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  • 301.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Software Innovation Agenda, Swedsoft,20132013Report (Other academic)
  • 302.
    Törngren, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Bensalem, S.
    McDermid, J.
    Passerone, R.
    Pfeifer, H.
    Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, A.
    Schätz, B.
    Characterization, Analysis, and Recommendations for Exploiting the Opportunities of Cyber-Physical Systems2016In: Cyber-Physical Systems: Foundations, Principles and Applications, Elsevier Inc. , 2016, p. 3-14Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Leveraging on a comprehensive analysis of cyber-physical systems (CPSs) in Europe, this chapter presents overall findings focusing on (1) a characterization of CPS, (2) opportunities and challenges in representative CPS application domains, and (3) recommendations for action resulting from a cross-domain analysis. The characterization enables a high-level description of a CPS, or classes of CPS, according to their technical emphasis, cross-cutting aspects, level of automation, and life-cycle integration. We illustrate how these characteristics can be used to relate to design issues, systems, and related terms.The recommendations are to: (1) strengthen cross-disciplinary research collaboration, (2) foster CPS education and training, (3) stimulate public-private partnerships for CPS technology experimentation and to ensure dependable information and communication technology (ICT) infrastructure, (4) promote interoperability of CPS technology, (5) anticipate new business models and support open innovation, (6) ensure trustworthiness including safety and security, and (7) favor human-centered approaches to CPS. 

  • 303.
    Törngren, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Bensalem, Saddek
    Cengarle, Victoria
    McDermid, John
    Passerone, Roberto
    Sangiovanni Vincentelli, Alberto
    CPS: Significance, Challenges and Opportunities2014Report (Other academic)
  • 304.
    Törngren, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Bensalem, Saddek
    McDermid, John
    Passerone, Roberto
    Sangiovanni Vincentelli, Alberto
    Schätz, Bernhard
    Education and training challenges in the era of Cyber-Physical Systems: beyond traditional engineering2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Education and training face several challenges as our society is evolving to become increasingly dependent on Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS). We present and discuss how education is impacted, leveraging mainly a cross-domain investigation of CPS challenges of the EU CyPhERS project. In particular, the investigation revealed challenges that go beyond engineering education and that were found to be common across domains; (i) the need to consider and to include a broader set of stakeholders including policy makers and the general public to raise awareness of CPS technology implications (opportunities, risks and challenges), (ii) emphasizing human centered perspectives including sustainability and privacy in CPS education to make sure we end up with a human centric CPS-based society, (iii) improving the status of teaching, and (iv) supporting educational platforms and life-long learning capabilities. We conclude by discussing implications for educational systems.

  • 305.
    Törngren, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Biehl, Matthias
    Qamar, Ahsan
    El-khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Loiret, Frederic
    Multiview Modeling and Integration for Mechatronics Engineering2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 306.
    Törngren, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Crnkovic, I.
    Component-based vs. model-based development: A comparison in the context of vehicular embedded systems2005In: EUROMICRO-SEAA 2005: 31st EUROMICRO Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, Proceedings, IEEE conference proceedings, 2005, p. 432-440Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Component based and model based development (CBD vs. MBD), in their various interpretations, are in focus in many efforts in order to better handle the efficient development of increasingly complex embedded systems. We elaborate on what CBD and MBD represent, on their differences and similarities. Although CBD represents a bottom-up approach whereas MBD is more top-down in nature, it turns out that the concepts have much in common and can benefit from cross-fertilization. In particular, MBD requires improved handling of 'model' components, and CBD requires improved component models to assure component composition and reuse. We discuss their mutual opportunities and other relationships.

  • 307.
    Törngren, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Dahle, Hans Petter
    Brodtkorb, Dagfin
    El-khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Chaplin, Ray
    Towards an industrial Framework for Embedded Systems Tools2010In: Modelling Foundations and Applications / [ed] Kühne, Thomas, Selic, Bran V., Gervais, Marie-Pierre, Terrier, Francois, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 308.
    Törngren, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    El-khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Brodtkorb, Dagfin
    Dahle, Hans Petter
    Systematic and Cost-efficient Tool Integration for Embedded Systems: The iFEST approach2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 309.
    Törngren, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    El-khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Sanfridson, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Redell, Ola
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Modelling and Simulation of Embedded Computer Control Systems: Problem Formulation2001Report (Other academic)
  • 310.
    Törngren, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Grimheden, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Adamsson, Niklas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Experiences from large embedded systems development projects in education, involving industry and research2006In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Embedded Systems Education, WESE2006 / [ed] Jeff Jackson, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present experiences from a final year M.Sc.course. The overall aim of the course is to provide knowledge andskills to develop products in small or large development teams.The course is implemented in terms of large projects incooperation with external partners, in which the students, basedon a product specification, apply and integrate their accumulatedknowledge in the development of a prototype. This course, whichhas been running and further elaborated for 20 years, has beenproven successful in terms of being appreciated by the studentsand by the external partners. The course has during the recentyears more frequently been carried out in close connection toresearch groups. Our experiences indicate benefits by carrying outthese types of large projects in an educational setting, withexternal partners as project providers, and in close cooperationwith research groups.Having external partners as project providers feeds the course,students and faculty with many industrially relevant problems thatare useful for motivational purposes, and in other courses forexemplification and for case studies in research. Carrying out theprojects in close connection to research groups provides synergybetween research and education, and can improve the academiclevel of the projects. A further interesting dimension isaccomplished when the projects run in iterations, requiring newgroups of students to take over an already, partly developedcomplex system, and work incrementally on this system. Thestudents are then faced with a very typical industrial situation. Weadvocate that students should be exposed to a mixture of “buildfrom scratch” and “incremental” projects during the education.

