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  • 301. Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    Von Haartman, Robin
    University of Gävle.
    Dabhilkar, Mandar
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Economics and Management (Div.).
    Low-Cost versus Innovation: Contrasting Outsourcing and Integration Strategies in Manufacturing2009In: Creativity and Innovation Management, ISSN 0963-1690, E-ISSN 1467-8691, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 35-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses how two different outsourcing manufacturing strategies relate to plant performance and innovation capability when taking into account the organizational integration of design and manufacturing as well as product complexity. The study discriminates between low-cost-oriented outsourcing and innovation-oriented outsourcing. The empirical data used is based on a survey of 267 engineering firms, of which half have outsourced manufacturing. We found that the two outsourcing strategies do have different effects, which illustrates that outsourcing represents a trade-off between improving innovation capability and lowering costs. The study furthermore shows that manufacturing and supplier integration in product design processes is mainly beneficial when applying innovation-oriented outsourcing, and in particular when products and manufacturing processes are complex.

  • 302.
    Benner, Mats
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment. Lund University School of Economics and Management.
    The new global politics of science: Knowledge, markets and the state2018Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Science has become a central political concern with massive increases in public investments and expectations, but resources are embedded in a complex web of societal expectations, which vary between countries and regions. This book outlines an insightful understanding of science policy as both concerning the governance of science itself (priority-setting, funding, organization and articulation with polity, society, and economy) and its extra-organizational connections, in terms of higher education, innovation and national policy concerns.

  • 303.
    Benner, Mats
    et al.
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment. Lund University, Sweden.
    Huzzard, T.
    Minerva meets the market: From managerialism to critical reflexivity2017In: The Corporatization of the Business School: Minerva Meets the Market, Taylor and Francis Inc. , 2017, p. 234-245Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 304.
    BENTAHAR, YOUNES
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Robustness of IT Systems: An Analytical Study of What Impact Cloud Computing May Have on the Robustness2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s society, IT is a part of the everyday life. People have become more or lessdependent on the IT that exists, both in their private life and in their work. An IT system that is not working properly, pose major problems for the people and organizations that rely on it. A robust IT system is thus something that has become increasingly important. The IT industry has in recent years also undergone major changes in pace with the growing use of cloud based services.The purpose of this study is to analyze what impact cloud computing may have on the robustness of IT systems. As well as to provide organizations with recommendations on how they should set-up their IT systems from a robustness perspective. The analysis is based on empirical studies and logical reasoning and has been conducted through a case study of Swedish Armed Forces. The study is based on a two-phase method  which consists of both qualitative and quantitative data collection.The results indicate that cloud computing itself does not automatically make IT systems more robust, but it is the cloud provider's help in both technology and expertise that plays a crucial role for the robustness. A hybrid cloud which is a composition of a community cloud and a public cloud is currently a recommended option. The hybrid cloud makes it possible to separate the services and place the services with high robustness demands in the community cloud and the services with lower robustness demands in the public cloud.

  • 305.
    Bergendahl, Magnus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Magnusson, Mats
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Combining collaboration and competition: a key to improved idea management?2014In: European Journal of International Management, ISSN 1751-6757, E-ISSN 1751-6765, Vol. 8, no 5, p. 528-547Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Earlier research in the field of idea management has highlighted both collaboration and competition driving ideation. While these two are normally considered opposing and excluding, recent work proposes them to be complements. Previous studies have primarily focused on firm-external communities, and little is known about the joint use of collaboration and competition inside firms. This paper addresses collaborative and competitive mechanisms used in firm-internal idea management. Case studies of three multinational firms active in idea management have been performed. The firms' use of collaboration and competition in firm-internal idea management is analysed, revealing that the two approaches can be combined, and explores how their paradoxical coexistence can be managed. This study underlines the importance of addressing intrinsic motivation and facilitating sharing of knowledge in order to bridge and align collaboration and competition mechanisms. It also highlights issues of rewards and company culture, requiring informed attention from human resources management.

