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  • 301.
    Engwall, Mats
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    The Futile Dream for the Perfect Goal2002In: Beyond Project Management, Malmö: Liber, 2002Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 302.
    Engwall, Mats
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    The Project Concept: On the Ambiguous Key Concept of Project Management1998In: Projects as Arenas for Renewal and Change, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 303.
    Engwall, Mats
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Jerbrant, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Exploring the multi-project matrix: Process dynamics of a projectified organization.2001In: 61st Annual meeting of the Academy of Management., 2001Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 304.
    Engwall, Mats
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Jerbrant, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    The resource allocation syndrome.2003In: International journal of project management., Vol. 21, p. 403-409Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 305.
    Engwall, Mats
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Jerbrant, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Where structure meets chaos: Management challenges in a multi-project setting.2002In: IRNOP V:: International research network and organizing by projects. R, 2002Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 306.
    Engwall, Mats
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Jerbrant, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Where structure meets chaos:: Management challenges in a multi-project setting.2002In: IRNOP V:: International research network and organizing by projects., 2002Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 307.
    Engwall, Mats
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Kaulio, Matti A.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Karakaya, Emrah
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Sustainability and Industrial Dynamics.
    Miterev, Maksim
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Berlin, Daniel
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Explorative project networks: Means for business model innovation?2018In: R&D Management Conference, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When facing business model innovation, a key challenge for incumbent firms is the redefinition of industry and organizational boundaries. Drawing on findings from three cases studies this article suggests that inter-organizational projects can be effective means for mobilizing distributed resources and capabilities in order to gain business model innovation. This empirical phenomenon is discussed and analysed in detail, and implications for future research are suggested. 

  • 308.
    Engwall, Mats
    et al.
    Stockholm School of Economics.
    Kling, Ragnar
    Stockholm School of Economics.
    Werr, Andreas
    Stockholm School of Economics.
    Models in Action: The use of Man­agement Models in Product Development Projects2005In: R &D Management, ISSN 0033-6807, E-ISSN 1467-9310, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 427-440Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 309.
    Engwall, Mats
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Linse, Charlotta
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Kreativ på beställning: att styra designkonsulters skapandeprocesser2013In: Kreativt kapital: Om ledning och organisation i kulturella och kreativa näringar / [ed] Emma Stenström & Lars Strannegård, Stockholm: 8tto , 2013Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 310. Engwall, Mats
    et al.
    Steinthorsson, Runolfur Smari
    Söderholm, Anders
    Temporary Organizing: A Viking Approach to Project Manage­ment Research2003In: The Northern Lights / [ed] Barbara Czarniawska & Guje Sevon, Malmö: Liber, 2003Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 311.
    Engwall, Mats
    et al.
    Stockholm School of Economics.
    Svensson, Charlotta
    Stockholm School of Economics.
    Cheetah Teams in Product Development: The Most Extreme Form of Temporary Organi­zation2004In: Scandinavian Journal of Management, ISSN 0956-5221, E-ISSN 1873-3387, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 297-317Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 312.
    Engwall, Mats
    et al.
    Stockholm School of Economics.
    Svensson, Charlotta
    Stockholm School of Economics.
    The Cheetah Team Strategy: Saving Projects in Crises2003In: Collabo­r­ative Research in Organizations: Foundations for Learning, Change, and Theoretical Development / [ed] Niclas Adler, A.B. Shani, Alexander Stymne, Sage Publications, 2003Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 313.
    Engwall, Mats
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Söderholm, Anders
    Funktionschefer i projektorganiserade företag2008In: Projektliv: villkor för uthållig projektverksamhet / [ed] Torbjörn Stjernberg, Jonas Söderlund, Ewa Wikström, Studentlitteratur, 2008, p. 217-230Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 314.
    Engwall, Mats
    et al.
    Stockholm School of Economics.
    Westling, Gunnar
    Stockholm School of Economics.
    Peripety in an R&D Drama: Capturing a Turn Around in Projects Dynamics2004In: Organization Studies, ISSN 0170-8406, E-ISSN 1741-3044, Vol. 25, no 9, p. 1557-1578Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the process dynamics of a complex R&D project, which for a long period of time had suffered from little technical progress, then abruptly became highly structured and effective. The article examines the mechanisms behind this dramatic turnaround and discusses its implications for research and practice. Drawing on the dramaturgical concept of 'peripety' ('moment of sudden change'), the article captures how the turnaround came about due to the emergence of the participants' shared conceptualization of the project mission. The article provides insights into the process dynamics and sensemaking in complex R&D projects and demonstrates how time and evolution need to be included in the analysis of project management and temporary organizations.

  • 315.
    Erdeniz, Robert
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy. Department of War Studies, SEDU Swedish Defence University.
    Operations planning revisited: theoretical and practical implications of methodology2016In: Defence Studies, ISSN 1470-2436, E-ISSN 1743-9698, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 248-269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parts of NATO’s contemporary planning framework called the comprehensive operations planning directive (COPD), and parts of the operation-level planning process should be revised since they suffer from methodological inconsistency. This claim is defended by discussing contradicting methodological properties and heuristics applied when framing and managing a military problem in accordance with the COPD. The methodological inconsistency within the COPD; in other words, simultaneously applying contradictory methodological properties, implies one theoretical and three practical implications. The theoretical implication is summarised in a meta-theoretical framework and explained by discussing five methodological properties: non-linearity, emergence, independently changeable generalisations, invariance and boundaries. The three practical implications of methodology imply that methodology is guiding: the problem-frame, conceptual development and action. To improve military planners’ understanding and management of these four identified implications, NATO is recommended to develop a “handbook of methodology.” The purpose of such a handbook should be to emphasise the utility of methodology when planning military operations.

  • 316.
    Erdogan, Umit Emre
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.). UPM, PoliMi.
    Success and Failure Factors for the Adoption of Bio-Based Packaging2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to provide insight into the factors that determine the willingness of key market players in the Indian food industry to adopt bio-based plastic packaging. First, the key market players are identified within the important market segments in the specified industry. After the identification of key players, the literature is surveyed in the context of eco-innovations, innovation adoption in emerging countries and Roger’s market adoption theory. In addition, the sustainability point of packaging and its perceived attributes are elaborated on and analyzed using the selected framework.

