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  • 301.
    Olsson, Susanna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Tiberg, C.
    Egnell, G.
    Thelin, G.
    Hånell, B.
    Miljöbedömning av askor – Kursutveckling av SGI och SLU i samarbete2008Report (Other academic)
  • 302. Ostberg, Katarina
    et al.
    Håkansson, Cecilia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630).
    Hasselström, Linus
    Bostedt, Göran
    Benefit Transfer for Environmental Improvements in Coastal Areas: General versus Best-Fitting Models2013In: Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics-Revue Canadienne D'Agroeconomie, ISSN 0008-3976, E-ISSN 1744-7976, Vol. 61, no 2, p. 239-258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recognizing the important policy task of securing the benefits from marine coastal waters subject to time and funding constraints has increased interest in benefit transfer (BT). However, many of the advances in BT recommended by researchers would be too costly to implement. This paper presents two choice experiment (CE) studies on marine areas in Sweden where respondents from local and distant populations were surveyed. BT for attributes relevant to the European Union's Water Framework Directive and the implementation of special consideration zones in marine areas were evaluated by equivalence tests. A comparison of the performance between a general BT model including only easily available socio-economic information and a statistically best-fitting model that requires the collection of more detailed information shows very similar results. Using a general model saves money and time since the information needed can be easily obtained from public databases and it does not lead to any significant reductions in accuracy or reliability. The issue of including socio-economic information in CE modeling for BT is important, since the model specification will determine the type of information that must be collected at the policy site; however, the results are inconclusive as to whether it improves BT or not. La reconnaissance de l'importante tache politique visant a proteger les avantages tires des eaux marines cotieres, exposee a des contraintes de temps et de financement, suscite un interet accru pour le transfert d'avantages (TA). Toutefois, la mise en OEuvre d'un bon nombre des percees en matiere de TA recommandees par les chercheurs serait trop couteuse. Dans le present article, nous presentons deux etudes sur des zones marines de la Suede realisees selon la methode des choix multi-attributs et auxquelles ont participe des repondants provenant de populations locales et eloignees. Le TA dans le cas d'attributs figurant dans la Directive-cadre sur l'eau de l'Union europeenne et la determination de zones necessitant une prise en compte particuliere au sein des zones marines ont ete evalues a l'aide de tests d'equivalence. Une comparaison de la performance du modele de TA << general >>, qui comprend uniquement des donnees socio-economiques facilement obtenables, et de celle du modele de TA << optimal >>, qui comprend une collecte de donnees detaillees, montre des resultats tres similaires. L'utilisation du modele general permet d'economiser du temps et de l'argent puisque l'information requise est facilement accessible dans les bases de donnees publiques, sans diminution significative de la precision ou de la fiabilite. La question d'inclure des donnees socio-economiques dans le modele de choix multi-attributs pour le TA est importante puisque que la specification du modele determinera le type de donnees qu'il faut collecter sur l'endroit vise par la politique. Toutefois, les resultats ne permettent pas d'indiquer si le TA est ameliore ou non.

  • 303. Persson, Åsa
    et al.
    Jonsson, Daniel K.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Nilsson, L. J
    Nilsson, M
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Kompletterande klimatmål med fokus på sektorsmål2007Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 304.
    Peuportier, Bruno
    et al.
    MINES ParisTech.
    Herfray, Gregory
    Malmqvist, Tove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Zabalza, Ignacio
    Staller, Heimo
    Tritthart, Wibke
    Wetzel, Christian
    Szalay, Zsuzsa
    Life cycle assessment methodologies in the construction sector: the contribution of the European LORE-LCA project.2011In: Proceedings of 6th World Sustainable Building Conference, SB11 Helsinki, October 18-21, 2011, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    LORE-LCA is a European research coordination action dealing with the application of life cycleassessment (LCA) in the construction sector. One activity is to analyse existing methods, includingstandards and guidelines, in order to establish a consensus by identifying good practice, and to listknowledge gaps for which further investigation is needed.

  • 305. Peuportier, Bruno
    et al.
    Scarpellini, Sabina
    Glaumann, Mauritz
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Malmqvist, Tove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Krigsvoll, Guri
    Wetzel, Christian
    Staller, Heimo
    Szalay, Zsuzsa
    Degiovanni, Valeria
    Stoykova, Evelina
    State of the art for use of LCA in building sector: Deliverable D2 of the project ENSLIC_BUILDING : Energy Saving through Promotion of Life Cycle Assessment in Buildings2009Report (Other academic)
  • 306.
    Picha Edwardsson, Malin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Ahmadi Achachlouei, Mohammad
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Magazine Publishing: Editorial Process Structure and Environmental Impacts - Case study2012In: Taga proceedings: 64th annual technical conference, Sewickley , 2012, p. 184-203Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the structure of the editorial processes at a Swedish monthly magazine for interior decorating and design, Sköna hem, and assesses the carbon footprint (greenhouse gas emissions) of the editorial content production during one year. The objective is to define the processes using a computer based process modeling tool and to analyze the workflow in order to discover how the different steps in the production process relate to different environmentally related parameters. An additional objective is to present the carbon footprint of the overall editorial work and to identify the major reasons for greenhouse gas emissions, as well as any major data gaps and uncertainties. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken in order to identify the process steps involved in the content production. Environmentally related parameters, such as travel distance, mode of transports, and computer hours, were then collected for each process step. Life cycle assessment methodology was used to assess the potential greenhouse gas emissions of the editorial work at Sköna hem. A number of process steps were identified in the content production. Three overall phases were identified, into which the process steps can be grouped. Firstly, the planning phase consists of meetings with different key persons in order to plan the content of the next issues of the magazine. Secondly, the executive phase was identified. Here, all the articles and pictures are produced. Thirdly, the assembly phase includes text editing and page design. Finally, ready-made pages are sent to printing or to the digital publishing channels such as tablets and the web. According to the assessment made, the editorial content production at Sköna hem has a carbon footprint of 23 tons of carbon dioxide equivalents per year. The major reasons are the manufacturing of computers and screens used at the office, business trips by plane, and transports by delivery firms mainly used for transporting furniture and other objects to and from photo sessions. The use of computers and screens is mostly associated with the assembly phase, business trips by plane with the planning phase and transports by delivery firms with the executive phase.

