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  • 301. Karlsson, Klemens
    Röttle kvarnar och stampar: En 700-årig industrihistoria2008Book (Other academic)
  • 302.
    Klein, Kajsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Integritetsdebatten åren kring 1984: Transkript av ett vittnesseminarium vid Tekniska museet iStockholm den 30 november 20072008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     The witness seminar ”Integritetsdebatten åren kring 1984” [The Privacy Debate Around 1984] was held at the National Museum of Science and Technology in Stockholm on 30 November 2007. The seminar was moderated by Lars Ilshammar and Kajsa Klein. A main focus of the discussion was if and how George Orwell’s book influenced the Swedish privacy debate in the mid 80s. Most panellists agreed that 1984 had had limited importance in the Swedish context and that Orwell’s major achievement was to formulate a one-liner. Several other fictional accounts were brought up as comparison. Also clear from the discussion was that in Sweden, the privacy debate had ever since the late 1960s had both left- and rightwing dimensions. There were thus Marxist, as well as conservative arguments, about how computers were used by financial elite and the authorities to control the people. Generally speaking, however, the mid 80s were characterized by a move towards greater individualism and more widespread computer use. Emphasis in the discussion was put on the different actors and it was agreed that an important driving force behind the privacy debate was the Swedish Data Inspection Board, headed by the PR savvy director Jan Freese. Different examples were given of actions taken (and not taken) by this institution and also of internal conflicts within the board. The labor movement was on the other hand relatively silent and compared to its counterparts in other countries positive to computer use. Finally, a central theme during the seminar discussion was also the great controversy surrounding the sociological research project Metropolitan “revealed” in 1986. The role of the news media as investigator and scandalizer in this case was examined and debated. Two of the seminar participants were part of the Metropolitan cohort and presented their differing views about this project. While there was still disagreement about to what extent the project had been invasive and concealed, it was nevertheless concluded that especially the tabloids Aftonbladet and Expressen were responsible for exaggerations and fear-mongering in their reporting. In addition, the role of the Swedish Data Inspection Board was again discussed.

  • 303.
    Larsen, Katarina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), History of Science and Technology.
    Co-authorship Networks in Development of Solar Cell Technology: International and Regional Knowledge Interaction2009In: NEW DIRECTIONS IN REGIONAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT / [ed] Andersson AE; Cheshire PC; Stough RR, 2009, p. 347-372Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 304.
    Larsen, Katarina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Dåtidens framtida innovationer: träteknisk forskning i det europeiska landskapet2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 305.
    Larsen, Katarina
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Rhetoric of engineering skills and heroes: institutional logics of university-industry relations in engineering education2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineering education and narratives told about engineers’ roles in society are study objects at the heart of organizational studies discussing professions and how engineering ideals are narrated, institutionalized and moulded into practices and categories of knowledge and skills. This study engages with the topics of educational mission of universities and university-industry relations as transfer activities by raising a set of questions about engineering narratives and university rhetoric of academia-industry relations.

  • 306.
    Larsen, Katarina
    et al.
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Gärdebo, Johan
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Retooling Engineering for Social Justice: The use of explicit models for analytical thinking, critical reflection, and peer-review in Swedish engineering education2017In: International Journal of Engineering, Social Justice, and Peace, ISSN 1927-9434, Vol. 5, no 1-2, p. 13-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper engages with how engineering education in Sweden have been retooled towards literacy in social justice. To achieve this, the authors used a set of pedagogical tools aimed at analytical thinking, critical reflection, and peer-review by students. The students were asked to use the tools in the course to critically analyze social justice in the city planning of twentieth century Stockholm, Sweden. This included, for example, national identities, social engineering, and politics that shaped Swedish society. The authors conducted a textual analysis of student essays on social justice that indicate increased social justice literacy and a shift towards the practices of engineers’ work with city planning. The study concludes by discussing conditions for engineering students to gain familiarity with formats used for critical reflection within the humanities.

  • 307.
    Larsson, Ebba
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Fastighetsdatasystemet: Transkript av ett vittnesseminarium vid Tekniska museet i Stockholm den 30 september 20082008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     The witness seminar ”Fastighetsdatasystemet” [the Land Data Bank System] was held at Tekniska museet [The National Museum of Science and Technology] in Stockholm on 30 September 2008 and led by Sture Hallström. The seminar dealt with the establishment of the Land Data Bank System and the rationalization in the handling of data on real properties and land. The main focus was directed towards the computerization of the real property register [fastighetsregistret] and the land register [inskrivningsregistret] and the different challenges this computerization of the manual registers faced. The organisation to carry this out was the Central Board for Real Estate Data, which started its work in 1968. A number of important inquiries supported the development of the Land Data Bank System, mainly two Governmental reports: the Real Estate Registration by the Swedish Register Committee in 1966 and EDP and Land Registration by the Land Register Committee in 1969. In finding the final design of the system, there were some political and emotional disagreements. The reformation of the property unit designations posed a particular concern. Another issue was the fact that the system came to be a personal register and questions of integrity arose. The technical matters caused some problems as new technologies like database management systems and the use of terminals and data communication were introduced. However, the core of the system has been stable and adaptable to changes over time. A legally binding start of the system could take place in Uppsala county in 1976, followed by Gävleborg and Stockholm county. The complete changeover took longer than anticipated, about 20 years, but was agreed to be well worth it. Suggestions to why the process could run so smoothly are that the Central Board for Real Estate data was a small, manageable and independent organisation, as well as having strong and open minded leaders. The coordinate system and its applications have expanded rapidly, for example in the use of the Global Positioning System, GPS. The Swedish Land Data Bank System has attracted great interest from all over the world and staff from the Central Board for Real Estate Data has assisted other countries in improving their systems for real property and land registration.

  • 308.
    Lindgren, Sofia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Dataföreningar i Sverige: Framväxt och förändringsmönster 1949–1990: Transkript av ett vittnesseminarium vid Tekniska museet i Stockholm den 26 september 20082008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     The witness seminar ”Dataföreningar i Sverige: Framväxt och förändringsmönster 1949–1990” [Computer Associations in Sweden: Growth, Development and Changes 1949– 1990] was held at Tekniska museet [the National Museum of Science and Technology] in Stockholm on 26 September 2008 and was led by Per Lundin. Representatives from four different computer associations were gathered in order to discuss the organisations and their activities, namely Svenska Dataföreningen, Svenska Samfundet för Informationsbehnadling, Systemutvecklarnas Riksförening and Riksdataförbundet. In 1990 these organisations merged as one organisation. The discussions at the seminar highlighted the various cultures that embodied the different organisations and how they have been organized. However, one aspect that has been a frequent theme in all the organisations is that of education. The organisations have worked with education related to computers on the whole, as well as with further education for its members. These activities have taken place in the form of publications, seminars and conferences. In connection to the matter of education, it was mentioned that the Swedish education system has not been quick enough to establish computer education. Financial difficulties forced the organisations to merge, in order to receive financial support from the industry. This underlines the close connections that these organisations have had with the industry through the years.

