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  • 301.
    Söder, Lennart
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    På väg mot en elförsörjning baserad på enbart förnybar el i Sverige: En studie om kraftsystemets balansering: Version 3.02013Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns i såväl Sverige som i andra länder en diskussion om att öka mängden förnybar el. European Commission har t ex ett framtids‐scenario för ”Energy Roadmap 2050” som består av 97 procent förnybar energi (European Commission, 2011). I Sverige avser Energimyndigheten att ”på eget initiativ starta en utredning om hur Sveriges energisystem kan komma att se ut i framtiden. Framförallt handlar det om att ta fram kunskap om vilka energikällor som på ett kostnadseffektivt sätt kan fylla luckan, om ingen vill investera i ny kärnkraft i Sverige.” (Sveriges Radio, 2013)

    Syftet med denna rapport är att ge en kvalitativ och kvantitativ förståelse om det förändrade behovet av hur kraftsystemets balansering kan ske vid en mycket större andel variabel förnybar elproduktion än idag. Detta är en tredje upplagan av detta projekt och här studeras möjligheterna att integrera 60 TWh vind‐ och solkraft i det svenska elsystemet. Detta motsvarar ca 40 procent av produktionen.

    Metoden som används i detta pågående projekt är följande iterativa procedur:

    1. Gör studier av större mängder sol‐ och vindkraft i det svenska elsystemet och presentera resultaten i en rapport. Gör denna rapport tillgänglig.

    2. Ta del av relevanta kommentarer och baserat på dessa och egna idéer se vilka ytterligare studier som behöver göras.

  • 302.
    Söder, Lennart
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    På väg mot en elförsörjningbaserad på enbart förnybar el i Sverige: En studie om behov av reglerkraft och överföringskapacitet. Version 4.02014Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna rapport är att ge en kvalitativ och kvantitavit förståelse om det förändrade behovet av reglerkraft och överföringskapacitet vid en mycket större andel variabel förnybar elproduktion än idag. Detta är en fjärde upplaga där möjligheterna att integrera 60 TWh vind‐ och solkraft studeras. Detta motsvarar ca 40 procent av produktionen.

    Det nya i denna rapport är att Sverige har delats in i 4 områden och utnyttjandet av överföringskapaciteten mellan dessa områden har studerats för en situation med 60 TWh vind‐ och solkraft. Dessutom finns en genomgång av begreppet ”effektvärde” vilket är centralt för dimensionering av ett kraftsystem. Denna del har tagits med pga att det finns missuppfattningar om de analyser som tidigare gjorts gällande behovet av extra kapacitet för att klara situationer med låg vind ‐ och solkraft. Nytt i denna rapport är också att kostnaderna för gasturbiner har ökats efter att ny information har tillkommit. Det gäller såväl investerings som underhållskostnaderna.

  • 303.
    Söder, Lennart
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Renewable Energy Systems: Selected entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology2013Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 304.
    Söder, Lennart
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES).
    Requirements for Strategic Reserves in a Liberalized Market with Wind Power2018In: Electricity Markets with Increasing Levels of Renewable Generation: Structure, Operation, Agent-based Simulation, and Emerging Designs: Studies in Systems, Decision and Control 144 / [ed] Fernando Lopes ; Helder Coelho, Gewerbestrasse 11, 6330 Cham, Switzerland: Springer Publishing Company, 2018, 1:st, p. 165-185Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The requirements concerning the reliability in power supply are high. This chapter addresses the issue of system adequacy, i.e., the need of enough installed capacity in each area to meet the load with an acceptable reliability. The challenge in liberalized markets is that the utilization time of rarely used peak units is so low that they will require extreme prices in order to be profitable. This has led to different methods including the creation of different types of capacity markets. The aim of this chapter is to analyze the connection between peak prices, system adequacy, needed size of a strategic reserve, i.e., the volume of the capacity market, and the impact of wind power on strategic reserves. The chapter uses data from Sweden to perform a detailed analysis of the influence of renewable generation on the capacity adequacy requirements for three different situations.

  • 305.
    Söder, Lennart
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Electric Power Systems.
    Reserve margin planning in a wind-hydro-thermal power system1993In: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, ISSN 0885-8950, E-ISSN 1558-0679, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 564-570Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With a large-scale introduction of wind power the power system operation planning including keeping of spinning reserves will be influenced since extra uncertainties are introduced. To study this a more detailed analysis of system operation is required. This analysis has to consider wind speed forecast uncertainties, system load forecast uncertainties, ramp rates of thermal units and spinning reserves etc. This paper shows a new methodology to analyze the operation planning with an emphasis on keeping reserves. The result form the calculations include instantaneous, fast and slow reserve margins at each hour of the planning period.