     

    Semi-structured interviews with the key market players in the food packaging industry are conducted in the context of adoption theory. The results of the survey reveal that there are only two groups in the industry, those that are currently considering bio-based plastic packaging and those that have not yet considered it. Due to the low number of completed questionnaires, advanced multivariate statistical methods cannot be used for data analysis. Nevertheless, the questionnaire is used in the analysis section; for further investigation of important concepts, semi-structured interviews are performed which clarify the environmental strategies and programs of players in the market who expect opportunities for CO2, material, water and energy reduction to emerge in both the short-term and long-term. Their responses also underscore the increasing importance of “Life Cycle Assessment” in decision-making, i.e., as factors that determine the willingness of especially brand owners to adopt bio-based plastic packaging. However, the contribution of bio-based materials to these sustainability programs has not been clearly perceived as a positive attribute. Moreover, there is no significant indication that supports the use of bio-based materials in comparison to conventional plastics regarding the implemented cases of some life cycle assessments. Last but not least, the packaging material is perceived as being highly cost sensitive. One of the important findings is that market players are not willing to pay a premium price for packaging material merely on the basis of it being environmental friendly; therefore, it is necessary to add value to ensure the potential adoption of these environmental materials. Moreover, this obstacle may be overcome with the help of decreased cost by economies of scale in the bio-packaging materials.

     

    This thesis concludes by emphasizing that value chain alignment is necessary, originating from the raw material to the end of recycling, for potentially adopted bio-based packaging material. This alignment can be stimulated by legislation; however, in some European countries, there is no signal detected to the contrary specifically for this industry.

  • 317.
    Eriksson, Kent
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Domestic Activity and Knowledge Development in the Internationalization Process of Firms2004In: Journal of International Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1570-7385, E-ISSN 1573-7349, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 239-258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is based on behavioral theory on internationalization, examining the effect of firms operations in the domestic market on experiential knowledge development in the internationalization of the firm. Five hypotheses are developed on the effects of business operations in the domestic market on: internationalization knowledge, business knowledge and institutional knowledge. The LISREL analysis of 206 firms shows that domestic operations effect the accumulation of experiential knowledge in internationalizing firms.We found that it is harder for a firm with long domestic experience to change their mental models and processes in the internationalization process.

  • 318.
    Eriksson, Kent
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Hohenthal, Jukka
    Uppsala university.
    Jessica, Jessica
    Uppsala university.
    Cultural diversity and culture specific experiences effect on development of institutional experiential knowledge in SMEs2004In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 1, no 1/2, p. 100-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Institutional experiential knowledge results from experience of cultural diversity and culture specific experiences. It is studied empirically through a field-scenario questionnaire of ongoing business relationships. Cultural diversity has a negative effect on a firm's institutional experiential knowledge, whereas culture specific experience has a positive effect. These two experiences contribute very differently to the development of institutional experiential knowledge and the interaction effect should enable one to differentiate kinds of experience, and thus gain greater insight into scale and scope economies.

  • 319.
    Eriksson, Kent
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Hohenthal, Jukka
    Uppsala Universitet, Företagsekonomiska institutionen.
    Lindbergh, Jessica
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance.
    Factors Affecting SME Export Channel Choice in Foreign Markets2006In: Advances in International Marketing, ISSN 1474-7979, Vol. 16, p. 1-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Determining market channels is usually considered a discrete decision made by the expanding firm (e.g., Anderson & Coughlan, 1987; Bello & Gilliland, 1997; Solberg & Nes, 2002). In reality, this decision is often limited by knowledge constraints and customer demands. We find an example of this in Gamma's attempt at entering the Italian market (Hohenthal, 2001). {A textbox is presented}. Gamma's attempted entry into Italy is not a unique situation facing internationalizing small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The array of possible channels is usually rather limited. A firm's decision regarding what channel to use may be the result of the firm's knowledge or indeed lack of knowledge about a specific customer and the foreign market in general, such as competitors or cultural differences. The internationalization process (IP) model is a theoretical framework that recognizes how a firm's knowledge of a foreign market and the influence business relationships may have on the choice of market channel (Johanson & Vahlne, 1977, 1990, 2003). This framework postulates that firms with increased experience will increase their commitment in a market. Because firms wish to avoid uncertainty and initially lack foreign market knowledge, the IP model claims that firms expand their operations in small sequential steps, starting with no regular export activities and gradually increasing their commitment to the market and finally setting up a manufacturing subsidiary (Johanson & Vahlne, 1977; Johanson & Wiedersheim-Paul, 1975). This outcome of sequential steps, also known as the establishment chain (Johanson & Wiedersheim-Paul, 1975), has been heavily criticized because empirical research has shown that the establishment patterns of firms are less restricted than proposed by the model (Björkman, 1989; Hedlund & Kverneland, 1985; Turnbull, 1987; Welch & Loustarinen, 1988). Even though firms use a variety of establishment patterns when internationalizing, a growing body of research shows that firms gradually develop knowledge from their experiences (Barkema, Bell, & Pennings, 1996; Barkema, Shenkar, Vermeulen, & Bell, 1997; Barkema & Vermeulen, 1998; Delios & Beamish, 1999, 2001; Eriksson, Johanson, Majkgård, & Sharma, 1997; Hitt, Dacin, Tyler, & Park, 1997; Madhok, 1996; Zahra, Ireland, & Hitt, 2000). Thus, the model's fundamental argument that knowledge is developed through experience is generally supported in internationalization research. Based on the critique of the establishment chain proposition, reconsidering the explanatory power of the IP model may be warranted. For example, it may be more appropriate to use the IP model to explain the sequential buildup of knowledge rather than discrete choices of mode of establishment. The accumulation of experience occurs before, during, and after the exact time when a decision to establish in a certain mode is made. Despite the extensive acceptance of behavioral-oriented arguments in foreign-entry mode research (export, joint venture, and subsidiary modes), surprisingly few studies have been conducted on the determinants of integrated and non-integrated channels (see Aulakh & Kotabe, 1997, for notable exception). Thus, a behavioral-oriented approach to the study of firms' choices of market channels in foreign markets may prove enlightening. Adopting this approach is of particular interest because transaction-cost analysis has proved effective in explaining why firms choose either integrated or non-integrated channels (Hennart, 1991). Therefore, the question that needs to be answered is whether or not the IP model can be used to explain why firms choose integrated or non-integrated channels. If the IP model cannot be applied in this case, it should be clarified that this model can be used to explain sequential knowledge accumulation through experience but nothing else. The purpose of this study is to test which IP-related antecedents lead to the use of a specific channel in a foreign market. The two alternatives tested here are integrated and non-integrated channels. To accomplish this objective, we apply an IP approach to international business and then discuss channel choice from a knowledge perspective. Several hypotheses are developed concerning channel choice and tested on a sample of SMEs from Sweden, Denmark, and New Zealand. We use logistic regression to analyze our data. Based on this analysis, we present a discussion of our results and some managerial and research implications.