  • 311.
    Törngren, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Henriksson, Dan
    Redell, Ola
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Kirsch, Christoph
    El-khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Simon, Daniel
    Sorel, Yves
    Zdenek, Hanzalek
    Årzén, Karl-Erik
    Co-design of Control Systems and their real-time implementation - A Tool Survey2006Report (Other academic)
  • 312.
    Törngren, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Herzog, E.
    Towards integration of CPS and systems engineering in education2016In: 2016 Workshop on Embedded and Cyber-Physical Systems Education, WESE 2016 - Organized as a Part of Embedded Systems Week, Proceedings, ACM Digital Library, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Education of future engineers and other stakeholders will be of paramount importance for designing, producing, procuring, operating and managing future Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) of unprecedented complexity that will underpin most technological systems in society. We investigate the relation between CPS, Systems Engineering (SE) and the Conceive - Design - Implement - Operate (CDIO) engineering education initiative with the aim to find ways of improving current CPS education. With its emphasis on experiences with realistic engineering settings, lifecycle perspective and complementary skills in communication and collaboration, CDIO provides several ingredients that are essential for future engineers. SE with its set of best practices and systems thinking, provides guidelines and practices of strong relevance for most (if not all) engineering programs and especially for those involving the engineering of highly complex systems such as CPS. We conclude that applying a CDIO approach for a CPS program together with infusion of a suitable portion of SE practices appears to be a promising way forward to reform CPS programs. We discuss how such SE practices can be integrated into engineering programs and in particular propose aspects of SE that would be useful to incorporate into capstone courses (larger education projects in the final master level stages).

  • 313.
    Törngren, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Qamar, Ahsan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Biehl, Matthias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Loiret, Frederic
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    El-Khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Integrating viewpoints in the development of mechatronic products2014In: Mechatronics (Oxford), ISSN 0957-4158, E-ISSN 1873-4006, Vol. 24, no 7, p. 745-762Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of mechatronic products involves multiple stakeholders which have different viewpoints and therefore use different concepts, models and tools to deal with their concerns of interest. This paper argues that an increased emphasis needs to be placed on the relations between viewpoints to be able to deal with the evolving scope and requirements on mechatronic products. We study relations between viewpoints at the levels of people, models and tools, and present solutions that are used to formally and explicitly capture such relations. Viewpoint contracts are used to define the vocabulary, assumptions and constraints required for ensuring smooth communication between stakeholders (people level). Dependency models capture relations between product properties belonging to different viewpoints, and how such dependencies relate to predictions and decisions (model level). Tool integration models describe the relations between tools in terms of traceability, data exchange, invocation and notifications (tool level). A major contribution of this paper is a unification approach, elaborating how these solutions can be used synergetically to integrate viewpoints. An industrial robot case study is utilized to illustrate the challenges and solutions with respect to relations between viewpoints, including the unification approach.

  • 314.
    Törngren, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Årzen, Karl-Erik
    Lund University.
    Henriksson, Dan
    Lund University.
    Cervin, Anton
    Lund University.
    Hanzalek, Zdenek
    Prague University.
    Tools supporting the co-design of control systems and their real-time implementation: Current status and future directions2006In: 2006 IEEE Conference on Computer-Aided Control System Design, Vols 1 and 2, IEEE Press, 2006, p. 1173-1180Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Control systems design has traditionally been treated separately from the design of its software and hardware implementation. The increasing use of embedded control in for example distributed, safety critical and massproduced systems has caused an increasing need for the simultaneous consideration of the control system and its implementation platform during development. To this end, there is a need for both theoretical contributions and supporting tools that assist designers in understanding and analyzing the intricate relationships between the qualities, such as control performance, robustness and cost, and design parameters related to control system and platform design. This paper explores issues in co-design. A number of representative tools are compared with the purposes of illustrating different approaches concerning the levels of abstraction, analysis vs. synthesis features, constraints addressed and usability features. A perspective to the co-design tools is also provided, where opportunities and challenges for future design environments are discussed.

  • 315.
    Vahdati, Pouya Mahdavipour
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Kazemi, Ahad
    Amini, M. Hadi
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Hopf Bifurcation Control of Power System Nonlinear Dynamics via a Dynamic State Feedback Controller-Part I: Theory and Modeling2017In: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, ISSN 0885-8950, E-ISSN 1558-0679, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 3217-3228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This two-part paper introduces a dynamic state feedback control law that guarantees the elimination of Hopf bifurcations (HB) before reaching the saddle-node bifurcations (SNB). Part I is devoted to the mathematical representation of the detailed system dynamics, investigation of HB and SNB theorems, and state feedback controller design. For purposes of dynamical analysis, the stable equilibria of the system is obtained. Then the control system is designed with the objective of preventing the voltage collapse before the SNB, such that the structural stability of the system is preserved in the stationary branch of the solutions. The controller aims to relocate Hopf bifurcations to the stationary branch of solutions located after SNB, eliminating the HB from normal operating region of the system. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed controller, bifurcation analysis has been performed in Part II using single-machine and multi-machine test systems.

  • 316.
    Vahdati, Pouya Mahdavipour
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Amini, M. Hadi
    Kazemi, Ahad
    Hopf Bifurcation Control of Power Systems Nonlinear Dynamics Via a Dynamic State Feedback Controller-Part II: Performance Evaluation2017In: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, ISSN 0885-8950, E-ISSN 1558-0679, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 3229-3236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the second part of a two-part paper presenting a dynamic state feedback control law that guarantees the elimination of Hopf bifurcations before the occurrence of a saddle-node bifurcation. In Part I, the mathematical representation of the system's dynamics, Hopf, and Saddle-Node bifurcation theorems, and the state feedback controller design were presented. In this part, to illustrate the system analysis methodology, control design, and to carry out performance evaluation of the controller, both single-machine and multimachine power systems are analyzed. To highlight the effect of saturation phenomena, bifurcation analyses are performed before and after detailed modeling of synchronous generator saturation, for the single-machine power system case. The multimachine case is used to illustrate the scalability and applicability of the method to generic power networks.