  • 307.
    Picha Edwardsson, Malin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Local Television Content Production: Process Structures and Climate Impacts – a Case Study2012In: Journal of Print and Media Technology Research, ISSN 2223-8905, Vol. 1, no 4, p. 215-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The business environment in which media companies exist today is rapidly changing. If they have not done so already, media companies need to position themselves to this ongoing change and find their place in the new media landscape. However, this could also mean a good opportunity to optimize work processes on different levels. In order to meet these opportunities, as well as being proactive when it comes to environmental performance, we first need to understand the current structure of media companies, for example when it comes to work processes.

    The aim of this study is to identify and analyze the process structure and the potential climate impact of the content production of the local television station TV4 Gävle/Dalarna in Sweden. The study objectives are:

    • to identify the major editorial and marketing processes and to visualize the two workflows in order to discover how the processes could be optimized and how this in turn may affect the environmental impact.
    • to assess the carbon footprint of the content production of the local television station and to identify the major reasons for this climate change impact.

    Two main methods were used – semi-structured interviews and carbon footprint assessment.

    The editorial part of the workflow is centered on broadcasting news at certain times. A total of nine process steps were identified in the editorial workflow. The largest amount of person hours can be found in the process steps of content production and content editing. Work is done in order to meet the deadlines which come every time there is a broadcast. This fact puts special demands on the personnel, such as an ability to manage stress and short deadlines, and an ability to handle the technical equipment in one-person teams. There is a total of seven process steps on the marketing side, two of which are located outside of the local television station.

    A large part of the carbon footprint from the TV4 Gävle/Dalarna content production is caused by business trips by car. The editorial department makes most of the business trips, but the marketing department is also responsible for some of the trips. The total carbon footprint from the television production is estimated to 52 tons of CO2 eq/year, including the employees’ trips to andfrom the workplace. The trips to and from work is the second largest contributor to the carbon footprint. When considering the impact per viewer, the result is 0.35 kg of CO2 eq/viewer and year.

    Judging from today’s situation, the efficiency on the editorial side is very good. However, it might still be fruitful to consider the travelling practices in order to improve the overall environmental performance.

  • 308.
    Picha Edwardsson, Malin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Local newspaper publishing: editorial structure and environmental effects - a case study2011In: Advances in Printing and Media Technology, ISSN 0892-2284, E-ISSN 1942-597X, Vol. 38, p. 403-410Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Media companies operate in a dynamic environment where change is a constant. Pursuing change in a media company implies an opportunity to optimize processes on different levels. In order to meet these opportunities, as well as being proactive when it comes to environmental performance, we need to understand the current structure of media companies. Better understanding can lead to finding ways to optimize the workflow and to implement other improvements.

    This study investigates the structure of the editorial processes and other processes regarding content production of a local newspaper in Sweden, Norrtelje Tidning. The objective is to analyze the workflow in order to discover how the different steps in the production process might affect potential environmental impact. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken to identify the process steps involved in the content production. Environmental data was then collected for each process step, and a screening environmental assessment with a life-cycle perspective was performed.

    The major reasons for potential environmental impact related to content production at Norrtelje Tidning are travel and the use of electronic devices. These two areas are relevant to focus on when striving to reduce environmental impact on a general level.

  • 309.
    Poulikidou, Sofia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Identification of the main environmental challenges in a sustainability perspective for the automobile industry2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this master thesis is to identify and describe the type and extent of the environmental concerns attributed to the automobile sector. It is carried out as part of a project that aims to suggest a method for measuring and evaluating the environmental performance of companies by setting relevant and sector specific sustainability criteria. The automobile manufacturing industry has been selected as an example in that project and is the focus of this work as well. The methodology used consists of a combination of assessment tools and frameworks for identification, classification and evaluation of environmental impacts. The life cycle approach represents the first step of the method together with a framework which suggests four principles for a sustainable society. Then three classification categories are derived (emissions, land and biodiversity disturbances, and use of resources) and all data collected are assigned and classified according to them. The last step consists of the implementation of two ready-made weighting methods in order to prioritise the results and finally suggest the main ones.The overall results show that the greatest environmental challenge for the automobile sector is the depletion of non-renewable resources and in particular crude oil. The vast majority of oil is used during the utilization phase of the car in order for the lifetime energy demands to be covered. In addition, a variety of air pollutants such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons but mainly carbon dioxide are emitted to the environment through the combustion of gasoline or diesel fuel contributing to significant impacts such as climate change, acidification, eutrophication etc. but also to respiratory and other effects on human health. Among the rest of the studied life cycle stages, raw material acquisition and processing is the second most important contributor to the impacts mentioned above. However, in terms of material efficiency it is shown that the sector has a reduced environmental impact in particular when it comes to the recycling of metals. Greater efforts should be made for plastic and other newly developed materials in order to reduce the waste stream and increase recycling possibilities. Consequently, there are different improvement options for the automobile industry that can compensate the environmental challenges identified in this study. Alternative fuel options can lead to energy and resource savings as well as emission reductions during the use phase. Substitution of heavier materials with lighter ones can improve fuel and material economy. And finally, increased recycling possibilities can lead to material and energy recovery but also to waste reduction. However, all alternatives should be further evaluated in a sustainability and life cycle perspective to measure the overall savings and also ensure that they are not introducing new problems for the sector.

  • 310.
    Poulikidou, Sofia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Literature review: Methods and tools for environmentally friendly product design and development: Identification of their relevance to the vehicle design context2012Report (Other academic)
  • 311.
    Poulikidou, Sofia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630). KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Overview and classification of Design for Environment tools – A diverse toolbox for vehicle developersManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Design for environment (DfE) tools, are defined as any type of systematised aid that facilitates the integration of environmental considerations during product development. A variety of DfE tools is available and informed selection based on the company’s, user’s and product’s needs is important for their successful implementation. Through systematic review of the literature, the goal of this paper is to provide a compilation of DfE tools that can be used during vehicle design and development processes. The review resulted in a rich and diverse toolbox of 41 DfE tools the majority of which exhibiting features that are relevant from a vehicle design perspective, such as environmental impacts that are important to monitor for this product category, life cycle considerations, functional and regulation requirements and more. No tool covers all features thus the use of a combination of tools may be necessary. By collecting and presenting the DfE tools available, this paper is expected to assist the adoption and systematic use of existing tools. Gaps and limitations are identified, indicating areas for improvement, for the development of future tools.