  • 320.
    Eriksson, Kent
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Hohenthal, Jukka
    Uppsala universitet.
    Lindbergh, Jessica
    SME export channel choice in international markets2006In: Advances in International Marketing, ISSN 1571-2990, no 16, p. 1-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internationalization Process (IP) model claims that firms gradually accumulate knowledge of foreign markets, and that this kind of knowledge determine foreign establishment. Later developments of the model claim that experiences and knowledge of local business relationships are also essential elements of the IP model. The IP model has been found to hold well for incremental resource commitments.

    However, while other theories, such as the transaction-cost theories have managed to explain why firms go from integrated to non-integrated channels, the IP model has produced mixed results. This paper tests some of the fundamental IP model factors on a sample of Small and Medium Sized firms. Findings are that factors included in the initial explanation of the IP model explain choice of channel, but that the later developments of the model does not. Implications are that the foreign market knowledge is, and that more incremental experiential knowledge accumulation is not relevant for export channel choice as regards integrated or non-integrated channel.

  • 321.
    Eriksson, Kent
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Johanson, Jan
    Uppsala universitet.
    Majkgård, Anders
    Uppsala universitet.
    Sharma, D. Deo
    Uppsala universitet.
    EXPERIENTIAL KNOWLEDGE AND COST IN THE INTERNATIONALIZATION PROCESS1997In: Journal of International Business Studies, ISSN 0047-2506, E-ISSN 1478-6990, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 337-360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a behavioral approach, this study identifies and delineates components of experiential knowledge in the internationalization process. Three hypotheses are developed and tested. They center around the lack of knowledge in the areas of foreign business, foreign institutions and firm internationalization, as well as the effect that this lack of knowledge has on the managers´ perceived cost in the internationalization process. With the help of a LISREL-based structural model, the three hypotheses are tested on a sample of 362 service firms. The analysis shows that lack of internationalization knowledge has a strong impact on the lack of both business and institutional knowledge which, in turn, influence the perceived cost in internationalization. But there is no direct effect of lack of internationalization knowledge on perceived cost in internationalization.

  • 322.
    Eriksson, Kent
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Kerem, Katri
    Nilsson, Daniel
    Customer acceptance of internet banking in Estonia2005In: International Journal of Bank Marketing, ISSN 0265-2323, E-ISSN 1758-5937, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 200-216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to study technology acceptance of internet banking inEstonia, an emerging east European economy.

    Design/methodology/approach – The present paper modifies the technology acceptance modeland applies it to bank customers in Estonia, because Estonia, a country with a developing economy, has focused on internet banking as an important distribution channel.

    Findings – The findings suggest that internet bank use increases insofar as customers perceive it as useful. The perceived usefulness is central because it determines whether the perceived ease of internetbank use will lead to increased use of the internet bank. Put differently, a well-designed and easy to use internet bank may not be used if it is not perceived as useful. We thus conclude that the perceived usefulness of internet banking is, for banks, a key construct for promoting customer use. We also suggest that models of technology acceptance should be re-formulated to focus more on the key role of the perceived usefulness of the service embedded in the technology.

    Research limitations/implications – Implications for banks are that they need to put much effort not only into making a user-friendly internet bank, but also into explaining to their customers how the internet bank is useful to them.

    Originality/value – Contributes to the literature on internet banking in an East European economy.

  • 323.
    Eriksson, Kent
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Kerem, Katri
    Nilsson, Daniel
    The adoption of commercial innovations in the former Central and Eastern European markets: the case of Internet banking in Estonia2008In: International Journal of Bank Marketing, ISSN 0265-2323, E-ISSN 1758-5937, Vol. 24, no 8, p. 154-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Businesses developed in Western markets may be so new to emerging and developing markets that they can be considered innovations. Knowledge of innovation adoption is therefore essential for western firms that expand into these markets.

    Methodology The data presented in this study are based on 1,831 questionnaires collected from individual Internet banking users in Estonia.

    Findings – This study extends the applicability of the innovation adoption model developed by Everett Rogers to Estonian Internet banking. Estonia is one of the fastest-growing Central and Eastern European (CEE) economies. Internet use is more advanced in Estonia than in many Western countries. Because Western banking is steeped in tradition, it is essential to study adoption of innovations by Estonian banks, which, in many respects, have leapfrogged the development path that Western banks experienced.

    Practical implications – The managerial implications of this paper include its contributions toward better understanding of the commercial viability in CEE economies of businesses based on Western-style technology. 