  • 306.
    Berggren, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Bankers relation till mindre företag: vad skapar goda relationer och vad kännetecknar dessa?2006In: Utveckling av kundrelationer i bank- och finansmarknader / [ed] Eriksson, Kent, Studentlitteratur , 2006, 1, p. 135-153Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 307.
    Berggren, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Finansiering av mindre företag2007In: Mikrofinans - Ger fler småskaliga initiativ ökat globalt välstånd? / [ed] Söderberg, Inga-Lill, SparbanksAkademin , 2007, 1, p. 134-139Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 308.
    Berggren, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance.
    Från ett lokalt hantverk till en global profession – En analys av transaktionsrådgivarrollen och den kommersiella fastighetsmarknadens utveckling i SverigeManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 309.
    Berggren, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Role, motivation and criteria for success in private public partnerships: The case of housing finance for low-income households2010Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 310.
    Berggren, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance.
    Tillväxt och lönsamhet i småföretag - finansiärers bidrag sett ur företagets perspektiv2003In: Småföretaget och kapitalet / [ed] Hans Landsröm, Stockholm,: SNS förlag, 2003, p. 45-64Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 311.
    Berggren, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Edsbäcker, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Fili, Andreas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Talia, Krim
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Oskarshamnsprojektet - Slutrapport fas 12008Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 312.
    Berggren, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Fili, Andreas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Entreprenörskap och tillväxt i Högsby och Mönsterås: En förstudie2013Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 313.
    Berggren, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Fili, Andreas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Nyföretagandets villkor i Högsby och Mönsterås2013Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 314.
    Berggren, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Fili, Andreas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Tillväxthinder och utvecklingsmöjligheter bland företagen i Högsby och Mönsterås2013Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 315.
    Berggren, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Fili, Andreas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    When things go wrong: Business angels' use of cues in judging their investment relations2008In: International Journal of Business Strategy, ISSN 1553-9563, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 48-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Business angels play an important role in the development and growth of many entrepreneurial ventures. They provide not only capital, but also much needed business know-how and connections to customers and other financiers that are pivotal for the success of the firm. The relationship between the business angel and the entrepreneurial team evolves over time, starting with a due diligence process and the formulation of a contract. In this paper we are interested in the post-investment phase of the relationship, and how the business angel abstracts different cues that the relationship is experiencing problems. From interviews with experienced business angels in very different settings and from very different backgrounds, six different cues have emerged as indicators that something is amiss in the relationship. These cues have the following themes; the outright rebellion, the strange report, missing deadlines, history revision, changing information flows and going underground. The majority of the business angels that we have interviewed claimed that these cues have different meanings and that some are more detrimental to the relationship than other. For instance, the outright rebellion and the urge to re-negotiate the contract are looked upon as serious breaches of the trust in the relationship. Strange reports and missing deadlines on the other hand, tend to activate the business angel and trigger some kind of action on his part, but initially with sustained trust.Earlier studies have used either the agent-principal approach or the procedural justice perspective when they have studied the relationship between investor and entrepreneur. Usually papers take one or the other as their point of departure for a study, where the first focuses on control and monitoring and the other on trust building initiatives. However, from our interviews it seems as though they complement each other in the relationship over time. When everything is going as planned the control and monitoring activities are kept at a minimum, with weekly or monthly progress reports, instead the trust building activities dominate. When a cue emerges, the trust building process comes to a halt and the control and monitoring activities gain the upper hand. Before the business angel has identified the problem and together with the entrepreneurial team worked out a solution, everything else is put on hold. Some time after the incident, control and monitoring activities will be higher than usual, before everything gets back to normal.The findings in this paper fit well within the theoretical framework put forward by Shepherd and Zacharakis (2001). In their model, they see communication as a moderating factor on the other three; commitment and consistency, being fair and just and obtaining a good fit between investor and entrepreneur. In our interviews it is clear that an open and frequent communication is a necessary condition for the development of a trusting relationship. Hence, most cues of a deteriorating relationship have to do with problems in communicating with each other.