  • 317. Vanherpen, K.
    et al.
    Denil, J.
    David, I.
    De Meulenaere, P.
    Mosterman, P. J.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Qamar, A.
    Vangheluwe, H.
    Ontological reasoning for consistency in the design of cyber-physical systems2016In: 2016 1st International Workshop on Cyber-Physical Production Systems, CPPS 2016, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016, article id 7483922Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The design of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) involves a multitude of stakeholders. Each of these stakeholders has a specific view on the system under design. Unfortunately, when designers create artefacts in their different views in a concurrent manner, the integration of the different views may reveal inconsistencies. This leads to time consuming, iterative design processes where inconsistencies are resolved, in turn possibly creating new ones. It is hence necessary to reason explicitly about the view-specific properties that depend on, and influence properties of other views. This enables consistency during integration and reduces the development time and effort. In this paper we formalise the interrelationships between the different views, in the context of different design processes, to allow designers to meaningfully and efficiently manage inconsistencies. Our formalisation introduces ontological domain properties and their relations as the link between the view-specific properties used by the stakeholders. Thus, our approach combines the state of the art of Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) and Semantic Web. The relevance of this approach is demonstrated by means of a motivating example.

  • 318.
    von Holst, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering (Closed 20130701).
    Nguyen, Hung
    Wikander, Jan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Innovation Driven Research Education: Vol. 1: An Introduction2010Book (Refereed)
  • 319. Vracar, Ljubomir
    et al.
    Prijic, Aneta
    Nesic, Damir
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Devic, Sasa
    Prijic, Zoran
    Photovoltaic Energy Harvesting Wireless Sensor Node for Telemetry Applications Optimized for Low Illumination Levels2016In: ELECTRONICS, ISSN 2079-9292, Vol. 5, no 2, article id 26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports the design of a photovoltaic energy harvesting device used as a telemetry node in wireless sensor networks. The device draws power from the small solar cell, stores it into the primary energy buffer and backup supercapacitor, collects measured data from various sensors and transmits them over low power radio link at 868 MHz. Its design ensures reliable cold booting under very poor illumination conditions (down to 20 lx). The solar cell also enables indirect illumination level detection for the subcircuit that manages stored energy (day/night detector). The device is allowed to draw power from the backup supercapacitor only when it is not possible to gather enough energy from the solar cell during the sleep period. Short lasting and sudden drops of the illumination do not activate the backup power supply. A wireless sensor node design is adjusted to the proposed photovoltaic harvesting circuitry, so the overall power consumption in the sleep mode is less than 25 W. Also, due to adaptive power consumption, proposed device topology ensures its autonomy time in the total darkness of 81 h. The device has been produced using commercially available components enabling versatile telemetric functionality by the implementation of different sensors.

  • 320.
    Wallmark, Oskar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric power and energy systems.
    Nybacka, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Malmquist, Daniel
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Burman, Magnus
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Lightweight Structures.
    Wennhage, Per
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Lightweight Structures.
    Géoren, Peter
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Design and implementation of an experimental research and concept demonstration vehicle2014In: 2014 IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference, VPPC 2014, IEEE conference proceedings, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces the Research Concept Vehicle (RCV), an experimental research and demonstration vehicle developed at KTH Royal Institute of Technology. The vehicle is intended as a platform to implement, validate, and demonstrate research results from different research projects carried out at KTH. In its first generation, the RCV is a pure electric vehicle where each wheel is equipped with an in-wheel motor and individual steering and camber actuators. This high level of over actuation allows for a wide range of experimental evaluation in several fields of research, which is listed in this paper. Results from initial experimental test drives are also included.

  • 321.
    Wang, Lihui
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Onori, Mauro
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Current status and advancement of cyber-physical systems in manufacturing2015In: Journal of manufacturing systems, ISSN 0278-6125, E-ISSN 1878-6642, Vol. 37, p. 517-527Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the current status and the latest advancement of cyber-physical systems (CPS) in manufacturing. In order to understand CPS and its future potential in manufacturing, definitions and characteristics of CPS are explained and compared with cloud manufacturing concept. Research and applications are outlined to highlight the latest advancement in the field. CPS shows great promise in factories of the future in the areas of future trends as identified at the end of this paper.

  • 322. Warg, F.
    et al.
    Gassilewski, M.
    Tryggvesson, J.
    Izosimov, Viacheslav
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Werneman, A.
    Johansson, R.
    Defining autonomous functions using iterative hazard analysis and requirements refinement2016In: International Conference on Computer Safety, Reliability, and Security, SAFECOMP 2016 and International Workshop on Assurance Cases for Software-Intensive Systems, ASSURE 2016, Workshop on Dependable Embedded and Cyber-physical Systems and Systems-of-Systems, DECSoS 2016, 5th International Workshop on Next Generation of System Assurance Approaches for Safety-Critical Systems, SASSUR 2016, and 1st International Workshop on the Timing Performance in Safety Engineering, TIPS 2016, Springer, 2016, p. 286-297Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomous vehicles are predicted to have a large impact on the field of transportation and bring substantial benefits, but they present new challenges when it comes to ensuring safety. Today the standard ISO 26262:2011 treats each defined function, or item, as a complete scope for functional safety; the driver is responsible for anything that falls outside the items. With autonomous driving, it becomes necessary to ensure safety at all times when the vehicle is operating by itself. Therefore, we argue that the hazard analysis should have the wider scope of making sure the vehicle’s functions together fulfill its specifications for autonomous operation. The paper proposes a new iterative work process where the item definition is a product of hazard analysis and risk assessment rather than an input. Generic operational situation and hazard trees are used as a tool to widen the scope of the hazard analysis, and a method to classify hazardous events is used to find dimensioning cases among a potentially long list of candidates. The goal is to avoid dangerous failures for autonomous driving due to the specification of the nominal function being too narrow.

