of home ownership and communal spatial organization are evaluated and analysed. The findings reveal a development of a loose sense home, particularly at the neighborhood level. The article concludes by highlighting the usefulness of the notion of home for a just city, followed by suggesting some planning and design ideas that may help enhance sense of home and practice of home-making.

  • 285.
    Ejigu, Alazar
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Bebyggelseanalys.
    Places on Becoming: An Ethnographic Case Study of a Changing City and its Emerging Residential Environments2015Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Några platser som tidigare prisats av många blir långsamt platser som ligger övergivna och får sociala problem medan andra som byggts med liknande avsikter och med likartad bebyggelse fortsätter att blomstra. Detta gäller särskilt många stora bostadsområden i Europa efter andra världskriget och många städer i det globala Södern. Stora bostadsområden har undersökts utförligt sedan de kom till i början av 1900-talet, men ofta ur ett disciplinärt perspektiv. Dessutom har undersökningarna ofta fokuserat på enskilda aspekter av dessa omgivningar. På så sätt har kunskapen om hur stora bostadsområden utvecklas som platser när de väl skapats och vilken roll som de boende spelar i denna process förblivitfragmentiserad och knappastanvändbar för effektiva insatser inom urban design och planering. Undersökningar särskilt under det senaste årtiondet, har börjat visa användbarhetenav begreppet om plats som ett integrativt koncept ibostadsforskningen. Denna avhandling syftar till att bidra till tvärvetenskapliga diskussioner om stora bostadsområden genom att utnyttja teorier om utrymme och plats från vidsträckta fält inom social- och humanvetenskaperna och genom att använda antropologiska och historiska forskningsmetoder. Den forskar om de många sätt och medel genom vilka stora bostadsområden får sin materiella och sociala identitet som platser. Det viktigaste är att förstå hur de boende uppfattar, mottar och tillämpar dem och hur det bidrar till hur platserna utvecklas. Baserad på ett sådant begrepp om plats presenterar undersökningen en kritisk granskningav den nuvarandeombildningenav Addis Abeba och dess pågående storskaliga bostadsutveckling. De boendes sättattuttrycka sina behov, önskningar och värderingar undersöks etnografiskt och i jämförelse med de sociopolitiska, historiska och spatiala ramar inom vilka de äger rum.Undersökningens resultat presenteras i fyra akademiska artiklar som sedan sammanfattas och kopplas ihop till en inledande monografi. Varje artikel tar upp den viktigaste forskningsfrågan (t.ex. ”hur bostadsområden blir till”) från olika vinklar: Artikel I (Historia, Modernitet, och Skapandet av en afrikansk rumslighet) utforskar plats som en konstruktion av socio-historiska processer; Artikel II (socio-spatiala spänningar och interaktioner: Enetnografi om bostadsrätter i Addis Abeba) och artikel III (Hemlöshet i storabostadsområden?) utforskar plats som en samling rumsliga metoder och erfarenheter. Mer specifikt utforskar Artikel II hur politiska intentioner och folks förväntningar och deras vardagliga användningar av rymd, form och plats och Artikel III utforskar hur hem och platser formas som ett resultat av olika former av rumslig disposition, inom de ramar och de restriktioner som bestämts av hegemonisk rumslig praktik. Artikel IV (Hållbar urbanism: Att gå förbi neomodernistiska & neotraditionella bostadsstrategier) utforskar plats som en produkt av särskilt paradigm av urban design/planering.Avhandlingens resultat visar att de viktigaste processerna som skapar platser av utrymmen ligger lagrade i det dialektiska förhållandet mellan större strukturer (dvs. sociala, ekonomiska, politiska och fysiska) och vardagliga rutiner för människor inom den byggda miljön. Resultaten visar också att detta förhållande har en stor förmedlande funktion i moderniteten. På så sätt ökar spänningent t.ex. inom den förstärkta moderniteten mellan det globala och det lokala, mellan makro och mikro, mellan struktur och verkan och i sista hand mellan utrymme och plats.Men viktigast av allt när modernitet söks som ett ändamål i sig, som i fallet med bostadsrätter i Addis Abeba, utvecklas ett ömtåligt (dvs. ytligt och paradoxalt) förhållande mellan stora platsers identitet och folks rutiner som man kunde se av de svaga känslor för platsen ( eller tillgivenheten) bland bostadsrättsinnehavarna. En slutsats av urban design/planeringspraxis är insikten att plats(ellerhemvist) är företrädesvis en process och inom ramen för moderniteten är urban förnyelse och platsskapande försök omstridda eftersom processen avbryts eller undviks. Baserat på resultaten, framhävs begränsningarna och möjligheterna för urban design eller planering. Det rekommenderas att teorierna om hur en plats blir till vilket innebär förståelse för plats som en öppen process och en rumslig erfarenhet för vanliga människor som den grundläggande aspekten på plats – borde vara den väsentliga grunden för insikt och rutin i platsskapandet. Ett reflexivt tänkande i praktik och teori föreslås, vilket innebär en metod som omprövar sina grundläggande premisser/teorier och erkänner kontextens betydelse. Några idéer om etnografisk design föreslås som ett sätt att främja sådana metoder.