  • 316.
    Berggren, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Fili, Andreas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Lundahl, Nicolaus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Silver, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Conflicts in business angel networks: An evolutionary perspective2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 317.
    Berggren, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance.
    Fili, Andreas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Silver, Lars
    Umeå universitet.
    Innovation and entrepreneurship in local savings banks in Sweden: Revitalizing local capital markets2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 318.
    Berggren, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. Royal Inst Technol, Dept Real Estate & Construct Management, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Fili, Andreas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance.
    Wilhelmsson, Mats
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Homeownership and entrepreneurship A regional and industrial analysis of house prices and startups2019In: International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis, ISSN 1753-8270, E-ISSN 1753-8289, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 456-473Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between housing markets and new firm formation in six different industries in all 284 municipalities in Sweden. Design/methodology/approach The authors have used data from Statistics Sweden and The Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional Growth to develop a model to analyze the relationship between house prices and industry-specific new firm formation, with the interaction effect of financial infrastructure. Findings In the data, stable high house prices have no effect on entrepreneurship. However, a market with rising house prices has a positive effect on new firm formation, in retail, construction, business-to-business services and miscellaneous sectors, but produced no effect in either mining, agriculture and fishing or in manufacturing. The interaction between rising house prices and financial infrastructure does not change the positive effect on retail, business-to-business services and miscellaneous sectors, but within the construction industry, the positive effect on new firm formation disappears. In manufacturing, the authors observe the opposite - a positive effect, instead of no effect previously. Originality/value The contribution of this study is to provide evidence of how house prices are associated with entrepreneurship in different industries, as well as analyzing how the interaction between house prices and financial infrastructure is associated with entrepreneurship. By separating observations in time, endogeneity is controlled and a causal relationship where higher house prices is postulated, which leads to an increase in entrepreneurial activity in different industries. By using a spatial Durbin model, the authors control for spatial dependency.

  • 319.
    Berggren, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance.
    Fili, Andreas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance.
    Wilhelmsson, Mats
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    The relationship between house prices and business start-ups: A research note2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 320.
    Berggren, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance.
    Fili, Andreas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance.
    Wilhelmsson, Mats Håkan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Does the increase in house prices influence the creation of business startups?: The case of Sweden2017In: Region, ISSN 2409-5370, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurs are at the core of economic development in that they start new businesses or make existing firms grow. To fulfill this important role, entrepreneurs need access to financing. Owing to information asymmetry and the relatively high risk associated with business startups, many financiers shy away from engaging in relationships with firms during the early stages of their development. Based on the existing body of knowledge on the financing of entrepreneurship, we know that insider finance is of paramount importance in the early stages of firms’ development. We expand this knowledge base by analyzing the influence of house prices on business startups across municipalities in Sweden. In our analysis, we include data from all municipalities in Sweden. Our data on house prices and control variables are collected in period one, and our data on the frequency of startups are collected in period two. We find that rising house prices in a municipality lead to a higher frequency of startups. In our spatial Durbin model, we find that a 1% increase in house prices leads to around 0.15% increase in startups. Our findings are in line with the limited international research that has been previously conducted, and therefore, our study might make a small but vital addition to this growing body of knowledge within the area of entrepreneurship and regional development.

  • 321.
    Berggren, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance.
    Hullgren, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Söderberg, Ingalill
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance.
    Housing finance in Sweden: The development of local PPP-solutions and the role of savings banks2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 322.
    Berggren, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Liljefrost, Emilia
    Nilsson, Annika
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Risk management strategies in housing finance: Three case studies of creating sustainable housing finance models for low-income households in developing countries2009In: International Journal of Business Research, ISSN 1555-1296, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 153-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the risk management strategies used by lenders to finance housing for low-income households in developing countries. Three case studies of housing finance representing three distinct typologies of local financial solutions are used to develop a model for risk management strategies. The provider of housing loans in a developing country must tackle three types of risk: development/production risk, maintenance/management risk, and income risk. Lenders use a risk management strategy that combines monitoring and trust to reduce the problems related to adverse selection and moral hazard. The study provides evidence that in creating a sustainable system for the home financing of low-income households, policymakers need to consider the comparative advantages that different lenders provide in their various roles. Furthermore, this paper fulfills an important role by combining the traditional banking and finance literature with theories concerning trust and social capital and by extending the analysis to encompass the topic of home financing for low-income households.