  • 324.
    Eriksson, Kent
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Sharma, D. Deo
    Stockholm School of Economics.
    Buyer loyalty development through seller education of service buyers2007In: Journal of Euromarketing, ISSN 1049-6483, E-ISSN 1528-6967, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 17-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper develops a model where service buyer loyalty can be achieved by seller education of the service buyer. Buyer education implies both offering services and development of the service buyer's capability to use the service. Service buyer education is facilitated by seller competence on the service offering and the buyer's context. The reason for this is that the more embedded the service seller is in the buyer's context, the better able are they to educate the service buyer. Antecedent to seller competence, at any given point of time, or level of relationship development, is the service buyer's current understanding of seller resources. The model is tested and confirmed on 255 small firms. The model identifies that education can align the service offering, buyer resources, and seller resources in buyer - seller relationships.

  • 325.
    Eriksson, Kent
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Söderberg, Inga-Lill
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Customers ’ ways of making sense of a financial service relationship through intersubjective mirroring of others2010In: Journal of Financial Services Marketing, ISSN 1363-0539, E-ISSN 1479-1846, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 99-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of relationships between buyer and sellers in marketingresearch is well established. This study contributes to relationship marketing (RM)research as it examines the microfoundations of fi nancial service buyer and sellerrelationships. The study uses intersubjective theory and a qualitative method with thepurpose of conceptualising the qualitatively different ways customers experience faceto-face interactions with a service provider. An empirical study is conducted to determine,based on the customer ’ s own words, what is experienced in the interaction between thecustomer and the provider. Findings from the empirical material show that not all personalinteractions between customers and a service provider, in this case a bank, can belabelled as relationships. Instead, what customers do perceive as a relationship is anencounter where the interaction entails symmetry in the way the customer and the providermirror each other. When customers receive a treatment in opposition to an expectationof intersubjectivity, they will not refer to the situation as a relationship and, subsequently,according to the underlying assumptions of RM, do not willingly engage in further businesswith the provider.

  • 326.
    Eriksson, Kent
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. Abo Akad Univ, Lab Ind Management, Fac Sci & Engn, Turku, Finland..
    Wikström, Kim
    Hellström, Magnus
    Levitt, Raymond E.
    Projects in the Business Ecosystem: The Case of Short Sea Shipping and Logistics2019In: Project Management Journal, ISSN 8756-9728, E-ISSN 1938-9507, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 195-209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article develops a conceptual framework to analyze the governance of projects within a business ecosystem. The framework is applied to the case of a vessel delivery project in the short sea shipping business ecosystem, which is a cargo and logistics infrastructure service at sea. We develop a model that identifies contentious lock-ins among the workflows, and show how they can be resolved by governance that can increase performance of the sea logistics infrastructure. The model shows the interdependence of the short sea shipping business ecosystem and the vessel project, and it shows how performance is enhanced by their integration.

  • 327.
    Eriksson, Lennart
    et al.
    Handelshögskolan i Umeå.
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Organization and management. Handelshögskolan i Umeå.
    Omorganisation och förnyelse av Flodh-koncernen: En case-uppgift1993Report (Other academic)
  • 328.
    Eriksson, Lennart
    et al.
    Umeå Universitet.
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Utveckla ett företag!: Ett praktikfall i organisation och ledarskap1997Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 329.
    Erlandsson, Alice
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Gaylong, Ruby
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Navigating Sustainability Oriented Innovation Processes2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is strong interest across industries and academia in exploring the potential of innovation to address global sustainability issues and hence assist in making a paradigm shift towardsmore sustainable practices. To overcome the challenges of sustainability it is not enough to inject incremental solutions but a paradigm shift should suggestively be aimed at. As a result Sustainability innovation is being approached more holistically as opposed to in the past when it mostly focused on process, product or organisational innovation. The concept ‘SustainabilityOriented Innovation’ (SOI) considers this holistic view and looks at innovation as a process or trajectory and considers sustainability from a both social, environmental as well as an economic perspective. For holistic solutions to arise it is evident that challenges need to be solved togetherin multi actor networks and not in an insular manner. Yet, researchers have in the past focused mostly on who should govern or be involved in sustainability innovation whilst there is a lack in understanding how it should be accomplished collectively. Understanding how different parties such as civil society, public authorities and industries can collaborate to create valuable solutions can be imperative for future sustainable development.By combining SOI with Actor Network Theory (ANT) this paper sheds light on how actors engage in SOI processes and form a multi-actor network. Actor Network Theory helps deciphering the innovation process, viewing it as non-linear and continuously evolving negotiation between multiple actors rather than as an insular and linear process. Two SOI cases are examined through the theoretical lens of ANT to investigate the innovation process through moments of translations rather than static stages. As the integration of SOI and ANT is under researched this paper makes a theoretical contribution by integrating the theories and thus enriching this area. Findings emphasise how the focal actor, in a SOI process, engages with other actors in the multi-actor network. The findings can hence assist actors in initiating or transitioning towards Systems building approach by shedding light on how to navigate the complexities of the process and engage with other actorsinvolved.

  • 330.
    Eskilsson, Marika
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Conradson, Johanna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    The choice to syndicate and its effect on exit dynamics: A study on Venture Capital firms active in Sweden2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Venture capitalists enter into an investment with the intent of realising a substantial profit on theventure after a number of years; this realisation is usually labelled the exit. The disinvestment decisionis a critical issue in the venture capital industry, as the return of the investment is realised upon exit.There are two important dimensions to the disinvestment decision; how and when to exit.This thesis studies the role of Venture Capital (VC) syndication, and its’ effect on exit dynamics for VCfirms in Sweden. The aspects of syndication will be focused on firm characteristics of investing parties,were the ambition is to provide an analysis of these characteristics and their effect on exit route(Merger and Acquisitions, M&As, and Initial Public Offerings, IPOs) and exit timing. Our statisticalanalysis rely on survival analysis with Competing Risk Models (CRM), which is adequate to model timein one state, when exit is to a number of competing states. These models allow for a joint analysis ofexit type and exit timing, i.e. model durations that end with multiple exits. Specifically, we apply theWeibull distribution with Gamma Frailty.To conduct the study, we have used a self-collected data set of 300 investments derived from 20 VCfirms in Sweden. For each investment, the data includes information relating to a number ofexplanatory variables concerning selected characteristics of the portfolio company and investingparties. Our results reveal that the presence of one or more experienced VC firms in the syndicatewould prolong time to exit and increase the likelihood of exiting through an IPO. We provided evidencethat a larger syndicate size will increase the time to exit and increase the likelihood for exiting throughan IPO. We also provided empirical evidence that foreign investor involvement in a syndicate prolongstime to exit in comparison to investments with only domestic co-investors and should affect exit routeby increasing the probability of an IPO. Finally, we could infer that a match between location of at leastone VC firm in a syndicate and acquirer country will have an increasing effect on time-to-exit, whileincreasing the probability of an exit in that country.We hope that the findings of this thesis will provide scholars and venture capitalists with novel,valuable information on a syndicates’ effect on exit dynamics.