  • 312.
    Poulikidou, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Tyskeng, Sara
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Wennhage, Per
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Integration of environmental aspects in product design and development: An interview study of vehicle manufacturers in Sweden2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 313.
    Roy, Axel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    From a complex to a simpler building product Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA): Focus on simplification of LCA conduct for electronic and electrical equipment2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 314.
    Räsänen, Minna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI (closed 20111231). KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630). KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Picha, Malin
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Graphic Arts, Media (closed 20111231). KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Borggren, Clara
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630). KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Meeting at a distance: Experiences of media companies in Sweden2010In: Technology in society, ISSN 0160-791X, E-ISSN 1879-3274, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 264-273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solutions based on information and communication technology (ICT) have been put forward as a possible means to decrease greenhouse gases, e.g. through replacing travel. However, their success depends on how the ICT solutions are implemented and put into practice. This study sought to identify and discuss conditions for business meetings at a distance. Practices that facilitate and those that prevent meeting at a distance were examined in four Swedish media companies. Time and financial savings were identified as the main forces driving companies and individuals to consider meeting at a distance. Appropriate technology, infrastructure and confidence in using and handling the equipment were also necessary for meeting at a distance. Environmental considerations within the companies appeared to be a side-effect rather than a direct driver. Understanding such conditions is crucial in striving for change. It is suggested that companies consider the everyday practices their employees are engaged in and reflect on the broader context within which these practices take place.

  • 315. Sahle, A.
    et al.
    Potting, Josepha
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Environmental life cycle assessment of Ethiopian rose cultivation2013In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 443, p. 163-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted for Ethiopian rose cultivation. The LCA covered the cradle-to-gate production of all inputs to Ethiopian rose cultivation up to, and including transport to the Ethiopian airport. Primary data were collected about materials and resources used as inputs to, and about the product outputs from 21 farms in 4 geographical regions (i.e. Holleta, Sebeta, Debre Ziet, and Ziway). The primary data were imported in, and analyzed with the SimaPro7.3 software. Data for the production of used inputs were taken from the EcoInvent®2.0 database. Emissions from input use on the farms were quantified based on estimates and emission factors from various studies and guidelines. The resulting life cycle inventory (LCI) table was next evaluated with the CML 2 baseline 2000. V2/world, 1990/characterization method to quantify the contribution of the rose cultivation chain to 10 environmental impact categories. The set of collected primary data was comprehensive and of high quality. The data point to an intensive use of fertilizers, pesticides, and greenhouse plastic. Production and use of these inputs also represent the major contributors in all environmental impact categories. The largest contribution comes from the production of the used fertilizers, specifically nitrogen-based fertilizers. The use of calcium nitrate dominates Abiotic Depletion (AD), Global Warming (GW), Human Toxicity (HT) and Marine Aquatic Ecotoxicity (MAET). It also makes a large contribution to Ozone Depletion (OD), Acidification (AD) and Fresh water Aquatic Ecotoxicity (FAET). Acidification (AC) and Eutrophication (EU) are dominated by the emission of fertilizers. The emissions from the use of pesticides, especially insecticides dominate Terrestrial Ecotoxicity (TE) and make a considerable contribution to Freshwater Aquatic Ecotoxicity (FAET) and Photochemical Oxidation (PhO). There is no visible contribution from the use of pesticides to the other toxicity categories. Production and use of greenhouse plastic are another important contributors, and just a bit less than the contribution of calcium nitrate to Abiotic Depletion (AD). The results of this study clearly indicate nutrient management and emissions from pesticide use, especially insecticides, as a focus point for environmental optimization of the rose cultivation sector in Ethiopia.

  • 316.
    Schvallinger, Mathias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Analyzing trends of asphalt recycling in France2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In France, road transport accounts for 50% and 30% of the NOx and CO2 emissions respectively. Asphalt recycling consists in including Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) into new Asphalt Concrete. This technique can allow firms in the road construction field to reduce their impacts on the environment and thus to achieve the goals set by the European Commission. Unfortunately, asphalt recycling just began to have more importance in France. Additionally, the lack of easily available data and studies about this method makes it complicated to enhance the development of asphalt recycling.

    The thesis aimed to picture a good overview of the current asphalt recycling practices in France and to analyze them from an environmental point of view. The main attention was concentrated on GreenHouse Gases (GHGs) emissions and energy consumptions of those techniques. Moreover, the thesis tried to describe the main advantages and drawbacks of the different asphalt recycling techniques in order to understand their proportions in France. The study also aimed to learn from the experiences of other regions by comparing the French practices with other European countries and analyzing these differences.

    The methodology used is literature review, interviews and use of a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) tool: asPECT.  The literature review provided all the theoretical background needed to understand asphalt recycling and also data about its impacts on the environment. In order to add a current component that reflects the reality of road constructions firms, data was also collected with interviews and interpreted with the LCA tool. Finally, the LCA approach was used to compare and analyze all the results collected by providing the necessary simplifications.

    Study results show that France increased its proportion of RAP recycled significantly lately to reach 63%. The main two asphalt recycling techniques used are Hot In-Plant recycling and Cold In-Place Recycling (CIR). CIR is the most environmental friendly asphalt recycling technique, reaching a reduction of 80% in GHGs emissions and energy consumptions compared to a classical rehabilitation method. Hot In-Plant recycling only allows a reduction of approximately 30% in the same environmental factors. Thanks to those techniques 113 000 tons of CO2e and 10,3 * 105 GJ have been saved in 2010. Asphalt recycling also enables making economic profits and improving social conditions. However, pollutants, tar or asbestos contaminated asphalt, haulage distance limit the development of asphalt recycling in France. It was also observed that France is behind its neighbors but is catching up lately. The main reasons for this delay are the aggregates’ supplies; the number of plants fit for recycling and the legislation about waste disposal and RAP recycling rates.

    It was concluded that to enhance the use of asphalt recycling in France, French authorities, research centers, road construction firms and certification organisms have to cooperate and work together in order to stem the main drawbacks of asphalt recycling, settle the LCA problems, to win the trust of the State and the firms and to increase the competition.

  • 317.
    Senkatuka, Ian
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategic Analysis.
    Management with the People: An Enabling Approach to Neighbourhood Road Infrastructure Management in Kampala City2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid urbanization occurring in many developing countries coupled with the constraints they are facing, has affected road infrastructure service delivery by public authorities charged with managing them. In Kampala City’s mixed income neighbourhood areas that have a disparity between neighbourhood community members, inadequate neighbourhood road management by Kampala City Council who are charged with managing these roads has led to neighbourhood roads that are in a poor state of disrepair, and do not meet many of the needs of their users. A number of interventions have been attempted to improve service delivery with limited success.Given this background, a modified or different approach to the management of neighbourhoodroads may be needed if the neighbourhood roads are to be able to meet the needs of their users.Opportunities exist within the neighbourhoods and their external environment that may be able to enhance neighbourhood road management.

