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  • 301.
    Nyström, Lina
    et al.
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Pharm, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Nordström, Randi
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Pharm, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Strömstedt, Adam
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Med Chem, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Saunders, Brian
    Univ Manchester, Manchester, Lancs, England..
    Alvarez-Asencio, Ruben
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Rutland, Mark W.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Malmsten, Martin
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Pharm, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Peptide-loaded microgels as antimicrobial surface coatings2018In: Abstract of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 255Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 302. Ocheng, Francis
    et al.
    Bwanga, Freddie
    Joloba, Moses
    Borg-Karlson, Ann-Karin
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Obua, Celestino
    Antibacterial activities of extracts from Ugandan medicinal plants used for oral care2014In: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, ISSN 0378-8741, E-ISSN 1872-7573, Vol. 155, no 1, p. 852-855Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethnopharmacological relevance: Medicinal plants are widely used for treatment of oral/dental diseases in Uganda. Aim of the study: To investigate antibacterial activities of 16 commonly used medicinal plants on microorganisms associated with periodontal diseases (PD) and dental caries (DC). Materials and methods: Pulp juice and solvent extracts (hexane, methanol and water) from the plants were tested against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia associated with PD and Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Lactobacillus acidophilus associated with DC. Tests were done using agar well-diffusion (pulp juice) and agar-dilution (Solvent extracts) assays. Results: Pulp juice from Zanthoxylum chalybeum and Euclea latidens showed activity against all the bacteria, Zanthoxylum chalybeum being most active. Hexane extract from aerial part of Helichrysum odoratissimum was most active (MIC: 0.125-0.5 mg/ml). Methanol extract from leaves of Lantana trifolia showed activity against all bacteria (MIC: 0.25-1 mg/ml). Conclusion: Several of the tested plants showed antibacterial activities against bacteria associated with PD and DC, meriting further investigations.

  • 303.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Bertling, Sofia
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Corrosion Science.
    Herting, Gunilla
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Environmental fate of corrosion-induced metal release from stainless steel2005In: Nordic Steel & Mining Review, ISSN 0284-0448, no 3, p. 32-34Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 304.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.
    Bertling, Sofia
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.
    Herting, Gunilla
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.
    Runoff and fate of zinc from outdoor constructions - Selected results from a five-year exposure programme (short summary)2004In: ACOM (A corrosion management and applications engineering magazine from Outokumpu Stainless), Vol. 2Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 305.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.
    Bertling, Sofia
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.
    Kan miljöeffekter påvisas från utomhuskonstruktioner i rostfritt stål?2004In: Bygg & Teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, no 4, p. 26-28Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 306.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Corrosion Science.
    Bertling, Sofia
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Corrosion Science.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Corrosion Science.
    Kupfer- und Zinkabschwemmungen von Metalldächern: Forschung schließt Wissenslücken bei realen Massenströmen2005In: Wasser- /Abwassertechnik, Vol. 1-2, p. 15-18Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [de]

    Für Dächer, Dachentwässerungen und Fassaden werden seit langem die Materialien Kupfer und Zink eingesetzt. Die durch Korrosion entstehende schützende Patina wird bei Regenereignissen teilweise abgeschwemmt und gelangt in die Kanalisation oder in den Boden von Versickerungsanlagen. Um die ökologischen Auswirkungen quantifizieren zu können, sind in interdisziplinären Forschungsvorhaben quantitative Daten über die Freisetzung von Kupfer und Zink von handelsüblichen Baublechen erhoben worden, außerdem die chemischen Reaktionen der Metalle als Kenngrößen für ihre Bioverfügbarkeit. Die Arbeiten schließen Wissenslücken bezgl. der realen Massenströme.

  • 307.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Corrosion Science.
    Bertling, Sofia
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Corrosion Science.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Corrosion Science.
    Runoff and fate of zinc from outdoor constructions: Selected results from a five-year exposure programme2005In: Metall (Berlin. 1947), ISSN 0026-0746, Vol. 59, no 10, p. 629-633Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential environmental effects of zinc from zinc-containing building materials is the focus of a broad multidisciplinary research project performed at the division of Corrosion Science at KTH, Stockholm, Sweden. This paper is a summary of key results obtained after 5 years of exposure and provides scientific insight into processes along the whole pathway of zinc from the source to the recipient.

  • 308.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface Chemistry.
    Bertling, Sofia
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface Chemistry.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface Chemistry.
    The environmental interaction of corrosion-induced metal release from stainless steel2005In: Proceedings, 16th International Corrosion Congress, Beijing, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 309.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Herting, Gunilla
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Alloys2010In: Health Risk Assessment Guidance for Metals, Eurofer , 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 310.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Corrosion Science.
    Korpinen, T
    Sundberg, R
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Corrosion Science.
    Atmospheric Corrosion of Naturally and Pre-Patinated Copper Roofs in Singapore and Stockholm – Runoff rates and corrosion product formation2002In: Outdoor Atmospheric Corrosion: American Society for Testing and Materials / [ed] Herbert E Townsend, ASTM International, 2002, p. 230-Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 311.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Corrosion Science (closed 20081231).
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Corrosion Science (closed 20081231).
    Bertling, Sofia
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Corrosion Science (closed 20081231).
    Frigörelse av koppar och zink från byggnadsmaterial och växelverkan med omgivande miljö2005In: Bygg & Teknik, ISSN 1942-0862, Vol. 4, p. 55-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 312.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Lindström, David
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Herting, Gunilla
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Varmförzinkat stål i samhället2008In: Bygg & Teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, Vol. MajArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 313.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Ullman, Y
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Dromberg, P.
    Water and Sewage Network Investigations, Stockholm Vatten VA AB.
    Vad tar den koppar som frigörs från koppartak vägen?2009In: Bygg & Teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, Vol. 4, p. 28-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 314.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Zhang, Xian
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Goidanich, Sara
    Le Bozec, Nathalie
    Herting, Gunilla
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Corrosion and runoff rates of Cu and three Cu-alloys in marine environments with increasing chloride deposition rate2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 472, p. 681-694Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bare copper sheet and three commercial Cu-based alloys, Cu15Zn, Cu4Sn and Cu5Al5Zn, have been exposed to four test sites in Brest, France, with strongly varying chloride deposition rates. The corrosion rates of all four materials decrease continuously with distance from the coast, i.e. with decreasing chloride load, and in the following order: Cu4Sn > Cu sheet > Cu15Zn > Cu5Al5Zn. The patina on all materials was composed of two main layers, Cu2O as the inner layer and Cu-2(OH)(3)Cl as the outer layer, and with a discontinuous presence of CuCl in between. Additional minor patina constituents are SnO2 (Cu4Sn), Zn-5(OH)(6)(CO3)(2) (Cu15Zn and Cu5Al5Zn) and Zn6Al2(OH)(16)CO3 center dot 4H(2)O/Zn2Al(OH)(6)Cl center dot 2H(2)O/Zn5Cl2(OH)8 center dot H2O and Al2O3 (Cu5Al5Zn). The observed Zn- and Zn/Al-containing corrosion products might be important factors for the lower sensitivity of Cu15Zn and Cu5Al5Zn against chloride-induced atmospheric corrosion compared with Cu sheet and Cu4Sn. Decreasing corrosion rates with exposure time were observed for all materials and chloride loads and attributed to an improved adherence with time of the outer patina to the underlying inner oxide. Flaking of the outer patina layer was mainly observed on Cu4Sn and Cu sheet and associated with the gradual transformation of CuCl to Cu-2(OH)(3)Cl of larger volume. After three years only Cu5Al5Zn remains lustrous because of a patina compared with the other materials that appeared brownish-reddish. Significantly lower release rates of metals compared with corresponding corrosion rates were observed for all materials. Very similar release rates of copper from all four materials were observed during the fifth year of marine exposure due to an outer surface patina that with time revealed similar constituents and solubility properties.