  • 331.
    Fallgren, Karl
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Sundborg, Håkan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Future grocery: A study of the e-commerce grocery basket business in Sweden 2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The era of the Internet has become increasingly important in our daily life. Internet channels are rapidly growing into sophisticated businesses. This thesis purpose is therefore to conduct an initial study on a newly approaching e-commerce business, namely the grocery basket business. As there has not yet been much research in this field the overall aim is to contribute to the research in this business area. There are many who argue that in relation to the Internet and e-commerce fields there are two other important fields: business model and supply chain.

    A qualitative approach is used, based on triangulation methodology including a multiple case study and a survey. The cases are two different types of e-commerce companies: brick-and-clicks and pure-players. An empirical investigation covering twenty interviews and a questionnaire with one thousand respondents has been conducted.

    Findings supported by the interviews and the questionnaire reveal much knowledge about the grocery basket business. This are analyzed in relation to literature of business model and supply chain and according to the two cases of companies in the business.

    The study concludes that there is a great deal of challenges facing the grocery basket business in both fields of business model and supply chain. In both cases it is a challenge to retain customers, flexibility for customers, competition and supply chain development. Regarding brick-and-clicks a major challenge is to make their physical channel and online channel work together. Regarding pure-players a major challenge is their dependency of wholesalers. In addition, recommendations to these acknowledged challenges are benchmarking on other successful grocery companies and/or other successful e-commerce companies. Additional recommendation for pure-players is that they should cooperate with a brick-and-mortar company. Finally, the study shows some decent potential in the business to reduce emissions. This by providing eco-friendly products with pre planned recipes to fit with the products, and having fewer products in stock.

  • 332.
    Farshid, Mana
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Marketing and Entrepreneurship.
    Paschen, Jeannette
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Eriksson, Theresa
    Kietzmannc, Jan
    Go boldly! Explore augmented reality (AR), virtual reality (VR), and mixed reality (MR) for business2018In: Business Horizons, Vol. 61, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is not surprising that managers find it hard to distinguish similar-sounding, IT-based concepts such as augmented reality and virtual reality. To many, all of these constructs mean nearly the same and, as a result, the terms are often used interchangeably. This confusion holds back those eager to explore the different opportunities these new technologies present. This Executive Digest presents six different types of reality and virtual reality—(1) reality, (2) augmented reality, (3) virtual reality, (4) mixed reality, (5) augmented virtuality, and (6) virtuality—as part of our actual reality/virtual reality continuum. We then illustrate their differences using a common example and outline business applications for each type.

  • 333.
    Fazlollahi, Ariyan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Franke, Ulrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems. Swedish Institute of Computer Science (RISE SICS), Box 1263, Kista, Sweden.
    Measuring the impact of enterprise integration on firm performance using data envelopment analysis2018In: International Journal of Production Economics, ISSN 0925-5273, E-ISSN 1873-7579, Vol. 200, p. 119-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, with rapidly developing technology and changing business models, organizations face rapid changes in both internal and external environments. To be able to rapidly respond to such changing environments, integration of software systems has become a top priority for many organizations. However, despite extensive use of software systems integration, quantitative methods for estimating the business value of such integrations are still missing. Using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and the microeconomic concept of marginal rates, this study proposes a method for quantifying the effects of enterprise integration on the firm performance. In the paper, we explain how DEA can be used to evaluate the marginal benefits of enterprise integration. Our proposed method is to measure and compare the productive efficiency of firms using enterprise integration, specifically by relating the benefits produced to the resources consumed in the process. The method is illustrated on data collected from 12 organizations. The defined method has a solid theoretical foundation, eliminating the need for a priori information about the relationship between different measures. Furthermore, the framework could be used not only to quantify the business value of enterprise integration, but also to estimate trade-offs and impacts of other subjective managerial goals on the results. The major limitation of the proposed method is the absence of a comprehensive theory relating IT architecture changes to organizational outcomes. The underlying model is strongly dependent on the relevancy and accuracy of the included variables, as well as number of data units, introducing uncertainties to the outcomes of the model.

  • 334.
    Fili, Andreas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Business Angel–Venture Negotiation in the Post-Investment Relationship: The Use of the Good Cop, Bad Cop Strategy2014In: Venture Capital: an International Journal of Entrepreneurial Finance, ISSN 1369-1066, E-ISSN 1464-5343, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 309-325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper reports on the utilization of the ‘good cop, bad cop’ negotiation strategy in ongoing investor-venture relationships. Four cases of business angel – venture involvement are studied over several years’ time. Earlier research on the good cop, bad cop strategy has described its efficiency in obtaining maximum distribution in short-term distributive bargaining. This has been explained as a result of the emotional contrast effect unlocked by the sequence of interaction with the bad cop followed by interaction with the good cop. In an ongoing investment relationship, other rules apply. The present findings suggest that only a business angel who is already trusted can become a good cop – by virtue of introducing a bad cop. This is explained as a way of conducting negotiations without destroying the trust that has been built over time in the business angel – venture relationship. The strategy provides a scapegoat for the negativity associated with the negotiations. The bad cop assumes the blame, while the good cop is still trusted and can remain in the relationship, with less risk of being the target of any retained hostility.

