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  • 301.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Values in Pure and Applied Science2007In: Foundations of Science, ISSN 1233-1821, E-ISSN 1572-8471, Vol. 12, p. 257-268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In pure science, the standard approach to non-epistemic values is to exclude them as far as possible from scientific deliberations. When science is applied to practical decisions, non-epistemic values cannot be excluded. Instead, they have to be combined with (value-deprived) scientific information in a way that leads to practically optimal decisions. A normative model is proposed for the processing of information in both pure and applied science. A general-purpose corpus of scientific knowledge, with high entry requirements, has a central role in this model. Due to its high entry requirements, the information that it contains is sufficiently reliable for the vast majority of practical purposes. However, for some purposes, the corpus needs to be supplemented with additional information, such as scientific indications of danger that do not satisfy the entry requirements for the corpus. The role of non-epistemic values in the evaluation of scientific information should, as far as possible, be limited to determining the level of evidence required for various types of practical decisions.

  • 302.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Vem bär egentligen ansvaret?2009In: Tjugofyra7 : en tidning / utgiven av Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap, ISSN 2000-320X, no 3Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 303.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Värdefullt om pseudovetenskapens skadeverkningar 
(Recension av Counterknowledge: How We Surrended to Conspiracy Theories, Quack Medicine, Bogus Science and Fake History av Damian Thompson)2009In: Folkvett : organ för Vetenskap och folkbildning, ISSN 0283-0795, no 1Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 304.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Waste management2009In: Encyclopedia of Environmental Ethics and Philosophy / [ed] J Baird Callicott and Robert Frodeman, Macmillan Reference , 2009Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 305.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Wedberg on Philosophical Analysis2010In: Theoria, ISSN 0040-5825, E-ISSN 1755-2567, Vol. 76, no 2, p. 97-99Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 306.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    Weighing risks and benefits2004In: Topoi (Dordrecht), ISSN 0167-7411, E-ISSN 1572-8749, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 145-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is almost universally acknowledged that risks have to be weighed against benefits, but there are different ways to perform the weighing. In conventional risk analysis, collectivist risk-weighing is the standard. This means that an option is accepted if the sum of all individual benefits outweighs the sum of all individual risks. In practices originating in clinical medicine, such as ethical appraisals of clinical trials, individualist risk-weighing is the standard. This implies a much stricter criterion for risk acceptance, namely that the risk to which each individual is exposed should be outweighed by benefits for that same individual. The different choices of risk-weighing methods in different policy areas seem to have emerged from traditional thought patterns and social relations, rather than from explicit deliberations on possible justifications for the alternative ways to weigh risks against benefits. It is not obvious how the prevalent differences in risk-weighing practices can be reconstructed in terms of consistent underlying principles of preventive health or social priority-setting.

  • 307.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Infrastructure.
    Welfare, Justice, and Pareto Efficiency2004In: Ethical Theory and Moral Practice, ISSN 1386-2820, E-ISSN 1572-8447, Vol. 7, p. 361-380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In economic analysis, it is usually assumed that each individual’s well-being (mental welfare) depends on her or his own resources (material welfare). A typology is provided of the ways in which one person’s well-being may depend on the material resources of other persons. When such dependencies are taken into account, standard Paretian analysis of welfare needs to be modified. Pareto efficiency on the level of material resources need not coincide with Pareto efficiency on the level of well-being. A change in economic conditions that is Pareto efficient in the standard sense, i.e., with respect to material resources, may nevertheless sacrifice one person’s well-being to that of another. It is shown that under plausible assumptions, Pareto efficiency on the level of well-being may require the reduction of inequality on the level of material resources.

  • 308.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    What are opportunities and why should they be equal?2004In: Social Choice and Welfare, ISSN 0176-1714, E-ISSN 1432-217X, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 305-316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to clarify the concept of equal opportunities we need an accurate definition of opportunity. Opportunities can be defined in terms of qualifying actions through which an agent can achieve an advantageous position. It is concluded that equal opportunities is often used as a catchword in cases when opportunities are not really equal, and no one tries seriously to make them so. In many of these cases it would have been more accurate to speak of open opportunities and procedural justice. These are important enough aspects of social justice, that should be appreciated for what they are, rather than being falsely represented as equal opportunities.