  • 323.
    Berggren, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance.
    Lindström, Göran
    Olofsson, Christer
    Tillväxt och finansiering i mindre företag2001In: Tillväxtföretagen i Sverige / [ed] Per Davidsson, Frédéric Delmar & Johan Wiklund, Stockholm: SNS förlag, 2001, p. 250-271Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 324.
    Berggren, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Lundahl, Nicolaus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Silver, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Vegholm, Fatima
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Bankers finansiering av små och medelstora företag2009In: Finanssektorns rolli samhällsbyggandet / [ed] Eriksson, Kent och Söderberg, Inga-Lill, SparbanksAkademin , 2009, 1, p. 50-55Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 325.
    Berggren, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Lundahl, Nicolaus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Silver, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Vegholm, Fatima
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Crisis management: Entrepreneurship and social capital in local business communities2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 326.
    Berggren, Björn
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Lundahl, Nicolaus
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Infrastructure.
    Silver, Lars
    Uppsala University.
    Vegholm, Fatima
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Infrastructure.
    Norrtäljeprojektet - En lägesrapport2004Report (Other academic)
  • 327.
    Berggren, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Lundahl, Nicolaus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Silver, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Vegholm, Fatima
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    The influence of banks' advice to SMEs on customer satisfaction: The case for regulation2010In: International Journal of Services and Operations Management, ISSN 1744-2370, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 200-214Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 328.
    Berggren, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Lundahl, Nicolaus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Silver, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Vegholm, Fatima
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    You will get what you give: Entrepreneurs' images of their advisors2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 329.
    Berggren, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Olofsson, Christer
    Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Financing SMEs in different stages of the business cycle: Analyzing the financial search activity of Swedish SMEs between 1991 and 20002009In: Proceedings of the 6th International AGSE Entrepreneurship Research Exchange / [ed] L. Murry Gillin, 2009, p. 309-323Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we analyse the financial search behaviour of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) in Sweden over a ten-year period, 1991-2000. We use a cluster analysis based on the level of control aversion that the entrepreneurs display, and arrive at a four-cluster solution. The results show that when the economy turns down, entrepreneurs are forced to be more active in searching for additional sources of finance. When the economy recovers, the control aversive entrepreneurs reduce their efforts in trying to get external financing. We can also see the SMEs in rural areas have greater difficulties in attracting external financing. 

  • 330.
    Berggren, Björn
    et al.
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University.
    Olofsson, Christer
    Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Silver, Lars
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University.
    Control aversion and the search for external financing in Swedish SMEs2000In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 233-242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The discussion on growth (see Storey, 1997) and control aversion (Cressy, 1995; Chittenden et al., 1996; Cressy and Olofsson, 1996) in small and medium sized firms has been attracting an increasing amount of attention. Our purpose in this article is to identify under what circumstances small and medium sized firms are prepared to accept outside control in the business firm in order to grow. In the article it is argued that technology development, financial strength, size and perceived need to grow, change firms attitudes towards external financiers. The change in attitude towards more openness eventually leads to an actual behaviour where the principals choose to apply for external finance in the form of bank loans. A linear structural equation modelling program, LISREL, is used to analyse a sample of 281 Swedish firms. The firms all have less than 200 employees, and the sample includes both manufacturing and service firms.