  • 335.
    Fili, Andreas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Consumer marketing replicability: Concept and strategies2009In: European Journal of Management, ISSN 1555-4015, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 134-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this conceptual paper, it is argued that companies need to adapt to the impact globalized broadbandInternet has on the marketing of goods in terms of replicability, a concept based on consumer satisfactionand the cost of obtaining the same subjective consumption experience from another source (includingproducing it yourself). Three types of goods are defined: non-, semi- and completely replicable. Firmsoffering non- and semi-replicable goods will still make profits, while it is argued that in the long run, firmsoffering only completely replicable goods will not be competitive, and disappear. The theoretical argumentis illustrated by the recent development of the movie industry in terms of replicability of the goods offered.It is argued that firms need to perform an in-depth analysis of their current consumers in order to be ableto segment them in terms of their perception of replicability of the goods. Three strategies for handlingreplicability are presented: branding, bundling and pricing. These entail perceptual repositioning fromreplicability towards non-replicability in the mind of consumers, as well as directing differentiated pricing strategies towards each consumer segment.

  • 336.
    Fili, Andreas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Good Cop – Bad Cop: Multiple Principals in Informal Investment Relationships2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The principal-agent relationship (Ross, 1973; Jensen & Meckling, 1976) has been analyzed extensively in economics, in political science and, increasingly, within sociology (Kiser, 1999). The majority of economic papers on the principal-agent relationship has focused on a single principal and a single agent, or in our context, a single investor and a single investee. There is an increasing interest in moving beyond this traditional investor-investee dyad (Lockett et al., 2006). The present paper represents such an attempt, as it studies the dynamics in a specific case with multiple investors and a single founder. The case shows that in agency situations, principals can cooperate to influence the agent by taking on different roles towards the agent. In the case, some principals are distanced from the agent, while the one responsible for communication with the founder decreases his principality in order to reduce perceived hierarchical distance and emphasize perceived goal congruence

  • 337.
    Fili, Andreas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Good cop, bad cop: Housing the contradictory logics of the resource-based view and the stakeholder view through separation of roles2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 338.
    Fili, Andreas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Mentoring the CEO or monitoring the ROI?: The business angel’s interrole in the venture relationship2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In its normal context, a mentor is a trusted senior person who provides guidance and support to the protégé by keeping the best interest of the protégé in mind at all times. Earlier research has indicated that business angels are perceived as mentors by venture members, especially CEOs. An argument put forward in this paper is that an investor does not always have the protégé’s best interests in mind and, at times, prioritizes the return on investment instead. In some situations, this role conflict might become severe. If the business angel continues in the mentor role, the protégé might take the venture on a very costly and risky course of action, whereas if the business angel switches to the investor role and simply vetoes the idea of the CEO through the authority of being a major owner, the venture might be saved from the same costly adventures, but the protégé can be severely dismayed. Presumably, switching from the role of mentor to that of investor in this fashion would destroy the trust held by the protégé that the business angel really had the protégé’s best interests in mind, and would have repercussions on the relationship for a long time afterwards. This role conflict between being both an investor and a mentor is explored in the paper. Based on information gathered from semi-structured face-to-face interviews with 9 business angels, an image emerges wherein the business angel remains in the mentoring role for as long as possible, given the perceived costs. The paper suggests that in order to understand what perceived costs mean for an investor, the concept of affordable loss (Sarasvathy, 2001) is of great use.One of the implications of affordable loss for an entrepreneur is envisioning the worst-case scenario and the money lost in that case (Dew, Sarasvathy, Read, & Wiltbank, 2009). For a business angel, affordable loss could mean the same: the business angel could picture the cost of the worst-case scenario by studying the current course of action and decide whether it is affordable or not. As long as the worst-case cost associated with a certain course of action is lower than the affordable loss, the business angel will continue to fulfill the role of mentor in support of the venture chief executive officer (CEO). However, if the cost exceeds the affordable loss limit, the business angel will switch to the monitoring role, thereby prohibiting this course of action.

  • 339.
    Fili, Andreas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Noncontractual Governance Strategies of Business Angels in the Post-Investment Venture Relationship 2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Business angels fulfil an important economic role in society by getting involved in early-stage ventures. This dissertation aspires to advance our knowledge of the governance strategies used by business angels in the venture relationship, based on the idea that the choice of governance strategies depends on the individual venture but is also shaped by the strategies adopted by any business angel network (BAN) the business angel is part of.

    Major findings are twofold. First, the analysis suggests that governance strategies are role-contingent. The role of the business angel vis-a-vis the venture changes, typically from outsider to insider, as the relationship transitions through different stages. Business angels should only use governance strategies that are perceived as legitimate for their role. Moreover, all strategies do not mix well and some may even neutralize each other when used together. The impact of the BAN on the action of the individual business angel is not straightforward: the formalization of a BAN will certainly restrict individual action, but, on the other hand, it seems that the BAN can also be useful for managing conflicts.

    Second, results indicate that conceptualizing the long-term dynamic of the investor-venture relationship in terms of any single theoretical perspective, be it agency theory, procedural justice, or norm-based influence, is too simplistic. The utility of each theoretical perspective is role-contingent: a business angel in the outsider role is better understood with agency theory, whereas a business angel in the insider role is better understood with norm-based influence theory.

    The empirical data on individual business angels comes mainly from 30 interviews with 21 business angels, and some supplementary data. The analysis of BANs is made differently and based on a different data set consisting of approximately 150 interviews with BAN members, civil servants, politicians, banks, accountants, and entrepreneurs.

