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  • 301.
    Qureshi, Tahir Naseer
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Chen, De-Jiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Bridging the Gap Between EAST-ADL Behavior Description Annex and UPPAAL to Enhance Tool Support for Verifying Cyber-Physical SystemsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 302.
    Rahimi, Fariba
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Feng, Lei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Wikander, Jan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Frede, Daniel
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Early phase design-optimization of mechatronic systems2017In: ICCMA 2017 Proceedings of the 2017 The 5th International Conference on Control, Mechatronics and Automation, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2017, p. 42-49Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Methodologies on design optimization of mechatronic systems are usually based on consecutive methods, i.e., the procedure of physical design, control and optimization of a system is performed step by step to achieve the final goal. This paper is built upon previous works on developing a toolbox to integrate several engineering backgrounds in early design phase to avoid time and cost consuming iterations in later deign steps. The previous methodology was mainly applicable for linear one-degree of freedom systems without time-variant dynamics. In this paper, the method is upgraded towards covering concepts on nonlinear systems where extra degrees of freedom are added to the system. Additionally, the library of the mentioned toolbox is extended to include ball-screw drive and rotational rigid beam components in terms of physical design, dynamic and static models to examine the feasibility of the design. A conceptual nonlinear multi-degree design case is presented and linearized at specified operational points in the supported software framework and the implemented models are verified in both SimMechanics and Simulink.

  • 303.
    Roos, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    On design methods for mechatronics: servo motor and gearhead2005Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of electric powered sub-systems in road-vehicles is increasing fast. This development is primarily driven by the new and improved functionality that can be implemented with electro-mechanical sub-systems, but it is also necessary for the transition to electric and hybrid-electric drive trains.

    An electromechanical sub-system can be implemented as a physically integrated mechatronic module: controller, power electronics, electric motor, transmission and sensors, all integrated into one component. A mechatronic module, spans, as all mechatronic systems, over several closely coupled engineering disciplines: mechanics, electronics, electro-mechanics, control theory and computer science. In order to design and optimize a mechatronic system it is therefore desirable to design the system within all domains concurrently. Optimizing each domain or component separately will not result in the optimal system design. Furthermore, the very large production volumes of automotive sub-systems increase the freedom in the mechatronics design process. Instead of being limited to the selection from off-the shelf components, application specific components may be designed.

    The research presented in this thesis aims at development of an integrated design and optimization methodology for mechatronic modules. The target of the methodology is the conceptual design phase, where the number of design parameters is relatively small. So far, the focus has been on design methods for the electric motor and gearhead, two of the most important components in an actuation module. The thesis presents two methods for design and optimization of motor and gearhead in mechatronic applications. One discrete method, intended for the selection of off-the-shelf components, and one method mainly intended for high volume applications where new application specific components may be designed. Both methods can handle any type of load combination, which is important in mechatronic systems, where the load seldom can be classified as pure inertial or constant speed.

    Furthermore, design models relating spur gear weight, size and inertia to output torque and gear ratio are presented. It is shown that a gearhead has significantly lower inertia and weight than a motor. The results indicate that it almost always is favorable from a weight and size perspective to use a gearhead. A direct drive configuration may only be lighter for very high speed applications. The main contribution of this thesis is however the motor/gear ratio sizing methods that can be applied to any electromechanical actuation system that requires rotational motion.

  • 304.
    Roos, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Wikander, Jan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    The influence of gear ratio on performance of electro-mechanical servo systems2006In: Proceedings of the 4th IFAC Symposium on Mechatronic Systems, 2006, p. 884-889Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The gear ratio's influence on the performance of electromechanical servo systems is analyzed. Even though a gear primarily is used to reduce the actuator size and weight it is important to understand how the gear ratio affects the dynamics of the system. A good choice of gear ratio may improve the control performance while reducing the physical size of the system. It is concluded that for low gear ratios the plant bandwidth is increased with gear ratio. The torque margin of the motor is also shown to increase with gear ratio. Thus, from a control perspective, high gear ratios appear to be better than low.

  • 305.
    Sanfridson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Wikander, Jan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    The effect of randomly time varying sampling and computational delay2005In: 16th Triennial World Congress of International Federation of Automatic Control, IFAC 2005, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A randomly time-varying sampling period or control delay affects the performance, robustness and stability of a control loop. The variation in sensing and actuation instants is caused by e.g. multitasking, interactions in distributed systems and varying processing time. The discretization of a continuous-time quadratic loss function and the process is here extended to the case of aperiodic systems, when the control signal exhibits multiple changes during a non-uniform sampling period.

  • 306. Schätz, Bernhard
    et al.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Integrated CPS Research Agenda and Recommendations for Action2015Report (Refereed)
  • 307.
    Sefastsson, Per
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Apparatur och metod för uppskattning av underkropsseffektutveckling2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    One of the Swedish sports federation RF’s ongoing goals is to find new and better methods of

    testing athletes. Therefore a project, with the goal of investigating which method to use for

    measuring lower body muscle power output during free barbell exercises, in order to give

    training recommendations, was undertaken. This had already been done in a study done by

    Cormie et al 2007 [9]. In this study, the muscle power output is estimated using methods relying

    on knowledge of the position of the barbell and the athlete’s reaction forces acting on the floor.

    The goals of this thesis was to make a test apparatus capable of repeating the test methods used

    in Cormie et al 2007 [9], but also explore the possibility of finding other methods of muscle

    power estimation and to implement these.

    In order to reach these goals, first a literature study was carried out, looking at other previous

    studies, technologies and commercial systems. Then models of the mechanics and the test setup

    were developed. Lastly, the test apparatus was developed, using linear position transducers for

    determining the position of the barbell, along with a force plate for measuring reaction forces.

    The data was then collected and analyzed using a PC-system developed in LabVIEW. As a final

    step, a limited trial was conducted in order to compare results with Cormie et al 2007 [9].