  • 323.
    Westman, Jonas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Specifying Safety-Critical Heterogeneous Systems Using Contracts Theory2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Requirements engineering (RE) is a well-established practice that is also emphasized in safety standards such as IEC 61508 and ISO 26262. Safety standards advocate a particularly stringent RE where requirements must be structured in an hierarchical manner in accordance with the system architecture; at each level, requirements must be allocated to heterogeneous (SW, HW, mechanical, electrical, etc.) architecture elements and trace links must be established between requirements. In contrast to the stringent RE in safety standards, according to previous studies, RE in industry is in general of poor quality. Considering a typical RE tool, other than basic impact analysis, the tool neither gives feedback nor guides a user  when specifying, allocating, and structuring requirements. In practice, for industry to comply with the stringent RE in safety standards, better support for RE is needed, not only from tools, but also from principles and methods.

    Therefore, a foundation is presented consisting of an underlying theory for specifying heterogeneous systems and complementary principles and methods to specifically support the stringent RE in safety standards. This foundation is indeed suitable as a base for implementing guidance- and feedback-driven tool support for such stringent RE; however, the fact is that the proposed theory, principles, and methods provide essential support  regardless if tools are used or not.

    The underlying theory is a formal compositional contracts theory for heterogeneous systems. This contracts theory embodies the essential RE property of separating requirements on a system from assumptions on its environment. Moreover, the contracts theory formalizes the stringent RE effort of structuring requirements hierarchically with respect to the system architecture. Thus, the proposed principles and methods for supporting the stringent RE in safety standards are well-rooted in formal concepts and conditions, and are thus, theoretically sound. Not only that, but the foundation is indeed also tailored to be enforced by both existing and new tools considering that the support is based on precise mathematical expressions that can be interpreted unambiguously by machines. Enforcing the foundation in a tool entails support that guides and gives feedback when specifying heterogeneous systems in general, and safety-critical ones in particular.

  • 324.
    Westman, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Nyberg, Mattias
    Conditions of Contracts for Separating Responsibilities in Heterogeneous Systems2017In: Formal methods in system design, ISSN 0925-9856, E-ISSN 1572-8102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A general, compositional, and component-based contract theory is proposed for modeling and specifying heterogeneous systems, characterized by consisting of parts from different domains, e.g. software, electrical and mechanical. Given a contract consisting of assumptions and a guarantee, clearly separated conditions on a component and its environment are presented where the conditions ensure that the guarantee is fulfilled - a responsibility assigned to the component, given that the environment fulfills the assumptions. The conditions are applicable whenever it cannot be ensured that the sets of ports of components are partitioned into inputs and outputs, and hence fully support scenarios where components, characterized by both causal and acausal models, are to be integrated by solely relying on the information of a contract. An example of such a scenario of industrial relevance is explicitly considered, namely a scenario in a supply chain where the development of a component is outsourced. To facilitate the application of the theory in practice, necessary properties of contracts are also derived to serve as sanity checks of the conditions. Furthermore, based on a graph that represents a structuring of a hierarchy of contracts, sufficient conditions to achieve compositionality are presented.

  • 325.
    Westman, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Nyberg, Mattias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Contracts for Structuring and Specifying Requirements on Cyber-Physical Systems2015In: Cyber-Physical Systems: From Theory to Practice, CRC Press, 2015Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A contract splits the responsibilities between a component and its environment into a guarantee that expresses an intended property under the responsibility of the component, given that the environment fulfills the assumptions. Building on recent works where contracts are proposed as a means to meet the challenges in the design of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs), a general contract framework is presented that supports the modelling of both individual components and architectures of CPS - at all levels of design, as well as the structuring and specification of requirements on the components using contracts. To facilitate the specification of requirements, constraints that restrict the portsover which a contract is expressed are introduced to serve as sanity checks that the component and the environment meet their respective responsibilities. Furthermore, a new graph, called a \emph{contract structure} is introduced to support the structuring and tracing of requirements on a CPS using contracts. As a proof-of-concept, the framework is used to specify and structure safety requirements on an industrial system, as proposed by ISO 26262.

  • 326.
    Westman, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Nyberg, Mattias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Environment-Centric Contracts for Design of Cyber-Physical Systems2014In: Model-Driven Engineering Languages and Systems: 17th International Conference, MODELS 2014, Valencia, Spain, September 28 – October 3, 2014. Proceedings, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2014, p. 218-234Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A contract splits the responsibilities between a component and its environment into a guarantee that expresses an intended property under the responsibility of the component, given that the environment fulfills the assumptions. Although current contract theories are limited to express contracts over interfaces of components, specifications that are not limited to interfaces are used in practice and are needed in order to properly express safety requirements. A framework is therefore presented, generalizing current contract theory to environment-centric contracts - contracts that are not limited to the interface of components. The framework includes revised definitions of properties of contracts, as well as theorems that specify exact conditions for when the properties hold. Furthermore, constraints are introduced, limiting the ports over which an environment-centric contract is expressed where the constraints constitute necessary conditions for the guarantee of the contract to hold in an architecture.