  • 286.
    Ejigu, Alazar Gedamu
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Bebyggelseanalys.
    Addis Becoming 'Addis': A Hegemonic Making?2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper deals with the notion of space and power in thesymbolic and physical making of places. It identifies three forms of power in such making: that which is inscribedin the architecture; that embedded in the social structures and norms; and that which individuals themselvesexert by their everyday uses of spaces and facilities. The paper discusses how dominant discourses resonatethrough architectural forms and influence spatial meaning and use and conversely how space mediates, framesand contests everyday power practices. It uses historical narrative and ethnographic methods to study how anaggressive large-scale condominium housing production in Addis Ababa serves a sociopolitical goal ofconstructing an image of a ‘modern’ city – ‘addis’ Addis. Theories are primarily drawn from works of Bourdiue,Lefebvre, and Dovey. The preliminary finding shows how desire for the ‘modern’ facilitates residents’cooperativeness to adapting to new ways of life inscribed in condominium architecture and their willingness toexercise ‘positive power’ as seen in their ‘constructive’ appropriation of spaces. ‘Modernity’, here, becomes asocial force that coordinates positive power relations. However, this was constantly resisted by power structuresembedded in established social norms and structures. Residents’ ways of negotiating between these contestingpowers through their everyday activities becomes vital in the ‘construction’ of new identity of their place. Theevidence challenges views that see space as fixed, empty, and enclosed container of social practices. Space isinstead shown to be a dynamic medium configured by power, and becomes a resource for power. The studyshows how understanding power struggles can help identify interests articulated by users; and that neglecting toconsider this process in the conception of housing projects could undermine possibilities for practicingconstructive social interactions or on the other hand may encourage power domination.

  • 287.
    Ejigu, Alazar Gedamu
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    History, Modernity, and the Making of an African Spatiality: Addis Ababa in Perspective2014Ingår i: Urban Forum, ISSN 1015-3802, E-ISSN 1874-6330, Vol. 25, nr 3, s. 267-293Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A body of scholarship in urban theory of global South over the last two decades has begun to present counterhegemonic notions of modernity and urbanism thereby charting new ways to conceptualize and study African cities. While the need for fuller, richer, and more textured accounts of ordinariness of African cities is often emphasized, the usefulness of differentiated accounts of cities to understanding their spatiality is also highlighted. This article attempts to supplement the ongoing discussion by exploring Addis Ababa as an African city with particular cultural and political historical contexts that gave it distinct experiences of modernity. Data is primarily drawn from historical study of modernizations of the city, supplemented with an ethnographic study that documents contemporary changes and lived experiences in the city and its emerging modern residential places. The study shows that the local experience of modernity is primarily situated in the isolated and noncolonial history of the nation, which on the one hand helps preserve indigenous qualities and on the other becomes a source of envy contributing to the consciousness of belatedness compared to other colonized and Western countries. This consciousness coordinates political intentions with people’s everyday practices in the co-making of a new, modern Addis Ababa and the reassertion of its unofficial identity as “the Diplomatic Capital of Africa.” Potentials and challenges of place-based conceptions of urbanism are implicated.