  • 306.
    Söder, Lennart
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Sammanställning av Lennart Söders kommentarer till KVA:s uttalanden om vindkraft2010Report (Other academic)
  • 307.
    Söder, Lennart
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric power and energy systems.
    Simplified analysis of balancing challenges in sustainable and smart energy systems with 100% renewable power supply2016In: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Energy and Environment, ISSN 2041-8396, E-ISSN 2041-840X, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 401-412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a power system, the basic physical law states that the total production is always exactly the same as total consumption. This physical law is always fulfilled no matter the type of power plants in the power system. In a power system with large shares of solar and wind power, this means that the other power plants have to fill the gap between actual solar plus wind power and the demand during each second/minute/hour. However, if there are large amounts of solar and wind power, then sometimes the available power from solar and wind exceeds the demand. In a future system based on large shares of solar and wind power, all these different situations have to be handled, and the question is how to analyze this. Three different methods concerning how to analyze systems with large shares of solar and wind power will be presented. The methods are applied to a Swedish case with close to 100% renewable power based on hydro, solar, wind and, bio-fuelled combined heat and power (CHP). This study shows that there are limited balancing costs for this case. The costs for curtailment of surplus as well as to keep enough capacity to cover a high load combined with low solar and low wind is comparatively small, below 0.3 Eurocent/kWh. However, more detailed studies are needed to quantify the exact cost under different conditions, but this study indicates the size of the challenges.

  • 308.
    Söder, Lennart
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Electrical Systems.
    Simulation of wind speed forecast errors for operation planning of multi-area power systems2004In: 2004 International Conference On Probabilistic Methods Applied To Power Systems, 2004, p. 723-728Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The amount of wind power has increased significantly over the last years. When the share of wind power increases it is necessary to consider the produced power in the daily operation planning of the power system. The first step is then to use forecasts of wind power. But the forecasts of wind power are in reality rather uncertain, so reserves have to be kept for unforecasted wind speed changes. But still an economical good solution is of large interest, and the consequence of this is to use stochastic optimization. To be able to do this it is necessary to have a view, so called scenarios, of possible outcomes of wind power. The aim of this paper is to provide a method that can simulate possible outcomes of wind speeds based on available forecasts. The method is based on the assumption that wind speed forecasts are available in several regions and the forecast errors in different regions are correlated. The developed method is based on multidimensional ARMA series.

  • 309.
    Söder, Lennart
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Electrical Systems.
    Static Analysis of Power Systems2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a compendium in fundamental power system theory and application including voltage, current, AC, power, two-port theory, Y-bus matrix, per-unit system, load flow, short circuit analysis etc

  • 310.
    Söder, Lennart
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Studie av sannolikhet för hög elförbrukning, effektbrist, effektvärden och höga elpriser: Version 1.02015Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Effektfrågan har åter igen kommit upp som en viktig frågeställning. Bakgrunden är en kombination av att det finns ett riksdagsbeslut om av avveckla effektreserven samt att det förutses att några äldre kärnkraftsreaktorer kommer stängas av. Om allt detta genomförs och inget annat inträffas, så kommer risken för effektbrist att öka. Man måste dock räkna med att det även händer annat ielsystem som, t ex, ändrad transmissionskapacitet och mer vindkraft etc.I denna rapport har en statistisk bearbetning av elförbrukning, vindkraft och kärnkraft underperioden 1996‐2013 genomförts. Syftet är att man ska få ett grepp för hur vanligt det är med höga elförbruknings‐situationer samt vilka elpriser som är nödvändiga om man förväntar sig att elmarknaden skall finansiera effektreserven utan en speciell lagstiftning om upphandling.

  • 311.
    Söder, Lennart
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    The Costs of Decarbonisation: System Costs with High Shares of Nuclear and Renewables -Impact from updated cost assumptions2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to perform a sensitivity analysis concerning impact from assumed investment costs of the NEA/OECD report “The Costs of Decarbonisation: System Costs with High Shares of Nuclear and Renewables” from 2019. A study of this type, i.e. technical-economic analysis, has a set-up as: [input data] => [simulation method]  => [output results]. The output results then completely depend on used input data and simulation method. The question is then what happens with other types of data assumptions.