  • 327.
    Westman, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Nyberg, Mattias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Environment-Centric Contracts for the Design of Cyber Physical Systems2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A contract splits the responsibilities between a component and its environment into a guarantee that expresses an intended property under the responsibility of the component, given that the environment fulfills the assumptions. Although current contract theories are limited to express contracts over interfaces of components, specifications that are not limited to interfaces are used in practice and are needed in order to properly express safety requirements. A framework is therefore presented, generalizing current contract theory to environment-centric contracts - contracts that are not limited to the interface of components. The framework includes revised definitions of properties of contracts, as well as theorems that specifies exact conditions for when the properties hold. Furthermore, constraints are introduced, limiting the ports over which an environment-centric contract is expressed where the constraints constitute necessary conditions for the guarantee of the contract to hold in an architecture.

  • 328.
    Westman, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Nyberg, Mattias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics. Scania, Sweden.
    Extending Contract Theory with Safety Integrity Levels2015In: 2015 IEEE 16th International Symposium on High Assurance Systems Engineering (HASE), IEEE Computer Society, 2015, p. 85-92Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In functional safety standards such as ISO 26262 and IEC 61508, Safety Integrity Levels (SILs) are assigned to top-level safety requirements on a system. The SILs are then either inherited or decomposed down to safety requirements on sub-systems, such that if the sub-systems are sufficiently reliable in fulfilling their respective safety requirements, as specified by the SILs, then it follows that the system is sufficiently reliable in fulfilling the top-level safety requirement. Present contract theory has previously been shown to provide a suitable foundation to structure safety requirements, but does not include support for the use of SILs. An extension of contract theory with the notion of SILs is therefore presented. As a basis for structuring the breakdown of safety requirements, a graph, called a contract structure, is introduced that provides a necessary foundation to capture the notions of SIL inheritance and decomposition in the context of contract theory.

  • 329.
    Westman, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Nyberg, Mattias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Formal Architecture Modeling of Sequential C-Programs2016In: Formal Aspects of Component Software: 12th International Conference, FACS 2015, Niterói, Brazil, October 14-16, 2015, Revised Selected Papers, Springer, 2016, p. 312-329Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To enable verification of a complex C-program, so called compositional verification can be used where the specification for the C-program is split into a set of specifications organized such that the fact that the C-program satisfies its specification can be inferred from verifying that parts of the C-program satisfy their specifications. To support the approach in practice, specifications must be organized in parallel to a formal architecture model capturing the C-program as a hierarchical structure of components with well-defined interfaces. Previous modeling approaches lack support for formal architecture modeling of C-programs. Therefore, a general and formal approach for architecture modeling of sequential C-programs is presented, to support compositional verification, as well as to aid design and management of such C-programs in general.

  • 330.
    Westman, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Nyberg, Mattias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics. Scania.
    Preserving Contract Satisfiability Under Non-monotonic Composition2018In: Formal Techniques for Distributed Objects, Components, and Systems: 38th IFIP WG 6.1 International Conference, FORTE 2018, Held as Part of the 13th International Federated Conference on Distributed Computing Techniques, DisCoTec 2018, Madrid, Spain, June 18-21, 2018, Proceedings / [ed] Christel Baier, Luís Caires, Springer, 2018, Vol. 10854, p. 181-195Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A contracts theory embeds non-monotonic composition (with respect to implementation) if the fact that a composition of two components implements a specification S does not generally follow from one of these components implementing S. In contrast to monotonic composition, non-monotonic composition offers the additional expressiveness of specifying properties that only hold locally for a component since non-monotonic composition does not enforce all properties to be preserved when composing. Despite that this additional expressiveness is clearly needed, it implies that cases where monotony is indeed desired needs to be managed explicitly. The present paper elaborates on this topic by introducing a contracts theory embedding non-monotonic composition, and exploring conditions for ensuring monotonic composition in the context of this theory.

  • 331.
    Westman, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Nyberg, Mattias
    Providing Tool Support for Specifying Safety-Critical Systems by Enforcing Syntactic Contract Conditions2018In: Requirements Engineering, ISSN 0947-3602, E-ISSN 1432-010XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Functional safety standards such as IEC 61508 and ISO 26262 advocate a particularly stringent requirements engineering where safety requirements must be structured in a hierarchical manner and specified in accordance with the system architecture. In contrast to the stringent requirements engineering in functional safety standards, according to previous studies, requirements engineering in industry is in general of poor quality. Contracts theory has been previously shown to be suitable for supporting such a stringent requirements engineering effort; this support has also been implemented in tools. However, to use these contract-based tools, requirements must be formalized, which is a major challenge in industry. Therefore, to support current industrial requirements engineering practice and the stringent requirements engineering in functional safety standards, it is shown how tool support can be provided even when requirements, and also architectures, are not formalized. This is achieved by enforcing syntactic, yet formal, conditions in contracts theory. Despite the need for further validation, initial findings in an industrial case study indicate high potential in realizing the proposed support in an industrial setting.

  • 332.
    Westman, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Nyberg, Mattias
    Specifying and Structuring Requirements on Cyber-Physical Systems using Contracts2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A contract splits the responsibilities between a component and its environment into a guarantee that expresses an intended property under the responsibility of the component, given that the environment fulfills the assumptions. Building on recent works where contracts are proposed as a means to meet the challenges in the design of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs), a general contract framework is presented that supports the modelling of both individual components and architectures of CPS - at all levels of design, as well as the structuring and specification of requirements on the components using contracts. To facilitate the specification of requirements, constraints that restrict the portsover which a contract is expressed are introduced to serve as sanity checks that the component and the environment meet their respective responsibilities. Furthermore, a new graph, called a contract structure is introduced to support the structuring and tracing of requirements on a CPS using contracts. As a proof-of-concept, the framework is used to specify and structure safety requirements on an industrial system, as proposed by ISO 26262.