  • 288.
    Ejigu, Alazar Gedamu
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Home-looseness in Large residential neighborhoods?: An Ethnographic Case StudyManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    A body of scholarship in urban theory of global South over the last two decades has begun to present counterhegemonic notions of modernity and urbanism thereby charting new ways to conceptualize and study African cities. While the need for fuller, richer, and more textured accounts of ordinariness of African cities is often emphasized, the usefulness of differentiated accounts of cities to understanding their spatiality is also highlighted. This article attempts to supplement the ongoing discussion by exploring Addis Ababa as an African city with particular cultural and political historical contexts that gave it distinct experiences of modernity. Data is primarily drawn from historical study of modernizations of the city, supplemented with an ethnographic study that documents contemporary changes and lived experiences in the city and its emerging modern residential places. The study shows that the local experience of modernity is primarily situated in the isolated and noncolonial history of the nation, which on the one hand helps preserve indigenous qualities and on the other becomes a source of envy contributing to the consciousness of belatedness compared to other colonized and Western countries. This consciousness coordinates political intentions with people’s everyday practices in the co-making of a new, modern Addis Ababa and the reassertion of its unofficial identity as “the Diplomatic Capital of Africa.” Potentials and challenges of place-based conceptions of urbanism are implicated.

  • 289.
    Ejigu, Alazar Gedamu
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Haas, Tigran
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Contextual Modernism and Sustainable Urbanism as New Housing Strategies2011Ingår i: 23rd Conference of the European Network for Housing Research, Toulouse, France 5-8 July 2011, Toulouse: ENHR , 2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing alienation of modernist public housing estates and their ethnically and socially excluded people, and the neglected human potential they symbolize, is a grotesque expression of the failure of a system driven by the profit motive and failed planning policy, rather than by the requirement to satisfy sustainable urbanism. The modernist concept of urban planning, which emerged in response to a very particular time and set of regional circumstances, spread throughout the Western society in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The result, where the idea was simplistically accepted was a disaster. Paying particular attention to housing, this paper discusses the contrasting results of modernist planning approaches in housing and the consequences of that- It also looks at Sustainable Urbanism paradigm and the possibility that it might offer an alternative to the failed modernist satellite-suburban-monolith-alienated type of living in most major European cities. Empirical evidences are drawn from observation, introspection , analysis and deduction studies and Futurescape of selected cases in the American Housing Program HOPE VI, and from ethnographic survey of the ongoing Grand Housing Program in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, through an descriptive and explorative qualitative approach.

  • 290.
    Ekbom, Lena
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi (flyttat 20130630).
    Risk Communication: With reference to SEVESO II Directive2002Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose with this master thesis is to sum up the research in the field of riskcommunication and to work out some recommendations for establishments, which are goingto implement risk communication. The report starts with a background part, which gives anintroduction to the field of risk communication. The laws and standards related to the field aresummarised and so are also the research and the literature in the field of risk communication.Afterwards follows some examples of different aim and goals with risk communication thatestablishments might have.

    The next part of the report is supposed to give a view of where the industry stands to day.Four companies from the chemical industry are presented and so is their work with riskcommunication. One of the companies Hydro Agri, took part in a following up study whichevaluated the their risk communication.The most interesting results from the study aresummarised in the report.

    The report ends up with a discussion part, which emphasises the import of translating theresults from the research into practical use for establishments and also the import of settingaims and goals with risk communication. Finally there are some recommendations forestablishments, which are up to implement risk communication.

  • 291.
    Ekener, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Social assessment of future scenarios: Developing and testing a new methodology covering consumption-related impacts with a focus on future ICT societies2019Ingår i: Sustainable Production and Consumption, ISSN 2352-5509, E-ISSN 1614-2373, Vol. 17, s. 148-160Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The social perspectives of sustainability have been historically under-addressed in sustainability assessment methodologies of scenarios. A recent research project - "Scenarios and sustainability impacts of future ICT societies" - explored five society-wide scenarios with an ICT focus for Sweden in 2060. A methodology was developed within the research project to assess the scenarios in terms of impacts on the societal level, as well as consumption-related impacts on the global level. This paper develops and tests a methodology that could be employed in wider scenario-based assessments of future societies that include consumption-related impacts. At the core of the new methodology is the categorization of social aspects under five categories for the national assessment and four for the global assessment. A qualitative assessment is performed for each of the following categories on national level: Participation and Influence in Society, Health Conditions, Equity and Justice, Social Cohesion and Learning and Education. For the global assessment the level of trade and the commitment to sustainable development in the different scenarios was considered. The categories assessed globally are Poverty, Health, Employment and Justice for All. The assessments should be made based on expert knowledge. One result of the application of the methodology was among other, that the most environmentally adapted scenario - Valued Environment - was also the best performing scenario from a social sustainability perspective.  