    The resulting apparatus determines the position of the barbell’s center of mass and its orientation

    in space, measuring the position of two points on the barbell using a total of five linear position

    transducers, three on one side and two on the other. The reaction forces are measured using a

    force plate position under the athlete. All of this, in 3D.

    One new method of estimating muscle power output is also presented in this thesis. This method

    accounts for the lifter and the barbell as two separate bodies, able to move independently,

    whereas the previous method of choice only accounts for them as one stiff body.

    The trial showed good coherence with Cormie et al 2007 [9], comparing the same methods. Also

    the new method gave results that seem reasonable in comparison with the old methods’ results.

    The conclusion and recommendation of this report is to, in the future, use this new method. This

    new method should, in theory, be able to capture more of the reality of free barbell exercises than

    the old method. The conclusion of this report is therefore that this method should be used.

  • 308.
    Selling, Jimmy
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Beröringsfria avståndssensorer för en autonomgräsklippare2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    AbstractThis master thesis is aiming to investigate the possibility of adding distance sensors to Husqvarna’sautonomic lawnmower. The goal is to prevent the lawnmower from colliding with obstacles in itssurroundings. The environment where the lawnmower is working is very dynamic in sense ofweather, temperature, ambient lightning and terrain. This gives high requirements on the sensors.Of all the sensors that were examined, ultrasonic and structured lightning came out as the ones bestfit to fill these requirements to a reasonable cost.In this thesis ultrasonic sensors from Maxbotix were implemented on a prototype. Four sensors wereplaced on the lawnmower body and connected to a microcontroller. The microcontroller then passesalong the sensor data to a computer that is running a search algorithm. The algorithm is used tointerpret the data and merge the different measurements.After certain amount of testing it was shown that the chosen sensor did not meet all therequirements. However the method and the chosen algorithm should suffice with another type ofsensor.

  • 309.
    Shariatzadeh, Navid
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Gürdür, Didem
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    El-khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Lindberg, Lars
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Sivard, Gunilla
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Using Linked Data with Information Standards for Interoperability in Production Engineering2015In: RESEARCH AND INNOVATION IN MANUFACTURING: KEY ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE FACTORIES OF THE FUTURE: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 48TH CIRP CONFERENCE ON MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS, 2015, p. 502-507Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Design and verification of factory layout and material flow is a multidisciplinary, knowledge-intensive task which requires a collaborative framework where all specialists involved can communicate, interact, manage and visualize different models. However, the communication of digital models comes with challenges. First of all the information resides in various systems and applications, in different formats and with various levels of detail and viewpoints. Moreover, models share common properties and it is common that these properties influence each other. Hence modification of one model should be propagated to other models, which need to be coordinated.To deal with the data exchange and integration problem, information standards such as ISO 10303 have been developed. ISO 10303 (STEP) has shown a strong capability to represent rich information models in a wide variety of industrial domains for the purpose of exchanging data. However, STEP is intrinsically complex and sometimes adds unnecessary level of detail to information to be shared. On the other hand, the Open Services for Lifecycle Collaboration (OSLC) initiative provides a minimalistic set of standardized information models, focusing on the most common concepts within a particular domain. Assuming a loosely-coupled distributed architecture of tools and services, OSLC adopts the Linked Data approach to ensure data consistency across the data resources.How can we combine STEP’s rich information model for data exchange, with OSLC’s minimalistic approach for data integration?The aim of this work is to show the applicability of using these two complementary paradigms – and their corresponding standards - to support interoperability and data integration in a heterogeneous IT environment for material flow analysis and layout design. To this end, an industrial case study was implemented through the information standard STEP and the OSLC specifications to verify the suggested approach.

  • 310. Shoaei, M. R.
    et al.
    Feng, Lei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Lennartson, B.
    Abstractions for nonblocking supervisory control of Extended Finite Automata2012In: Automation Science and Engineering (CASE), 2012 IEEE International Conference on, IEEE , 2012, p. 364-370Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An abstraction method for Extended Finite Automata (EFAs), i.e., finite automata extended with variables, using transition projection is presented in this work. A manufacturing system modeled by EFAs is abstracted into subsystems that embody internal interacting dependencies. Synthesis and verification of subsystems are achieved through their model abstractions rather than their global model. Sufficient conditions are presented to guarantee that supervisors result in maximally permissive and nonblocking control. An examples demonstrate the computational effectiveness and practical usage of the approach.

  • 311. Shoaei, M. R.
    et al.
    Feng, Lei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Lennartson, B.
    On the computation of natural observers for extended finite automata2014In: IFAC Proceedings Volumes (IFAC-PapersOnline), 2014, p. 2448-2455Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Compared to finite automata, Extended Finite Automata (EFAs) allows us to efficiently represent discrete-event systems that involve non-trivial data manipulation. However, the complexity of designing supervisors for such systems is still a challenge. In our previous works, we have studied model abstraction for EFAs using natural projections with observer property on events as well as data. In this paper, we provide sufficient conditions for verifying the observer properties and further enhance the EFAs when the property does not hold. To this end, we introduce symbolic simplification techniques for data and generalize existing algorithms in the literature for the events to compute natural observers for EFAs. The importance of this combined abstraction and symbolic simplification method is demonstrated by synthesis of a nonblocking controller for an industrial manufacturing system.

  • 312. Shoaei, M. R.
    et al.
    Feng, Lei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Lennartson, B.
    Supervisory control of extended finite automata using transition projection2012In: Decision and Control (CDC), 2012 IEEE 51st Annual Conference on, IEEE , 2012, p. 7259-7266Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A limitation of the Ramadge and Wonham (RW) framework for the supervisory control theory is the explicit state representation using finite automata, often resulting in complex and unintelligible models. Extended finite automata (EFAs), i.e., deterministic finite automata extended with variables, provide compact state representation and then make the control logic transparent through logic expressions of the variables. A challenge with this new control framework is to exploit the rich control structure established in RW's framework. This paper studies the decentralized control structure with EFAs. To reduce the computational complexity, the controller is synthesized based on model abstraction of subsystems, which means that the global model of the entire system is unnecessary. Sufficient conditions are presented to that guarantee the decentralized supervisors result in maximally permissive and nonblocking control to the entire system.