  • 333.
    Westman, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Nyberg, Mattias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Gustavsson, Joakim
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Gurov, Dilian
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Theoretical Computer Science, TCS.
    Formal Architecture Modeling of Sequential Non-Recursive C Programs2017In: Science of Computer Programming, ISSN 0167-6423, E-ISSN 1872-7964, Vol. 146, p. 2-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To manage the complexity of C programs, architecture models are used as high-level descriptions, allowing developers to understand, assess, and manage the C programs without having to understand the intricate complexity of the code implementations. However, for the architecture models to serve their purpose, they must be accurate representations of the C programs. In order to support creating accurate architecture models, the present paper presents a mapping from the domain of sequential non-recursive C programs to a domain of formal architecture models, each being a hierarchy of components with well-defined interfaces. The hierarchically organized components and their interfaces, which capture both data and function call dependencies, are shown to both enable high-level assessment and analysis of the C program and provide a foundation for organizing and expressing specifications for compositional verification.

  • 334.
    Westman, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Nyberg, Mattias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics. Scania, Sweden.
    Thydén, Oscar
    CPS Specifier - A Specification Tool for Safety-Critical Cyber-Physical Systems2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CPS Specifier is a specification tool for Cyber-Physical Systems. Founded on established theory and realized using general design and integration technologies and principles, e.g. Linked Data, CPS Specifier provides guidance-and feedback-driven support when authoring structured specifications in general, and for specifying and structuring requirements, in particular. The provided support is crucial in order to comply with functional safety standards such as IEC 61508 and ISO 26262 that require particularly stringent requirements engineering.

  • 335.
    Westman, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Nyberg, Mattias
    Törngren, Martin
    Structuring Safety Requirements in ISO 26262 using Contract Theory2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    ISO 26262 - ''Road vehicles-Functional Safety'' is a standard for the automotive industry, administered in an attempt to prevent potential accidents due to systematic and random failures in the Electrical/Electronic-system. ISO 26262 is based on the principle of relying on safety requirements as the main source of information to enforce correctness of design. We show that the contract theory from the SPEEDS FP6 project provides a suitable foundation to structure safety requirements in ISO 26262. Contracts provide the necessary support to separate the responsibilities between a system and its environment by explicitly imposing requirements on the environment as assumptions, in order to guarantee the safety requirements. We show this by characterizing two levels of safety requirements with contracts for an industrial system where we also show how contract theory supports the verification of consistency and completeness of safety requirements.

  • 336.
    Westman, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Rodriguez-Navas, Guillermo
    MDH.
    Nyberg, Mattias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Verification of Requirements in Simulink Design Verifier and UPPAAL - an Industrial Case Study2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Model checking has reached a state of maturity that allows its adoption for the verification of complex embedded systems, such as the ones found in vehicles. Little research has been carried out in order to determine how model checking can be integrated with the current design and verification practices at the industry. In this case study we take a real control subsystem of a Scania vehicle, specified as a Simulink model, and use two popular model checker (Simulink Design Verifier and Uppaal) for verifying its functional requirements according to the design specification. Our goal is to understand the real challenges faced by engineers performing model checking, and also to assess the possibilities and limitations of the available tools. The main difficulties encountered relate to the fact that most of the work still has to be performed manually, and depends significantly on the skills of the user. In particular, much effort has to be spent in formalizing the system requirements and in model-to-model transformation. This work shows that better tool support is required for these activities before model checking can be ready for widespread use in current development processes.

  • 337.
    Wikander, Jan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Löfgren, Björn
    The Forest Research Institute of Sweden, Skogforsk, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kinematic Control of Redundant Knuckle Booms2009In: International Journal of Forest Engineering, ISSN 1913-2220, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 22-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish forestry industry competes on an international market; because raw material is more expensive than in other parts of the world, the chain from the stump to the industry needs to be very effective. One part in this chain is cutting and transporting trees from the forest to the landing area for further transportation with trucks to the paper or saw mill. When cutting and transporting trees, forestry machines equipped with booms are used to handle the trees. If boom handling time can be reduced thereby increasing productivity by 10 percent, the Swedish forestry industry can earn up to 250 million Swedish crowns (US$35 million) per year.One way to decrease boom handling time is to introduce automatization. This paper describes how to solve the kinematic control of knuckle booms used on forestry machines when automatization is introduced. The objective was to develop a kinematic control strategy for maximum lifting capacity, which is suited for computer-controlled knuckle booms that are redundant. This strategy was analyzed with respect to time consumption when the manipulator tip moves along a predetermined path. The analysis was conducted on a knuckle boom used on a forwarder in a forestry application. The knuckle boom had one redundant degree of freedom. The analysis showed the necessary joint speed requirements and time consumption for certain motion cycles and also what happens when the joints reach their maximum velocity limits.

  • 338.
    Wikander, Jan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    A Mechatronic perspective for the design of future real-time machinery1993In: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Mechatronical Computer Systems for Perception and Action, Halmstad University , 1993Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 339.
    Wikander, Jan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Decentralized control systems for modular machines1994In: Proceedings of 20th international Conference on Industrial Control and Instrumentation, 1994, p. 1645-1650Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 340.
    Wikander, Jan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Mechatronics as an engineering science1998In: Proceedings of Mechatronics98 International Conference, Elsevier, 1998Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper discusses the current understanding of mechatronics as an interdisciplinary subject. A conclusionis that mechatronics tends to attract contributions from many related fields, leading to a lack of focus asexemplified by many mechatronic conferences. Instead, the authors claim that engineers and researchers in mechatronicsshould concentrate on the opportunities and challenges arising specifically due to the interdisciplinaryinteractions which are characterizing mechatronics. Current practice in mechatronics engineering is characterisedby a subsystem based approach by which integrated systems are built from technology homogeneous subsystemswithout a real demand on development of a certain technology as a result of its closer integration with other technologies.As opposed this it is claimed that mechatronics as an engineering science should focus on the interdisciplinaryinteractions, and based on these identify, formulate and conduct new research. The paper presents a setof new research directions, research results and grand challenges relating directly to interdisciplinary interactionsbetween mechanical engineering, control engineering and computer science