    The neighbourhood community might be able to participate in the management of their neighbourhood roads, enabling them to meet the needs of their users. There is a lack of knowledge about community participation, and how the neighbourhood community could participate in the management of neighbourhood roads that might not be a priority to some ofthem, given their other needs. The community participation process is unclear to the neighbourhood community and to the public authorities.

    The main objective of this research study was to produce knowledge that shows how the management of neighbourhood roads in Kampala can be improved through participation, andthus better meet the needs and wants of its users.

    The Case Study Method was used to undertake the research, with neighbourhood areas being purposefully selected in Kampala City. In the selected neighbourhood areas, which were located on both public and private land, some members of the neighbourhood community had attempted to participate in the improvement of their neighbourhood roads in a manner that didnot meet the needs of their users. Different data collection methods that included a review of litterature and official records, a survey, interviews, focus group discussions, and observation,were utilized.

    The results of the thesis reveal that community participation could be used in the management of neighbourhood roads in neighbourhoods such as those found in Kampala City i.e. with a social and economic disparity between neighbourhood community members, to meet the needs of some of their users given the constraints that exist in the neighbourhoods. This would call for an enabling environment, the enhancement of the sense of community, an approach that meets theneeds of community members with other priorities, and the use of components of the enabling strategy. This can be done with support from other stakeholders. The neighbourhood communityand the other stakeholders with a role to play in the management of the neighbourhood roads atneighbourhood, city or national level, need to understand their roles in the process and to genuinely support the activity. Factors that enhance and affect community participation that can be utilized and mitigated exist in the neighbourhood and in its external environment. A community participation process that allows for flexibility, and the roles of the different stakeholders involved in the management of the neighbourhood roads are outlined. An enabling community participation model for the management of neighbourhood roads was subsequently developed.

    The findings will contribute to the ability of the neighbourhood community to participate in the management of their neighbourhood roads in Kampala city’s neighbourhoods, although furtherresearch from different disciplines will be needed to add to it.

    City authorities in Kampala should manage the neighbourhood roads using a two-pronged approach that would utilise both the provider model and the supporter model that would involve a partnership between the city and the community, if neighbourhood roads in the city are to bemanaged effectively to meet the needs of their users.

  • 318.
    Sundkvist, Åsa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630).
    Eriksson, O
    Glaumann, Mauritz
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Bergman, S
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630).
    Stenbeck, S
    Wintzell, H
    Miljöklassning av byggnader: Inventering av metoder och intressenters behov2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport innehåller resultatet av projektets inledningsfas, kapitel 2 är en genomgång av politiska och andra mål för hållbar utveckling inom området byggnader med syfte att sätta miljöklassningssystemet i ett sammanhang, kapitel 3 är en redovisning av hur inledningsfasen genomförts, kapitel 4 innehåller resultatet av intervjuer med företag inom bygg och fastighetsbranschen om deras inställning till ett miljöklassningsystem samt intervjuer med aktörer som potentiellt kan skapa incitament för att företag och fastighetsägare ska ansluta sig till miljöklassningssystemet, kapitel 5 behandlar översiktligt genomgången av befintliga metoder för miljöbedömning av byggnader, kapitel 6 redovisar utgångspunkter för det fortsatta arbetet med ett miljöklassningsystem, kapitel 7 innehåller diskussion och slutsatser. Befintliga metoder för miljöbedömning av byggnader redovisas som informationsblad i bilaga 7 (svenska) och bilaga 10 (utländska).

  • 319.
    Sundkvist, Åsa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Milestad, Rebecka
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Jansson, AnnMari
    Stockholm University.
    On the importance of tightening feedback loops for sustainable development of food systems2005In: Food Policy, ISSN 0306-9192, E-ISSN 1873-5657, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 224-239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the process of searching for sustainable trajectories in the food system, this paper reviews and discusses the importance of tightening feedback loops between ecosystems, actors in the food production chain and consumers. Intensification, specialization, distancing, concentration and homogenization are trends identified as major constraints for tightened feedback loops. These trends can mask or make it possible to disregard feedback signals from unhealthy ecosystems and weaken communication in the food chain. We explore possibilities for improved feedback management on local to global scales and present examples where feedback loops have been tightened. Enhanced communication between the actors in the food system and consciousness of ecological feedback, through e.g., increased reliance on local resources, are possibilities for improvement. However, where distances between resource and resource user are too large, feedback has to be directed through institutions on an overarching level, e.g., policy measures or environmental and social labelling of products.

  • 320.
    Svane, Örjan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630).
    but most buildings are already there: Basic starting points for environmental management in the housing sector2008Other (Other academic)
  • 321.
    Svane, Örjan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    ...but most buildings are already there: Basic starting points for environmental management in the housing sector2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 322.
    Svane, Örjan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Energy Efficiency in Hammarby Sjöstad, Stockholm through ICT and smarter infrastructure: survey and potentials2013In: ICT4S 2013: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies for Sustainability, ETH Zurich, February 14-16, 2013 / [ed] Lorenz M. Hilty, Bernard Aebischer, Göran Andersson, Wolfgang Lohmann, Zürich, 2013, p. 190-196Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internationally, Stockholm’s brownfield development Hammarby Sjöstad is seen as one of the world’s highest profile examples of Sustainable City Development. Is its energy efficiency already optimal, or is there an untapped potential for "Renewing a New City", for example through the innovative implementation of ICT? This is the main issue of the study reported in this paper. In the mid 1990s, after some five years of comprehensive planning, the City's politicians and leading officials agreed that Hammarby Sjöstad should be the Olympic Village when applying for the 2004 Olympic Games. To strengthen the application, an environmental programme was passed in the city parliament, a project team comprising representatives of the main city administrations was established, and the team was given the task of injecting the novel features of the programme into an ongoing, ordinary planning process [1, 2]. In 1997, the Olympic committee gave the Games to Athens. Nonetheless, the environmental programme and the project team were retained, and for more than a decade of construction the area has been marketed as a spearhead of urban sustainable development [3, 4]. However, evaluations indicate that its energy efficiency is average if benchmarked towards other developments of the same period [5]. Dispersion is wide, a factor three. As part of development, the national government subsidized a number of projects to support the environmental profile, some of them being targeted towards ICT and "smart homes" technology [6, 7, 8, 9]. This is interesting, since it is often argued that the innovative application of ICT should markedly increase energy efficiency [10]. In research at KTH, Stockholm, we therefore explore this as applied to Hammarby Sjöstad: To what extent do systems rely on smart infrastructure to control energy use and its impacts – in the electric system, in the district heating? Does ICT integrate citywide and local energy system components through automation, does ICT interact with operators, managers or residents, informing or persuading them to be energy efficient? For the purpose of this study, smart infrastructure is defined as systems that make it easy for users and managers to keep energy use and its impacts low, without compromising utility or comfort Data is collected from documents and interviews. Eight real estate units with elements of smart infrastructure were identified. Thus, about 5 per cent of the flats have this feature, mainly to automatically integrate novel components such as photovoltaics or geothermal energy into the large-scale ordinary energy systems. There is also a single example of a passive house. This is the only Sjöstad real estate unit to comply with the original energy objectives of using no more than 60 kWh/m2yr. The addition of local energy sources to a large-scale energy system influences the routines of operators and managers, introducing an element of smartness. It was also found that in a few cases, buildings were provided with “smart homes technology”, i.e. ICT that actively interacts with the residents. However, findings indicate that some of the technology does not function properly or has already become obsolete. In three cases, managers and owners are ignorant whether an element of smart infrastructure is operational or not. On the other hand, already from 2000 on, the district was provided with a comprehensive fibre network, which is still up to date. From this follows that on district level the potential for smart infrastructure is there, but as mentioned it is only in part utilised in the individual buildings.