  • 331.
    Berggren, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Olofsson, Christer
    Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Silver, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Do too many cooks spoil the broth?: The effect of syndication on the performance of venture capitalists' portfolio firms in Sweden2006In: Regional Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research 2006: Proceedings of the 3rd International AGSE Entrepreneurship Research Exchange / [ed] L. Murry Gillin, 2006, p. 778-779Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 332.
    Berggren, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Olofsson, Christer
    Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Silver, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Financing entrepreneurship in different regions: The failure to decentralize financing to regional centres in Sweden2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 333.
    Berggren, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance.
    Olofsson, Christer
    Silver, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Learning to handle control aversion1999Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 334.
    Berggren, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Olofsson, Christer
    Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Silver, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Syndication in the venture capital industry during different stages of the business cycle2005Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we describe and analyse the development of the Swedish venture capital industryand its syndication pattern during the years 1996–2004. These nine years can be divided intothree different stages in the business cycle. The period from 1996-1998 is considered to be aperiod of moderate growth, where the Swedish economy and capital market was stillrecovering from the crisis in the early 1990s. The level of investment and syndication wasrelatively low in comparison with the following years and the primary reason for syndicationwas that of sharing risks. In the overheated Swedish economy between 1999 and 2001 supplyof capital to early stage investments were plentiful and new venture capital firms entered themarket every month. Since capital was plentiful the investors was in constant search for newventures to invest in which made it easy for venture capitalists to find syndication partners fortheir second round financing at a good valuation. After the drastic downturn in the venturecapital industry in 2001 the level of investments was relatively low during 2002–2004. In all,the total number of investment during the period 2002–2004 was lower than during 2001.Furthermore, the investments during this period were to a large extent in the form ofsyndication. During the shake out period, the survivors of the industry were more prone to do first round syndications again. The sharing of monitoring costs and risk sharing were the mostcommon reasons for syndication in this period.

  • 335.
    Berggren, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Olofsson, Christer
    Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Silver, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    The development of the venture capital industry in Sweden2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 336.
    Berggren, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Olofsson, Christer
    SLU.
    Silver, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    The effect of business cycles on entrepreneurial control aversion and the search for external financing in SMEs2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 337.
    Berggren, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Olofsson, Christer
    Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Silver, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    The effect of business cycles on entrepreneurial control aversion and the search for external financing in SMEs2009In: International Journal of Business Strategy, ISSN 1553-9563, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 33-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes how different stages of the business cycle influence of level of control aversion displayed by entrepreneurs and how a changing economic climate affects financial search activity among small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). By using empirical data from three postal surveys, we analyze the financial search behavior of SMEs in Sweden of a ten-year period, 1991-200. We use a cluster analysis based on the level of control aversion displayed by the entrepreneurs and arrive at a four-cluster solution. The results show that when the economy turns downward, entrepreneurs are forced to become more active in searching for additional sources of finance. When the economy recovers, the control-averse entrepreneurs reduce their efforts in trying to obtain external financing. We also find that SMEs in rural areas have greater difficulties in attracting external financing than do SMEs in metropolitan areas.

    It might not be possible to generalize this study to other settings because it is based on the Swedish cultural and legal context. Nevertheless, we believe that the situation faced by entrepreneurs in different stages of the business cycle is fundamentally the same, irrespective of context. This study provides evidence that policymakers need to take into account the comparative advantages and roles of various financiers in the financial infrastructure surrounding SMEs. This paper fulfills an important role in analyzing the effect of a changing economic climate on the level of control aversion among entrepreneurs.

  • 338.
    Berggren, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Olofsson, Christer
    SLU.
    Silver, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    The effect of syndication on the performance of venture capitalists’ portfolio firms: The Swedish case2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 339.
    Berggren, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Olofsson, Christer
    Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Silver, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    The effect of syndication on the performance of venture capitalists' portfolio firms: The Swedish case2010In: Journal of International Finance and Economics, ISSN 1555-6336, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 100-109Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 340.
    Berggren, Björn
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Olofsson, Christer
    Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Silver, Lars
    Uppsala University.
    The long road to freedom - The impact of business cycles on control aversion among entrepreneurs2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 341.
    Berggren, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance.
    Silver, L.
    Entrepreneurial control aversion and bank financing in Swedish SMEs2015In: Banks and Bank Systems, ISSN 1816-7403, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 65-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper the authors argue that for the development of SME’s, the learning process is instrumental for an open approach towards external financiers, including new owners. The analysis shows that firms learn to handle control aversion step by step, as they gain competence and experience through their relationship with external financiers. In this paper a linear structural equation modelling program, Lisrel, is used to analyze a sample of 281 firms (out of an original sample of 545 firms, yielding a response rate of 51.2 percent). The firms have less than 200 employees, and the sample includes both manufacturing and service firms. The questionnaire includes both attitudinal and factual aspects of control aversion and financing.