  • 309. Lindgren, Sofia
    Fackpress inom dataområdet: Exempel från 1960- och 1970-talet: Transkript av ett vittnesseminarium vid Tekniska museet i Stockholm den 14 oktober 20082008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     The witness seminar ”Fackpress inom dataområdet: Exempel från 1960- och 1970-talet” [Professional Magazines Concerning Computers and Computing: Examples from the 1960s and 1970s] was held at Tekniska museet [the National Museum of Science and Technology] in Stockholm on 14 October 2008 and led by Patrik Lundell. It dealt with the rise of magazines that focused on computers during the 1960s and 1970s. Representatives from magazines with different perspectives about computers were invited to the seminar. The seminar highlighted the different character each magazine withheld, also concerning the organization of the magazines in question and the ideas behind this. Furthermore the magazines’ varying approaches to ideas concerning whether or not people skilled in technology were needed in the editorial staff, in order to pursue the journalistic work about computers were discussed. The seminar also discerned how the journalists experienced how computer companies with different methods tried to affect the magazines’ ways of reporting about the companies and their businesses. This was usually carried out in a way that the journalists at the seminar experienced as a method for the computer companies themselves to control the actual reporting. One example of this method is that of the magazines’ funding. Since the magazines depended heavily on income from advertisements in the actual magazines made by the computer companies, the companies threatened to withdraw their advertisements from the magazines when they disagreed with the content of the published material.

  • 310.
    Lindgren, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Peralta, Julia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Datacentralerna för högre utbildning och forskning: Transkript av ett vittnesseminarium vid Tekniska museet i Stockholm den 27 mars 20082008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     The witness seminar ”Datacentralerna för högre utbildning och forskning” [The Data Processing Centres for Higher Education and Research] was held at Tekniska museet [The National Museum of Science and Technology] in Stockholm on 27 March 2008 and was led by professor Sture Allén. The main questions dealt with the introduction of the data processing centres, its development and influence on higher education and research, as well as the closure and transformation of the centres. The centres came into existence because of the great expenses that were connected to the acquisition of computers. In the witness seminar different views were represented, such as the one of The Swedish Agency for Public Management which was responsible for the acquisition, the managers of the centres as well as the users of the centres. The centres have had a great influence on both education and research and have affected the mode of working with computers. Among other things, the creation and use of different programs emerged at the centres.

  • 311.
    Lindgren, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Peralta, Julia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Högre datautbildningar i Sverige i ett historiskt perspektiv: Transkript av ett vittnesseminarium vid Tekniska museet i Stockholm den 24 januari 20082008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     The witness seminar ”Högre dataubildningar i Sverige i ett historiskt perspektiv” [Higher Education in the Computers Sciences in Sweden from a Historic Perspective] was held at Tekniska museet [The National Museum of Science and Technology] in Stockholm on 24 January 2008 and was led by Ingemar Dahlstrand. Different aspects of the development of higher education within the computer area were discussed and debated. The witness seminar focused on the expansion of the subject area that grew from Numerical Analysis, Administrative Data Processing and the area that in the end became Computer Science. The experiences from the different universities were compared and debated. The development of the subject area of computers took various paths at the universities. The experiences of working within a newly established subject area were discussed. These included, among other aspects, the relation to the industry. Also the experiences of having to rely on a centralised system with Data Processing Centres in order to use computers were mentioned.

  • 312.
    Lindgren, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Peralta, Julia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Lysator: Transkript av ett vittnesseminarium vid Linköpings universitetLinköping den 21 februari 20082008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The witness seminar ”Lysator” was held at Linköpings universitet [University of Linköping] on 21 February 2008 and was led by PhD Lennart Sturesson. Lysator is a student-led society with a focus on computers which was established at the University of Linköping in the early 1970’s. The witness seminar focused on the founding of the society and the driving forces behind this as well as the first activities that took place within the organisation. Besides experimentations with a D21-computer, that was donated by Datasaab, one of the major projects during the 1970s was the construction of the minicomputer LYS 16. The members of Lysator even started selling the computer. Besides the construction of the LYS 16, the membership in a technological orientated organisation that focused on new advancements in technology, was discussed. Some of the later projects of the society carried out in the 1980s were also mentioned, such as RydNet and Projekt Runeberg.

  • 313.
    Lindkvist, Julia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Att bygga kunskapsstaden: en studie av högskolornas framväxt i Stockholm 1850-19602008Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
  • 314. Lundblad, Nicklas
    et al.
    Jardenberg, Joakim
    Wormbs, Nina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Karlgren, Jussi
    Bylund, Markus
    Krantz, Peter
    Kontrollen av Internet bör redovisas öppet2012In: Svenska dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412, no 2012-04-18Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 315.
    Lundin, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Administrativ systemutveckling i teori och praktik, 1960–1980: Transkript av ett vittnesseminarium vid Tekniska museet i Stockholm den 26 november 20072008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The witness seminar ”Administrativ systemutveckling i teori och praktik, 1960–1980” [Administrative Data Processing in Theory and Practice, 1960–1980] was held at Tekniska museet [the National Museum of Science and Technology] in Stockholm on 26 November 2007 and was led by Eva Lindencrona. A topic for discussion was the problems in data processing that eventually led to the emergence of systems development during the 1960s. The development of more formalized methods during the 1970s were debated in length, and it was noted that virtually every company and public authority developed its own methods. Furthermore, the establishment and impact of the national guidelines for systems development, SIS-RAS, received attention. The panelists belonging to the university sector highlighted the crucial role Börje Langefors played, professor in Information Systems at the Royal Institute of Technology/ Stockholm University, in the early establishment of Computer and Systems Sciences in Sweden. On the other hand, the practioners present stressed that many of the more formal methods developed by academics never reached trade and industy or public authorities. Finally, the seminar touched upon the importance of conferences such as NordSAM and NordDATA at a Nordic level, and IFIP at an international level.