    The aim is to study the changes from assumed investment and O&M costs, since the main ones used in the report are not reflective of neither actual, nor forecasted costs.

    We will start the analysis by trying to duplicate the results of the original NEA/OECD report in order to ensure our methodology is consistent with theirs. This is a challenge as their data and methodology is semi-transparent and not clearly defined. However, the central data, as total cost, can be replicated. Here in Chapter 3 we summarize their data and results. In Chapter 4 we then try to duplicate their methodology and results and compare it to the NEA/OECD results, in particular the total costs for their different cases. The more up to date and forecasted investment and O&M costs data is presented in Chapter 5.  Chapter 6 gives the results of applying these data sets and compares and contrasts it with the NEA/OECD results. References are found in chapter 7. The summary of the findings is found in chapter 2.

    All calculations are done within Excel, and the program can be downloaded.

  • 312.
    Söder, Lennart
    KTH, Superseded Departments.
    The operation value of wind power in the deregulated Swedish market2000In: Proceedings of first international workshop on Feasibility of HVDC Transmission Networks for Offshore Windfarms, KTH Stockholm, 2000Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 313.
    Söder, Lennart
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    The Value of Wind Power2005In: Wind Power in Power Systems, John Wiley & Sons, 2005, p. 169-195Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 314.
    Söder, Lennart
    KTH, Superseded Departments.
    The value of wind power for an owner of a local distribution network1999In: 15th International Conference on Electricity Distribution, CIRED, Nice, France, 1999Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 315.
    Söder, Lennart
    KTH, Superseded Departments.
    Vad gör man när det mojnar?: - så kan vindkraftens variationer jämnas ut på elmarknaden1999In: Sveriges Energiting 99, Eskilstuna, Sweden, 1999Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 316.
    Söder, Lennart
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Electric Power Systems.
    Vindkraftens tillgänglighet vid hög elförbrukning1987Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Vindkraftens tillgänglighet vid hög elförbrukning har undersökts for 10 förbrukningstoppar under tidsperioden vintern 1979/80 - vintern 1986/87. En antagen installation av vindkraftverk vid 3 platser i Sverige har studerats. Genomsnittseffekten for dessa vindkraftverk vid studerade förbrukningstoppar skulle ha varit ungefär densamma som genomsnittseffekten under hela perioden jan 1980- dec 1985. Hypotesen "Det är vindstilla vid förbrukningstoppar" kan uteslutas. Hypotesen "Det är ofta vindstilla vid förbrukningstoppar kan inte bekräftas. Resultaten tyder på att det inte föreligger någon större skillnad mellan vindstyrkan vid förbrukningstoppar och vindstyrkan under det övriga året.

  • 317.
    Söder, Lennart
    KTH, Superseded Departments.
    Who should be responsible for generation capacity addition?2000In: International Conference on Electric Utility Deregulation and Restructuring and Power Technologies, 2000. Proceedings. DRPT 2000., 2000, p. 296-301Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an ongoing discussion of who should be responsible for adding new capacity to the power system in the deregulated environment. One first step in this discussion is who should be responsible for that there must be enough reserve capacity available in the system. In Sweden, this responsibility is rather unclear in the legislation, where it is stated that the system responsible is responsible for the ldquo;short term rdquo; balance in the system. This implies of course primary control, but where is the time limit? If ldquo;short term rdquo; includes the next day, then the consequence is that the system responsible also will be responsible for capacity expansion! In this paper, three different suggestions of how to solve the problem of reserve capacity are discussed. Finally a newly introduced system is presented as well as the coupling to the question of who should be responsible for generation capacity addition

  • 318.
    Söder, Lennart
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Wind energy impact on the energy reliability of a hydro-thermal power system in a deregulated market1999In: 13th PSCC, Trondheim, Norway, 1999, p. 1295-1301Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 319.
    Söder, Lennart
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Wind power capacity credit, Elforsk report 97:27, final report from Elforsk project 20611997Report (Other academic)
  • 320.
    Söder, Lennart
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Wind Power Capacity Credit market2001In: Elforskdagen, Stockholm, Sweden, 2001Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 321.
    Söder, Lennart
    KTH, Superseded Departments.
    Wind power system2001In: published in Encyclopedia of Physical Science and TechnologyArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 322.
    Söder, Lennart
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric power and energy systems.
    Wind Power Systems2013In: Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences, Elsevier, 2013Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wind power systems use the energy in the wind, and with a wind turbine the energy is transferred to mechanical power which in a generator is converted to electric power. The varying wind speed introduces special considerations concerning grid connection and integration into the whole power system. This article gives an overview of these integration challenges and it is mainly focused on wind power as a part of a larger power system.