  • 340.
    Fili, Andreas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Oskarshamnsprojektet : delrapport 1 till aktionsgruppen. Sammanställning av skriftligt material rörande utvecklings- och tillväxtfrågor i Oskarshamns kommun med viss omnejd.: Arbetsrapport NAFU-projektet.2006Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 341.
    Fili, Andreas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Berggren, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Silver, Lars
    Umeå School of Business and Economics, Umeå University.
    The impact of financial capital, human capital and social capital on the evolution of Business Angel Networks2013In: International Journal of Corporate Governance, ISSN 1754-3037, E-ISSN 1754-3045, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 209-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Business angels are very important for the growth and development of start–ups as they contribute much needed capital and competence to these firms. During the past decades the formation and growth of Business Angel Networks (BANs) has become an increasingly common phenomenon and an important issue for policy–makers in most Western economies. In this paper, we follow the inception and development of three local BANs. The data in this paper come from in–depth interviews with the founders of the networks as well as bankers, civil servants, entrepreneurs and local politicians. The results indicate that capital alone will not guarantee success in a BAN rather it is a combination of the financial capital, human capital and social capital among the founding partners of the network.

  • 342.
    Fili, Andreas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Berggren, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance.
    Silver, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance.
    The influence of strategy on survival and growth in business angel networks in Sweden2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 343.
    Fili, Andreas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Grünberg, Jaan
    Uppsala University.
    Business angel post-investment activities: a multi-level review2014In: Journal of Management and Governance, ISSN 1385-3457, E-ISSN 1572-963XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, empirical research on post-investment activities of business angels is reviewed and conceptualized as five distinct governance processes: boundary spanning, structuring, leadership, doing, and monitoring. These processes have the potential to reduce the exposure of business angels to relational risk and market risk. The identification of these governance processes also contributes towards understanding the social aspect of business angels’ post investment involvement. In particular, it is shown how the recognition of the cognitive/institutional dimension opens up for new questions about post-investment involvement. Finally, it is proposed that venture performance can be enhanced in practice if business angels and venture members develop skills that are connected to the governance processes.

  • 344.
    Floriano, Sergio
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Market challenges of incumbent telecom companies entering Internet-of-Things (IoT) ecosystems and organizational implications: A case study2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet-of-Things (IoT) brings machine-to-machine communication to a global scale together with new business scenarios and inter-relationships. If compared to previous communication technologies, IoT transforms the traditional value chain and creates a different business ecosystem. In this scenario, incumbent telecom companies are taking the role of technology enablers to enter the market. These companies are trying to find ways to generate new value propositions and to position themselves along the IoT-specific value chain. To do that, incumbents need to overcome a number of external and internal challenges. The purpose of this research is to investigate those challenges from the perspective of an incumbent telecom company via a case study carried out at Ericsson.

    This Thesis is built on the theoretical foundations of innovation management and business model innovation. The research behind is based on academic literature, opinions from industry experts, market analyses, and qualitative data collected from several interviews and online resources.

    The outcome from this study remarks some major external and internal challenges faced by incumbents. From the internal perspective, the challenges are related to enable the structures within the company to make possible the development of IoT as a radically new business area. On the external side, the main challenges shift from entering the market and position themselves in the new IoT value chain, to the development of unprecedented relationships, innovative value propositions and a new business paradigm. In order to do that, companies need to understand the unexplored IoT ecosystem, find needs and opportunities via partnerships and develop joint business models.

    This work provides specific data to complement the scarce literature around the topic of IoT business models and challenges for incumbent companies. It offers practical help to guide managers to understand the nascent IoT market, to define adoption strategies and to find their way through the emerging ecosystems.

  • 345.
    Ford, Jackie
    et al.
    Bradford University School of Management.
    Cunliffe, Ann L
    Anderson School of Management, University of New Mexico.
    Raelin, Joseph A
    Northeastern University .
    Crevani, Lucia
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Economics and Management (Div.). KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Gender, Organisation and Management.
    Lindgren, Monica
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Economics and Management (Div.).
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Economics and Management (Div.).
    Harding, Nancy
    Bradford University School of Management.
    Critical approaches to leadership learning and development2012In: CMS Division Showcase Symposion, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Countless managers in the USA, UK and other countries are embarking on leadership learning and development activities to support their roles and identities as leaders (Day, 2011; Storey, 2011).  There is a belief that the deluge of publications and the investment in leadership development will create managers with the skills and characters of leaders, capable of guiding organizations through the crises of the 21st century global market. Such learning and development programs frequently espouse the value of dominant discourses such as transformational leadership, with its ‘heroic’ assumptions that romanticize individual leaders and underestimate the significance of context and relationships. Furthermore, they often neglect critical engagement with the complex conditions, processes and consequences of leadership dynamics in contemporary organizations. Recently, critical (and especially poststructural) approaches to researching and conceptualizing leadership have emerged, which although still being outnumbered by mainstream accounts (Ford, 2006; Ford, Harding and Learmonth, 2008; Jackson and Parry, 2011), are increasingly influential. However, discourses emerging from the more critical approaches have not yet had time to be absorbed into leadership learning and development activities. This symposium brings together critical leadership theorists who will explore ways of changing leadership pedagogy.

  • 346.
    Fornaziere, Felipe
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Social Performance Standards in the Impact Investing Industry: Potential Consequences for Impact Investors2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the recent years, a new type of investments called Impact Investing has been growing rapidly. Those investments are made with the intention to improve social and/or environmental conditions in the world while generating financial returns. In this case, financial metrics are not enough to measure whether the investor objective was reached, and tools for measuring the social performance of the investments are needed. From that need, various measurement approaches were created, but the fragmentation of methods leads to a huge inefficiency in the impact investing industry. Efforts towards creating standards for measuring and reporting social performance are emerging, but there is still little  understanding among impact investors about the real benefits and possible challenges the standardization would bring. In this context, an important question arises, which is the subject of study in this research:

    What are the potential consequences of establishing social performance standards for the impact investing industry?

    The purpose of this research is to analyze the possible consequences of establishing social performance standards on the impact investing industry.

    Qualitative approach and interpretive paradigm were chosen to be followed in this research. Primary data was collected in the form of interviews with impact investors and specialists in social performance measurement. Secondary data comes from books, articles, journals and websites. The data was analyzed using the consequences of innovations framework presented by Rogers (2003).