  • 323.
    Svane, Örjan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Hammarby Sjöstad, Stockholm City’s Project Team and the Process of Environmental Management2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 324.
    Svane, Örjan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630).
    Helping, Informing or Coaxing the Consumer? – exploring Persuasive Technology as applied to households’ energy use2009In: Proceedings of the Sustaining Everyday Life Conference 2009, Linköping University Electronic Press, 2009, p. 83-84Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 325.
    Svane, Örjan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Helping, Informing or Coaxing the Consumer: Exploring Persuasive Technology as applied to households’ energy use2008In: Domotics: Smart Technology, Smarter Homes / [ed] Anil Varma, Icfai University Press, 2008Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 326.
    Svane, Örjan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Helping, Informing or Coaxing the Consumer?: Exploring Persuasive Technology as applied to households’ energy use2007In: Proceedings of the Nordic Consumer Policy Research Conference 2007, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Let us assume, that people could be persuaded to reduce their energy use in the home through a“dialogue” with a computer. What information, what means of persuasion could the dialogueconsist of? Which is the technical hardware? Who persuades, and what about personal integrity?In this paper we explore the merging of two computer-based technologies – “smart homes” and“persuasive technology”.There are computer programmes that persuade children to brush their teeth, and others thatsupport regular physical exercise: Persuasive technology combines the persuasive powers of TVadvertising with the computers’ interactive information handling. Smart homes technologyprovides residents with information and control, to keep a good indoor climate and a smallenergy bill. However, the merging of these two concepts has not been explored.Energy use in housing is a considerable part of society’s whole and the potentials for reductionthrough changes in the consumers’ habits are large. Often, dwellings’ indoor climate couldbecome better through simple measures. There might be a conflict between low energy use andgood indoor climate; but on the whole, better control can achieve both. Therefore it is worthwhileto explore how “smart homes” technology could be developed to include computerizedpersuasion.Based on a “Master’s Class” at TU Eindhoven and a literature review, we discuss:• How can households be persuaded to reduce their energy use through interaction with acomputer?• Which are the technical prerequisites?• How much could be saved?• What forms could the persuasive dialogue take?• What differences in control and persuasion follow from the form of tenure?• Which are the ethical restrictions?We don’t assume that this kind of persuasion is by necessity a good thing. Instead, we explore theissue to enable discussion on its merits and shortcomings – in terms of environmental impacts,comfort, health, technology and consumer ethics.

  • 327.
    Svane, Örjan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630).
    Situations of Opportunity: Hammarby Sjöstad and Stockholm City’s Process of Environmental Management2006In: Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, ISSN 1535-3958, E-ISSN 1535-3966, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 76-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hammarby Sjöstad is a large brownfield development in Stockholm guided by extensive environmental objectives. This case study focuses on the environmental management of the city's project team. A main aim was methodology development related to the concept of situations of opportunity - how to study those periods when the team had great influence over the process. Goal conflicts on for example energy use and the lake view were identified. The team used policy instruments such as development contracts and design competitions. Some of the situations identified contributed little to the environmental management, for example the detailed planning. Others were more successful, for example the integration of infrastructural systems. Success situations were unique or created by the team, and had less formal power. Other situations had more power, but were burdened with a prehistory of routines and agreements. The methodology should also be applicable to other processes of environmental management.

  • 328.
    Svane, Örjan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Useful Concepts or Eternal Truths?: Reflections on generalisation based on experience from a case study2005In: Methodologies in Housing Research / [ed] Dick Urban Vestbro, Yonca Hürol, Nicholas Wilkinson, Gateshead: Urban international press , 2005, p. 329-339Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 329.
    Svane, Örjan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Elfors, Susanna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Built Environment Analysis.
    Från sopsortering till solfångartak: Miljöstrategier för bostadsområden baserade på underhåll och samråd2007Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 330.
    Svane, Örjan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Engberg, L.
    Compromise, failure or necessity: analysing the brownfield development of Hammarby Sjöstad, Stockholm, as Negotiated Sustainability processes in Governance Networks2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 331.
    Svane, Örjan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Gustafsson, Stina
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Wangel, Josefin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Höjer, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Lundqvist, Per
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, Dept. Technology and Social Change.
    Weingaertner, Carina
    University of Birmingham, Centre of Urban and Regional Studies.
    Situations of Opportunity in City Transformation: – enriching evaluative case study methodology with scenarios and backcasting, exploring the sustainable development of three Stockholm city districts2009In: Proceedings of the ENHR Conference 2009, Prague, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To keep global warming at 2°C, society faces challenges of a totally new magnitude. In Swedenlike any high-income country, it becomes a powerful driving force in city transformation. Tackling this challenge of urban sustainable development poses problems for planners and researchers alike: What planning processes, what urban structures enable transformation, how can planners and other actors combine forces to deliberate themselves from path dependency,extending their freedom of action? In this paper, we explore how evaluative case study methodology merged with techniques from Futures Studies provide a cross-disciplinary research approach that defines the challenge in scope and time while retaining its complexity. Case studies are in-depth analyses of a small number of units, enabling studies of complex phenomena; for us, complexity means integrating the issues of What to change and change by Whom in order to explore How change can come about and evaluate How much it could contributeto urban sustainable development. How can this approach be developed to explore the future? Futures Studies can indicate the probable or supply visions of the desirable, it can be normative or descriptive. For our purpose, it is normative, focusing on the long-term necessityof mitigating global warming. Through it, we develop scenarios that explore the path of transformation of three Stockholm City Districts, from today’s climate changing society towardsa 2060s vision of a low carbon, low energy society. From historical studies we learned that there are shorter periods – Situations of Opportunity – when inertia against change is low. This concept we now apply to future Situations, making these our cases proper. For each Situation in every district we develop three representations of their realisation in the upcomingdecades: the Final Scenario is a narrative of the whole, seen from the future; the computerisedEnergy Usage Model quantifies outcomes in terms of reduced energy use; the Transformative Governance Network illustrates the process of change, its agents and their forms of co-operation. Elements of the approach could contribute to the practice of planning.