  • 315. Ohtsuka, T.
    et al.
    Tsai, Yen-Hsi Richard
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Numerical Analysis, NA. University of Texas at Austin, TX, United States.
    Giga, Y.
    Growth Rate of Crystal Surfaces with Several Dislocation Centers2018In: Crystal Growth & Design, ISSN 1528-7483, E-ISSN 1528-7505, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 1917-1929Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied analytically and numerically the growth rate of a crystal surface growing by several screw dislocations. We observed some discrepancy between the growth rates computed by our level set method (J. Sci. Comput. 2015, 62.

  • 316. Okal, Michael N.
    et al.
    Herrera-Varela, Manuela
    Ouma, Paul
    Torto, Baldwyn
    Lindsay, Steven W.
    Lindh, Jenny M.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Fillinger, Ulrike
    Analysing chemical attraction of gravid Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto with modified BG-Sentinel traps2015In: Parasites & Vectors, ISSN 1756-3305, E-ISSN 1756-3305, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Cues that guide gravid Anopheles gambiae sensu lato to oviposition sites can be manipulated to create new strategies for monitoring and controlling malaria vectors. However, progress towards identifying such cues is slow in part due to the lack of appropriate tools for investigating long-range attraction to putative oviposition substrates. This study aimed to develop a relatively easy-to-use bioassay system that can effectively analyse chemical attraction of gravid Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto. Methods: BG-Sentinel (TM) mosquito traps that use fans to dispense odourants were modified to contain aqueous substrates. Choice tests with two identical traps set in an 80 m(2) screened semi-field system were used to analyse the catch efficacy of the traps and the effectiveness of the bioassay. A different batch of 200 gravid An. gambiae s.s. was released on every experimental night. Choices tested were (1) distilled versus distilled water (baseline) and (2) distilled water versus soil infusion. Further, comparisons were made of distilled water and soil infusions both containing 150 g/l of Sodium Chloride (NaCl). Sodium Chloride is known to affect the release rate of volatiles from organic substrates. Results: When both traps contained distilled water, 45 % (95 confidence interval (CI) 33-57 %) of all released mosquitoes were trapped. The proportion increased to 84 % (95 CI 73-91 %) when traps contained soil infusions. In choice tests, a gravid female was twice as likely to be trapped in the test trap with soil infusion as in the trap with distilled water (odds ratio (OR) 1.8, 95 % CI 1.3-2.6). Furthermore, the attraction of gravid females towards the test trap with infusion more than tripled (OR 3.4, 95 % CI 2.4-4.8) when salt was added to the substrates. Conclusion: Minor modifications of the BG-Sentinel (TM) mosquito trap turned it into a powerful bioassay tool for evaluating the orientation of gravid mosquitoes to putative oviposition substrates using olfaction. This study describes a useful tool for investigating olfactory attraction of gravid An. gambiae s.s. and provides additional evidence that gravid mosquitoes of this species are attracted to and can be baited with attractive substrates such as organic infusions over a distance of several metres.

  • 317.
    Omolo, Maurice O
    et al.
    International Center for Insect Physiology and Ecology, ICIPE, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Hassanali, Ahmed
    International Center for Insect Physiology and Ecology, ICIPE, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Mpiana, Serge
    Labovet, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.
    Esterhuizen, Johan
    Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, UK.
    Lindh, Jenny
    Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, UK.
    Lehane, Mike J
    Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, UK.
    Solano, Philippe
    Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), UMR 177 IRD-CIRAD, Montpellier, France.
    Rayaisse, Jean Baptiste
    Centre International de Recherche-Développement sur l'Elevage en Zone Subhumide (CIRDES), Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso.
    Vale, Glyn A
    Natural Resources Institute, University of Greenwich, Chatham, United Kingdom.
    Torr, Steve J
    Natural Resources Institute, University of Greenwich, Chatham, United Kingdom.
    Tirados, Inaki
    Natural Resources Institute, University of Greenwich, Chatham, United Kingdom.
    Prospects for developing odour baits to control Glossina fuscipes spp., the major vector of human African trypanosomiasis.2009In: PLoS neglected tropical diseases, ISSN 1935-2735, Vol. 3, no 5, p. e435-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We are attempting to develop cost-effective control methods for the important vector of sleeping sickness, Glossina fuscipes spp. Responses of the tsetse flies Glossina fuscipes fuscipes (in Kenya) and G. f. quanzensis (in Democratic Republic of Congo) to natural host odours are reported. Arrangements of electric nets were used to assess the effect of cattle-, human- and pig-odour on (1) the numbers of tsetse attracted to the odour source and (2) the proportion of flies that landed on a black target (1x1 m). In addition responses to monitor lizard (Varanus niloticus) were assessed in Kenya. The effects of all four odours on the proportion of tsetse that entered a biconical trap were also determined. Sources of natural host odour were produced by placing live hosts in a tent or metal hut (volumes approximately 16 m(3)) from which the air was exhausted at approximately 2000 L/min. Odours from cattle, pigs and humans had no significant effect on attraction of G. f. fuscipes but lizard odour doubled the catch (P<0.05). Similarly, mammalian odours had no significant effect on landing or trap entry whereas lizard odour increased these responses significantly: landing responses increased significantly by 22% for males and 10% for females; the increase in trap efficiency was relatively slight (5-10%) and not always significant. For G. f. quanzensis, only pig odour had a consistent effect, doubling the catch of females attracted to the source and increasing the landing response for females by approximately 15%. Dispensing CO(2) at doses equivalent to natural hosts suggested that the response of G. f. fuscipes to lizard odour was not due to CO(2). For G. f. quanzensis, pig odour and CO(2) attracted similar numbers of tsetse, but CO(2) had no material effect on the landing response. The results suggest that identifying kairomones present in lizard odour for G. f. fuscipes and pig odour for G. f. quanzensis may improve the performance of targets for controlling these species.