  • 316.
    Lundin, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Att arbeta med 1950-talets matematikmaskiner: Transkript av ett vittnesseminarium vid Tekniska museet i Stockholm den 12 september 20052006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The witness seminar “Att arbeta med 1950-talets matematikmaskiner” [Working with the Computing Machines of the 1950s] was held at Tekniska museet [The National Museum of Science and Technology] in Stockholm on 12 September 2005, and led by Lars Arosenius. At the seminar the development of the first Swedish electronic computer BESK, at the Swedish Board for Computing Machinery (MMN), and the design of the subsequent BESK copies SMIL, at MMN, and Facit EDB, at AB Åtvidabergs Industrier/Facit AB, were discussed. Different design problems were observed, particularly the problem of developing working memories. The problem of the service reliability of the first computers was brought up. Furthermore the seminar discussed the early use of computers, paying special attention to the role of the largest users, the defense and meteorology areas. Problems such as hardware dependence of programming, memory capacity as a limiting factor and the use of subroutines were brought up. Other subjects touched upon included the peripheral equipment, the importance of the visits to study in the USA, the environment around BESK, the organizational problems at MMN, and the recruiting of the BESK group by AB Åtvidabergs Industrier.

  • 317.
    Lundin, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Bilsamhället: Ideologi, expertis och regelskapande i efterkrigstidens Sverige2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    During the 1950s the number of cars in Sweden increased almost fivefold and the country attained the highest level of car ownership per capita in Europe. The rise and establishment of mass motoring was dramatically illustrated by the violent encounter between the car and the city. Despite the fact that congestion as well as road accidents were well-known, everyday occurrences, they reached previously unimagined heights through the growth of mass motoring. In this doctoral thesis Per Lundin focuses on the emergence of a group of planning experts as the key advocates of the idea of the “car society” as the solution to these problems. By fully adapting society to the car it would be possible to eliminate congestion and road accidents, thus affirming the continuing advance of the car. This ideal, which originated in the United States, became the goal and the dream of these experts.

    The general question addressed by Lundin is to what extent the actions and the ideologies of the experts interacted with the advent of mass motoring and the extensive urban building during the post-war period. In order to answer this question Lundin analyzes, firstly how the planning experts laid claim to the problems of congestion and road accidents, thereby restating them as exclusive planning problems, secondly how guidelines and standards for a car-conscious planning of cities and communities were developed based on the formulation of this problem and thirdly how, and to what extent, the guidelines and standards concerned were implemented in the town planning process.

    In the thesis Lundin argues that the dreams about a post-war Swedish society entirely adapted to the car by and large were realized. One important explanation of the fact that the physical adaptation of cities and societies to the car could proceed so quickly, on such a large scale and in similar forms all over the country, is found in the planning rules developed by the experts. The rules were the embodiment of the untroubled and unreflecting dreams nourished by the planning experts of the 1950s and the 1960s. Through the rules these ideological conceptions were reinforced and disseminated in a manner almost unable to stop. As the rules quickly were integrated with the planning instruments of administrative bodies locally, regionally and nationally, they set the tone for the extensive urban renewal of the following decades.

  • 318.
    Lundin, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Databehandling vid Väg- och vattenbyggnads-styrelsen/Vägverket 1957–1980: Transkript av ett vittnesseminarium vid Tekniska museet i Stockholm den 22 maj 20062007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The witness seminar “Databehandling vid Väg- och vattenbyggnadsstyrelsen/Vägverket 1957–1980” [Data Processing at the Royal Board of Roads and Water Building/National Road Administration 1957—1980] was held at Tekniska museet [The National Museum of Science and Technology] in Stockholm on 22 May 2006 and led by Carl-Olof Ternryd. The seminar considered the development of data processing, photogrammetry and metrology at the Royal Board of Roads and Water Building/National Road Administration. The im-portance of these different methods in the planning, design and laying out of roads was discussed. A nine-week study visit to the USA in 1957 was identified as having played a key part in the early introduction of data processing at the Royal Board of Roads and Water Building. The use of quantity computation programmes in road planning, the advent of aerial photography and the introduction of photogrammetric instruments were taken up. Attention was also paid to the significance of information and education in spreading knowledge of data processing, photogrammetry and metrology within the organization. Particular note was taken of topics such as the official choice of the programming language ALGOL-GENIUS, the establishment of the early informa-tion system Vägdatabank, and the joint organization of tech-nical and administrative data processing.

  • 319.
    Lundin, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Den skandinaviska skolan i systemutveckling under 1970- och 1980-talen: Exemplen DEMOS och UTOPIA: Transkript av ett vittnesseminarium vid Tekniska museet i Stockholm den 31 mars 20082008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The witness seminar ”Den skandinaviska skolan i systemutveckling under 1970- och 1980-talen: Exemplen DEMOS och UTOPIA” [The Scandinavian School in Systems Development during the 1970s and the 1980s: The Examples DEMOS and UTOPIA] was held at the National Museum of Science and Technology in Stockholm on 31 March 2008 and was led by Per Lundin. It treated the emergence of user participation in systems development during the 1970s. The project DEMOS which started in 1975 focussed on the consequences of computerization and its prime concern was how employees should be able to influence organization and planning of work in companies. In its approach DEMOS was inspired by the pioneering work made by Kristen Nygaard and the Norwegian trade union in the beginning of the 1970s. The project UTOPIA followed DEMOS. It began in 1981 and was a joint project between the Swedish Centre of Working Life (Arbetslivscentrum), KTH, Aarhus University and graphic workers in the Nordic countries. UTOPIA dealt with trade union based development of, and training in, computer technology and work organization, especially text and image processing in the graphic industries. It was emphasized at the seminar that the cultural, political and social context was important concerning the development of the Scandinavian School, especially the radicalization of the universities in the wake of 1968 as well as the legislation of the Codetermination Act (Medbestämmandelagen, MBL) in 1976. Also discussed was the different computer policies developed by unions such as the Swedish Trade Union Confederation (LO) and the Swedish Confederation of Professional Employees (TCO).

  • 320.
    Lundin, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Designing Democracy: The UTOPIA-Project and the Role of the Nordic Labor Movement in Technological Change during the 1970s and 1980s2011In: History of nordic computing 3, 2011, p. 187-195Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By using the UTOPIA-project as an example, this paper highlights the role of the Nordic labor movement in technological change and underlines that there are different incentives for technological change. While corporations developing technology usually pursued increased efficiency in production, the UTOPIA-project aimed at other, alternative goals such as translating social values regarding job skills, quality of work, and quality of products into new computer hardware and software for the graphic industries. In the larger context, the UTOPIA-project can be seen as an attempt by the labor movement to revitalize and realize the old dream of industrial democracy by designing computing technology.