  • 292.
    Ekener, Elisabeth
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Höglund, Jonas
    IVL - Swedish Environmental Research Institut.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Social and Socioeconomic Impacts from Vehicle Fuels2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 293.
    Ekener, Elisabeth
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Katzeff, Cecilia
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Ömsesidiga beroende mellan hållbarhetsdimensionerna: Del I En kunskapsöversikt.2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 294.
    Ekener-Petersen, Elisabeth
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Hansson, Julia
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Gustavsson, Mathias
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Peck, Philip
    Lunds universitet, IIIEE.
    Integrated assessment of vehicle fuels with Lifecycle Sustainability Assessment – tested for two petrol and two biofuel value chains.2016Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The production and use of vehicle fuels results in both environmental and socio-economic impacts.In the Renewable Energy Directive (RED) the European Union (EU) implemented mandatory sustainabilitycriteria for biofuels for transport and liquid biofuels. These include demand for reductionsin greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and restrictions related to land with high biodiversityvalue. This directive and the vast majority of the available studies enfolding vehicle fuels, focus onenvironmental impacts, and in many cases primarily on GHG emissions. To move towards sustainabledevelopment, a broader scope of sustainability issues needs to be taken into account in futureassessment efforts and policy.In order to address a broad range of sustainability aspects a method labelled Life Cycle SustainabilityAssessment (LCSA) can be employed. It combines three different lifecycle methods, correspondingto the three pillars of sustainable development; environmental-LCA (E-LCA), socialLCA(S-LCA) and life cycle cost (LCC).In recognition of these knowledge gaps, the overall aim of this project is to examine the use ofLCSA to assess the sustainability performance of transportation fuels. This is achieved by applyingit to four selected fossil and renewable vehicle fuel value chains. The principal aim of this work isto develop the methodology of LCSA with focus on a full integration step in the assessment. Theintegration of different sustainability perspectives is a challenge, as it is inevitably based on valuejudgements. In this analysis we apply the Multi Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) methodologyusing different stakeholder profiles for the integration. This approach has the advantage that it increasestransparency on these value judgements. Further, as a part of this work, the policy relevanceof LCSA results is discussed briefly.The analysis considers four vehicle fuel value chains: Petrol based on crude oil from Nigeria ; petrolbased on crud from Russia; Ethanol based on sugarcane grown in Brazil, and ethanol based oncorn (maize) grown in the USA. Both biofuels represent first generation biofuels. These vehiclefuels were selected so as to build on an earlier study where an S-LCA was conducted for nine vehiclefuel chains.1 They were also attractive as they have relatively high data availability. These fourfuels were also found to have relatively high potential risks of negative social impacts in the previousstudy.The LCSA conducted in this study is done by integrating S-LCA results with results from E-LCAand LCC. In addition to the compilation of comparable E-LCA and LCC results we seek to detailthe S-LCA results in the previous study as well as complementing them with positive social impactsin order to provide a more detailed analysis.The main contribution of this project is related to the steps taken towards aggregating the differentsustainability perspectives into one holistic outcome for sustainability. This is done using three differentstakeholder profiles. These represent different worldviews and value judgments when prioritizingbetween the different sustainability perspectives. The result shows that the ranking order ofthe different vehicle fuels chains are quite different for the different stakeholder profiles. This shows that there is not always one single answer for the most sustainable choice between differentalternatives. Rather this is dependent on different priorities held by different stakeholders, or thepopulation they represent.All three underlying lifecycle methods– E-LCA, S-LCA and LCC - have different methodologicallimitations. Further, they are to various extents relatively new and still under development. One issueidentified for all three methods is the lack of robust and updated databases for data collection.This causes problems as the data requirements for assessments are considerable. Thus the importanceof data quality is emphasized. The MCDA method offers, however, a possibility to addressuncertainties based on variable data quality. In general, the MCDA methodology seems to offermany useful features to ameliorate the effects of a number of data-related complications. Assuch, it seems to offer a good tool for the aggregation step in LCSA. This stated, the lack of robustand updated databases imply that the actual LCSA-results for the included vehicle fuels may not berepresentative of the current situation regarding sustainability performance.In this project, positive social impacts were handled and integrated separately. By considering thepositive social impacts separately, the influence of the positive impacts on the end result of anS-LCA becomes visible. Although this was done in a limited way in this analysis, it is important toinclude positive impacts separately in future S-LCA efforts, to be able to distinguish the contributionfrom positive impacts to the total social impact. This may inform future action to enhancethese positive contributions. Yet, the lack of data makes this a difficult task, needing further work.Another important contribution, we believe, is the attempt to assess both fossil and renewable vehiclefuel chains with the same assessment tool. In the future, all vehicle fuels should be evaluated ontheir total sustainability performance at the same level of detail.Finally, we believe that the methodology approach examined in this work may be useful for effortsto leave the 'silo'-thinking that can be found in sustainability discourse behind. Instead of this, actorscan be motivated to focus on broad, comprehensive sustainability implications of various productlife cycles. Once the underlying data and methodology-related limitations have been improved,we believe that LCSA in combination with MCDA has true potential to provide a useful tool forsustainability assessment in a life cycle perspective.LCSA could be used as an information tool to guide the formulation of policy, and as an assessmenttool providing information to assess overall success (or failure) of policy interventions. Inconclusion however, we stress that it is important that communication with stakeholders and decisionmakers should be clear in terms of data quality and of the assumptions and complex assessmentsrequired for this assessment method. This is vital if it is to be useful in policy-making anddevelopment of specific policy instruments.