  • 318. Oprea, Corneliu I.
    et al.
    Panait, Petre
    Minaev, Boris F.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Theoretical Chemistry and Biology.
    Ågren, Hans
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Theoretical Chemistry and Biology.
    Cimpoesu, Fanica
    Ferbinteanu, Marilena
    Girtu, Mihai A.
    Comparative computational IR, Raman and phosphorescence study of Ru- and Rh-based complexes2013In: Molecular Physics, ISSN 0026-8976, E-ISSN 1362-3028, Vol. 111, no 9-11, p. 1526-1538Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report density functional theory (DFT) calculations providing the infrared and Raman spectra of [Ru(II)(bpy)(3-n)(dcbpy)(n)](2+) and [Rh(III)(bpy)(3-n)(dcbpy)(n)](3+) complexes, where bpy = 2,2-bipyridyl, dcbpy = 4,4-dicarboxy-2,2-bipyridyl, and n = 0, 1, 2, 3, studied in the context of dye-sensitised solar cells. We compare and contrast the role of the metallic ion and of the COOH groups on the vibration and phosphorescence properties of these complexes. The vibrational spectra are not very sensitive to the replacement of the metal ion, but the presence of carboxyl groups leads to a richer spectrum due to the additional bands caused by the COOH groups. Comparison with the limited experimental data available allowed the assignment of the Raman bands. The calculated phosphorescence lifetimes suffer only modest changes when the COOH groups are introduced but vary significantly when changing the metal ion, being two orders of magnitude larger for Rh(III) than for the Ru(II) complexes.

  • 319.
    Osaku, Erica F.
    et al.
    Univ Estadual Oeste Parana, Ctr Ciencias Biol & Saude, Caixa Postal 711, BR-85819110 Cascavel, PR, Brazil..
    Menolli, Rafael A.
    Univ Estadual Oeste Parana, Ctr Ciencias Medicas & Farmaceut, Caixa Postal 711, BR-85819110 Cascavel, PR, Brazil..
    Costa, Claudia R. L. de M.
    Univ Estadual Oeste Parana, Ctr Ciencias Biol & Saude, Caixa Postal 711, BR-85819110 Cascavel, PR, Brazil..
    Tessaro, Fernando Henrique G.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Fac Ciencias Farmaceut, BR-05508000 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil..
    de Melo, Renan H.
    Univ Estadual Oeste Parana, Ctr Ciencias Medicas & Farmaceut, Caixa Postal 711, BR-85819110 Cascavel, PR, Brazil..
    do Amaral, Alex E.
    Univ Fed Santa Catarina, Programa Pos Grad Farm, BR-88040900 Florianopolis, SC, Brazil..
    Duarte, Pericles A. D.
    Univ Estadual Oeste Parana, Ctr Ciencias Medicas & Farmaceut, Caixa Postal 711, BR-85819110 Cascavel, PR, Brazil..
    de Santana Filho, Arquimedes Paixao
    Univ Fed Parana, Dept Bioquim & Biol Mol, BR-81531990 Curitiba, PR, Brazil..
    Ruthes, Andrea Caroline
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience.
    Silva, Jose Luis da C.
    Univ Estadual Oeste Parana, Ctr Ciencias Medicas & Farmaceut, Caixa Postal 711, BR-85819110 Cascavel, PR, Brazil..
    Mello, Rosiane G.
    beta-(1 -> 6)-d-glucan secreted during the optimised production of exopolysaccharides by Paecilomyces variotii has immunostimulatory activity2018In: Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. International Journal of General and Molecular Microbiology, ISSN 0003-6072, E-ISSN 1572-9699, Vol. 111, no 6, p. 981-994Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Paecilomyces variotii is a filamentous fungus that occurs worldwide in soil and decaying vegetation. Optimization of the fermentation process for exopolysaccharide (EPS) production from the fungus P. variotii, structure determination and immuno-stimulating activity of EPS were performed. Response surface methodology (RSM) coupled with central composite design (CCD) was used to optimize the physical and chemical factors required to produce EPS in submerged fermentation. Preliminary investigations to choose the three factors for the present work were made using a factorial experimental design. Glucose, ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) and pH were used as variables for which, with constant temperature of 28 A degrees C and agitation of 90 rpm, the optimal process parameters were determined as glucose values of 0.96%, NH4NO3 0.26% and pH 8.0. The three parameters presented significant effects. In this condition of culture, the main composition of the isolated EPS was a linear beta-(1 -> 6)-linked-D-glucan, as determined by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and methylation analysis. This polysaccharide is a very unusual as an EPS from fungi, especially a filamentous fungus such as P. variotii. Murine peritoneal macrophages cultivated with beta-glucan for 6 and 48 h showed an increase in TNF-alpha, IL-6 and nitric oxide release with increased polysaccharide concentrations. Therefore, we conclude that the beta-(1 -> 6)-linked-D-glucan produced in optimised conditions of P. variotii cultivation has an immune-stimulatory activity on murine macrophages.

  • 320.
    Oskarsson, Caroline
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH).
    Reduction of selected pharmaceutical substances byfungi isolated from wastewater2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, adverse effects have been shown in marine living organisms due to pharmaceuticalsubstances released into nature. The emission of pharmaceutical substances into the environmentis mainly due to excretion by humans, which conventional wastewater treatment technologies arenot always capable of removing. Previous studies have observed fungi as promising treatmentagents for removal of pharmaceutical substances. However, the optimum removal efficiency forthe fungi has been observed at pH ranging from 3.5 to 5.5, while pH of the wastewater rangesbetween 6.5 – 10.This study has investigated the ability of removing pharmaceutical substances by using fungiisolated from a sewage wastewater sample. Initially ten fungal isolates were cultivated in presenceof carbamazepine, diclofenac, ibuprofen and sulfamethoxazol and all ten isolates tolerated a totalpharmaceutical concentration of 5 mg/l. Further, the ability of the isolated fungi to reducecarbamazepine and diclofenac was investigated and Trametes versicolor was used as control fungus.Isolate 6, identified to Aspergillus luchuensis, showed a complete reduction of diclofenac after 10 days,cultivated in a medium with an initial pH of 6.3. Furthermore, A. luchuensis was also observed toreduce diclofenac faster compared to, the previous studied fungi, T. versicolor. From what is known,these results have not been observed in any previous studies. In conclusion, this study has foundA. luchuensis as a promising treatment agent for removal of pharmaceuticals, but also that there areother fungi present in wastewater that can be further studied for this purpose.

  • 321.
    Ovaskainen, Louise
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology.
    Meizoso, Irene Rodriguez
    Turner, Charlotta
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Preparation of polymeric surface coatings by using supercritical carbon dioxide2013In: Abstract of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 245Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 322.
    Oyarce, Alejandro
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Gonzalez, Carlos
    Lima, Raquel Bohn
    Wreland Lindström, Rakel
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Lagergren, Carina
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Direct sorbitol proton exchange membrane fuel cell using moderate catalyst loadings2014In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 116, p. 379-387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent progress in biomass hydrolysis has made it interesting to study the use of sorbitol for electricity generation. In this study, sorbitol and glucose are used as fuels in proton exchange membrane fuel cells having 0.9 mg cm(-2) PtRu/C at the anode and 0.3 mg cm(-2) Pt/C at the cathode. The sorbitol oxidation was found to have slower kinetics than glucose oxidation. However, at low temperatures the direct sorbitol fuel cell shows higher performance than the direct glucose fuel cell, attributed to a lower degree of catalyst poisoning. The performance of both fuel cells is considerably improved at higher temperatures. High temperatures lower the poisoning, allowing the direct glucose fuel cell to reach a higher performance than the direct sorbitol fuel cell. The mass specific peak power densities of the direct sorbitol and direct glucose fuel cells at 65 degrees C was 3.2 mW Mg-catalyst(-1) and 3.5 mW Mg-catalyst(-1), respectively. Both of these values are one order of magnitude larger than mass specific peak power densities of earlier reported direct glucose fuel cells using proton exchange membranes. Furthermore, both the fuel cells showed a considerably decrease in performance with time, which is partially attributed to sorbitol and glucose crossover poisoning the Pt/C cathode.