  • 313. Sivencrona, H.
    et al.
    Sandberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics. Mecel AB, Sweden.
    Hiller, M.
    SWAP-design of an AUTOSAR open laboratory test bench2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes an AUTOSAR testbench that will be evaluated by the SWAP (SoftWare Automotive Platform) project. It presents the functionality as well as the expected use of the platform. SWAP is a Swedish research initiative whose goal is to increase AUTOSAR competence throughout the design of an AUTOSAR compliant test bench. The test bench will be provided in an open laboratory where an AUTOSAR Version 3.0 (4.0 is planned)-compliant basic software, including applications, necessary tools and hardware, e.g. ECUs and communication bus, will be made available. The test bench will hopefully be useful for a broad range of applied research and product development projects. Also, SWAP will manage AUTOSAR seminars for increasing the know-how for interested users. SWAP will also provide a basis for establishing and increasing knowledge in the area of adapting AUTOSAR to the emerging functional safety standard ISO WD 26262.

  • 314.
    Sjöstedt, Carl-Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Shi, Jianlin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Ahlsten, Viktor
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Mapping Simulink to UML in the design of embedded systems:Investigating scenarios and transformations2008In: OMER4 Post-proceedings, 2008, 2008, p. 137-160Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The multidisciplinary nature of advanced embedded systems requires a combined usage of several tools and modeling languages in systems development.We investigate the needs and some of the possibilities of combined usage of Simulink and UML.Structural and behavioral mappings are explored focusing on continuous-time and discrete-time models.A procedure for transforming Simulink models to UML composite structure and activity models is presented. Our proposed behavioral transformationmaps behavior of the Simulink model as well as the MATLAB/Simulink simulation engine and provides an explicit simulation level behavior representation in the form of UML activity diagrams. The transformation has been partially implemented using the Atlas Transformation Language.

  • 315.
    Sjöstedt, Carl-Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Wikander, Jan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Flemmer, Henrik
    Scania CV AB.
    Evaluation of Auxiliary Device Efficiency in Heavy Vehicle Application2013In: Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To investigate the energy consumption related to auxiliary devices, as a basis for optimizing the auxiliary systems’ layout and identifying potential for fuel consumption reduction, a study has been carried out at Scania CV AB. The following auxiliary devices have been investigated: Alternator, water pump, cooling fan, air compressor, air conditioning compressor, oil pump and power steering pump. Those auxiliary devices represent 5–7% of the total fuel consumption in long haulage truck applications, while for a city bus the figure could be as high as 50%. One of the challenges of evaluating the fuel consumption of auxiliary devices is the variance: it depends on many factors including road data, driver profile, ambient conditions (temperature, pres- sure, precipitation) and more. To investigate this variance, test data collected from the Scania test fleet has been analyzed. The data are used as input to a MATLAB/Simulink model of the aux- iliary systems. This way, a large population of trucks has been investigated, for many driving cycles under realistic conditions. A general model for reducing fuel consumption for auxiliary sys- tems has been developed.

  • 316.
    Sten, Gustav
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Helle, Thibault
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Non-Invasive Liquid Metering Method Analysis2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to measure flow in pipes often introduces expensive and difficult installations due to existing flow-meters being invasive. To solve this a non-invasive solution has been found by testing and evaluating different mechanical and electrical methods using ultrasonic piezo-crystals and time-of-flight calculations. The solution consists of an impedance matched circuit with a boosting circuit. Using ultrasound in an non-invasive way comes with a decreased accuracy which can be increased using various software methods. The results from tests at different water-flows shows that there is no significant statistical difference between the developed flow-meter and an existing mechanical one. It also shows that calibration has a major impact on the measured values. This hints at that with the right calibration of the ultrasonic flow-meter it should be possible to close the performance gap between the two flow-meters.

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-03-28 00:01
  • 317.
    Stenbeck, Filip
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Lobell, Oden
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Localization and Mapping for Outdoor Mobile Robots with RTK GPS and Sensor Fusion: An Investigation of Sensor Technologies for the Automower Platform2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The following thesis addresses the problem of localizing an outdoor mobile robot and mapping the environment using the state of the art of consumer grade RTK GPS. The thesis investigates limitations and possibilities for sensor fusion to increase reliability and usability. The main subject of research is a robotic lawn mower from Husqvarna, the Automower 430x, connected to existing hardware on the product with an auxiliary real time kinematic global positioning system, the Emlid Reach. The test conducted showed that the auxiliary RTK GPS module is currently unsatisfactory as sole absolute position sensor for the Automower platform, mainly due to inconsistent performance. This thesis is meant as a preliminary study for future use of GNSS sensors for outdoor mobile robots and as a suggestive study of the current performance of the increasingly popular Emlid Reach GPS module.

  • 318.
    Svenningsson, Rickard
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Model-Implemented Fault Injection for Robustness Assessment2011Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The complexity of safety-related embedded computer systems is steadilyincreasing. Besides verifying that such systems implement the correct functionality, it is essential to verify that they also present an acceptable level of robustness. Robustness is in this thesis defined as the resilience of hardware, software or systems against errors that occur during runtime.

    One way of performing robustness assessment is to carry out fault injection, also known as fault insertion testing from certain safety standards. The idea behind fault injection is to accelerate the occurrence of faults in the system to evaluate its behavior under the influence of anticipated faults, and to evaluate error handling mechanisms.

    Model-based development is becoming more and more common for the development of safety-related software. Thus, in this thesis we investigate how we can benefit from conducting fault injection experiments on behavior models of software. This is defined as model-implemented fault injection in this thesis, since additional model artifacts are added to support the injection of faults that are activated during simulation. In particular, this thesis addresses injection of hardware fault effects (e.g. bit-level errors in microcontrollers) into Simulink® models.