  • 341.
    Zadeh, Navid Shariat
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Lindberg, Lars
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    El-Khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Sivard, Gunilla
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Service Oriented Integration of Distributed Heterogeneous IT Systems in Production Engineering Using Information Standards and Linked Data2017In: Modelling and Simulation in Engineering, ISSN 1687-5591, E-ISSN 1687-5605, article id 9814179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While design of production systems based on digital models brings benefits, the communication of models comes with challenges since models typically reside in a heterogeneous IT environment using different syntax and semantics. Coping with heterogeneity requires a smart integration strategy. One main paradigm to integrate data and IT systems is to deploy information standards. In particular, ISO 10303 STEP has been endorsed as a suitable standard to exchange a wide variety of product manufacturing data. One the other hand, service-oriented tool integration solutions are progressively adopted for the integration of data and IT-tools, especially with the emergence of Open Services for Lifecycle Collaboration whose focus is on the linking of data from heterogeneous software tools. In practice, there should be a combination of these approaches to facilitate the integration process. Hence, the aim of this paper is to investigate the applications of the approaches and the principles behind them and try to find criteria for where to use which approach. In addition, we explore the synergy between them and consequently suggest an approach based on combination of them. In addition, a systematic approach is suggested to identify required level of integrations and their corresponding approaches exemplified in a typical IT system architecture in Production Engineering.

  • 342.
    Zamouche, Ahmed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Chammam, Oussama
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    För ett automatiserat återskapande av inbyggda systems funktionella arkitektur från källkod och produkt data2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    “Towards automated recovery of embedded system functional architecture from source code and product data” The increased embedded system complexity in the automotive industry together with stricter safety constraints introduced by the ISO26262 standard, require a better knowledge about the product architecture. However, for existing products which were not developed according to a well defined architecture model, the latter need to be recovered. The objective of this thesis work is to automate the recovery of the functional architecture in a vehicle, which is required for many of ISO26262 activities. The work of this thesis proposes and describes two embedded system models for the target system, and shows their usage to generate user friendly views. The recovery of the models is done by parsing embedded C-code and fetching vehicle's data such as involved ECUs, their addresses and CAN bus details. This work has proposed two models for capturing the recreated information about an automotive embedded system: a product model for the embedded system and an architecture model for the embedded software. The product model is a simple embedded system model that only includes needed hardware and software details for the task of generating the functional architecture. The embedded software architecture model is derived from the product model and abstracts all hardware information. The embedded software architecture model covers only the high-level component based software in all ECUs together abstracting away allocation and CAN bus information. The proposed models have been successfully used to generate functional architecture for a couple of SCANIA trucks. The generation and recovery of the models was performed by a software tool that has been developed for this purpose. In addition, a mapping from the embedded software model to AUTOSAR standard has been proposed as a way to standardise the representation. The mapping to AUTOSAR showed that it is quite straight forward when not taking in consideration any possible ECU peripherals. In the future, representation of sensors and actuators should be included in the models. A more detailed study of the architecture model for the embedded software, with regards to data-flow, should also be conducted to tackle issues related to wrong data-flow paths which have been found in this thesis. The issues arise in the step of CAN bus abstraction.

  • 343.
    Zhang, Dong
    et al.
    Shenyang Engine Design and Research Institute, China.
    Lu, Jinzhi
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics. Shenyang Engine Design and Research Institute, China.
    Wang, Lin
    Li, Jun
    Research of Model-based Aeroengine Control System Design Structure and Workflow2015In: Procedia Engineering, ISSN 1877-7058, E-ISSN 1877-7058, Vol. 99, p. 788-794Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The control system of aeroengine design is a complex system engineeringincludingmany procedure of different subsystems. To improve the efficiency of areoengine control system design and reduce the cost and development period of research procedure, model-based areoengine control system design method can be used for integrating systems, collaborative design and optimizing design. Model-based aeroengine control system design workflow consists of the phases from analysis of system requirements to semi-physics simulation verification. The managementapproach and designprocedure can help to separate the whole design workflow into different sub-phases which can help to scheme the concurrent design procedure of complex control system in order to improve the efficiency of aeroenginedesign and optimize the performance of aeroengine control system.

  • 344.
    Zhang, Huimin
    et al.
    School of Electro-Mechanical Engineering, Xidian University, Xi'an China.
    Feng, Lei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Li, Zhiwu
    School of Electro-Mechnical Engineering, Xidian University, Xi'an China.
    A learning-based synthesis approach to the supremal nonblocking supervisor of discrete-event systems2018In: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, ISSN 0018-9286, E-ISSN 1558-2523, Vol. PP, no 99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a novel approach to synthesize supremal nonblocking supervisors of discrete-event systems (DES), when the automaton models of specifications are not available. Extending the L* learning algorithm, an S* algorithm is developed to infer a tentatively correct supervisor. If the tentatively correct supervisor is nonblocking, it is indeed the supremal nonblocking supervisor with respect to the plant and specifications. Otherwise, the blocking automaton is regarded as a new plant, and the specification is the nonblocking property. Then, the supremal nonblocking supervisor with respect to the new problem is computed using supervisory control theory of DES. Two simplification rules are introduced to the S* algorithm to decrease the computational cost. Finally, the S* algorithm is implemented based on the LearnLib framework, and experiments are performed to verify the proposed approach.