  • 323.
    Oyarce, Alejandro
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Holmström, Nicklas
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Bodén, A.
    Lagergren, Carina
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Operating conditions affecting the contact resistance of bi-polar plates in proton exchange membrane fuel cells2013In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 231, p. 246-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both ex-situ and in-situ measurements of contact resistance between gas diffusion layer (GDL) and bi-polar plate (BPP) were carried out using the same fuel cell hardware. Each BPP sample was submitted to ex-situ testing at room temperature, ex-situ testing in simulated fuel cell environment and in-situ testing, isolating the effect of specific operating conditions on the contact resistance. Increasing cell temperatures and relative humidity (RH) of the gases lowered the contact resistance. However, the presence of liquid water, measured as an increase in pressure drop over the cathode, affected the contact resistance negatively. High current density operation raises the temperature of the cell, but simultaneously increases the water content at the cathode, causing an increase of the contact resistance. In the case of uncoated steel 316L and gold-coated steel 316L, high current density operation for an extended period of time also caused a progressive deterioration of the contact resistance, which without this in-situ measurement could have been mistaken for other ohmic losses, e.g. increased membrane resistance due to metal ion poisoning.

  • 324.
    Pan, Jinshan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Davoodi, A
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Norgren, S.
    Application of combined electrochemical AFM and SECM for in-situ study of localized corrosion of Al alloys in chloride solutions2005In: Proc. 16th International Corrosion Congress, Beijing, Sept. 19-24, 2005, 2005, p. 9-31Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 325.
    Pan, Jinshan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Rosborg, Bo
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Tafel slopes used in monitoring of copper corrosion in a bentonite/groundwater environment2005In: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 47, no 12, p. 3267-3279Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The harmonic analysis, the polarization resistance, and the noise resistance methods have been applied in an effort to monitor corrosion of pure copper in a bentonite/groundwater environment with commercially available equipment. Without the need to use a reference electrode, the first method supplies not only an estimate of the corrosion rate, but also estimates of Tafel slopes required by the other methods. The recorded corrosion rate is overestimated but to a varying degree. While the recorded corrosion rates for the first two methods give quite similar values far below 3 lm/year, the electrochemical noise resistance method gives considerably higher values.

  • 326.
    Pan, Jinshan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Norlin, Anna
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Investigation of electrochemical behavior of stimulation/sensing electrode materials for pacemaker applications2005In: Proc. 16th International Corrosion Congress, Beijing, Sept. 19-24, 2005, 2005, p. 14-33Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 327. Panigrahi, P.
    et al.
    Naqvi, S. R.
    Hankel, M.
    Ahuja, Rajeev
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Hussain, T.
    Enriching the hydrogen storage capacity of carbon nanotube doped with polylithiated molecules2018In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 444, p. 467-473Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a quest to find optimum materials for efficient storage of clean energy, we have performed first principles calculations to study the structural and energy storage properties of one-dimensional carbon nanotubes (CNTs) functionalized with polylithiated molecules (PLMs). Van der Waals corrected calculations disclosed that various PLMs like CLi, CLi2, CLi3, OLi, OLi2, OLi3, bind strongly to CNTs even at high doping concentrations ensuring a uniform distribution of dopants without forming clusters. Bader charge analysis reveals that each Li in all the PLMs attains a partial positive charge and transform into Li+ cations. This situation allows multiple H2 molecules adsorbed with each Li+ through the polarization of incident H2 molecules via electrostatic and van der Waals type of interaction. With a maximum doping concentration, that is 3CLi2/3CLi3 and 3OLi2/3OLi3 a maximum of 36 H2 molecules could be adsorbed that corresponds to a reasonably high H2 storage capacity with the adsorption energies in the range of −0.33 to −0.15 eV/H2. This suits the ambient condition applications.

  • 328. Partanen, Riitta
    et al.
    Forssell, Pirkko
    Mackie, Alan
    Blomberg, Eva
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Interfacial cross-linking of beta-casein changes the structure of the adsorbed layer2013In: Food Hydrocolloids, ISSN 0268-005X, E-ISSN 1873-7137, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 271-277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanism of transglutaminase-induced cross-linking of interfacial beta-casein layer was investigated in tetradecane/buffer system. Monolayer studies were carried out in a Langmuir trough, where incubation with the enzyme mostly affected the compression of the film through adsorption of transglutaminase to the interface. Interfacial shear rheology was used to follow the kinetics of formation of a visco-elastic film upon cross-linking. Substrate concentration affected the rate of the interfacial cross-linking, when enzyme was dosed per protein concentration. This was most likely due to the saturated substrate layer at the interface in all cases. SDS-PAGE revealed that most of the beta-casein at the interface was not cross-linked by intermolecular links, but rather, intramolecular links were formed. Finally, studies of adsorbed beta-casein layers on polystyrene beads revealed that cross-linking reduced the thickness of the adsorption layer from 11-12 nm to 8-9 nm. These results suggest that it may be mainly intra-molecular cross-linking which modifies the physical interactions of beta-caseins at the interface resulting in a higher layer density and thus, formation of a visco-elastic network.

  • 329. Pasti, Igor A.
    et al.
    Skorodumova, Natalia V.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Multiscale Materials Modelling. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Mentus, Slavko V.
    Theoretical studies in catalysis and electrocatalysis: from fundamental knowledge to catalyst design2015In: Reaction Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis, ISSN 1878-5190, E-ISSN 1878-5204, Vol. 115, no 1, p. 5-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Catalytic processes are an indispensable part of a large number of contemporary technologies that stimulate a constant research and development effort in the field. Computational methods represent a valuable tool to investigate crucial steps of catalytic cycles able to reveal the main characteristics of a catalyst and provide a basis for the design of materials with superior catalytic activity. This review is focused on the recent advances in density functional theory studies of the interactions of reactive species and intermediates with solid surfaces. As examples, we discuss the catalysts for the CO oxidation and electrocatalysis of H-2 and O-2 electrode reactions. We demonstrate how the theoretical modelling can contribute to the understanding of catalytic processes and help to design new catalysts and electrocatalysts.