  • 323.
    Söder, Lennart
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Abildgaard, H.
    Estanqueiro, A.
    Hamon, Camille
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Holttinen, H.
    Lannoye, E.
    Gómez-Lázaro, E.
    O'Malley, M.
    Zimmermann, U.
    Experience and challenges with short-term balancing in European systems with large share of wind power2012In: IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, ISSN 1949-3029, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 853-861Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The amount of wind power in the world is quickly increasing. The background for this development is improved technology, decreased costs for the units, and increased concern regarding environmental problems of competing technologies such as fossil fuels. Some areas are starting to experience very high penetration levels of wind and there have been many instances when wind power has exceeded 50% of the electrical energy production in some balancing areas. The aims of this paper are to show the increased need for balancing, caused by wind power in the minutes to hourly time scale, and to show how this balancing has been performed in some systems when the wind share was higher than 50%. Experience has shown that this is possible, but that there are some challenges that have to be solved as the amount of wind power increases.

  • 324.
    Söder, Lennart
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Ackermann, Thomas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Wind Power in Power Systems: An Introduction2005In: Wind Power in Power Systems, John Wiley & Sons, 2005, p. 25-51Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 325.
    Söder, Lennart
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Ackermann, Thomas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Wind Power in Power Systems: An Introduction2012In: Wind Power in Power Systems, John Wiley & Sons, 2012, 2, p. 47-72Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter presents a comprehensive survey of the generator and power electronic concepts used by the modern wind turbine industry. A state of the art of wind turbines, from an electrical point of view, with focus on topologies and control strategies is provided. An overall perspective on both contemporary and new potentially promising wind turbine concepts, classified with respect to both their speed control ability and to their power control type is presented. A detailed investigation of the market penetration and share of different wind turbine concepts over years is also performed based on supplier's market data and concept evaluation for each individual wind turbine type sold by the Top Ten suppliers over years.

  • 326.
    Söder, Lennart
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Amelin, Mikael
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    A review of different methodologies used for calculation of wind power capacity credit2008In: 2008 IEEE POWER & ENERGY SOCIETY GENERAL MEETING, VOLS 1-11, IEEE , 2008, p. 86-90Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to describe, review and compare some methods that are currently used for calculation of wind power capacity credit and for using the results for economic analysis. The methods to be studied are the conventional method based on equivalent firm capacity and the method denoted "secured capacity" used in the German dena study. The economic analysis concerning the capacity cost will also be analyzed.

  • 327.
    Söder, Lennart
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Amelin, Mikael
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Effektiv drift och planering av kraftsystem2011Other (Other academic)
  • 328.
    Söder, Lennart
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Amelin, Mikael
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Efficient Operation and Planning of Power Systems2011Other (Other academic)
  • 329.
    Söder, Lennart
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Atterwall, Annika
    Persson, Susann
    Bättre kontakt via nätet: om anslutning av förnybar elproduktion2008Book (Other academic)
  • 330.
    Söder, Lennart
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Energy Technology.
    Bubenko, Janis
    KTH, Superseded Departments.
    Capacity Credit and Energy Value of Wind Power in Hydro-Thermal Power System1987In: 9:th Power Systems Computation Conference, Butterworth-Heinemann, 1987, p. 222-225Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The subject of this paper is to present the mathematical techniques to quantify the energy replacement and capacity benefits of wind power in thermal and large hydro-electric power systems. The paper is an extension of the paper "Modelling of wind power" presented at the 8th PSCC in Helsinki, 1984.

    Wind power is represented as a multistate model which is convolved into the equivalent load duration curve. A modified version of the WASP-program, which handles the wind power model, is used to perform the calculations. WASP uses probabilistic production costing techniques.

    Results obtained from a case study with a future Swedish system including wind power is presented.