    The results suggest that obviously there are potential desirable and undesirable direct consequences, but also indirect consequences that are not perceived without a thorough analysis.

  • 347.
    Forsblom, Erik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Smedberg, Ludwig
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Stock-based Compensation and Shareholder Value2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 348.
    Freilich, Jonatan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    When Innovation Is Not Enough: Managerial Challenges of Technology Change in Pharmaceutical R&D2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation is not always enough. In the beginning of the 2000s established pharmaceutical firms had developed several drugs, yet these new products were far too few. Patents of many blockbuster drugs were to soon expire and substantial profit would then be lost. A potential solution emerged: implementing new biomarker technologies in drug development.

    Biomarkers are required for knowledge creation about the drug effect on underlying causes of a disease. The problem is this: although academia, industry, and policy makers have deemed biomarkers as necessary for successful drug development, pharmaceutical firms have not used them in actual drug development projects.  Since the 1990s, established pharmaceutical firms have invested financially and restructured organizationally in order to implement biomarkers. Still, cases show that more than 50% of project termination in Clinical Phase 2 (the bottle neck of drug development) can be attributed to the lack of implementing biomarkers.  

    Challenges of established firms transforming in the face of technology change is a commonly studied phenomenon within innovation management literature. Several explanations have attempted to determine why established firms fail in following technology change. However, most of this literature has been based upon an empirical context where technology change is conceptualized as an innovation of the dominant product design in the industry. Consequently, the challenge is to develop or adapt a discontinuous product innovation.

    Conversely, implementing biomarkers is a case of technology change that impacts R&D. Since drugs lose their value when the patent protection expires, the established pharmaceutical firms need to continuously develop new block buster drugs – not just one product. More research is needed to fill this gap in the literature in order to develop an understanding of the established firm challenge in implementing biomarkers.

    This thesis builds upon a longitudinal case study of AstraZeneca. Using multiple data sources, the findings show that the dominant architecture of the drug development process during the 2000s impeded the implementation of biomarkers. AstraZeneca required an “architectural process innovation” in order to complete this implementation. The company’s process-based management structures distorted it from recognizing the need for process change.

    This thesis has three contributions: First, it describes the process change and the firm’s managerial challenges associated with biomarker implementation; Second, it contributes to the literature on the established firm challenge by developing an understanding of the phenomenon of architectural process innovation; Third, it develops a process-based framework for studying technology change that affects R&D. 

  • 349.
    Freilich, Jonatan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Economics and Management (Div.).
    Engwall, Mats
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Drug R&D Management: Practitioners' Challenges and Knowledge Needs2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    R&D productivity in the pharmaceutical business has gradually decreased during the last decades. While companies are spending more on R&D, fewer drugs are reaching the market. It is said that the cost of bringing a successful drug to the market is now $1 billion, which includes all failure drugs. At the same time, governmental regulations for drugs development have become tighter. Companies are therefore desperately trying to find new ways to develop more innovative drugs more effectively. There is a growing need for more knowledge about Drug R&D Management in the industry, which is the reason for KTH Industrial Economics and Management initiating a research program in this field. The present study is a feasibility study of this research endeavor. It outlines the scope of the field and explores areas for further study. Anchored in interviews with key industrial actors, the aim is to identify which organizational challenges practitioners are presently facing for successful drug R&D management. Four themes of challenges within the business have been identified. These are: Specialization within the R&D Process – There is a trend that different actors specialize within the innovation process of developing new drugs. The concept is to source activities to organizations that have the best capabilities. What are the consequences of this business model? What is the core competence of different actors? Balancing Freedom and Control in R&D Operations – R&D by definition, comprises activities with unknown outcomes. Work in projects most probably takes trajectories that were not originally thought of. Typically the most suitable individuals for performing such activities are scientists with a deep specialization within the field of research. How are freedom and control of work balanced within R&D? What type of control is most suitable? How can scientists be managed? Resource Allocation and Project Portfolio Management – Projects in a project portfolio are dependent on each other and on their environment. The ecology in which a project lives will determine how it is evaluated and financed, and how risk-willing its owners are. There is a need of knowledge to describe how different project environments are organized. Organizing for Knowledge Exchange – Knowledge in biosciences is growing exponentially. Managing knowledge is therefore crucial, but how to do it successfully is the question. Working in big collaborative networks requires companies to manage knowledge outside the boundaries of the firm. There is also a need to bring in knowledge from other industries. The themes can encompass different theoretical disciplines - from a strategic point of view to a cognitive aspect of innovation. This study argues for a comparative multiple case study approach focusing on the preconditions and business logics of different R&D organizations. The cases should look into the different organizational domains of Biotech firms and Big Pharma multinationals, comparing the two business logics and strategies. Innovation in the context of single firms in the pharmaceutical industry can thus be explored and give rise to knowledge through examples of practical problem solving and methodology in drug R&D management.

  • 350.
    Fumagalli, Andrea
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Customer-oriented quality management: how customers affect quality.: Study applied to a Chinese manufacturing company2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    “A complaint is a gift” (Barlow & Moller, 1996)

    The aim of the thesis is to analyze complaints as source useful information from a process-improvement standpoint in order to measure the cost of poor quality and create a model for the improvement of internal performances on the basis of customers’ satisfaction.

    The study is based on the analysis of customers’ perceived quality, expectations and complaint behavior. The research focuses on creating a framework to calculate cost of quality more accurately and improve performances collecting and elaborating customers’ feedbacks. It is a cheap solution to discover and address internal weaknesses, especially for companies that cannot afford to pay for expensive quality management projects (i.e. Six-sigma).

    Customers’ satisfaction and complaint behavior vary a lot depending on industry, culture, expectations and price paid for the good purchased. For this reason, the proposed model classifies consumers’ feedbacks considering the abovementioned variables, in order to have a general model that could be suitable for several companies operating in different industries.

    The model promises costs reduction and performance improvement, besides the gain of key-information about customers. 

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