    To evaluate the method, a fault injection tool has been developed (called MODIFI), that is able to perform fault injection into Simulink behavior models. MODIFI imports tailored fault libraries that define the effects of faults according to an XML-schema. The fault libraries are converted into executable model blocks that are added to behavior models and activated during runtime to emulate the effect of faults. Further, we use a method called minimal cut sets generation to increase the usefulness of the tool.

    During the work within MOGENTES, an EU 7th framework programme project that focused on model-based generation of test cases for dependable embedded systems, fault injection experiments have been performed on safety related models with the MODIFI tool. Experiments were also performed using traditional fault injection methods, and in particular hardware-implemented fault injection, to evaluate the correlation between the methods.

    The results reveal that fault injection on software models is efficient and useful for robustness assessment and that results produced with MODIFI appear to be representative for the results obtained with other fault injection methods. However, a software model suppresses implementation details, thus leading to fewer locations where faults can be injected. Therefore it cannot entirely replace traditional fault injection methods, but by performing model-implemented fault injection in early design phases an overview of the robustness of a model can be obtained, given these limitations. It can also be useful for testing of error handling mechanisms that are implemented in the behavior model.

  • 319. Svenningsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Vinter, Jonny
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Generic fault modelling for fault injection2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fault injection is a widely used experimental dependability validation method, with a vast amount of techniques and tools. Within the scope of MOGENTES, an EU 7 th framework programme project, tools have been developed which implements three different fault injection techniques; hardware-implemented fault injection, software-implemented fault injection and model-implemented fault injection. To support fault injection under the same conditions with these tools, an unambiguous description format for failure modes has been developed. Within MOGENTES, over 30 different failure modes have been identified, which all are implementable using the proposed format. XML has been chosen as the storage format for the failure modes, following a schema that is described in this paper.

  • 320.
    Svenningsson, Rickard
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Vinter, Jonny
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Model-implemented fault injection for hardware fault simulation2011In: Proceedings - 2010 Workshop on Model-Driven Engineering, Verification, and Validation, MoDeVVa 2010, Oslo, 2011, p. 31-36Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents how model-implemented fault injection can be utilized to simulate the effect of hardwarerelated faults in embedded systems. A fault injection environment has been developed to enable comparison of experiments at model level and hardware level using Simulink and an Infineon microcontroller, respectively. Experiments at model level, leading to safety requirement violations, are automatically repeated at hardware level to compare the fault effects. Artifacts in a Simulink model (e.g. block output ports) are automatically mapped to memory addresses obtained from a linker generated map file. Thus, the same variable can be manipulated by the fault injection environment at both model and hardware level. For the automotive application evaluated, experiments show that the effects of data errors at model level and hardware level are similar excluding the experiments leading to exceptions. © 2010 IEEE.

  • 321.
    Svenningsson, Rickard
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Vinter, Jonny
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    MODIFI: A MODel-Implemented Fault Injection Tool2010In: 29th International Conference on Computer Sagety, Reliability and Security, 2010, p. 210-222Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fault injection is traditionally divided into simulation-based and physical techniques depending on whether faults are injected into hardware models, or into an actual physical system or prototype. Another classification is based on how fault injection mechanisms are implemented. Well known techniques are hardware-implemented fault injection (HIFI) and software-implemented fault injection (SWIFI). For safety analyses during model-based development, fault injection mechanisms can be added directly into models of hardware, models of software or models of systems. This approach is denoted by the authors as model-implemented fault injection. This paper presents the MODIFI (MODel-Implemented Fault Injection) tool. The tool is currently targeting behaviour models in Simulink. Fault models used by MODIFI are defined using XML according to a specific schema file and the fault injection algorithm uses the concept of minimal cut sets (MCS) generation. First, a user defined set of single faults are injected to see if the system is tolerant against single faults. Single faults leading to a failure, i.e. a safety requirement violation, are stored in a MCS list together with the corresponding counterexample. These faults are also removed from the fault space used for subsequent experiments. When all single faults have been injected, the effects of multiple faults are investigated, i.e. two or more faults are introduced at the same time. The complete list of MCS is finally used to automatically generate test cases for efficient fault injection on the target system.

  • 322.
    Svenningsson, Rickard
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Vinter, Jonny
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Towards fault injection based minimal cut sets generation2010In: Informationstagung Mikroelektronik ME10, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 323.
    Svensson, Lars
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Safe Stop Trajectory Planning for Highly Automated Vehicles:An Optimal Control Problem Formulation2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Highly automated road vehicles need the capabilityof stopping safely in a situation that disrupts continued normaloperation, e.g. due to internal system faults. Motion planningfor safe stop differs from nominal motion planning, since thereis not a specific goal location. Rather, the desired behavior isthat the vehicle should reach a stopped state, preferably outsideof active lanes. Also, the functionality to stop safely needs tobe of high integrity. The first contribution of this paper isto formulate the safe stop problem as a benchmark optimalcontrol problem, which can be solved by dynamic programming.However, this solution method cannot be used in real-time. Thesecond contribution is to develop a real-time safe stop trajectoryplanning algorithm, based on selection from a precomputedset of trajectories. By exploiting the particular properties ofthe safe stop problem, the cardinality of the set is decreased,making the algorithm computationally efficient. Furthermore, amonitoring based architecture concept is proposed, that ensuresdependability of the safe stop function. Finally, a proof of conceptsimulation using the proposed architecture and the safe stoptrajectory planner is presented.

  • 324.
    SÖDERGREN, LEO
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Electric Longboard: A dual-purpose personal vehicle2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to explore the possibility of a dual-purpose electric vehicle. The vehicle should be able to be used for both commuting and racing. It also aims to describe different power limiting methods and their effect on performance. Lastly it hopes to see if the Swedish laws, as written today are reasonable. An electric longboard has been constructed for this purpose and several tests have been performed.