  • 321.
    Lundin, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Documenting the Use of Computers in Swedish Society between 1950 and 1980: Final Report on the Project “From Computing Machines to IT”2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This final report contextualizes, describes, and evaluates the project “From Computing Machines to IT,” which was carried out during 2007–8 as a collaboration between the Swedish Computer Society, the Division of History of Science and Technology at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), and the National Museum of Science and Technology. The project aimed to create, collect, preserve, and disseminate sources on how computing shaped and transformed Swedish society between 1950 and 1980. For this purpose, it adopted a user-centered perspective on the history of computing.

    In the project, more than 160 interviews were conducted, almost 50 witness seminars were arranged, and about 230 autobiographies were acquired with the help of traditional questionnaires as well as an Internet-based collection of memories (the Writers’ Web). The created sources consist of more than eight thousand pages of text. All in all, nearly seven hundred people contributed with their stories. The contacts with these people generated, in turn, several donations of archival records, artifacts, movies, and photographs.

    In this final report, it is noted that a shift toward a more elaborated user perspective has followed with the growing interest in the recent historiography of computing to understand “how computing has changed the world.” Also discussed in the report is how the user concept has been understood by scholars, and it is pointed out that the literature on users fails to acknowledge two categories of users: those not involved in technological invention and innovation, and those empowered by government or corporations with the authority to adapt technology to fit their needs. It is argued that mainly the latter group, which is denoted “elite” users, has had the power to shape major historical transformations. It is concluded that the project mainly has aimed to document the actions of elite users.

    Earlier international documentation efforts in the history of computing are, furthermore, surveyed, and it is pointed out that these have mainly focused on documenting the role of pioneers in computing technology and largely ignored the users of computing technology. Thus, the research tools and methods that they have developed, used, and refined for documenting pioneering figures—in particular the oral history interview—cannot uncritically be adopted for documenting the activities of users. Lacking an obvious model to blueprint, the project “From Computing Machines to IT” chose to employ an ensemble of different methods for documenting the use of computers in Swedish society. Traditional oral history interviews and collections of autobiographies were used alongside new self-structuring and time-saving methods, such as witness seminars and the mentioned Writers’ Web site.

    Finally, it is stressed that the active interest of the communities of computer users was pivotal for realizing the project. In order to arouse their interest, two things were considered crucial: firstly, the importance of an active and continuous collaboration between historians and practitioners. This collaboration shaped the methods, the organization, and the theoretical approach of the project; and, secondly, the importance of creating events where practitioners are given the chance to gather for discussing and remembering their historical past and, at the same time, socialize. While witness seminars and the specially designed Writers’ Web were seen as pure intellectual ventures by historians, they were actually received as social events by practitioners.

  • 322.
    Lundin, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Styrbjörn: Utvecklingen och användningen av ett konstruktions- och produktionssystem för skeppsbyggnad vid Kockums under 1960- och 1970-talen: Transkript av ett vittnesseminarium vid AVEVA AB i Malmö den 2 oktober 20072008Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

     

    The witness seminar ”Styrbjörn: Utvecklingen och användningen av ett konstruktions- och produktionssystem för skeppsbyggnad vid Kockums under 1960- och 1970-talen” [Styrbjörn: The Development and Use of a System for Construction and Production in Ship-Building at Kockums during the 1960s and 1970s] was held at AVEVA AB in Malmö on 2 October 2007 and was led by Tomas Ohlin. It dealt with the development, use, and diffusion of Styrbjörn, a computer-based system for construction and production in ship-building developed by the shipyard Kockums during the 1960s and the 1970s. Originally, Styrbjörn was a numerical system for construction of body details, but soon developed into an integrated system for both construction and production of ships. At the seminar, the cooperation between Kockums and Saab was highlighted. Kockums used the Saab manufactured computer D21 as well as the programming language ALGOLGENIUS created at Saab. Together the two companies developed KOCK, a derivative of ALGOL-GENIUS specially designed for ship-building. When the Saab computers disappeared from the market in the beginning of the 1970s, Styrbjörn was rewritten to the programming language PL/I and was thus made compatible with IBM computers. Also discussed during the seminar was the transition from main frame computers to mini computers during the 1970s and the beginning of 1980s and the implications this shift had for Styrbjörn.

  • 323.
    Lundin, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Tidig programmering: Transkript av ett vittnesseminarium vid Tekniska museet i Stockholm den 16 mars 20062007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The witness seminar ”Tidig programmering” [Early pro-gramming] was held at Tekniska museet [The National Museum of Science and Technology] in Stockholm on 16 March 2006 and led by Lars Arosenius. Different aspects of early programming and the development of programming languages were covered at the seminar. The physical difficulties in the programming of the relay computer BARK were observed. Furthermore the problems that the restricted memory capacity of the early computers brought to their programming were discussed. The importance of the capacity to create program libraries and manage subroutines was discussed. The first operating systems were mentioned. Attention was paid to the design of the early programming language ALFAKOD used on the BESK and FACIT EDB computers. Also the founding of the early software companies Autocode AB and Nordisk ADB AB was mentioned. Moreover the development of a compiler for the ALGOL programming language at Facit AB was dealt with. This work led to the development of the ALGOL-GENIUS language at Saab AB during the first half of the 1960s. Finally the special requirements on programming languages for telecommunication, which led to the development at Ericsson of the ERI-PASCAL and ERLANG programming languages, were debated.

  • 324.
    Lundin, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Tidiga e-postsystem: Transkript av ett vittnesseminarium vid Tekniska museet i Stockholm den 14 februari 20082008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     

    The witness seminar ”Tidiga e-postsystem” [Early E-mail Systems] was held at Tekniska museet [the National Museum of Science and Technology] in Stockholm on 14 February 2008 and led by Lars Ilshammar. It dealt with FOA’s purchase of a DEC 10 computer, a prerequisite for using early existing e-mail programs such as NIH Mail and FORUM Planet, in the early 70s. The so-called TERESE-project on regional development and telecommunications experimented with the FORUM-system. The computer scientist Jacob Palme’s development of the KOM-system, which started in 1978 was discussed. Several companies independently developed IBM-based e-mail systems around 1980. The airline company SAS had a system named MAIL in operation 1981. The car manufacturer Volvo as well as the manufacturer of ball and and roller bearings SKF developed, in close cooperation with IBM, the systems MEMO and MEST respectively An observation made by the panelists was that these systems were developed alongside ordinary work, just for fun. Decisions were based on visions rather than economical calculations such as cost-benefit analysis.