  • 330.
    Pavankumar, Asalapuram Ramachandran
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Industrial Biotechnology.
    Norén, Johan
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Industrial Biotechnology.
    Singh, Lakhvinder
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Industrial Biotechnology.
    Gowda, Naveen Kumar Chandappa
    Scaling-up the production of recombinant Moringa oleifera coagulant protein for large-scale water treatment applications2014In: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 4, no 14, p. 7136-7141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Provision of safe drinking water, devoid of aetiologies is an all-time challenge due to the usage of unsafe chemicals in most of the water treatment processes. In this regard, proteins of Moringa oleifera (MO) provide most promising solutions, as its crude seed extracts are being used as natural 'water clarifiers' in drinking and wastewater treatments. Among MO seed proteins, a 6.5 kDa coagulant protein (MO coagulant protein; MOCP) has gained importance because of its antimicrobial and water clarification properties. Considering the biomedical and commercial values of the MO plant, in this study, the cDNA coding for MOCP was cloned and over expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3). After bench-scale experiments, for the first time, the recombinant protein production was scaled up to 7 L bioreactors in Luria Broth supplemented with 1% glucose. About 42 mg of Moringa oleifera coagulating recombinant protein (MOCRP; 6.5 kDa) was purified using superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) from 1 litre of the over expressed E. coli cell cultures. The purified MOCRP revealed an efficient coagulation activity (similar to 66%) even with 0.1 mg L-1; while very good antimicrobial response was recorded against a set of Gram-negative and Gram-positive microorganisms at as low as 10 mg L-1. Thus, we report the over expression and purification of this dual-function protein (MOCRP) from moringa for the first time, using bioreactors with an economical and user-friendly approach for large-scale applications.

  • 331.
    Pei, Aihua
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Berglund, Lars A.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Zhou, Qi
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Surface-modification of nanocelluloses and their applications in poly(lactic acid)/nanocellulose biocomposites2014In: Abstract of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 247, p. 163-CELL-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 332.
    Pei, Aihua
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Butchosa, Nuria
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Berglund, Lars A.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Zhou, Qi
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Surface quaternized cellulose nanofibrils with high water absorbency and adsorption capacity for anionic dyes2013In: Soft Matter, ISSN 1744-683X, E-ISSN 1744-6848, Vol. 9, no 6, p. 2047-2055Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surface quaternized cellulose nanofibrils were mechanically disintegrated from wood pulp that was pretreated through a reaction with glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride. The resulting quaternized cellulose nanofibrils (Q-NFC) with trimethylammonium chloride contents of 0.59-2.31 mmol g(-1) were characterized by conductometric titration, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). When the trimethylammonium chloride content on cellulose reached approximately 0.79 mmol g(-1) corresponding to a degree of substitution of 0.13 per bulk anhydroglucose unit, highly viscous and transparent aqueous dispersions of cellulose nanofibrils were obtained by mechanical homogenization of the chemically pretreated cellulose/water slurries. AFM observation showed that the dispersions consisted of individualized cellulose I nanofibrils 1.6-2.1 nm in width and 1.3-2.0 mu m in length. Cellulose nanopapers prepared from the Q-NFC aqueous dispersions exhibited high tensile strength (ca. 200 MPa) and Young's modulus (ca. 10 GPa) despite high porosity (37-48%). The nanopapers also demonstrated ultrahigh water absorbency (750 g g(-1)) with high surface cationic charge density. Stable hydrogels were obtained after swelling the nanopaper in water. The Q-NFC nanofibrils also possessed high anionic dye adsorption capability. The adsorption capacity increased with increasing trimethylammonium chloride content on cellulose.

  • 333.
    Perumal, Sathya
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Theoretical Chemistry and Biology.
    Minaev, Boris
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Theoretical Chemistry and Biology.
    Ågren, Hans
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Theoretical Chemistry and Biology.
    Triplet State Phosphorescence in Tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) Aluminum Light Emitting Diode Materials2013In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 117, no 7, p. 3446-3455Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) with the quadratic response technique is applied to the tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum complex (Alq(3)) to calculate spin orbit coupling (SOC) effects and the main mechanism of the Alq(3) phosphorescence. This compound exhibits weak phosphorescence which provides additional emission in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) besides the main fluorescence band. The phosphorescence affords to overcome the efficiency limit imposed by the formation of triplet excitons in the emissive layer of OLEDs. The zero-field splitting (ZFS) parameters are also calculated taking into account the spin spin coupling in the first-order perturbation theory and the SOC in the second order. On the basis of the results obtained, we propose that an efficient spin-polarized injection and transport in long channels of Alq(3), which have been recently achieved with new hybrid organic inorganic interfaces, can proceed with the triplet electronic state admixture to the charge carriers. Our results also indicate that weak spin orbit coupling may be responsible for the room-temperature magneto-resistance at the ferromagnetic-Alq(3) interfaces and the spin-dependent charge transport.

  • 334.
    Pettersson, Torbjörn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Nugroho, Robertus Wahyu N.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Odelius, Karin
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Höglund, Anders
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Albertsson, Ann-Christine
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Designing nonagglomerating polylactide particles with various interaction forces by covalent photografting2014In: Abstract of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 247, p. 768-COLL-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 335.
    Pevere, Federico
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Material Physics, MF.
    Sychugov, Ilya
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Material Physics, MF.
    Sangghaleh, Fatemeh
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Material Physics, MF.
    Fucikova, Anna
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics.
    Linnros, Jan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Material Physics, MF.
    Biexciton Emission as a Probe of Auger Recombination in Individual Silicon Nanocrystals2015In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 119, no 13, p. 7499-7505Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biexciton emission from individual silicon nanocrystals was detected at room temperature by time-resolved, single-particle luminescence measurements. The efficiency of this process, however, was found to be very low, about 10-20 times less than the single exciton emission efficiency. It decreases even further at low temperature, explaining the lack of biexciton emission line observations in silicon nanocrystal single-dot spectroscopy under high excitation. The poor efficiency of the biexciton emission is attributed to the dominant nonradiative Auger process. Corresponding measured biexciton decay times then represent Auger lifetimes, and the values obtained here, from tens to hundreds of nanoseconds, reveal strong dot-to-dot variations, while the range compares well with recent calculations taking into account the resonant nature of the Auger process in semiconductor nanocrystals.

  • 336. Pietra, M. D.
    et al.
    Rexed, Ivan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Lagergren, Carina
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    McPhail, S.
    Paoletti, C.
    Moreno, A.
    Experimental procedures for accelerated aging tests using MCFC button cells2013In: EFC 2013 - Proceedings of the 5th European Fuel Cell Piero Lunghi Conference, 2013, p. 363-364Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this work is to study whether the effects of electrolyte evaporation in long term operation of MCFCs can be accelerated at button cell level due to the increased rate of evaporation in the open-chamber configuration. This study is being carried out with several trials: the first trial aims to generate a benchmark of performance at button cell level, i.e. with accelerated electrolyte evaporation, at reference operating conditions, carrying out regular polarization curves and EIS until the performance degrades below a predefined level. The second trial aims to compensate the evaporation of electrolyte from the button cell by periodically adding carbonate and maintain a constant performance for the length of time that the first button cell (without carbonate addition) achieved. Once the isolated effect of electrolyte evaporation has been thus quantified, successive trials can be set up to superimpose other degradation and evaluate their interaction with the mechanism of electrolyte evaporation.