    A list of goals were set up for the board prototype. These included power output, running time, and that the board should have an audible warning device.

    The findings demonstrated that all tested power limiting methods worked and that the “Simple power limiting” method provided quickest movement over a fixed distance. Most of the goals were met by the prototype and the board’s two modes worked as planned. While the law is reasonable it can be improved to cover the diversity of electric vehicles. Further work may include better measurements and implementation of a dual microcontroller system.

  • 325.
    Taei Zadeh, Ali
    et al.
    UKM, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Mukhtar, Muriati
    UKM, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Sahran, Shahnorbanun
    UKM, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Khabbazi, Mahmood Reza
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics. UKM, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    A Systematic Input Selection for Service Identification in SMEs2012In: Journal of Applied Sciences, ISSN 1812-5654, E-ISSN 1812-5662, Vol. 12, no 12, p. 1232-1244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Service-oriented Architecture (SOA) as an ideal architecture to support today’s business challenges such as agility and flexibility acts like a bridge between IT and business domains. There are intensified SOA applications at large enterprises. However, small and medium enterprises cannot obtain SOA benefits due to the lack of compatible solutions of SOA implementation challenges. Service identification is the first step in service modeling that extracts services as building blocks of SOA. Determining suitable inputs for SME service identification based on their conditions is a key factor for developing related identification method. This paper proposes SME based criteria to evaluate current inputs of service identification. To assess the inputs that are collected from variety of sources a mapping process between enterprise goals and collected inputs is presented.

  • 326.
    Taherkordi, Amirhosein
    et al.
    University of Oslo, Norway.
    Loiret, Frederic
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics. INRIA Lille-Nord Europe, ADAM Project-team, University Lille 1, France .
    Rouvoy, Romain
    University of Oslo, Norway; INRIA Lille-Nord Europe, ADAM Project-team, University Lille 1, France .
    Eliassen, Frank
    University of Oslo, Norway.
    A Generic Component-based Approach for Programming, Composing and Tuning Sensor Software2011In: Computer journal, ISSN 0010-4620, E-ISSN 1460-2067, Vol. 54, no 8, p. 1248-1266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are being extensively deployed today in various monitoring and control applications by enabling rapid deployments at low cost and with high flexibility. However, high-level software development is still one of the major challenges to wide-spread WSN adoption. The success of high- level programming approaches in WSNs is heavily dependent on factors like ease of programming, code well-structuring, degree of code reusability, required software development effort, and the ability to tune the sensor software for a particular application. Component-based programming has been recognized as an effective approach to satisfy such requirements. However, most of the componentization efforts in WSNs were ineffective due to various reasons, such as high resource demand or limited scope of use. In this article, we present Remora, a novel component-based approach to overcome the hurdles of WSN software implementation and configuration. Remora offers a well-structured programming paradigm that fits very well with resource limitations of embedded systems, including WSNs. Furthermore, the special attention to event handling in Remora makes our proposal more practical for embedded applications, which are inherently event-driven. More importantly, the mutualism between Remora and underlying system software promises a new direction towards separation of concerns in WSNs. This feature also offers a practical way to develop sensor middleware services which should be generic and developed close to the operating system. Additionally, it allows the customization of sensor software—deploying only application-required system-level services on nodes, instead of installing a fixed large system software image for any application. Our evaluation results show that the deployed Remora applications have an acceptable memory overhead and a negligible CPU cost compared to the state-of-the-art development models.

  • 327.
    Tegin, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Wikander, Jan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Tactile sensing in intelligent robotic manipulation - a review2005In: Industrial robot, ISSN 0143-991X, E-ISSN 1758-5791, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 64-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - When designing hardware and algorithms for robotic manipulation and grasping, sensory information is typically needed to control the grasping process. This paper presents an overview of the major grasping and manipulation approaches and the more common hardware used to obtain the necessary sensory information. Design/methodology/approach - This paper presents an overview of tactile sensing in intelligent robotic manipulation. The history the common issues, and applications are reviewed. Sensor performance is briefly discussed and compared to the human tactile sense. Advantages and disadvantages of the most common sensor approaches are discussed. Some examples are given of sensors that are widely available as of today. Eventually, some examples of the state-of-the-art in tactile sensing application are presented. Findings - Although many sensor technologies and strong theoretical models have been developed, there is still much left to be done in intelligent grasping and manipulation. This is partly due to the youth of the field and the complex nature of safe control in uncertain environments. Even though there are impressive results when it comes to specific examples of advanced manipulation, there seems to be room for great improvements of hardware and especially algorithms when it comes to more generic everyday domestic tasks. Originality/value - This paper presents a review of sensor hardware while also giving a glimpse of the major topics in grasping and manipulation. While better hardware of course is desirable, the major challenges seem to lie in the development and application of grasping and manipulation algorithms.

  • 328.
    THORBURN, MATILDA
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    FORSBERG, ISAK
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Automated Plant Holder for Compact Area2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To facilitate home gardening this project enables automated hydroponic gardening on a small scale. Hydroponic means that the growth medium is water instead of soil, which simplifies the measuring and control of the plant holder. Hydroponics is water efficient and therefore more environmentally friendly.

    The objective of this thesis is to develop a minimized construction capable of fitting in a compact home, requiring minimal effort from the user to sustain the plant. The project focuses on three determining factors for hydroponics; light, pH level, and nutrition. By measuring the light intensity, the lamp can be switched on only when necessary which minimizes energy consumption.

    The system is controlled by a micro controller and with multiple sensors the pH level, nutrient content, water temperature, and light intensity of the system can be measured. These are then used to regulate the actuators of the system: lamp, dosage pump for pH buffer, and nutrient solution.

    Results show that the system is stable and can be selfregulated in the desired range for nutrition concentration and pH level during a substantial time period.