  • 325.
    Lundström, Brita
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Grundat 1876: Historia och företagsidentitet inom Ericsson2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    This doctoral thesis sets out to analyse the importance of history use in the modern industrial enterprise and its role in creating and transforming corporate identity. Both history use and corporate identity are concerned with creating and using a narrative or a self-image, and these concepts, accordingly, provide the starting point of the study. More specifically, the aim is to analyse how, at various points of time and in various connections, Ericsson, the Swedish telecom conglomerate, has produced and used its history and how that history has been used for creating a corporate identity. The theoretical premises are drawn from two separate fields of research, namely history use and corporate branding.

    The thesis comprises two parts, the first of which is a comparison over time, showing how history use has changed within the enterprise and focussing mainly on activities at head office/the main factory in Stockholm. The first of these three chapters deals with LM Ericsson’s relocation in 1940 to its newly built factory at Telefonplan in Stockholm, where history was used to show how new the new plant was. The second chapter deals with the LM Ericsson centenary in 1976. The planning and conduct of the centenary celebrations are studied to analyse the purpose of the centenary commemoration, which in this particular instance was very much aimed at strengthening relations with important customer groups. The third chapter covers the period between 2001 and 2004, during which the company celebrated the 125th anniversary of its formation and transferred its head office from Telefonplan to Kista. During this period the company passed through a financial crisis which impacted on the enterprise and on its manner of communication. On all three occasions, history was closely connected to communication and marketing, but the use of history assumed different guises at different times.

    Part II is devoted to a particular history product, namely anniversary and commemorative publications produced by various subsidiaries and divisions within the group. Here the perspective is broadened to include Ericsson companies both in Sweden and abroad. The publications are analysed in terms of genre and form, function and content. A hypothesis that the books contain a canon or basic narrative proves untenable. Instead what appears is a polyphonic history. The genre is studied both synchronously and diachronically. One diachronic difference is the increased importance of author selection, illustrations and design. One synchronous difference is the prominence of national narratives in the various publications.

  • 326. Marcopoulos, Johan
    Bengt Hultqvist En intervju av Johan Marcopoulos2011Data set
    Abstract [en]

    The interview treats Bengt Hultqvist’s career as a Swedish pi-oneer in space physics, as the first director of Kiruna Geo-physical Observatory, KGO (founded in 1957; today the Swedish Institute for Space Research, IRF), and his key role in Swedish and international space-related cooperation, not least as the chairman of the Swedish space research commit-tee (1970 – 94), as Secretary General of IAGA (2001 – 09) and as the initiator of EISCAT. Given these multiple roles, the interview also covers many different aspects of Swedish and international space activities. The establishment of KGO and the early history of the institute, as well as how Esrange and EISCAT came to be based in Kiruna, are given particular attention. Hultqvist contributes with his insights into the Swedish network of politicians, civil servants, and scientists within the emerging field. The informal character of this net-work in the early days is contrasted to a later relatively more bureaucratic set-up. Furthermore, the Swedish satellite pro-jects Viking and Freja are rendered as success stories both in terms of their scientific results and as examples of the smooth cooperation between all involved parties: the scientific groups involved and the Swedish state and industry actors. Although the scientists were needed for the first approach to every new field, the politicians’ main interest quickly concentrated on the development of the new technological fields for industrial purposes. The interview further probes Hultqvist’s experienc-es from international cooperation within international organi-zations such as ESRO, ESA, IAGA, COPERS and URSI, as well as different forms of Nordic and bilateral cooperation, not least with the Soviet Union. In this, Hultqvist frames the cooperation between scientists as relatively frictionless, whereas political involvement could often bring tensions to the negotiations. Another take-away message is how im-portant it was, in the long term, for KGO/IRF in Kiruna to be involved from the start and have instrument on-board the first European satellites. Not only was it easier to make ground-breaking results in this early stage, but prior experi-ence would later be a prerequisite for joining later launches of European scientific satellites.

  • 327.
    Morgunova, Maria
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Arctic Offshore Hydrocarbon Resource Development: Past, Present and Vision of the Future2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy issues have always been on the global economics and geopolitics agenda, even though energy sources have been changing over time.

    In recent years, the awareness of Arctic offshore oil and natural gas development has escalated, yielding economic opportunities and incurring risks. The offshore Arctic is one of ‘edges’ of the global petroleum industry. The importance of these oil and natural gas resources extends beyond regional and national boarders and local economies, as these activities have become a key geopolitical, economic, and social concern. In an attempt to shed light on this growing issue, this thesis outlines the Arctic is a link in the global energy system and shows how it plays a special role.

    The aim of this research is to provide deeper insight into offshore hydrocarbon development activities in the Arctic. Historical approach is applied as a main conceptual framework to provide a critical link of past to the present in order to explore the origin and intensity of these activities in the Arctic.

    This licentiate thesis presents the results of an ongoing doctoral research project. The study provides several insights into Arctic offshore oil and natural gas resources development in the global context via an analysis of the relevant investments and technology from a country-by-country and historical perspective in the maximum period time frame between 1920 and 2025. The two papers included in this thesis explore the impact of investment and technology. This research project illustrates the importance of several factors influencing the Arctic offshore oil and natural gas production and highlights the most promising areas for cooperation at the industrial and global level.

    The implications of the study results can be useful for identifying and emphasizing the factors that influence offshore Arctic hydrocarbon resource development and investment trends, as well as making assumptions regarding future development. Topics for further research are discussed and refined relating to the ongoing study and the conceptual framework presented.