  • 337.
    Pilkington, Georgia A.
    et al.
    School of Chemistry, University of Bristol.
    Thormann, Esben
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Claesson, Per M.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Fuge, Gareth M.
    School of Chemistry, University of Bristol.
    Fox, Oliver J. L.
    School of Chemistry, University of Bristol.
    Ashfold, Michael N. R.
    School of Chemistry, University of Bristol.
    Leese, Hannah
    Dept of Chemical Engineering, University of Bath, UK.
    Mattia, Davide
    Dept of Chemical Engineering, University of Bath, UK.
    Briscoe, Wuge H.
    School of Chemistry, University of Bristol.
    Amontonian frictional behaviour of nanostructured surfaces2011In: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, ISSN 1463-9076, E-ISSN 1463-9084, Vol. 13, p. 9318-9326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With nanotextured surfaces and interfaces increasingly being encountered in technological and biomedical applications, there is a need for a better understanding of frictional properties involving such surfaces. Here we report friction measurements of several nanostructured surfaces using an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). These nanostructured surfaces provide well defined model systems on which we have tested the applicability of Amontons' laws of friction. Our results show that Amontonian behaviour is observed with each of the surfaces studied. However, no correlation has been found between measured friction and various surface roughness parameters such as average surface roughness (Ra) and root mean squared (rms) roughness. Instead, we propose that the friction coefficient may be decomposed into two contributions, i.e., μ = μ0 + μg, with the intrinsic friction coefficient μ0 accounting for the chemical nature of the surfaces and the geometric friction coefficient μg for the presence of nanotextures. We have found a possible correlation between μg and the average local slope of the surface nanotextures.

  • 338.
    Pink, David A.
    et al.
    Department of Physics, St. Francis Xavier University, Antigonish, Nova Scotia B2G 2W5, Canada.
    Hanna, Charles B.
    Advanced Foods and Materials Network of Centres of Excellence (AFMNet-NCE), Canada.
    Sandt, Christophe
    Department of Chemistry, St. Francis Xavier University, Antigonish, Nova Scotia B2G 2W5, Canada.
    MacDonald, Adam J.
    Advanced Foods and Materials Network of Centres of Excellence (AFMNet-NCE), Canada.
    MacEachern, Ronald
    Advanced Foods and Materials Network of Centres of Excellence (AFMNet-NCE), Canada.
    Corkery, Robert W.
    YKI, Institute for Surface Chemistry, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rousseau, Derick.
    Advanced Foods and Materials Network of Centres of Excellence (AFMNet-NCE), Canada.
    Modeling the solid-liquid phase transition in saturated triglycerides2010In: Journal of Chemical Physics, ISSN 0021-9606, E-ISSN 1089-7690, Vol. 132, no 5, p. 054502/1-054502/11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated theor. two competing published scenarios for the melting transition of the triglyceride trilaurin (TL): those of (1) Corkery et al., in which the av. state of each TL mol. in the liq. phase is a discotic "Y" conformer whose three chains are dynamically twisted, with an av. angle of ∌120° between them, and those of (2) Cebula et al., in which the liq.-state conformation of the TL mol. in the liq. phase is a nematic h*-conformer whose three chains are in a modified "chair" conformation. We developed two competing models for the two scenarios, in which TL mols. are in a nematic compact-chair (or "h") conformation, with extended, possibly all-trans, chains at low-temps., and in either a Y conformation or an h* conformation in the liq. state at temps. higher than the phase-transition temp., T* = 319 K. We defined an h-Y model as a realization of the proposal of R. Corkery et al. (2007), and explored its predictions by mapping it onto an Ising model in a temp.-dependent field, performing a mean-field approxn., and calcg. the transition enthalpy ΔH. We found that the most plausible realization of the h-Y model, as applied to the solid-liq. phase transition in TL, and likely to all satd. triglycerides, gave a value of ΔH in reasonable agreement with the expt. We then defined an alternative h-h* model as a realization of the proposal of D. J. Cebula et al. (1992), in which the liq. phase exhibits an av. symmetry breaking similar to an h conformation, but with twisted chains, to see whether it could describe the TL phase transition. The h-h* model gave a value of ΔH that was too small by a factor of ∌3-4. We also predicted the temp. dependence of the 1132 cm-1 Raman band for both models, and performed measurements of the ratios of three TL Raman bands in the temp. range of -20° ≀ T ≀ 90°. The exptl. results were in accord with the predictions of the h-Y model and support the proposal of that the liq. state is made up of mols. that are each, on av., in a Y conformation. Finally, we carried out computer simulations of minimal-model TLs in the liq. phase, and concluded that although the individual TL mols. are, on av., Y conformers, long-range discotic order is unlikely to exist.

  • 339.
    Porsch, Christian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Zhang, Yuning
    Ducani, Cosimo
    Vilaplana, Francisco
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Nordstierna, Lars
    Nyström, Andreas M.
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Toward Unimolecular Micelles with Tunable Dimensions Using Hyperbranched Dendritic-Linear Polymers2014In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 15, no 6, p. 2235-2245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A library of amphiphilic, hyperbranched dendritic-linear polymers (HBDLPs) are successfully synthesized, and evaluated as potential unimolecular micelles. Hyperbranched macroinitiators (HBMI), extended with poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (P(OEGMA)), are afforded via a combination of self-condensing vinyl (co)polymerization (SCV(C)P) and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), providing a versatile two-step synthetic route. The HBDLP architecture and chain lengths are varied, and the effect on the nanoparticle (NP) stability and properties are evaluated. The HBDLPs form predominantly stable and spherical NPs, and the NP dimensions could be tailored by the HBDLP characteristics. The NPs formed are of high molecular weight, and their stability varies with the properties of the corresponding HBDLP. Too small dendritic segment, or too low degree of PEGylation, results to some extent in NP aggregation, while higher molecular weight HBDLPs, with a high amount of hydrophilic segments, appears to form discrete unimolecular micelles. The versatility of the platform is further demonstrated by the convenience of forming a HBDLP. with a more complex, linear copolymer extension instead of P(OEGMA).

  • 340.
    Porsch, Christian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Zhang, Yuning
    Östlund, Åsa
    Damberg, Peter
    Ducani, Cosimo
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Nyström, Andreas M.
    In Vitro Evaluation of Non-Protein Adsorbing Breast Cancer Theranostics Based on 19F-Polymer Containing Nanoparticles2013In: Particle & particle systems characterization, ISSN 0934-0866, E-ISSN 1521-4117, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 381-390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eight fluorinated nanoparticles (NPs) are synthesized, loaded with doxorubicin (DOX), and evaluated as theranostic delivery platforms to breast cancer cells. The multifunctional NPs are formed by self-assembly of either linear or star-shaped amphiphilic block copolymers, with fluorinated segments incorporated in the hydrophilic corona of the carrier. The sizes of the NPs confirm that small circular NPs are formed. The release kinetics data of the particles reveals clear hydrophobic core dependence, with longer sustained release from particles with larger hydrophobic cores, suggesting that the DOX release from these carriers can be tailored. Viability assays and flow cytometry evaluation of the ratios of apoptosis/necrosis indicate that the materials are non-toxic to breast cancer cells before DOX loading; however, they are very efficient, similar to free DOX, at killing cancer cells after drug encapsulation. Both flow cytometry and confocal microscopy confirm the cellular uptake of NPs and DOX-NPs into breast cancer cells, and in vitro 19F-MRI measurement shows that the fluorinated NPs have strong imaging signals, qualifying them as a potential in vivo contrast agent for 19F-MRI.