  • 345.
    Zhang, Huimin
    et al.
    School of Electro-Mechanical Engineering, Xidian University.
    Feng, Lei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Wu, Naiqi
    Institute of Systems Engineering, Macau University of Science and Technology.
    Li, Zhiwu
    School of Electro-Mechanical Engineering, Xidian University.
    Integration of Learning-Based Testing and Supervisory Control for Requirements Conformance of Black-Box Reactive Systems2018In: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering, ISSN 1545-5955, E-ISSN 1558-3783, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 2-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A fundamental requirement of the supervisory control theory (SCT) of discrete-event systems is a finite automaton model of the plant. The requirement does not hold for black-box systems whose source code and logical model are not accessible. To apply SCT to black-box systems, we integrate automaton learning technology with SCT and apply the new method to improve the requirements conformance of software reuse. If the reused software component does not satisfy a requirement, the method adds a supervisor component to prevent the black-box system from reaching ''faulty sections.'' The method employs learning-based testing (LBT) to verify whether the reused software meets all requirements in the new context. LBT generates a large number of test cases and iteratively constructs an automaton model of the system under test. If the system fails the test, the learned model is applied as the plant model for control synthesis using SCT. Then, the supervisor is implemented as an executable program to monitor and control the system to follow the requirement. Finally, the integrated system, including the supervisory program and the reused component, is tested by LBT to assure the satisfiability of the requirement. This paper makes two contributions. First, we innovatively integrate LBT and SCT for the control synthesis of black-box reactive systems. Second, software component reuse is still possible even if it does not satisfy user requirements at the outset.

  • 346. Zhang, Weiqing
    et al.
    Møller-Pedersen, Birger
    Biehl, Matthias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    A light-weight tool integration approach: From a tool integration model to OSLC integration services2012In: ICSOFT 2012 - Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Software Paradigm Trends, 2012, p. 137-146Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Existing tool integration approaches integrate various tools directly through tool proprietary APIs. This kind of integration lacks standardization and are different case by case. Integration based upon common tool metamodels also turns to be too complicated and hard to maintain. In this paper we provide an approach which integrates tools based on a combination of tool metamodels and an integration model. Tool element representatives (Artifacts) are defined to make integrations more standardized and flexible compared to direct tool APIs. The approach links the tool integration model to the various tool metamodels, and provides mechanism by which the common integration properties and the various tool metamodels are related. An industrial case study has been performed to validate the approach with both scenarios of traceability and exchange of data based upon common data definitions.

  • 347.
    Zhang, Xinhai
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Towards Design Space Exploration through EAST-ADL and AUTOSAR Modeling Frameworks2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 348.
    Zhang, Xinhai
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Feng, Lei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Chen, De-Jiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Design-Space Reduction for Architectural Optimization of Automotive Embedded Systems2015In: High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC), 2015 IEEE 7th International Symposium on Cyberspace Safety and Security (CSS), 2015 IEEE 12th International Conferen on Embedded Software and Systems (ICESS), 2015 IEEE 17th International Conference on, IEEE Computer Society, 2015, , p. 7p. 1103-1109Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A key decision for the synthesis of automotiveembedded systems is the allocation of application softwarecomponents to ECUs. Design Space Exploration (DSE) supportsthe decision by automatically characterizing and evaluating alarge number of possible design alternatives, and thereby suggestingthe optimal ones. A primary challenge for applying DSEmethods to support this decision is to reduce the computationtime of the DSE process while maintaining the generality andoptimality. This paper exploits legacy system architectures andthe AUTOSAR standard to preemptively reduce the design space,because both artifacts limit the flexibility of certain designvariables. A new DES formulation incorporating the constraintsof the legacy system architectures and the AUTOSAR standardis proposed in this paper. Computation result shows a largereduction of the computation time comparing to traditionalmodeling and formulations. The scalability of our method is alsoanalyzed by testing it on a set of random problem instances.

  • 349.
    Zhang, Xinhai
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Mohan, Naveen
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Axelsson, J.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Architecture exploration for distributed embedded systems: A gap analysis in automotive domain2017In: 2017 12th IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Embedded Systems, SIES 2017 - Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, article id 7993377Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large body of work can be found in literature on Design Space Exploration (DSE) methods for distributed embedded system architecting (DESA). However, almost none of these methods is successfully adopted in automotive industry. To clarify the reasons, this paper 1) analyzes the current state of the art (SOTA) on DSE methods for DESA through a systematic literature study, focusing on the assumed architecting process and concerns; 2) investigates the state of practice (SOP) on DESA in the automotive industry through a literature study and interviews with experienced system architects from five different automotive manufacturers; and 3) analyzes the gap between SOTA and SOP, and thereby discusses potential improvements of DSE methods.

  • 350.
    Zhang, Xinhai
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Persson, Magnus
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Nyberg, Mattias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Mokhtari, Behrooz
    KTH.
    Einarson, A.
    Linder, H.
    Westman, Jonas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Experience on applying software architecture recovery to automotive embedded systems2014In: 2014 Software Evolution Week - IEEE Conference on Software Maintenance, Reengineering, and Reverse Engineering, CSMR-WCRE 2014 - Proceedings, IEEE Computer Society, 2014, p. 379-382Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance and potential advantages with a comprehensive product architecture description are well described in the literature. However, developing such a description takes additional resources, and it is difficult to maintain consistency with evolving implementations. This paper presents an approach and industrial experience which is based on architecture recovery from source code at truck manufacturer Scania CV AB. The extracted representation of the architecture is presented in several views and verified on CAN signal level. Lessons learned are discussed.

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