  • 331.
    Söder, Lennart
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Electrical Systems.
    Bubenko, Janis
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Electrical Systems.
    Modelling of wind power1984In: Proceedings of the Eighth Power Systems Computation Conference, Helsinki, Finl, 1984, no Butterworths, London, Engl, p. 10-19Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An analytical approach is proposed to model the randomness of wind power. Moment and crossmoment techniques are used to convolve the probability density functions of power output from units in a cluster and from clusters into power systems. The analytical approach has computational advantages in comparison with simulation to calculate the energy replacement and capacity credit in probabilistic production costing.

  • 332.
    Söder, Lennart
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    D, Reichelt
    M, Höckel
    A, Bakirtzis
    S, Banales
    S, Charousset
    B, Mo
    A, Jhutti
    J, Rincon
    U, Strindbaek
    Portfolio and risk management for Power Producers and traders in an open market2001In: CIGRE Task force 38.05.12, summary published in ELCTRAArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 333.
    Söder, Lennart
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Douglas, John
    Ekwue, Arthur
    Study on the Technical Security Rules of the European Electricity Network2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This document presents the work on the Study initiated by the Directorate-General for Energy and Transport (European Commission) to assess the adequacy of the present electricity transmission security network and reliability rules; scrutinise and evaluate the rules under development and specify further needs to improve the rules. The Terms of Reference (TOR) of this Study are as follows. ? Make an inventory and comparative analysis of the transmission network security and reliability rules in Europe. ? Analyse the current implementation of local, national and supranational grid codes. ? Scrutinise and evaluate the existing security and reliability rules (with particular emphasis on the UCTE Operation Handbook). ? Propose options for the scope of European transmission network security and reliability. ? Propose the scope and contents of the implementation framework of the defined rules and regulations in the codes.

  • 334.
    Söder, Lennart
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Hofmann, Lutz
    Nielsen, Claus Stefan
    Orths, Antje
    Holttinen, Hannele
    A comparison of wind integration experiences in some high penetration areas2006In: NORDIC WIND POWER CONFERENCE, 2223MAY, 2006, ESPOO, FINLAND, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The amount of wind power in the world increases fast. The background for this development is improved technology, decreased costs for the units and an increased concern of the environmental problems of competing technologies such as fossil fuels. The amount of wind power is though not spread equally over the world, so in some areas there is a comparatively high concentration. The aim of this paper is to make an overview of some of these areas and shortly desccribe the consequences of the increase of wind power. The aim is also to try to draw some generic conclusions, in order to get some estimation about what will happen when the amount of wind power increases for other regions where wind power penetration is expected to reach high values in future.

  • 335.
    Söder, Lennart
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Hofmann, Lutz
    Orths, Antje
    Holttinen, Hannele
    Wan, Yih-huei
    Tuohy, Aidan
    Experience from wind integration in some high penetration areas2007In: IEEE transactions on energy conversion, ISSN 0885-8969, E-ISSN 1558-0059, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 4-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The amount of wind power in the world is increasing quickly. The background for this development is improved technology, decreased costs for the units, and increased concern regarding environmental problems of competing technologies such as fossil fuels. The amount of wind power is not spread equally over the world, so in some areas, there is comparatively a high concentration. The aims of this paper are to overview some of these areas, and 3: briefly describe consequences of the increase in wind power. The aim is also to try to draw some generic conclusions, in order to get some estimation about what will happen when the amount of wind power increases for other regions where wind power penetration is expected to reach high values in future.

  • 336.
    Söder, Lennart
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Holttinen, H.
    On methodology for modelling wind power impact on power systems2008In: International Journal of Global Energy Issues, ISSN 0954-7118, E-ISSN 1741-5128, Vol. 29, no 1-2, p. 181-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a continuous discussion going on concerning the integration cost of wind power. The integration cost can, for example, be defined as the extra costs in the rest of the system when wind power is introduced, compared with the situation without wind power. The result of the studies depends on both parameters and the method used. The aim of this paper is to structure the methods in order to get some understanding on the impact of different modelling approaches. In general, it can be noted that approximations are always needed since the integration of wind power includes so many complexities including stability of power systems, grid codes, market behaviour, uncertainties and trading possibilities. AU these items have to be considered in both the wind power case and in the reference case to obtain an estimation of the integration cost.