  • 341.
    Prakobna, Kasinee
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Berthold, Fredrik
    Berglund, Lars A.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Architecture of ultra-high porous honeycombs prepared from core-shell nanocellulose: Structure and mechanical performance2014In: Abstract of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 247, p. 160-CELL-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 342.
    Prideaux, Sonja
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE).
    Speciation and bioavailability of chromium and nickel in Swedish freshwater: For improved assessments in life-cycle analysis (LCA)2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Metals are used in every part of our modern society. As population and wealth increases, so does the demand for metals and metal products. This inherently leads to metal emissions, from the process of mining and producing to usage and disposal. Emissions that may possess a threat to human health and the environment. One method to assess possible impacts over the entire chain ‘from cradle to grave’ is life-cycle assessment (LCA). This method is used today by regulatory instances as well as industry to evaluate total environmental impact of a certain product or process. Toxicity impact of chemical emissions is one part of the LCA analysis, calculated as the product of the fate of the chemical, the exposure routes of the chemical and the effect of the exposure. When it comes to metal emissions, evaluating exposure is not trivial, since it depends on the speciation of the metal whether or not an organism will be exposed. In freshwater ecosystems, the sum of all the metal species that are available for biological uptake are referred to as the bioavailable fraction. The speciation pattern, and thus the size of the bioavailable fraction of a metal, is largely dependent on ambient water chemistry, so that regional differences will be observed. Recent improvements in the LCA methodology have incorporated calculations of the bioavailable fraction of metal emissions, as well as regional variability by the use of seven European water types. However, Swedish freshwater is normally softer, with a lower pH and a higher concentration of metals than the European water types. There is therefore a need to evaluate whether the existing system is applicable to Swedish water chemistry, or if there is a need for further implementations.

    To this background, the aim of this project has been to evaluate the speciation and bioavailability of chromium and nickel, in a case study of emissions into a freshwater relevant for the Swedish steel industry. Specifically, bioavailability factors (BFs) for the two metals were sought, for implementation in the LCA methodology. To accomplish this, computer modelling using Visual MINTEQ and WHAM has been performed, as well as laboratory experiments. In addition, metal release from slag particles has been investigated.

    The results show that the bioavailability of chromium is dominated by the oxidation state of the metal. In the form of Cr(III), it will mainly form insoluble complexes, and the BF is as low as 5·10-5. In the form of Cr(VI) the BF is 0.64. Hence a large amount will be in the largely mobile and bioavailable fraction. This is also the most toxic form of chromium. It is thus very important when assessing chromium emissions to know the oxidation state of the metal. Nickel will mainly be removed from the bioavailable fraction by formation of strong complexes with organic matter. The BF of Ni was established as 0.37 for this case study. Modelling in WHAM gave results in accordance with laboratory results, while Visual MINTEQ seemed to underestimate the BF. Metal content was low in the slag, and the release hardly detectable. However, the results suggest that a large fraction of the released Cr, although low, is in the form of Cr(VI).

  • 343.
    Puziy, Alexander M.
    et al.
    NAS Ukraine, Inst Sorpt & Problems Endoecol, Naumov St 13, UA-03164 Kiev, Ukraine..
    Poddubnaya, Olga I.
    NAS Ukraine, Inst Sorpt & Problems Endoecol, Naumov St 13, UA-03164 Kiev, Ukraine..
    Sevastyanova, Olena
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Carbon Materials from Technical Lignins: Recent Advances2018In: Topics in Current Chemistry, ISSN 2365-0869, Vol. 376, no 4, article id 33Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lignin, a major component of lignocellulosic biomass, is generated in enormous amounts during the pulp production. It is also a major coproduct of second generation biofuels. The effective utilization of lignin is critical for the accelerated development of the advanced cellulosic biorefinery. Low cost and availability of lignin make it attractive precursor for preparation of a range of carbon materials, including activated carbons, activated carbon fibers (CF), structural CF, graphitic carbons or carbon black that could be used for environmental protection, as catalysts, in energy storage applications or as reinforcing components in advanced composite materials. Technical lignins are very diverse in terms of their molecular weight, structure, chemical reactivity, and chemical composition, which is a consequence of the different origin of the lignin and the various methods of lignin isolation. The inherent heterogeneity of lignin is the main obstacle to the preparation of high-performance CF. Although lignin-based CF still do not compete with polyacrylonitrile-derived CF in mechanical properties, they nevertheless provide new markets through high availability and low production costs. Alternatively, technical lignin could be used for production of carbon adsorbents, which have very high surface areas and pore volumes comparable to the best commercial activated carbons. These porous carbons are useful for purifying gas and aqueous media from organic pollutants or adsorption of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. They also could be used as catalysts or electrodes in electrochemical applications.

  • 344. Qian, Z.
    et al.
    Raghubanshi, H.
    Sterlin Leo Hudson, M.
    Srivastava, O. N.
    Liu, X.
    Ahuja, Rajeev
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Ab initio insight into graphene nanofibers to destabilize hydrazine borane for hydrogen release2017In: Chemical Physics Letters, ISSN 0009-2614, E-ISSN 1873-4448, Vol. 669, p. 404-411Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the potential destabilizing effects of graphene nanofibers on the hydrogen release property of hydrazine borane via state-of-the-art ab initio calculations for the first time. Interactions of a hydrazine borane cluster with two types of graphene patch edges which exist abundantly in our synthesized graphene nanofibers have been investigated. It is found that both zigzag and armchair edges can greatly weaken the H-host bonds (especially the middle N[sbnd]H bond) of hydrazine borane. The dramatic decrease in hydrogen removal energy is caused by the strong interaction between hydrazine borane and the graphene patch edges concerning the electronic charge density redistribution.

  • 345. Qu, Jishuang
    et al.
    Jiang, Xiaoqing
    Yu, Ze
    Lai, Jianbo
    Zhao, Yawei
    Hu, Maowei
    Yang, Xichuan
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Organic chemistry.
    Improved performance and air stability of perovskite solar cells based on low-cost organic hole-transporting material X60 by incorporating its dicationic salt2018In: Science in China Series B: Chemistry, ISSN 1674-7291, E-ISSN 1869-1870, Vol. 61, no 2, p. 172-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of an efficient, stable, and low-cost hole-transporting material (HTM) is of great significance for perovskite solar cells (PSCs) from future commercialization point of view. Herein, we specifically synthesize a dicationic salt of X60 termed X60(TFSI)(2), and adopt it as an effective and stable "doping" agent to replace the previously used lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) for the low-cost organic HTM X60 in PSCs. The incorporation of this dicationic salt significantly increases the hole conductivity of X60 by two orders of magnitude from 10(-6) to 10(-4) S cm(-1). The dramatic enhancement of the conductivity leads to an impressive power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 19.0% measured at 1 sun illumination (100 mW cm(-2), AM 1.5 G), which is comparable to that of the device doped with LiTFSI (19.3%) under an identical condition. More strikingly, by replacing LiTFSI, the PSC devices incorporating X60(TFSI)(2) also show an excellent long-term durability under ambient atmosphere for 30 days, mainly due to the hydrophobic nature of the X60(TFSI)(2) doped HTM layer, which can effectively prevent the moisture destroying the perovskite layer. The present work paves the way for the development of highly efficient, stable, and low-cost HTM for potential commercialization of PSCs.