  • 329.
    TJOMSLAND, JONAS
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    HARDELL, FELIX
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Motorized tensioner systemfor prosthetic hands2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Modern research in prosthetic devices and other assistive technologies are constantly pushing boundaries. While the technology is impressive, it is still inaccessible for the greater part of the people in need of it. Advanced devices are often extremely expensive and require regularly maintenance from professionals. Enabling the Future is a global network of volunteers and was founded to face these problems. They design and 3D-print mechanical prosthetics for people in need all over the world.

    Most of the designs used by Enabling the Future are purely mechanical and do not implement motors. The purpose of this thesis was to take a new approach to the design and construction of low-cost motorized prosthetic hands. By distancing all the electronic components from the hand, including the motor, the project aimed to create a device compatible with all current designs of the Enabling the Future community.

    To conceptualize this approach a demonstrator was constructed and tested. It utilized a muscle sensor which allowed users to control the hand by tightening their muscles. The distance between the electronic components and the prosthetic hand measured approximately one and a half meters and still transfered enough force, from the motor to the hand, to deliver an adequate grip strength.

  • 330.
    Torry-Smith, Jonas Morkeberg
    et al.
    Department of Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Qamar, Ahsan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Achiche, Sofiane
    Department of Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Wikander, Jan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Mortensen, Niels Henrik
    Department of Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    During, Carl
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Mechatronic Design: Still A Considerable Challenge2011In: Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, ASME , 2011, p. 33-44Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Development of mechatronic products is traditionally carried out by several design experts from different design domains. Performing development of mechatronic products is thus greatly challenging. In order to tackle this, the critical challenges in mechatronics have to be well understood and well supported through applicable methods and tools. This paper aims at identifying the major challenges, by conducting a survey of the most relevant research work in mechatronic design. Solutions proposed in literature are assessed and illustrated through a case study in order to investigate, if the challenges can be handled appropriately by the methods, tools, and mindsets suggested by the mechatronic community. Using a real world mechatronics case, the paper identifies the areas where further research is required, by showing a clear connection between the actual problems faced during the design task, and the nature of the solutions currently available. From the results obtained from this research, one can conclude that although various attempts have been developed to support conceptual design of mechatronics, these attempts are still not sufficient to help in assessing the consequences of selecting between alternative conceptual solutions across multiple domains. We believe that a common language is essential in developing mechatronics, and should be evaluated based on: its capability to represent the desired views effectively, its potential to be understood by engineers from the various domains, and its effect on the efficiency of the development process.

  • 331.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Software Innovation Agenda, Swedsoft,20132013Report (Other academic)
  • 332.
    Törngren, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Bensalem, S.
    McDermid, J.
    Passerone, R.
    Pfeifer, H.
    Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, A.
    Schätz, B.
    Characterization, Analysis, and Recommendations for Exploiting the Opportunities of Cyber-Physical Systems2016In: Cyber-Physical Systems: Foundations, Principles and Applications, Elsevier Inc. , 2016, p. 3-14Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Leveraging on a comprehensive analysis of cyber-physical systems (CPSs) in Europe, this chapter presents overall findings focusing on (1) a characterization of CPS, (2) opportunities and challenges in representative CPS application domains, and (3) recommendations for action resulting from a cross-domain analysis. The characterization enables a high-level description of a CPS, or classes of CPS, according to their technical emphasis, cross-cutting aspects, level of automation, and life-cycle integration. We illustrate how these characteristics can be used to relate to design issues, systems, and related terms.The recommendations are to: (1) strengthen cross-disciplinary research collaboration, (2) foster CPS education and training, (3) stimulate public-private partnerships for CPS technology experimentation and to ensure dependable information and communication technology (ICT) infrastructure, (4) promote interoperability of CPS technology, (5) anticipate new business models and support open innovation, (6) ensure trustworthiness including safety and security, and (7) favor human-centered approaches to CPS. 

  • 333.
    Törngren, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Bensalem, Saddek
    Cengarle, Victoria
    McDermid, John
    Passerone, Roberto
    Sangiovanni Vincentelli, Alberto
    CPS: Significance, Challenges and Opportunities2014Report (Other academic)
  • 334.
    Törngren, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Bensalem, Saddek
    McDermid, John
    Passerone, Roberto
    Sangiovanni Vincentelli, Alberto
    Schätz, Bernhard
    Education and training challenges in the era of Cyber-Physical Systems: beyond traditional engineering2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Education and training face several challenges as our society is evolving to become increasingly dependent on Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS). We present and discuss how education is impacted, leveraging mainly a cross-domain investigation of CPS challenges of the EU CyPhERS project. In particular, the investigation revealed challenges that go beyond engineering education and that were found to be common across domains; (i) the need to consider and to include a broader set of stakeholders including policy makers and the general public to raise awareness of CPS technology implications (opportunities, risks and challenges), (ii) emphasizing human centered perspectives including sustainability and privacy in CPS education to make sure we end up with a human centric CPS-based society, (iii) improving the status of teaching, and (iv) supporting educational platforms and life-long learning capabilities. We conclude by discussing implications for educational systems.

  • 335.
    Törngren, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Biehl, Matthias
    Qamar, Ahsan
    El-khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Loiret, Frederic
    Multiview Modeling and Integration for Mechatronics Engineering2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 336.
    Törngren, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Crnkovic, I.
    Component-based vs. model-based development: A comparison in the context of vehicular embedded systems2005In: EUROMICRO-SEAA 2005: 31st EUROMICRO Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, Proceedings, IEEE conference proceedings, 2005, p. 432-440Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Component based and model based development (CBD vs. MBD), in their various interpretations, are in focus in many efforts in order to better handle the efficient development of increasingly complex embedded systems. We elaborate on what CBD and MBD represent, on their differences and similarities. Although CBD represents a bottom-up approach whereas MBD is more top-down in nature, it turns out that the concepts have much in common and can benefit from cross-fertilization. In particular, MBD requires improved handling of 'model' components, and CBD requires improved component models to assure component composition and reuse. We discuss their mutual opportunities and other relationships.