  • 295.
    Eklind, Klara
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Myhr, Elina
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Glapp mellan vision och genomförande?: En undersökning av förutsättningarna för införandet av konceptet “smart stad” i Stockholm stad2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag står världens samhällen och städer inför nya utmaningar i och med kraftig urbanisering och stora klimatförändringar där konceptet “smart stad” ses som en lösning. Däremot är den “smarta stadens” definition fortfarande otydlig och flera använder begreppet i olika sammanhang vilket kan vara förvirrande. Denna uppsats syftar till att utöka förståelsen kring vad en “smart stad” är och hur den kan definieras enligt forskningen och slutligen studera Stockholm stads organisation i arbetet att förverkliga sin vision “att bli världens smartaste stad 2040” med hjälp av ramverket institutionell kapacitet. Studien genomförs med hjälp av en teoristudie av konceptet “smart stad” och en fallstudie som behandlar Stockholm stads strategiska styrdokument och intervjuer av personer som arbetar med kommunens stadsutveckling på olika sätt. Institutionell kapacitet används i denna uppsats för att studera förmågan att omsätta kunskapsresurser, relationella resurser och att mobilisera arbetet inom Stockholm stad för att skapa till förändring i praktiken och slutligen omvandling av stadens kvalitéter. Stadens organisation analyseras för att besvara frågeställningarna: vad olika aktörer i Stockholm stad menar när de diskuterar “den smarta staden”, vilken mening de lägger i begreppet och om det finns ett glapp mellan stadens vision och det praktiska arbetet? Studiens slutsatser är att Stockholm stad har de kompetenser och strategier för att lyckas men uppbyggnaden av organisationen försvårar arbetet. För att lyckas med en stadsomvandling till världens “smartaste stad” krävs det ökat samarbete inom kommunen och ett starkt vägvisande ledarskap. Nya roller har tillkommit och än fler behöver tillkomma för att fylla de kompetenser som saknats. Stockholm stad har arbetat innovationsfrämjande under de senaste åren och nya arbetssätt med fokus på den “smarta staden” med hjälp av innovation och digitalisering har tillkommit. Stockholm stad är i uppstartsfas med avseende på “smart stad”-omställning och frågan är om målet “smart” är en teoretisk trend eller om stadens snart är “smart” även i praktiken.