  • 328.
    Morgunova, Maria
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Role of Technology in expanding accessible oil and natural gas resources in the offshore arcticManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 329.
    Morgunova, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Telegina, Elena
    Kutcherov, Vladimir
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Sustainability and Industrial Dynamics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Offshore Arctic Hydrocarbon Resource Development: Past and PresentManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 330. Mulder, K.
    et al.
    Kaijser, Arne
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    The dynamics of technological systems integration: Water management, electricity supply, railroads and industrialization at the Göta Älv2014In: Technology in society, ISSN 0160-791X, E-ISSN 1879-3274, Vol. 39, p. 88-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, technological innovation is often called upon to deliver solutions to the sustainable development challenges that the world faces. The integration of different technological systems is promoted as a main option for that goal. By integrating systems, waste from one system can be used as feedstock for another system, equipment can be used more efficiently by economies of scale, and/or the service that can be provided to customers, can increase.Integration of technological systems is not just a technological challenge. Systems integration creates new social interdependencies which imply that the previously unrelated systems lose part of their autonomy. Autonomy of a system is a valuable asset that allows a system some flexibility when it is confronted with changing conditions. Integration implies that institutional frameworks have to be created to balance the interests of previously unrelated actors. Moreover, the technological as well as the social complexity of an integrating system increases, which makes it harder to manage.This paper studies the process of systems integration and its related process of creating new institutional frameworks by analyzing the introduction of large scale hydropower in Western Sweden and developments that were triggered in this complex systems integration. In 1910, the first large scale hydropower station was opened in the Göta Älv river at Trollhättan. The hydropower station was close to the Gothenburg-Stockholm railway line, which was planned to be electrified. The seasonal excess of electricity was sold at a low price. This attracted industries that depended on cheap electricity, and Trollhättan became a center for metallurgical and electrochemical industry.The hydropower plant owners aimed at completely regulating the river in order to optimize power production. However, this implied that the interests of riparians, agriculture, river transport and fisheries would become subordinate to power production. Creating an institutional framework for this integration lasted 21 years.This historical analysis identifies three main elements which enabled (or impeded) systems integration. These were: spatial conditions that provided options for integration, expected efficiency gains in relation to the anticipated loss of autonomy for the integrating systems, social processes among the actors involved. Different degrees as well as different types of systems integration were discerned and the paper develops a typology of systems integration processes.

  • 331.
    Möller, Niklas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy.
    Moral kinds, Natural Kinds and the Open Question ArgumentManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 332.
    Möller, Niklas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy.
    The Open Question Argument Applied: Against Naturalistic Reductions of Risk and SafetyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 333.
    Möller, Niklas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy.
    Thick Concepts and Practice: Strengthening the Non-Naturalist CaseManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 334.
    Nilsson, David
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    A heritage of un-sustainability?: Reviewing the origin of the Large-Scale Water and Sanitation system in Kampala, Uganda2006In: Environment & Urbanization, ISSN 0956-2478, E-ISSN 1746-0301, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 369-385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the evolution of the piped water and sewer system in Kampala, Uganda, between 1920 and 1950, and considers the influences this had on the city's later development. Large-scale systems for water and sanitation are associated with an inertia that makes them slow to adapt to a new economic, social or environmental context. It is important to know the history of such systems in order to understand issues of sustainability today. This article shows how the piped water and sewerage systems were introduced to serve mainly the more affluent groups in society. Although the systems were economically and socially sustainable in the colonial context, inherent features of the systems made universal service coverage problematic from an economic point of view. Policy makers need to acknowledge the historic influence and the inertia of systems in order to address current shortcomings in water and sanitation provision, and create sustainable and equitable service provision.

  • 335.
    Nilsson, David
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Beyond the Buzzwords: "Innovation" and the closing of equity gaps2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With point of departure in History of Technology and STS this paper discusses water and energy provision systems applying theoretical concepts such as recombination, recursive structures, internal replacement and structural deepening. Why do the dominant systems look the way they do, how were they formed by societal,scientific and environmental conditions? How does “innovation” happen within a large technical system? What do we even mean by innovation; has this just become another buzzword? 

    Using concrete examples from water and electricity provision from the past and the present, the paper discusses under what circumstances socio-technical change is likely to take place, and how innovation could lead to a closing of equity gaps. Closing the equity gap requires increased diversity in the setup of systems for providing water, sanitation and energy services. The dominant modes of providing these services have developed to match the hydroenvironmental, economical and socio-cultural conditions in early 20th century Europe and USA. While these modes have their advantages, in many contexts in the South they will not serve the purpose of closing theequity gaps, without further innovation and modification. As shown by historical examples, local contextspecific innovation activities are likely to generate configurations tailored to local preferences, needs andresources. The local-level innovation could be characterised as 'horisontal recombination'. However, local innovation activities must also fit into the large socio-technical system. Two changes in local innovation environments are critical: First, creating space for local experimenting and innovation. Instead of regulating minimum service standards and streamlining technological solutions, system builders may need to develop a modular approach where different – but compatible - technological solutions are engaged depending on context. Second, socio-technical change can accelerate if local innovation is combined with a ‘vertical recursive structure’, where search activity and perfection of the entire system is sought by means of – for example - internal replacement. This requires a higher degree of accountability and transparency. Ultimately,this is a product of power structures in society.

  • 336.
    Nilsson, David
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Built Environment as Performing Politics: Historicizing urban inequality in the global South2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores how city-builders in East Africa have imagined and re-imagined futures of their built environments, in colonial and post-colonial settings, with focus on Nairobi in Kenya. In the colonial period, cities were imagined and co-constructed with narratives that centred around modernity and health, creating a (racialised) social order which was reflected in infrastructures and the built environment. After independence in the 1960s the new African states re-imagined the cities as places of African nationalism and pride, but which was nested onto the colonialist tradition of modernity and central control. The inequality which was already coded into the built environment thus has persisted, and state actors have remained "unseeing" with respect to the need for socio-technical innovation within the black boxes of technology that make up vital parts of the built environment. In re-imagining futures of cities in Africa - and other parts of global South - there is a need to unpack the monolithic and centralistic views of the modernist state, and make way for heterogeneous and pluralistic perspectives on the built environments.     

  • 337.
    Nilsson, David
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Closure and Innovation in urban technologies in the age of Development Aid2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban networked technologies of water supply and sanitation have been transferred from the global North to produce “development” in the South first through colonial structures, and later through the machinery of development aid. While some “development” has been produced by means of such imported systems and practices, they have also entrenched social injustice in African cities. The African urban environment and its technosphere cannot be seen outside its system of values and power hierarchies, meaning that the innovation and change dynamics of urban technology is heavily influenced by the political economy context particularly of the urban elites. While European water technologies came to represent modernisation and progress in colonial contexts it appears as they continued to serve a similar symbolic purpose also after de-colonisation. By discussing the trajectories of these technologies in the South through the use of the “closure” concept, I argue that the symbolic purpose of infrastructure may have been more crucial for African political leaders and system builders than previously understood. Problems and controversies that have been identified by key actors are predominantly of fiduciary nature, while influential external actors like donors have had small incentives for technological change. In terms of technological development the water and sanitation large-scale systems have continued to be in a state of closure and any major innovation activity within them is likely to require a shift in power and accountability structures.