  • 337.
    Törngren, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Dahle, Hans Petter
    Brodtkorb, Dagfin
    El-khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Chaplin, Ray
    Towards an industrial Framework for Embedded Systems Tools2010In: Modelling Foundations and Applications / [ed] Kühne, Thomas, Selic, Bran V., Gervais, Marie-Pierre, Terrier, Francois, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 338.
    Törngren, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    El-khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Brodtkorb, Dagfin
    Dahle, Hans Petter
    Systematic and Cost-efficient Tool Integration for Embedded Systems: The iFEST approach2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 339.
    Törngren, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    El-khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Sanfridson, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Redell, Ola
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Modelling and Simulation of Embedded Computer Control Systems: Problem Formulation2001Report (Other academic)
  • 340.
    Törngren, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Grimheden, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Adamsson, Niklas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Experiences from large embedded systems development projects in education, involving industry and research2006In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Embedded Systems Education, WESE2006 / [ed] Jeff Jackson, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present experiences from a final year M.Sc.course. The overall aim of the course is to provide knowledge andskills to develop products in small or large development teams.The course is implemented in terms of large projects incooperation with external partners, in which the students, basedon a product specification, apply and integrate their accumulatedknowledge in the development of a prototype. This course, whichhas been running and further elaborated for 20 years, has beenproven successful in terms of being appreciated by the studentsand by the external partners. The course has during the recentyears more frequently been carried out in close connection toresearch groups. Our experiences indicate benefits by carrying outthese types of large projects in an educational setting, withexternal partners as project providers, and in close cooperationwith research groups.Having external partners as project providers feeds the course,students and faculty with many industrially relevant problems thatare useful for motivational purposes, and in other courses forexemplification and for case studies in research. Carrying out theprojects in close connection to research groups provides synergybetween research and education, and can improve the academiclevel of the projects. A further interesting dimension isaccomplished when the projects run in iterations, requiring newgroups of students to take over an already, partly developedcomplex system, and work incrementally on this system. Thestudents are then faced with a very typical industrial situation. Weadvocate that students should be exposed to a mixture of “buildfrom scratch” and “incremental” projects during the education.

  • 341.
    Törngren, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Henriksson, Dan
    Redell, Ola
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Kirsch, Christoph
    El-khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Simon, Daniel
    Sorel, Yves
    Zdenek, Hanzalek
    Årzén, Karl-Erik
    Co-design of Control Systems and their real-time implementation - A Tool Survey2006Report (Other academic)
  • 342.
    Törngren, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Herzog, E.
    Towards integration of CPS and systems engineering in education2016In: 2016 Workshop on Embedded and Cyber-Physical Systems Education, WESE 2016 - Organized as a Part of Embedded Systems Week, Proceedings, ACM Digital Library, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Education of future engineers and other stakeholders will be of paramount importance for designing, producing, procuring, operating and managing future Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) of unprecedented complexity that will underpin most technological systems in society. We investigate the relation between CPS, Systems Engineering (SE) and the Conceive - Design - Implement - Operate (CDIO) engineering education initiative with the aim to find ways of improving current CPS education. With its emphasis on experiences with realistic engineering settings, lifecycle perspective and complementary skills in communication and collaboration, CDIO provides several ingredients that are essential for future engineers. SE with its set of best practices and systems thinking, provides guidelines and practices of strong relevance for most (if not all) engineering programs and especially for those involving the engineering of highly complex systems such as CPS. We conclude that applying a CDIO approach for a CPS program together with infusion of a suitable portion of SE practices appears to be a promising way forward to reform CPS programs. We discuss how such SE practices can be integrated into engineering programs and in particular propose aspects of SE that would be useful to incorporate into capstone courses (larger education projects in the final master level stages).

  • 343.
    Törngren, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Qamar, Ahsan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Biehl, Matthias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Loiret, Frederic
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    El-Khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Integrating viewpoints in the development of mechatronic products2014In: Mechatronics (Oxford), ISSN 0957-4158, E-ISSN 1873-4006, Vol. 24, no 7, p. 745-762Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of mechatronic products involves multiple stakeholders which have different viewpoints and therefore use different concepts, models and tools to deal with their concerns of interest. This paper argues that an increased emphasis needs to be placed on the relations between viewpoints to be able to deal with the evolving scope and requirements on mechatronic products. We study relations between viewpoints at the levels of people, models and tools, and present solutions that are used to formally and explicitly capture such relations. Viewpoint contracts are used to define the vocabulary, assumptions and constraints required for ensuring smooth communication between stakeholders (people level). Dependency models capture relations between product properties belonging to different viewpoints, and how such dependencies relate to predictions and decisions (model level). Tool integration models describe the relations between tools in terms of traceability, data exchange, invocation and notifications (tool level). A major contribution of this paper is a unification approach, elaborating how these solutions can be used synergetically to integrate viewpoints. An industrial robot case study is utilized to illustrate the challenges and solutions with respect to relations between viewpoints, including the unification approach.

  • 344.
    Törngren, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Complexity Challenges in Development of Cyber-Physical Systems2018In: Principles of Modeling Essays Dedicated to Edward A. Lee on the Occasion of His 60th Birthday, Springer, 2018, p. 478-503Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In embarking towards Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) with unprecedented capabilities it becomes essential to improve our understanding of CPS complexity and how we can deal with it. We investigate facets of CPS complexity and the limitations of Collaborating Information Processing Systems (CIPS) in dealing with those facets. By CIPS we refer to teams of humans and computer-aided engineering systems that are used to develop CPS. Furthermore, we specifically analyze characteristic differences among software and physical parts within CPS. The analysis indicates that it will no longer be possible to rely only on architectures and skilled people, or process and model/tool centered approaches. The tight integration of heterogeneous physical, cyber, CPS components, aspects and systems, results in a situation with interfaces and interrelations everywhere, each requiring explicit consideration. The role of model-based and computer aided engineering will become even more essential, and design methodologies will need to deeply consider interwoven systems and software aspects, including the hidden costs of software.