  • 332.
    Svane, Örjan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS (closed 20110701).
    Larsen, Katarina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS (closed 20110701).
    Routines and Communities of Practice in Public Environmental Procurement Processes2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental procurement has received increasing attention as a policy tool promoting change towards sustainable consumption and production. The successful implementation of public environmental procurement policy requires the establishment of new routines for user-producer-supplier relationships that enable the integration of environmental aspects. The aim of the study is to analyse the roles of different communities of practice and learning patterns in environmental procurement processes. Building on experiences from the procurement of ecological food and sustainable construction in Stockholm, the paper identifies learning patterns and codes of practice when environmental criteria are introduced into existing routines for economic and technical specifications in public procurement processes.

  • 333.
    Svane, Örjan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Senkatuka, I.
    Nawangwe, B.
    Effective Urban Infrastructure Management in Developing Countries - An Alternative Approach to the Provision and Maintenance of Road Infrastructure in Kampala City’s Neighbourhood Areas : The Potential of Management by the People - Challenges during Participation2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 334.
    Svane, Örjan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Senkatuka, Ian
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Nawangwe, B.
    Kampala City’s Neighbourhood Roads: More Than just a Transit Conduit2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Faced with many constraints, the infrastructure provider - Kampala City Council, is failing to manage the neighbourhood roads in Kampala City. Many of them are therefore in a poor state of disrepair. This is evidenced by; the potholes that can be seen in many of them, the poor storm water drains, the lack of clearly defined pedestrian walkways, etc. This affects the comfort and the convenience of vehicular and pedestrian users, from inside and outside the neighbourhood, especially during the rainy seasons. To attempt to improve the management of these neighbourhood roads, and their actual state, it is important to look at the way the neighbourhood roads are used. This paper looks at neighbourhood roads found in neighbourhood areas, in Uganda's capital city Kampala that is urbanising rapidly. The development of the theoretical framework is still ongoing. However this research identifies with a number of theoretical fields that will be utilised in this study. The first is the management of neighbourhood road infrastructure, the second is the neighbourhood roads and their use, and the third is the actors/agents of change. In each of these theoretical frameworks, relevant concepts will be identified. Included in the theories of urban management will be the concepts of: urban governance, participation and self-help. Others concepts used will include place attachment by residents and other users, social cohesion by members of the community, and home based enterprises that serve road users. Not much research has been done that combines the three aspects described above, or that looks at the neighbourhood road from a wider perspective. Neighbourhood roads are looked at as a distinct technical element of the actual neighbourhood that enables people to move from one place to another. However the relationship between the road and the neighbourhood's people is not taken into consideration. The neighbourhood road is mainly seen as a transit conduit. However is that all it is used for? What does the neighbourhood road do for the local people who live along it or off it, and to others who use it? What potential improvements can be identified to improve it The neighbourhood roads in Kampala city need to be looked at with a wider perspective, for it is used for many more activities, other than as a transit route. Case Study Methodology: As part of an ongoing PHD research study, a case study of a selected road located within Kansanga in Makindye division, which is a mixed income neighbourhood of Kampala City, is being undertaken to show how the road is used, and how people living along and off it, relate to it. This case was chosen because it is information rich, and will be able to show how different income groups use and relate to the neighbourhood road. Preliminary results from the case study confirmed that in addition to being used as a transit conduit, the neighbourhood road is used for many more activities that include trade, social activities, etc. Facilities for trade that can be found along neighbourhood roads include groceries, fruit and vegetable stalls, charcoal stalls, bars, etc. The identified uses of the neighbourhood road, involve many stakeholders, some of who depend on it. However while the road is a means of livelihood to some, to others it is an insecure boundary to their properties. They use it to as a means of getting to a place where they feel secure and seclude themselves from it using boundary walls, gates, etc, as they try to protect themselves from crime. Preliminary results also highlighted the poor state of the neighbourhood road that will need to be improved, to make it comfortable and convenient for all its many users. It is therefore in their common interest to improve it. With this wider definition of the neighbourhood road and what it is used for, a wider group of stakeholders can be identified. From this it follows that new opportunities for improving the management and the maintenance of the neighbourhood road can be found. Some of the stakeholders identified, may be able to contribute to the improvement of the road, or they may be potential managers of the neighbourhood road, complementing or supplementing Kampala City Council in its role, if their needs can be met .The creation of community organisations and the involvement of the community in improving the neighbourhood roads, could also contribute to the development of a sense of community in the neighbourhood, which may lead to a safer neighbourhood. Thus looking at the road through a wider perspective should provide knowledge that could contribute to the improved management and the overall improvement of neighbourhood roads in Kampala city.

  • 335.
    Svane, Örjan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630).
    Sølgaard Bang, M.
    Lewakowski, B.
    Car Sharing and Low-Fossil Mobility: Master students’ scenarios of a Situation of Opportunity in the urban sustainable development of Bromma, Stockholm2010Report (Other academic)
  • 336.
    Svane, Örjan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Wangel, Josefin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Engberg, L. A.
    Palm, J.
    Compromise and Learning when Negotiating Sustainabilities: the brownfield development of Hammarby Sjöstad, Stockholm2011In: International Journal of Urban Sustainable Development, ISSN 1946-3138, p. 141-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the environmental management of Stockholm's large brownfield development Hammarby Sjöstad through the concept of negotiating sustainabilities. An Environmental Programme injected exceptional aims into an ongoing, ordinary planning process involving developers, consultants, contractors and other stakeholders. In parallel, a project team was established and given the task of realising aims through governing, networking, negotiation and persuasion. Discourse theory is used to analyse the epistemological disagreement between actors on how to operationalise the aims. Theories on governance networks and meta-governance facilitate the understanding of the project team's role in negotiations. The analysis is divided into two parts: ‘Playing the game’ focuses on the aim contents and how these were negotiated between actors, while ‘… but the game was staged’ highlights how negotiations were conditioned from the outside. The results indicate that negotiations on, for example, development contracts were circumscribed by a prehistory of institutional and interactive positioning, thus leaving only a small imprint on the actual outcome. Negotiations during events unburdened by path dependency affected outcomes more. Staging of the project team's activities was initially strong, but gradually waned. Learning within the team was rapid and gradually resulted in a higher level of aim fulfilment. After 10 years, learning is clearly discernible in other Stockholm developments too, such as the Royal Seaport. International interest, as manifested through study visits to the area, remains high. The main general lessons learned include the need for introducing exceptional aims and project organisations early in the project, and the potentially positive effects of active networking to increase actor collaboration and thus the project's field of options.