  • 309.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy.
    What is technological science?2007In: Studies in history and philosophy of science, ISSN 0039-3681, E-ISSN 1879-2510, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 523-527Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The technological sciences have at least six defining characteristics that distinguish them from the other sciences. They (1) have human-made rather than natural objects as their (ultimate) study objects, (2) include the practice of engineering design, (3) define their study objects in functional terms, (4) evaluate these study objects with category-specified value statements, (5) employ less far-reaching idealizations than the natural sciences, and (6) do not need an exact mathematical solution when a sufficiently close approximation is available. In combination, the six characteristics are sufficient to show that the technological sciences are neither branches nor applications of the natural sciences, but form a different group of sciences with specific characteristics of their own.

  • 310.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Why and for what are clinical trials the gold standard?2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 42, no 13, p. 41-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The epistemological basis of clinical trials and evidence-based medicine is investigated. Clinical trials are directly action-guiding experiments on treatment effects. This is the reason why well-performed clinical trials take precedence over all other types of studies as far as treatment effects are concerned. The efficiency of public health interventions can be studied with directly action-guiding experiments that have the same strong epistemic justification as clinical trials. However, in order to assess the causality of diseases, information from several types of studies will have to be combined. Here, no single type of studies has priority over all the others. Therefore, evidence hierarchies are less helpful in studies of causality than they are in investigations of the effects of treatments or interventions.

  • 311.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Women and minorities in philosophy2010In: Theoria, ISSN 0040-5825, E-ISSN 1755-2567, Vol. 76, no 1, p. 1-3Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 312.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Writing Our Own History2011In: Theoria, ISSN 0040-5825, E-ISSN 1755-2567, Vol. 77, no 2, p. 101-103Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 313.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Ännu ett falskt Einstein-citat?2010In: Folkvett, ISSN 0283-0795Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 314.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    et al.
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Crop Prod Ecol, Box 7043, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Aman, Per
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Mol Sci, Box 7015, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Becker, Wulf
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Caring Sci Clin Nutr & Metab, Box 256, S-75105 Uppsala, Sweden..
    De Koning, Dirk-Jan
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anim Breeding & Genet, Box 7043, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Lagerkvist, Carl Johan
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Econ, Box 7043, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Larsson, Ingrid
    Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Reg Ctr Obes Vastra Gotaland, Dept Gastroenterol & Hepatol, Unit Clin Nutr, S-41135 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Lehrman, Anna
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Crop Prod Ecol, Box 7043, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Riserus, Ulf
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Caring Sci Clin Nutr & Metab, Box 256, S-75105 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Stymne, Sten
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Plant Breeding, Box 101, S-23053 Alnarp, Sweden..
    Breeding for public health: A strategy2018In: Trends in Food Science & Technology, ISSN 0924-2244, E-ISSN 1879-3053, Vol. 80, p. 131-140Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Plant and animal breeding can contribute to promote human health by providing new and healthier food products that farmers can produce in an economically viable way and consumers will choose to buy and eat. However, this can only be achieved if breeding makes full use of knowledge about nutrition, consumer behaviour, farming and agricultural economics, A strategy is needed for breeding for public health. Scope and Approach: A multidisciplinary group of researchers has developed a strategy for plant and animal breeding for public health. The group includes experts in plant breeding, animal breeding, food science, nutrition science, clinical nutrition, agricultural economics, consumer research, and ethics. Key Findings and Conclusions: An outline is proposed of a strategy for breeding for public health. It aims at improving public health in both low- and high-income countries. To prevent chronic disease, the highest priority should be to develop healthy variants of traditional food items that can be introduced universally, i.e. completely replace the older, less healthy variants. In particular in low-income countries, food products with enhanced micronutrient content are urgently needed. In all countries, crops with improved fatty acid composition can contribute substantially to improved public health. A reasonable second priority is products that may not be suitable for universal introduction but will expectedly be demanded by large groups of consumers. One example could be diminishing the energy density of traditional foodstuffs by reducing their fat, sugar, and starch content and increasing their dietary fibre content, Changes in the current organization of the market for farm products are needed to encourage the production of healthier foodstuffs.