  • 296.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Hälso- och systemvetenskap, Ergonomi.
    Arbetsmiljö och lärande i Lean och kvalitetsutveckling2014Ingår i: Lärande i arbetslivet möjligheter och utmaningar: en vänbok till Per-Erik Ellström / [ed] Henrik Kock, Linköping: Linköpings universitet , 2014Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Frågan om vilka konsekvenser lean och kvalitetsutveckling får för arbetsmiljö och lärande är avgörande för de anställdas acceptans av dessa koncept, men också avgörande för konceptens systemeffektivitet. Hur dessa samband ser ut har behandlats i ett flertal artiklar (Landsbergis, 1999; Westgaard och Winkel, 2007; Hasle et al., 2012; Adler and Borys, 1994; Adler and Cole, 1995; Appelbaum, 1996). Inriktningen på förändringarna och den kultur som finns i organisationerna synes spela avgörande roll för utfallet. Samtidigt finns det anledning att mera i detalj studera dessa samband. Det finns också studier som har kopplat ihop arbetsförhållanden och lärande. Utifrån definitioner på vad som karaktäriserar det goda arbetet har lärande och möjligheter att utvecklas lyfts fram som viktiga faktorer (Thorsrud, 1969). Detta kapitel syftar till att beskriva olika konsekvenser som kan uppstå för lärande och arbetsmiljö i samband med att organisationer inför lean eller initierar kvalitetsutveckling i sin verksamhet. Ett andra syfte är att koppla dessa konsekvenser till de förändringsansatser som genomförs.

  • 297.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Hälso- och systemvetenskap, Ergonomi. Helix Vinn Excellence Centre, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Halvarsson, A
    Kock, Henrik
    Lindskog, Pernilla
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Hälso- och systemvetenskap, Ergonomi. Helix Vinn Excellence Centre, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Svensson, Lennart
    Sustainability and development of Lean implementations2014Ingår i: Human Factors in Organizational design and management - XI, 2014, s. 165-169Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Lean production has become a major change strategy in Swedish public organizations. The aim of this paper was to identify factors that support or counteract sustainability and development of Lean implementations in public organizations. In an interactive research project including interviews and questionnaires, seven public organizations were followed during a three year period. Some factors supported and other factors counteracted sustainability and development of Lean. In conclusion, lack of sustained change was to a  large extent due to replacement of the top managers in five of the organizations and introduction of another change philosophy, low political and managerial ownership and financial problems.

  • 298.
    Ekman, Marianne
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Industriell arbetsvetenskap (stängd 20130101).
    Gustavsen, BjörnAsheim, Björn TPålshaugen, Öyvind
    Learning Regional Innovation: Scandinavian Models2011Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    While the distinction between science driven and experience driven innovation is well known and much commented on, the point that experience driven innovation demands broad participation, not only within the individual enterprise but across the whole labour market, is less well recognized. When innovation first started to attract attention, the focus was on how to create innovation. In the light of the current crisis, a new question has entered the agenda: how to create socially responsible innovation?Participation and social responsibility in innovation are the core themes of this book. The main argument is that both are issues of organization and not of, say, ethics, or the enforcement of other forms of obligations on individual actors. The need is for a democratization of innovation that can make innovation open to broad participation, scrutiny from many positions, and influence from different interest groups without, however, losing the forward momentum.The organization of processes that can carry forward socially responsible innovation is, in turn, dependent upon public-private co-operation. This needs, however, to be a co-operation that expresses itself in terms of joint development processes, not traditional regulation.Combining experience driven innovation, broad participation and development oriented public-private co-operation, this book demonstrates that Scandinavia offers a unique arena of experience. It is a further argument that insofar as there is a 'systems response' to the present crisis, it lies in the direction of broader diffusion of this kind of pattern.Since the arguments of this book are built on practical experience, it does not seek to establish a set of abstract 'musts' without views on implementation, but rather points at the processes that can be initiated to create movement in the right direction.

  • 299. Ekman Philips, Marianne
    et al.
    Huzzard, T
    Utvecklingens magiska källa?: De två sidorna av en dialogkonferens2004Ingår i: Aksjonsforskning i skole og utdanning / [ed] Tiller T, Høyskoleforlaget, 2004Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 300.
    Ekman, Sten
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Industriell ekonomi och organisation.
    Kompetens och effektivitet: en studie av tidsanvändning och tillverkningskvalitet i NC-arbete1998Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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