  • 337.
    Svane, Örjan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Wangel, Josefin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Hugentobler, M.
    Impacts and Improvements – developing a qualitative tool for assessing scenarios’ contributions to sustainable urban development: examples from Stockholm city districts2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 338.
    Svenfelt, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Two strategies for dealing with uncertainty in social-ecological systems2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The scale of environmental problems is increasing. Globalisation and trade haveweakened the links between the ecosystems in which goods are produced and thecommunities in which they are consumed. This, combined with variability anddynamics in ecological and social systems, means that there are great uncertaintiesabout production conditions and about the impact on humans and theenvironment of decisions made at different levels in society. In order to achievesustainable management of ecosystems, more knowledge is needed when possible.In other cases, strategies for dealing with the uncertainties are needed. This thesis,in which ecological and social systems are regarded as integrated, analyses twostrategies for dealing with uncertainties in such social-ecological systems andthereby improving the potential for sustainable management of these systems.The strategies are i) Using futures studies as a method and ii) creating a tighterfeedback loop between society and ecosystems.Of the five studies included in this thesis, Papers I and II explore possibilities toreduce uncertainties through better feedback between ecosystems and society in aglobalised food system. A tighter feedback loop between society and ecosystemscould increase the potential of society to detect negative environmental impacts ofdifferent activities, respond to such signals (feedback) and make changes thatreduce the negative consequences. Papers III, IV and V develop methods andanalyse the use of futures studies as a tool for managing uncertainty inenvironmental policy processes, specifically the Swedish environmental qualityobjectives. It is difficult and sometimes impossible to predict future developmentsand there are also uncertainties because social-ecological systems are constantlychanging, sometimes in unexpected ways. In addition, the apparently most likelydevelopments may not be the most desirable. Futures studies are used in PapersIII-V to deal with these types of uncertainties. Within the context of these futuresstudies, methods for working together with stakeholders to identify actions andchanges needed to achieve environmental goals are also developed and tested.The results show that the potential exists to reduce certain types of uncertainty byreducing the distance between production and consumption (through localisedfood systems and institutions which transmit feedback). Another conclusion isthat a local food market (farmers’ market), which represents a direct link betweenproduction and consumption, could reduce a sense of uncertainty aboutproduction conditions for individual consumers, through the establishment oftrust in their relationship with the producer. However, only a few examples ofincreased ecological knowledge or increased knowledge about productionconditions were found among these consumers. The results also show that futuresstudies were able to serve as a framework for analysing environmental policyprocesses (the environmental quality objectives), as they provide a long-termperspective and help manage uncertainty by increased knowledge of alternativeactions in relation to several possible developments. Futures studies as ananalytical tool can also help identify partnerships and stakeholders that arenecessary to promote change in order to achieve environmental goals.

  • 339.
    Svenfelt, Åsa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika
    FOI.
    Farmers’ markets – linking food consumption and the ecology of food production?2010In: Local Environment: the International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, ISSN 1354-9839, E-ISSN 1469-6711, Vol. 15, no 5, p. 453-465Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban and industrialised societies usually involve little connection between consumers and the resource base upon which the production of goods depends. Changing this situation could potentially enhance social and ecological sustainability. This study explored ecological aspects of the educational role of local food supply, with the aim of identifying signs of enhanced consumer understanding or awareness of the ecology of food production resulting from producer-consumer interaction. A series of qualitative interviews were carried out with customers at a farmers' market in Stockholm. The results showed that the interviewees were mainly concerned with quality, price and taste, and not production conditions. In addition, a number of interviewees experienced a sense of trust when shopping at the market. We found few examples of contributions to ecological knowledge among customers at the market, but there were some examples of learning opportunities. The local food supplied by the market reminded customers of the seasonality of production. Stallholders also provided information on how to store, prepare and cook vegetables, which may encourage a change in diet that is preferable from an environmental standpoint.

  • 340.
    Svenfelt, Åsa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Engström, Rebecka
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Höjer, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Hushållning med mark, vatten och bebyggd miljö: åtgärdsstrategier under olika omvärldsutvecklingar2007Report (Other academic)
  • 341.
    Svenfelt, Åsa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Engström, Rebecka
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Höjer, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Use of explorative scenarios in environmental policy making: Evaluation of policy instruments for management of land, water and the built environment2010In: Futures: The journal of policy, planning and futures studies, ISSN 0016-3287, E-ISSN 1873-6378, Vol. 42, no 10, p. 1166-1175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to achieve the Swedish Environmental Quality Objectives (EQOs), three action strategies have been adopted by the Swedish parliament. The strategy addressed in this paper deals with the management of land, water and the built environment. The paper reports on a project involving authorities and researchers in which policy measures required for achieving relevant targets for the strategy were gathered, structured and analysed regarding their potential assuming alternative futures. Measures with proposed policy instruments were qualitatively evaluated against one business as usual scenario and four explorative scenarios varying along two dimensions; level of governance and level of embeddedness. The results show a heavy predominance of administrative policy instruments. This policy strategy depends on a future development where such policy instruments are accepted. In order to achieve the EQOs regardless of future developments, more robust packages of measures including a larger variation in policy instruments need to be developed.