  • 342.
    Berggren, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Silver, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Financing entrepreneurship in different regions: The failure to decentralise financing to regional centres in Sweden2010In: Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, ISSN 1462-6004, E-ISSN 1758-7840, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 230-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to analyse the financial search behaviour of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in different regions and the perceived importance of different external financiers for these firms. Design/methodology/approach: A postal survey targeting the chief executive officers (CEOs) of 459 SMEs was distributed indifferent regions of Sweden. Findings: Large differences exist in the financial search behaviour exhibited by firms in the four different types of regions. In the metropolitan areas, firms are more active in searching for new owners, especially professional investors. In smaller municipalities, banks dominate as the most important financier. Research limitations/implications: The study might not be generalised for other settings because it was carried out in Sweden. Furthermore, the regional types used might cause some concern as to whether the findings can be generalised. Practical implications: Thestudy provides evidence that policies need to be tailor-made for different regionsbecause the predominant type of financier differs greatly between regions. The findings also emphasise the need for policymakers to focus on equity gap issues in regionalcentres. Originality/value: The paper fulfils an important role in elaborating on the use and importance of different types of financing in various regions.

  • 343.
    Berggren, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Silver, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Regelverkens inverkan på mindre företags möjligheter att få finansiering2007Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 344.
    Berggren, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Silver, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    The effect of bridging networks on entrepreneurial activity: The rational-legal framework and embeddedness in local social capital networks2009In: Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, ISSN 1750-6204, E-ISSN 1750-6212, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 125-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse the role of social capital and bridgingnetworks on entrepreneurial activity in three different regions in Sweden. Design/methodology/approach: The empirical base of the paper comprises 120 in-depth interviews with entrepreneurs and other stakeholders in three municipalities in Sweden, statistical data from Statistics Sweden and a large postal survey conducted by theConfederation of Swedish Enterprises. Findings: The bridging networks between localcivil servants and local politicians on the one hand and entrepreneurs on the other are pivotal for the development of an entrepreneurial community. Research limitations/implications: Despite the same rational-legal framework, this paper shows how the cognitive dimension of social capital influences the level of entrepreneurship in three municipalities. The importance of bridging networks is also highlighted. Practical implications: An open channel of communication between politicians and entrepreneurs allows the former to gain legitimacy in the eyes of the latter. By widening the network, more actors are involved in local and regional development, thereby raising the level of competence and resources. Originality/value: Using three different sets of data, this paper offers a deeper understanding into the complex nature of bridging networks between politics and business.

  • 345.
    Berggren, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Silver, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    The role of business opportunity mediators in the entrepreneurial process2006In: Managing Opportunity Development in Business Networks / [ed] Hadjikhani, Amjad and Johanson, Jan, Cambridge University Press, 2006, 1, p. 235-249Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 346.
    Berggren, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Silver, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Utvecklingen av det finansiella systemet: Konsekvenser för finansieringen av små och medelstora företag i Sverige2009In: Finanssektorns roll i samhällsbyggandet / [ed] Eriksson, Kent och Söderberg, Inga-Lill, SparbanksAkademin , 2009, 1, p. 132-137Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 347.
    Berggren, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Yildiz Dag, Sussi
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Eriksson, Kent
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Hermansson, Cecilia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Karolin, Birgitta
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Lundahl, Nicolaus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Nilsson, Daniel
    Silver, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Tapper Hoel, Jenni
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Vegholm, Fatima
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Affärer mellan kunder och bank- och finansföretag2006In: Utveckling av kundrelationer i bank- och finansmarknader / [ed] Eriksson, Kent, Studentlitteratur , 2006, 1, p. 13-16Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 348.
    Berggren, Dennis
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    IPO Underpricing and tech valuation: An empirical study of the Swedish IPO market2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The closing price first day of trading has historically been found to exceed the offer price set in IPOs, implying that many issuing firms tend to leave money on the table in their IPO. This thesis examines the level of IPO underpricing in Sweden using unique data of IPO transactions on the largest Swedish stock exchanges during 2010-2016. It further discusses the valuation difficulties using the most common valuation methods for firms exhibiting characteristics commonly shared by technological firms.