  • 338.
    Nilsson, David
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Modernization Ideals, Inertia and Change in Urban Water Development in the Decolonized Africa2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Starting from the late 1950s, the regimes of newly decolonized African countries sought to kick-start development with assistance from Western donors. Using Kenya as case study, this paper discusses development policy and socio-technical change in African urban water management using the theoretical concepts of 'technology domain' (W. Brian Arthur) and 'reverse salient' (Thomas P Hughes). The paper argues that ideals of modernization and progress in the decolonized Africa set the stage for a systemic mismatch between the Western technological paradigm and its African social and hydrological contexts. It further argues that improving social and environmental sustainability of urban water management requires changes in incentive structure and social power relations, including those with donor organizations.

  • 339.
    Nilsson, David
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Pipes, Progress, and Poverty: Social and Technological Change in Urban Water Provision in Kenya and Uganda 1895-20102011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 340.
    Nilsson, David
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Prisoners of a paradigm?: What can water sector donors learn from history?2013In: Water Services Management and Governance: Lessons for a Sustainable Future / [ed] Tapio Katko, Petri S. Juuti, and Klaas Schwartz, IWA Publishing, 2013, p. 169-178Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 341.
    Nilsson, David
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    The Evolution of Urban Water and Sanitation in East Africa from a Public Goods Perspective2005In: African Water Histories: Transdisciplinary Discourses / [ed] Tempelhoff, Johann W. N., Vanderbijlpark, South Africa: Vaal Triangle Faculty, North-West University , 2005, p. 317-345Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 342.
    Nilsson, David
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    The Unseeing State: How Ideals of Modernity Have Undermined Innovation in Africa’s Urban Water Systems2016In: NTM. International Journal of History and Ethics of Natural Sciences, Technology and Medicine, ISSN 0036-6978, E-ISSN 1420-9144, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 481-510Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In contrast to the European historical experience, Africa’s urban infrastructural systems are characterised by stagnation long before demand had been saturated. Water infrastructures have been established as predominantly exclusive service provision systems, with millions of poor people lacking basic services in the cities. What is puzzling is that so little emphasis has been placed on innovation and adaptation of the colonial technological paradigm to better suit the local and current socio-economic context. Based on historical case studies of Kampala and Nairobi, this paper argues that the lack of innovation in African urban water infrastructure can be understood using the concept of technological closure (Pinch & Bijker 1987), and by looking at water technology from its embedded values and ideology. Large-scale water technology became part of African leaders’ strategies to build prosperous nations and cities after decolonisation and the ideological purpose of infrastructure may have been much more important than previously understood. Water technology had reached a state of closure in Europe and then came to represent modernisation and progress in the colonial context. It has continued to serve such a similar symbolic purpose after independence, with old norms essentially being preserved. Recent sector reforms have defined problems predominantly as of economic and institutional nature while state actors have become ‘unseeing’ vis-á-vis controversies within the technological systems themselves. To induce socio-technical innovation towards equality in urban infrastructure services, it will be necessary to understand the broader incentive structure that govern the ‘relevant social groups’, such as governments, donors, water suppliers and the consumers, as well as power-structures and accountability. 

  • 343.
    Nilsson, David
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Vems är den hjälpande handen?: Om infrasystem och förtroende2015In: Med varm hand: Texter tillägnade Arne Kaijser / [ed] Thomas Kaiserfeld, Nina Wormbs, Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015, p. 87-104Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur stora tekniska system griper in i samhällets utveckling är något som teknikhistoriker ägnat stor uppmärksamhet. Städernas nätverk för gas och vatten, nationella och transnationella infrasystem för transporter, eller globala luftföroreningar; vi talar här om tekniska system som gemensamma nyttigheter. Till stor del kan dessa systems utveckling också förstås utifrån de institutionella spelregler som samhället upprättar. På det institutionella planet återkopplar samhället sin idé om vad som är rätt och vad som är möjligt till det tekniska. Men var kommer dessa institutioner ifrån? Hur skapar vi tillsammans gemensamma nyttigheter och varför är det så svårt? I den här essän tar jag upp tankar och idéer om hur vi skapar gemensamma nyttigheter när vi står inför en kollektiv utmaning. Essän diskuterar problematiken i dagens utvecklingsländer där det i dag pågår innovationsverksamhet för att hitta lösningar på kollektiva problem och återknyter till de resonemang Arne Kaijser och jag förde i ett paper publicerat 2009. Här utvecklas sedan resonemangen om institutioner och förtroende som socialt kapital utifrån Elinor Ostroms och Niklas Luhmanns arbeten. För att kunna investera i ett infrasystem för gemensamma nyttigheter räcker det inte med kunskap och fysiskt kapital eftersom tillgången till information och kontrollen över tänkbara utfall alltid kommer vara ojämnt fördelad. Därför är det också nödvändigt att över tid bygga upp förtroende mellan aktörerna, oavsett om det rör sig om vattenförsörjning i ett slumområde eller globala utsläpp av växthusgaser.

  • 344.
    Nilsson, David
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Water for a few: a history of urban water and sanitation in East Africa2006Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    This licentiate thesis describes and analyses the modern history of the socio-technical systems for urban water supply and sanitation in East Africa with focus on Uganda and Kenya. The key objective of the thesis is to evaluate to what extent the historic processes frame and influence the water and sanitation services sectors in these countries today. The theoretical approach combines the Large Technical Systems approach from the discipline of History of Technology with New Institutional Economics. Throughout, urban water and sanitation service systems are regarded as socio-technical systems, where institutions, organisation and technology all interact. The thesis consists of three separate articles and a synthesis in the form of a framework narrative. The first article provides a discussion of the theoretical framework with special focus on the application of Public Goods theory to urban water and sanitation. The second article describes the establishment of the large-scale systems for water supply and sanitation in Kampala, Uganda in the period 1920-1950. The third article focuses on the politics of urban water supply in Kenya with emphasis on the period 1900-1990.

    The main findings in this thesis are that the socio-technical systems for urban water and sanitation evolve over long periods of time and are associated with inertia that makes these systems change slowly. The systems were established in the colonial period to mainly respond to the needs and preferences of a wealthy minority and a technological paradigm evolved based on capital-intensive and large-scale technology. Attempts to expand services to all citizens in the post-colonial period under this paradigm were not sustainable due to changes in the social, political and economic environment while incentives for technological change were largely absent. History thus frames decisions in the public sphere even today, through technological and institutional inertia. Knowing the history of these socio-technical systems is therefore important, in order to understand key sector constraints, and for developing more sustainable service provision.