  • 315.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Aven, Terje
    Is Risk Analysis Scientific?2014In: Risk Analysis, ISSN 0272-4332, E-ISSN 1539-6924, Vol. 34, no 7, p. 1173-1183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses to what extent risk analysis is scientific in view of a set of commonly used definitions and criteria. We consider scientific knowledge to be characterized by its subject matter, its success in developing the best available knowledge in its fields of study, and the epistemic norms and values that guide scientific investigations. We proceed to assess the field of risk analysis according to these criteria. For this purpose, we use a model for risk analysis in which science is used as a base for decision making on risks, which covers the five elements evidence, knowledge base, broad risk evaluation, managerial review and judgment, and the decision; and that relates these elements to the domains experts and decisionmakers, and to the domains fact-based or value-based. We conclude that risk analysis is a scientific field of study, when understood as consisting primarily of (i) knowledge about risk-related phenomena, processes, events, etc., and (ii) concepts, theories, frameworks, approaches, principles, methods and models to understand, assess, characterize, communicate, and manage risk, in general and for specific applications (the instrumental part).

  • 316.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Björkman, Barbro
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Bioethics in Sweden2006In: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, ISSN 0963-1801, E-ISSN 1469-2147, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 285-293Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 317.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    et al.
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Edvardsson Björnberg, Karin
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Cantwell, John
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Self-Defeating Goals2016In: Dialectica, ISSN 0012-2017, E-ISSN 1746-8361, Vol. 70, no 4, p. 491-512Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The typical function of goals is to regulate action in a way that furthers goal achievement. Goals are typically set on the assumption that they will help bring the agent(s) closer to the desired state of affairs. However, sometimes endorsement of a goal, or the processes by which the goal is set, can obstruct its achievement. When this happens, the goal is self-defeating. Self-defeating goals are common in both private and social decision-making but have not received much attention by decision theorists. In this paper, we investigate different variants of three major types of self-defeating mechanisms: (1) The goal can be an obstacle to its own fulfilment (self-defeating goal endorsement), (2) goal-setting activities can impede goal achievement (self-defeating goal-setting), and (3) disclosure of the goal can interfere with its attainment (self-defeating goal disclosure). Different strategies against self-defeasance are tentatively explored, and their efficiency against different types of self-defeasance is investigated.

  • 318.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Edvardsson Björnberg, Karin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Hydén, H
    Johansson, Vicki
    Lööv, A
    Pettersson, C
    Vredin Johansson, Maria
    Policycykeln: En modell för beslutsprocesser i miljöfrågor2006In: Vägar till ett effektivt miljöarbete / [ed] Karin Edvardsson och Sven Ove Hansson, Boréa Bokförlag, 2006Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 319.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Edvardsson Björnberg, Karin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Vredin Johansson, Maria
    Making Climate Policy Efficient: Implementing a Model for Environmental Policy Efficiency2011Report (Refereed)
  • 320.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Edvardsson Björnberg, Karin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Vredin Johansson, Maria
    Making climate policy efficient: Implementing a model for environmental policy efficiency2015In: International Journal of Sustainable Society, ISSN 1756-2538, E-ISSN 1756-2546, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a framework for studies of efficiency in environmental policies in the form of a conceptual policy cycle. The policy cycle’s six major elements are goal-setting, choice of policy instruments, enforcement, changes in behaviour of public and private agents, effects of policy measures and, finally, evaluation. Through iterating the policy cycle (or parts of it), efficiency in environmental policies can be improved. We apply the policy cycle to climate policies, both mitigation and adaptation, and identify important areas for future research.

  • 321.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    et, al
    Samtal kring forskningens etiska gränser2011In: Forskningens etiska gränser / [ed] Solveig Ståhl, Kungl. Fysiografiska Sällskapet i Lund , 2011Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 322.
    Hansson, Sven Ove et al.
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    ”Skattefinansierad vård ska användametoder som fungerar”2010In: Dagens nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 323.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    et, al
    Teknikens oförutsedda problem2011In: Forskningens etiska gränser / [ed] Solveig Ståhl, Kungl. Fysiografiska Sällskapet i Lund , 2011Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 324.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    Ferme, E. L.
    Cantwell, John
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    Falappa, M. A.
    Credibility limited revision2001In: Journal of Symbolic Logic (JSL), ISSN 0022-4812, E-ISSN 1943-5886, Vol. 66, no 4, p. 1581-1596Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Five types of constructions are introduced for non-prioritized belief revision, ie:, belief revision in which the input sentence is not always accepted. These constructions include generalizations of entrenchment-based and sphere-based revision. Axiomatic characterizations are provided, and close interconnections are shown to hold between the different constructions.