  • 337.
    Söder, Lennart
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Holttinen, Hannele
    VTT Technical Research Centre.
    Wind Power Balancing2013In: Renewable Energy Systems, volume 3: Selected entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology / [ed] Lennart Söder et al, NewYork: Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2013, 1, p. 1663-1699Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 338.
    Söder, Lennart
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Kling, Wil L.
    Eindhoven University of Technology.
    Erlich, Estvan
    University of Duisburg-Essen/Germany.
    Sørensen, Poul
    Risø National Laboratory.
    Power, Michael
    ERC.
    Holttinen, Hannele
    VTT Technical Research Centre.
    Hidalgo, Jorge
    Red Electrica de España.
    Rawn, Barry G.
    Delft University of Technology.
    WIND POWER GRID INTEGRATION: THE EUROPEAN EXPERIENCE2011In: Power Systems Computation Conference (PSCC), Stockholm, Sweden, 2011 / [ed] PSCC, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Europe currently holds the largest installed capacity of wind power plants of all continents. Over decades of development, significant adaptations have been implemented to integrate wind turbines into the electricalpower system. Wind power research has been accelerated by the need to maintain grid performance and reliability in the face of the exponential deployment of wind turbines. This paper explains the basic requirements and principles in grid codes, modeling, reserves, forecasting, system planning, and operation, and relates how experience especially in Europe has led to new practices and new research.

  • 339.
    Söder, Lennart
    et al.
    KTH.
    Lund, P. D.
    Koduvere, H.
    Bolkesjø, T. F.
    Rossebø, G. H.
    Rosenlund-Soysal, E.
    Skytte, K.
    Katz, J.
    Blumberga, D.
    A review of demand side flexibility potential in Northern Europe2018In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 91, p. 654-664Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of regional and national power systems with a high share of wind and solar power in the world is quickly increasing. The background for this development is improved technology, decreasing costs, and increased concern regarding environmental problems of competing technologies such as fossil fuels. For the future there are large possibilities for increasing the renewable electricity share. However, variable renewable power production has to be balanced. Demand side flexibility offers an interesting approach to the balancing issues. The aim of this paper is to compare flexibility potentials and how they were estimated in seven Northern European countries in order to compare general challenges and results as well as the connection between used method and results. The total flexibility is estimated to 12–23 GW in a system with a total peak load of 77 GW.

  • 340.
    Söder, Lennart
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Matevosyan, Julija
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Olsson, Magnus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Short-term hydropower planning coordinated with wind power in areas with congestion problems2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 341.
    Söder, Lennart
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Electrical Systems.
    Meibom, Peter
    Ravn, Hans
    Christoph, Weber
    Market Integration of wind power2004In: 2004 European Wind Energy Conference & Exhibition, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A satisfying analysis of the impacts of introducing significant shares of wind power in a electricity system requires that the stochastic nature of wind power production is taken into account. An hour-per-hour stochastic, optimisation model of the electricity systems in Denmark, Finland, Germany, Norway and Sweden has therefore been developed in the WILMAR project. To our knowledge it is the first model of this type to be developed for a large electricity system. Treatment of large hydropower reservoirs requires optimisation of the use of water over a yearly or longer time horizon. Therefore the hourly, stochastic optimisation model is combined with another stochastic, optimisation model focusing on calculating the option value of stored water dependent on the time of year and reservoir filling. Finally a third set of models have been developed that make regional wind power production forecasts, and reduces these forecasts into a scenario tree used by the hourly, stochastic optimisation model. These models are combined with databases into a Planning tool enabling analysis of liberalised, electricity systems with large shares of hydropower production and fluctuation power production. Considerations about how to represent a liberalised, electricity system in the hourly, stochastic optimisation model ended up in the modelled electricity system consisting of three markets: a day-ahead market, a balancing hour-ahead market, and finally a market for daily reservation of primary reserves. By dividing the geographical area into regions connected with transmission lines the Planning Tool can investigate the effect of bottlenecks and investments in transmission capacity.

  • 342.
    Söder, Lennart
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Pellinger, Christoph
    Forschungsstelle für Energiewirtschaft e.V., Germany .
    Lopez-Botet Zulueta, Miguel
    EDF, France, .
    Milligan, Michael
    NREL, US, .
    Kiviluoma, Juha
    VTT, Technical Research Centre of Finland – Finland .
    Flynn, Damian
    University College Dublin, Ireland, .
    Orths, Antje
    Energinet.dk, Denmark, .
    Silva, Vera
    EDF, France, .
    O’Neill, Barbara
    NREL, US.
    Comparison of Integration Studies of 30-40 percent Energy Share from Variable Renewable Sources2017In: 16th International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power into Power Systems as well as on Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Power Plants, Berlin, 2017, article id WIW17-049, 2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The amount of wind and solar power in the world is quickly increasing. The background for this development is improved technology, decreased costs for the units, and increased concern regarding environmental problems of competing technologies such as fossil fuels. For the future there are large possibilities for increasing shares. However there have been questions raised concerning the challenges of integrating larger shares of variable renewable power such as wind and solar power. Because of this many studies have been performed concerning larger amounts of variable generation for different regions in the world. The aim of this paper is to compare seven of these ones in order to identify general challenges and results as well as the connection between used method and results. 