  • 345.
    Nilsson, David
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History.
    Blomkvist, Pär
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Understanding system alignment: Combining LTS and MLP to investigate urban water transitions in Kenya and Uganda2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we want to contribute to a theoretical framework suited for analysing and understanding infrastructural change in Africa, and to explore how such a framework may offer a different, more comprehensive and historically informed perspective, which will be necessary for a transformative shift towards global sustainability. We examine the socio-technical dynamics of large water infrastructure in a developing country, Kenya. In particular, we look at the provision of water to the capital Nairobi and its historical trajectory over the past one hundred years. We also discuss tentative results from an ongoing case study on pre-paid metering in the water system in Kampala, Uganda.

    In our theoretical approach we combine ideas from the fields of history with innovation- and system studies. We revisit some of the thinking once assembled in the global North around how large infrastructure systems grow and change (the Large Technical Systems, LTS) and try to make parallels and divergences to the trajectories of water infrastructure in Nairobi, while we also bring on board key concepts from the multi-level perspective (MLP). Essentially, we try to locate to which level in the system innovation activity has been concentrated, and what has been the main direction of this activity over a longer period of time. For a broad-brush picture such as this one, we draw our empirical material mainly from our earlier historical research, much of which has already been published, as well as other authors. The novelty of this paper is our re-interpretation of the broad transformation patterns which we enable by using a long time perspective and by the recombination of theory and historical observations.

    Our conclusion is that key actors have focussed the continued supply of capital for expansion of the large-scale infrastructure of the system, particularly in its upstream sections. At the same time, the piped part of the water system has become increasingly misaligned with the plurality of sub-systems delivering water outside the borders of the system, which forms the downstream environment of the system. Notably, poor people living in so called “informal settlements” or “slums” have remained disenfranchised to the regime, as they have been defined by regime actors as illegal and thus as externalities of the system. A re-alignment process has taken place in the past two decades through sector reform which has re-enabled capital supply and thus large-scale infrastructure growth. On the other hand, this growth is of a kind that is of marginal benefit to the growing group of low-income urban consumers on the periphery of the large-scale piped system. We suggest that the system exhibits a dual structure of a conservative core serving the middle and high-income population, and with peripheral parts of the system containing a plethora of local innovations. 

    Our proposition is the development of an analytical and policy-oriented framework which focuses on alignment processes between what we argue is the most critical level of system interface; between the established water system (regime) and the peripheral sub-systems (local innovation). If we are serious about universal service provision and the human right to water, we must understand this interface, its actors, subsystems and processes; and how alignment between system levels can be achieved.

  • 346.
    Nilsson, David
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Nyanchaga, Ezekiel R.
    Pipes and Politics: A century of change and continuity in Kenyan urban water supply2008In: Journal of Modern African Studies, ISSN 0022-278X, E-ISSN 1469-7777, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 133-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Major institutional reforms are currently under way to improve the performance of the public water sector in Kenya. However, a historical perspective is needed in order to achieve sustainable improvements that will also benefit the urban poor. This article seeks to provide such a perspective, applying a cross-disciplinary and socio-technical approach to urban water supply over the last century, in which institutions, organisations and technology are seen to interact with political, economic and demographic processes. Despite a series of reforms over the years, the socio-technical structure of the urban water sector in Kenya has shown a remarkable stability since the 1920s, and into the 1980s. However, the sustainability of the public service systems has been eroded since independence, due to changes in the institutional framework surrounding the systems, while exclusive standards and technological choices have essentially been preserved from the colonial era. Current sector reform must create incentives for addressing technology choices and service standards in order to provide public water services also for the urban poor.

  • 347.
    Nilsson, David
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Sörlin, Sverker
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Forskning för global utveckling är inte en biståndsgrej2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 348.
    Nilsson, David
    et al.
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Sörlin, Sverker
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Research Aid Revisited: A historically grounded analysis of future prospects and policy options2017Report (Other academic)
  • 349.
    Nilsson, David
    et al.
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Sörlin, Sverker
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Research Aid Revisited: Understanding Swedish research aid in the current state of world development through a historically grounded analysis2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, which builds on an ongoing study for the Expert Group for Aid Studies (EBA), we take a fresh look at Swedish development research on a longer time scale. Swedish development research has, by and large, followed the same model since the 1970s. With a focus on building research capacity in the South, this model reflected the larger narrative of how Sweden promoted emancipation of poor countries. Historical records however show that SAREC was formed as an independent agency to bypass aid priorities set by recipient governments. The Swedish government also ignored international calls for re-directing national research priorities towards developing countries by confining development research into one of many sub-themes of aid. The SAREC model was largely shaped by the then prevailing ideologies and by the Cold War political landscape, a landscape gone since decades. Today humanity faces challenges – climate, biodioversity, migration etc - that require cooperation between rich and poorer countries at an entirely different scale. In this emerging global landscape of shared problems, Swedish development research risks becoming an atavism. We argue that Sweden’s development research needs re-thinking against the entire research agenda, against an updated understanding of geopolitical changes and the emerging global challenges, and against our historical experience.

  • 350.
    Nilsson, Mikael
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Radiokommunikationsutvecklingens betydelse för mobilteleindustrin: Transkript av ett vittnesseminarium vid Tekniska museet i Stockholm den 12 mars 20082008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     The witness seminar “Radiokommunikationsutvecklingens betydelse för mobilteleindustrin” [The Impact of Radio Communications Development on the Mobile Phone Industry] was held at Tekniska museet [The National Museum of Science and Technology] in Stockholm on 12 March 2008 and was led by Professor Jens Zander. The period covered in the seminar was the 1950s to the 1990s. According to the participants at the seminar there was a close relationship between the technological develop-ment in the field of radio communications and the field of mobile telephony in Sweden, and much of the crucial technologies that later went into the mobile telephony systems, such as antennas, transmitters, and receivers, were pioneered in the radio communications field. This was true not only concerning the hardware, but also for the underlying theory about radiowaves. It was also emphasised that much of the success of mobile telephony in Sweden can be explained by the administrative feats at Televerket. The marketing and pricing of Televerket’s services were at least as important as Ericsson’s ability to manufacture the hardware. The participants discussed the development of the NMT and GSM mobile standards, and the role of Sweden regarding the implementation of these standards. Technically, Ericsson’s production of the radio link RL 420 for the Swedish military was very significant because they were later used as base stations in the civilian mobile telephone network. The importance of government orders, most often for the military, was considered to have been very important for Ericsson’s succeses in the mobile telephony market in the 1980s and 1990s.

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