    Univariate and multivariate tests confirm the existence of underpricing on Swedish stock exchanges during the period of study. Firms in the technological sector are found to experience both high average levels of underpricing and great variance in initial returns, suggesting potential difficulties valuing technological firms. Robust univariate tests do however not yield a significant result of greater variance in initial returns compared to rest of the sample. By using regression analysis, I find capital raised relative to market capitalization to have significant negative effect on initial returns.

  • 349.
    Berggren, Max
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Wiklund, Johanna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Organization and management.
    Conditions for Collaborative Creativity in Mobile Multi-Locational Work Systems: A managerial perspective on supporting collaborative creativity in a virtualized setting2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The increasingly virtualized work life, brought on by increased demand on flexibility and work- life balance as well as technological development, has changed the way we work. At the same time the need for organizations to be creative in order to compete on the expanding market has grown. This is a fact that increases the need for groups to be creative through collaboration. Hence, this study investigates how collaborative creativity can be created in Mobile Multi-Locational Work Systems, from a managerial point of view.

    The existing theoretical body of knowledge on collaborative creativity and virtual structures, such as Mobile Multi-Locational Work Systems, points to communication as an area of key importance. When further investigating the factor of communication, two sub-areas were identified; Social Factors and Coordination. Moreover the role of leadership in collaborative creativity implies that managers have an important role in creating conditions for collaborative creativity.

    In order to investigate how collaborative creativity can be stimulated in Mobile Multi-Locational Work Systems, managerial perceptions of work within such a system were collected through interviews at our case company, Microsoft AB. The organization had implemented a Mobile Multi- Locational Work Systems called the New World of Work, allowing employees to work flexibly. Results imply that Mobile Multi-Locational Work Systems affect conditions for collaborative creativity in both stimulating and inhibiting manners. The system implementation appears to increase group external communication across organizational boundaries. It likely increases the amount of ideas and knowledge available, which is positive for collaborative creativity. However, handling factors related to communication, social factors and work coordination within work groups appears to be critical in facilitating collaborative creativity as they appear to be affected by the Mobile Multi-Locational Work System implementation. Results indicate that if managers allows freedom with responsibility, provides a clear framework, creates forums for social and work interaction, coaches their employees and acts as role models it is likely that they will stimulate collaborative creativity in their team.

  • 350.
    BERGKVIST, ANTON
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Sustainability and Industrial Dynamics.
    LINDROTH, JOHAN
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Sustainability and Industrial Dynamics.
    Electricity retailer –from liability to asset2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Electricity retailers have difficulties to differentiate themselves from each other, dueto increased competition and political regulations. The electric energy tradingmarket is facing a paradigm shift.The purpose of this study has been to investigate how a modern electricity retailercan avoid current and forthcoming difficulties within the market and what directionsthey should choose in order to improve their profitability.The study has been conducted using a quantitative and qualitative approach. Thequantitative approached was used to systematically describe all electricity retailersthat exist today in Sweden and collect data for analyzing how profitable they are.Structured interviews were later conducted in order to gather qualitative data fromthe most interesting companies from the quantitative data collection.From the quantitative approach it was found that selling electricity from guaranteeof origin was approximately two to four times more profitable than selling nuclearand fossil produced electricity. The total profits from electricity trading alone issurprisingly low. From the quantitative data sample, it was shown that 50 per centof the electricity retailers earn less than one million SEK and their averageprofitability is approximately 0.28 million SEK.In the qualitative study it was concluded that those who had succeeded with higherprofits were working with services along with the electricity trading. Examples ofsuch services are charity and loyalty programs. It was stated in the interviews thatthe profits are still low and will remain low if solely rely on electricity trading. Ittakes at least four years for a customer to be profitable. The most promisingsolution to avoid getting stuck in the middle is to expand their business withproducts together with services, servitization. If the electricity retailers shouldexpand their businesses with selling products together with services related toelectricity, servitization, they should also position themselves with a certaincompetitive strategy (cost leadership, differentiation, focus) and target a specificgroup. Groups that have been identified together with these competitive strategiesare those who wants to save money (cost leadership), environmentally friendly /technology enthusiasts (focus) and inbetweeners (differentiation)

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