  • 346. Quignon, Benoit
    et al.
    Pilkington, Georgia A.
    Thormann, Esben
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Claesson, Per M.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Ashfold, Michael N. R.
    Mattia, Davide
    Leese, Hannah
    Davis, Sean A.
    Briscoe, Wuge H.
    Sustained Frictional Instabilities on Nanodomed Surfaces: Stick Slip Amplitude Coefficient2013In: ACS Nano, ISSN 1936-0851, E-ISSN 1936-086X, Vol. 7, no 12, p. 10850-10862Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the frictional properties of nanostructured surfaces is important because of their increasing application in modem minlaturized devices. In this work, lateral force microscopy was used to study the frictional properties between AFM nanotip and surfaces bearing well-defined ranging from tens to hundreds of nanometers. Our results show that the average lateral force varied linearly with applied load, as described by Amontons' first law of friction, although no direct correlation between the sample topographic properties and their measured friction coeffidents was identified. Furthermore, all the nanodomed textures exhibited pronounced osdllations in the shear traces, similar to the dassic stick slip behavior, under all the shear velocities and load regimes studied. That is, the nanotextured topography led to sustained frictional instabilities, effectively with no contact frictional sliding. The amplitude of the stick slip oscillations, ab was found to correlate with the topographic properties of the surfaces and scale linearly with the applied load. In line with the friction coefficient, we define the slope of this linear plot as the stick slip amplitude coeffident (SSAC). We suggest that such stick slip behaviors are characteristics of surfaces with nanotextures and that such local frictional instabilities have important implications to surface damage and wear. We thus propose that the shear characteristics of the nanodomed surfaces cannot be fully described by the framework of Amontons' laws of friction and that additional parameters (e.g., a, and SSAQ are required, when their friction, lubrication, and wear properties are important considerations in related nanodevices.

  • 347. Rasheed, Faiza
    et al.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Kuktaite, Ramune
    Plivelic, Tomas S.
    Gallstedt, Mikael
    Johansson, Eva
    Mild gluten separation - A non-destructive approach to fine tune structure and mechanical behavior of wheat gluten films2015In: Industrial crops and products (Print), ISSN 0926-6690, E-ISSN 1872-633X, Vol. 73, p. 90-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the increasing production of wheat gluten (WG) for industrial use, minor attention has been given to the impact of the separation procedure on the gluten quality. The purpose of the present study was to probe the effect of the separation treatments (harsh vs mild) on gluten structure, morphology, and performance in bio-based films. The harshly separated industrial WG showed aggregated and pre-cross linked structure in the starting material most likely due to shear forces during gluten separation from flour and heat effect during the drying procedures. Further, when the harshly separated WG was processed into films the pre-crosslinked starting material restricted new crosslinks formation and structural rearrangements at nano-scale. The mechanical integrity of the film was also affected resulting in films with low Young's modulus and strength. WG (from cultivars Diskette, Puntari, and Sleipner) recovered from mild separation showed relatively "native" non-destructed crosslinking pattern and not previously observed structural morphology at nano-scale. When processed into films the mildly separated WG showed well polymerized intimately crosslinked proteins both with disulfide and other covalent crosslinks. The nano-scale morphology showed lamellar and hexagonal arrangements, not reported so far in any study. The structural rearrangements among films from mildly separated WG resulted in materials with improved mechanical integrity as compared to films from harshly separated WG. The present study showed that the quality of WG is significantly affected by the separation procedure which also affects protein polymerization, nano-scale morphology, and tensile properties of films.

  • 348. Rasheed, Faiza
    et al.
    Newson, William R.
    Plivelic, Tomas S.
    Kuktaite, Ramune
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Gällstedt, Mikael
    Johansson, Eva
    Structural architecture and solubility of native and modified gliadin and glutenin proteins: non-crystalline molecular and atomic organization2014In: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 2051-2060Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wheat gluten (WG) and its components, gliadin and glutenin proteins, form the largest polymers in nature, which complicates the structural architecture of these proteins. Wheat gluten, gliadin and glutenin proteins in unmodified form showed few secondary structural features. Structural modification of these proteins using heat, pressure and the chemical chaperone glycerol resulted in a shift to organized structure. In modified gliadin, nano-structural molecular arrangements in the form of hexagonal closed packed (HCP) assemblies with lattice parameter of (58 angstrom) were obvious together with development of intermolecular disulphide bonds. Modification of glutenin resulted in highly polymerized structure with proteins linked not only by disulphide bonds, but also with other covalent and irreversible bonds, as well as the highest proportion of beta-sheets. From a combination of experimental evidence and protein algorithms, we have proposed tertiary structure models of unmodified and modified gliadin and glutenin proteins. An increased understanding of gliadin and glutenin proteins structure and behavior are of utmost importance to understand the applicability of these proteins for various applications including plastic materials, foams, adhesives, films and coatings.

  • 349.
    Rehn, Dirk Robert
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Theoretical Chemistry and Biology.
    Dreuw, Andreas
    Norman, Patrick
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Theoretical Chemistry and Biology.
    Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering Amplitudes and Cross Sections in the Algebraic Diagrammatic Construction/Intermediate State Representation (ADC/ISR) Approach2017In: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation, ISSN 1549-9618, E-ISSN 1549-9626, Vol. 13, no 11, p. 5552-5559Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A scheme has been derived and implemented to gain computational access to the full electronic part of the Kramers-Heisenberg-Dirac (KHD) expression for resonant and nonresonant inelastic scattering amplitudes. Our implementation of this scheme is based on the complex polarization propagator in the algebraic diagrammatic construction (ADC) framework and within its intermediate state representation (ISR). The hierarchy of the second- and third-order ADC/ISR computational schemes known as ADC(2), ADC(2)-x, and ADC(3/2) is considered, and the calculated resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) amplitudes and transition strengths for water are in excellent agreement with recent experimental data.

  • 350.
    Renberg, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology.
    Andersson-Svahn, Helene
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology.
    Hedhammar, My
    Mimicking silk spinning in a microchip2014In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 195, p. 404-408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nature's high performance material, spider silk, is formed during the passage of a protein solution through a spinning duct. Herein we present a microfluidic device with dual laminar mobile phases where silk formation can be mimicked and investigated. Recombinant miniature spidroins, with or without the pH-switching N-terminal domain, were used to investigate spinning conditions into silk-like fibers using this setup.

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