  • 345.
    Törngren, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Zhang, Xinhai
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Mohan, Naveen
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Becker, Matthias
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electronics, Electronic and embedded systems.
    Svensson, Lars
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Tao, Xin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.). KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Westman, Jonas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Architecting Safety Supervisors for High Levels of Automated Driving2018In: Proceeding of the 21st IEEE Int. Conf. on Intelligent Transportation Systems, IEEE, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The complexity of automated driving poses challenges for providing safety assurance. Focusing on the architecting of an Autonomous Driving Intelligence (ADI), i.e. the computational intelligence, sensors and communication needed for high levels of automated driving, we investigate so called safety supervisors that complement the nominal functionality. We present a problem formulation and a functional architecture of a fault-tolerant ADI that encompasses a nominal and a safety supervisor channel. We then discuss the sources of hazardous events, the division of responsibilities among the channels, and when the supervisor should take over. We conclude with identified directions for further work.

  • 346.
    Törngren, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Årzen, Karl-Erik
    Lund University.
    Henriksson, Dan
    Lund University.
    Cervin, Anton
    Lund University.
    Hanzalek, Zdenek
    Prague University.
    Tools supporting the co-design of control systems and their real-time implementation: Current status and future directions2006In: 2006 IEEE Conference on Computer-Aided Control System Design, Vols 1 and 2, IEEE Press, 2006, p. 1173-1180Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Control systems design has traditionally been treated separately from the design of its software and hardware implementation. The increasing use of embedded control in for example distributed, safety critical and massproduced systems has caused an increasing need for the simultaneous consideration of the control system and its implementation platform during development. To this end, there is a need for both theoretical contributions and supporting tools that assist designers in understanding and analyzing the intricate relationships between the qualities, such as control performance, robustness and cost, and design parameters related to control system and platform design. This paper explores issues in co-design. A number of representative tools are compared with the purposes of illustrating different approaches concerning the levels of abstraction, analysis vs. synthesis features, constraints addressed and usability features. A perspective to the co-design tools is also provided, where opportunities and challenges for future design environments are discussed.

  • 347.
    Vahdati, Pouya Mahdavipour
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Kazemi, Ahad
    Amini, M. Hadi
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Hopf Bifurcation Control of Power System Nonlinear Dynamics via a Dynamic State Feedback Controller-Part I: Theory and Modeling2017In: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, ISSN 0885-8950, E-ISSN 1558-0679, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 3217-3228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This two-part paper introduces a dynamic state feedback control law that guarantees the elimination of Hopf bifurcations (HB) before reaching the saddle-node bifurcations (SNB). Part I is devoted to the mathematical representation of the detailed system dynamics, investigation of HB and SNB theorems, and state feedback controller design. For purposes of dynamical analysis, the stable equilibria of the system is obtained. Then the control system is designed with the objective of preventing the voltage collapse before the SNB, such that the structural stability of the system is preserved in the stationary branch of the solutions. The controller aims to relocate Hopf bifurcations to the stationary branch of solutions located after SNB, eliminating the HB from normal operating region of the system. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed controller, bifurcation analysis has been performed in Part II using single-machine and multi-machine test systems.

  • 348.
    Vahdati, Pouya Mahdavipour
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Amini, M. Hadi
    Kazemi, Ahad
    Hopf Bifurcation Control of Power Systems Nonlinear Dynamics Via a Dynamic State Feedback Controller-Part II: Performance Evaluation2017In: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, ISSN 0885-8950, E-ISSN 1558-0679, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 3229-3236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the second part of a two-part paper presenting a dynamic state feedback control law that guarantees the elimination of Hopf bifurcations before the occurrence of a saddle-node bifurcation. In Part I, the mathematical representation of the system's dynamics, Hopf, and Saddle-Node bifurcation theorems, and the state feedback controller design were presented. In this part, to illustrate the system analysis methodology, control design, and to carry out performance evaluation of the controller, both single-machine and multimachine power systems are analyzed. To highlight the effect of saturation phenomena, bifurcation analyses are performed before and after detailed modeling of synchronous generator saturation, for the single-machine power system case. The multimachine case is used to illustrate the scalability and applicability of the method to generic power networks.

  • 349. Vanherpen, K.
    et al.
    Denil, J.
    David, I.
    De Meulenaere, P.
    Mosterman, P. J.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Qamar, A.
    Vangheluwe, H.
    Ontological reasoning for consistency in the design of cyber-physical systems2016In: 2016 1st International Workshop on Cyber-Physical Production Systems, CPPS 2016, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016, article id 7483922Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The design of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) involves a multitude of stakeholders. Each of these stakeholders has a specific view on the system under design. Unfortunately, when designers create artefacts in their different views in a concurrent manner, the integration of the different views may reveal inconsistencies. This leads to time consuming, iterative design processes where inconsistencies are resolved, in turn possibly creating new ones. It is hence necessary to reason explicitly about the view-specific properties that depend on, and influence properties of other views. This enables consistency during integration and reduces the development time and effort. In this paper we formalise the interrelationships between the different views, in the context of different design processes, to allow designers to meaningfully and efficiently manage inconsistencies. Our formalisation introduces ontological domain properties and their relations as the link between the view-specific properties used by the stakeholders. Thus, our approach combines the state of the art of Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) and Semantic Web. The relevance of this approach is demonstrated by means of a motivating example.

  • 350.
    von Holst, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering (Closed 20130701).
    Nguyen, Hung
    Wikander, Jan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Innovation Driven Research Education: Vol. 1: An Introduction2010Book (Refereed)
45678 301 - 350 of 386
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