  • 343.
    Söder, Lennart
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Electric Power Systems.
    Rendelius, Jonas
    Two-station equivalent of hydro power systems2005In: 15th Power Systems Computation Conference, PSCC 2005, Power Systems Computation Conference , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the possible gains of representing hydropower systems with a new model consisting of two stations instead of the usual one station representation. The equivalent is obtained by solving an optimization problem where the aim is to find parameters which minimizes the difference in the production plans obtained from the two optimization problems corresponding to the original system and the equivalent respectively. This is in it self an uncommon optimization problem type. The paper also provides numerical examples.

  • 344.
    Söder, Lennart
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Sandberg, Thomas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Laestadius, Staffan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Inga hinder för vindkraften2009In: Dagens Industri, ISSN 0346-640XArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 345.
    Söder, Lennart
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Sandberg, Thomas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Laestadius, Staffan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    KTH svarar Vetenskapsakademien2009In: Svensk Vindkraft, ISSN 1654-7934, no 6Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 346.
    Söder, Lennart
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Strbac, Goran
    Imperial College London, United Kingdom.
    Estanqueiro, Ana
    Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia, Portugal..
    Korpås, Magnus
    NTNU, Norway.
    Burke, Daniel
    National Grid, United Kingdom,.
    Flynn, Damian
    University College Dublin, Ireland.
    Neau, Emmanuel
    EDF, France.
    Kiviluoma, Juha
    VTT, Technical Research Centre of Finland – Finland.
    Gómez, Tomás
    Universidad Pontificia Comillas, Spain.
    Hodge, Bri-Mathias
    NREL / University of Colorado Boulder, United States.
    Couto, Antonio
    Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia, Portugal.
    Das, Kaushik
    Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Denmark.
    Pudjianto, Danny
    Imperial College London, United Kingdom.
    Wind Generation in Adequacy Calculations and Capacity Markets in Different Power System Control Zones2018In: 17th International Wind Integration Workshop, Stockholm, 17-19 October 2018, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Generation capacity adequacy is a major issue in most power systems, but there are many approaches which canbe assessed. Power system planners often define target values for the capacity adequacy, which may be achieved through capacity markets/auctions, capacity reserves, or capacity purchases. Wind power contributes to the generation capacity adequacy of the power system since there is a possibility that wind power will generate in high load situations and thereby decreases the risk of generation capacity deficit compared tothe system without this source. The contribution is probabilistic– as it is with any other source, since nothing is 100% reliable - but the capacity value of wind power is significantly smaller compared to the capacity value of conventional fossil-fueled plants.

    In this article, an overview of the fundamental challenges inthe regulation of capacity adequacy as well as how wind poweris treated in some selected existing jurisdictions is presented.The jurisdictions that are included are Sweden, Great Britain,France, Ireland, United States (PJM), Finland, Portugal, SpainNorway and Denmark.

  • 347.
    Söder, Lennart
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments.
    T, Ackermann
    Distributed Power Production in a deregulated market2001In: Elforskdagen, Stockholm, Sweden, 2001Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 348. T, Ackermann
    et al.
    G, Andersson
    Söder, Lennart
    KTH, Superseded Departments.
    Overview of government and market driven programs for the promotion of renewable power generation1999In: Proceedings: Renewable energy: Technologies and polices for Sustainable Development, WRECᅵ99, WREC 99, Perth Australia, 1999, p. 215-219Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 349. T, Ackermann
    et al.
    G, Andersson
    Söder, Lennart
    KTH, Superseded Departments.
    What is distributed generation?1999In: NAPS, 1999, p. 232-239Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 350. T, Ackermann
    et al.
    Söder, Lennart
    KTH, Superseded Departments.
    Biomass power generation in competitive markets - The impact of instruments and regulations1999In: 2nd Olle Lindström Syposium on Renewable energy - Bioenergi, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden, 1999Conference paper (Refereed)
45678 301 - 350 of 370
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