  • 342.
    Svenfelt, Åsa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Engström, Rebecka
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Svane, Örjan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Decreased energy use in buildings by 50% by 2050: a backcasting study using stakeholder groups2011In: Technological forecasting & social change, ISSN 0040-1625, E-ISSN 1873-5509, Vol. 78, no 5, p. 785-796Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a backcasting study focusing on fulfilment of a national target to decrease energy consumption in residential and commercial buildings by 50% by 2050 compared with the consumption in 1995, and identifying possible measures for achieving it. A method based on a combination of backcasting methodology and focus group methodology was used. Two different scenarios were developed. They were used in discussions with stakeholders in the building sector, to explore and identify measures and actors important for target fulfillment. The main outcomes were ideas for strategies and measures needed to achieve the target. The current potential for target fulfilment was also analysed and discussed. The discussions in the different stakeholder groups were mainly concerned with changes in attitude and behaviour and the need for radical changes in social structures. For example, enhanced communication between actors in the building chain, and the need for relevant feedback in order to illustrate the link between the effort in decreasing energy use and actual outcome. The findings suggest that there is sufficient technical potential to achieve the target by 2050 but that this potential will not be realised to a sufficient extent. Achieving the target would be facilitated by policy that is oriented more towards identifying actors with direct influence to promote change. An analysis of incentives for these actors to act, and how different actors can cooperate for energy-efficient solutions should be integrated into the process of suggesting and implementing policy measures.

  • 343.
    Svenfelt, Åsa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630).
    Höjer, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Framtidsstudier och osäkerheter2012In: Att utforska framtiden: Valda perspektiv / [ed] Alm, S., Palme, J. and Westholm, E., Dialogos Förlag, 2012, p. 111-128Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 344.
    Thomsson, Olof
    et al.
    Biodynamic Research Institute, Järna, Sweden.
    Wallgren, Christine
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Global warming and fossil energy use2005In: Ekologiskt Lantbruk, ISSN 1102-6758, Vol. 46, p. 71-93Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 345.
    Tierney, Sara
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Kemikalier i Byggmaterial: mot det framtida Stockholm, en stad i världsklass2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this thesis has been to establish how the City of Stockholm works towards minimising the risks associated with the use of chemicals in building materials. A recommendation is given on how this work can be further developed. A review of existing literature has been done and interviews carried out with pertinent players in this area.

    There is ongoing work being carried out by Stockholm’s City to limit the use of chemicals in building materials. Among other actions, the City sets demands and restrictions on the use of chemicals in building materials when they sell or lease land for building.

    The City currently refers to the criteria of sex different industry systems for the selection of building materials. By doing so there is no clear definition of what restrictions the city demands, since these systems have different criteria.

    The City owned housing and property companies utilise one of these systems, Byggvarubedömningen and actively participates in its development and refinement. The City’s use of regulations and by-laws has not been fully exploited and can be further developed.

    The recommendations given in this thesis are based on the knowledge gained from interviews, the City’s environmental goals and targets, today’s development in the building industry and a study of today’s specific problem areas.

    The recommendations include a call for the City to follow up on the requirements that are placed on the use of chemicals in building materials. The City also has an opportunity to expand their regulatory functions. The City is advised to follow the recommendations from the Swedish Chemical Authority (Kemikalieinspektionen) to protect children from endocrine disrupting chemicals. The city-owned building and property companies are called on to carry out a project with the aim of decreasing children’s exposure to these chemicals. The City can also carry out campaigns to spread information and knowledge surrounding the use and effects of chemicals. An important issue brought up in the interviews was the lack of knowledge regarding nano materials, endocrine disrupting chemicals and possible cocktail effects. These are areas where the City can offer guidance.

    There is much discussion regarding the financial consequences of the Cities requirements when selling land. There is a lack of knowledge regarding what extra costs the City’s restriction of the use of certain chemicals might cause. To be able to have a discussion about extra costs and give an answer to the critique, the City should carry out a cost analysis. This analysis could also increase the understanding of which requirements and restrictions that causes the most extra costs. This enables decision makers to use the resources where they contribute to the most benefits.

  • 346.
    Toller, Susanna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Carlsson, Annica
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Wadeskog, Anders
    Miliutenko, Sofiia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Indicators for environmental monitoring of the Swedish building and real estate management sector2013In: Building Research & Information, ISSN 0961-3218, E-ISSN 1466-4321, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 146-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to assess the environmental impact of the Swedish building and property (real estate) management sector, a new top-down life cycle assessment (LCA) method was used which was based on inputoutput analysis using national statistical data. Six indicators were developed as suitable for environmental monitoring of the sector: energy use; emissions of greenhouse gases; emissions of nitrogen oxides; emissions of particulates; use of hazardous chemical products; and generation of waste. These indicators were then used to describe the environmental performance of the sector over a 15-year period in order to monitor change and improvement. The use of energy and emissions to air can be effectively followed in time-series. These indicators could be used to create incentives to evaluate regularly improvement work and to inform policy and practice. For greenhouse gas emissions, a trend was identified for space heating to become less important than construction and management towards the end of the period studied, most likely due to a transition from fossil fuels to renewable fuels for heat production. Key implications will be on the selection of building materials, the construction process and the extension of building longevity.

  • 347.
    Toller, Susanna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Frostell, B.
    Öberg, O.
    Ekeroth, N.
    Erlandsson, Å.
    Hållbar fiskförsörjning för Stockholms län2009Report (Other academic)
  • 348.
    Toller, Susanna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Johansson, M.
    Wik, O.
    Erlandsson, Å.
    Lätt att göra rätt, beslutsunderlag för miljöprövning av askor i anläggningar2011Report (Other academic)
  • 349.
    Toller, Susanna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Wadeskog, A
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Malmqvist, Tove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Carlsson, Annica
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Energy Use and Environmental impacts of the Swedish Building and Real Estate Management Sector2011In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 394-404Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the key features of environmental policy integration in Sweden is sectorresponsibility. The National Board of Housing, Building and Planning is responsible for the building and real estate management sector and should, as a part of this responsibility, assess the environmental impacts of this sector. The aim of this study is to suggest and demonstrate a method for such an assessment. The suggested method is a life cycle assessment, based on an input-output analysis. The method can be used for regular monitoring and for prioritization between different improving measures. For the assessment to sufficiently cover the Swedish Environmental Quality Objectives, complementary information is needed, in particular with respect to the indoor environment. According to the results, the real estate management sector contributes between 10% and 40% of Swedish energy use; use of hazardous chemical products; generation of solid waste; emissions of gases contributing to climate change; and human toxicological impacts, including nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulates. Transport and production of nonrenewable building materials contribute significantly to several of the emissions. Heating of buildings contributes more to energy use than to climate change, due to the use of renewable energy sources. To reduce climate change, measures should therefore prioritize not only heating of buildings but also the important upstream processes.

  • 350.
    Tyskeng, Sara
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Environmental assessments of projects and local plans in the energy and waste sectors in Sweden: Practice and potential for improvement2006Report (Other academic)
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