  • 325.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Grüne-Yanoff, Till
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Preferences2011In: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Stanford: The Metaphysics Research Lab , 2011Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 326.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    Helgesson, G.
    What is stability?2003In: Synthese, ISSN 0039-7857, E-ISSN 1573-0964, Vol. 136, no 2, p. 219-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although stability is a central notion in several academic disciplines, the parallels remain unexplored since previous discussions of the concept have been almost exclusively subject-specific. In the literature we have found three basic concepts of stability, that we call constancy, robustness, and resilience. They are all found in both the natural and the social sciences. To analyze the three concepts we introduce a general formal framework in which stability relates to transitions between states. It can then be shown that robustness is a limiting case of resilience, whereas neither constancy nor resilience can be defined in terms of the other. Hence, there are two basic concepts of stability, both of which are used in both the social and the natural sciences. This congruence in the concepts of stability is of particular interest for endeavours to construct models that represent both natural and social phenomena.

  • 327.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Jerkert, Jesper
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Alternativ till pseudovetenskap2009Book (Other academic)
  • 328.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    et al.
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Jerkert, JesperPhilosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Vetenskap eller villfarelse2005Collection (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 329.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Joelsson, Karin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Crop Biotechnology for the Environment?2013In: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, ISSN 1187-7863, E-ISSN 1573-322X, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 759-770Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In public debates, agricultural biotechnology is almost invariably discussed as a potential threat to the environment and to human health. Without downplaying the risks associated with this technology we emphasize that if properly regulated, it can be a forceful tool to solve environmental problems and promote human health. Agricultural biotechnology can reduce environmental problems in at least three ways: it can diminish the need for environmentally damaging agricultural practices such as pesticides, fertilizers, tillage, and irrigation. It can reduce the land area needed for agriculture, thus reducing the CO2 effect of agriculture and improving biodiversity. It can produce energy in a CO2-neutral way (especially if new technologies involving the cultivation of microalgae become successful). Furthermore, agricultural biotechnology can have positive effects on human health by decreasing occupational and dietary exposure to pesticides, improving the nutritional value of food, and producing pharmaceuticals more efficiently. We argue that those who wish to give high priority to environmental goals cannot afford any longer to be mere onlookers while others decide the future directions of agricultural biotechnology.

  • 330.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Lilieqvist, Kristin
    Edvardsson Björnberg, Karin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Johansson, Maria Vredin
    Time horizons and discount rates in Swedish environmental policy: Who decides and on what grounds?2016In: Futures: The journal of policy, planning and futures studies, ISSN 0016-3287, E-ISSN 1873-6378, Vol. 76, p. 55-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interviews with Swedish authorities reveal large variations in the time horizons and discount rates used in their policy decisions. The time horizon, i.e. the future time period for which effects are included in the analysis, is seldom longer than 40-50 years, and nuclear waste is the only area in which a time horizon longer than 100 years is used regularly. Discount rates for non-commercial purposes vary between 2 per cent and 4 per cent, with 4 per cent as the most common rate. The differences between policy areas appear to be unsystematic and insufficiently justified. We suggest that there may be a need for coordination and, possibly, harmonization, of the choices of time horizons and discount rates.

  • 331.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    et al.
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Liu, F.
    From Good to Better: Using Contextual Shifts to Define Preference in Terms of Monadic Value2014In: Johan van Benthem on Logic and Information Dynamics, Springer , 2014, p. 729-747Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has usually been assumed that monadic value notions can be defined in terms of dyadic value notions, whereas definitions in the opposite direction are not possible. In this paper, inspired by van Benthem’s work, it is shown that the latter direction is feasible with a method in which shifts in context have a crucial role. But although dyadic preference orderings can be defined from context-indexed monadic notions, the monadic notions cannot be regained from the preference relation that they gave rise to. Two formal languages are proposed in which reasoning about context can be represented in a fairly general way. One of these is a modal language much inspired by van Benthem’s work. Throughout the paper the focus is on relationships among the value notions “good”, “bad”, and “better”. Other interpretations like “tall” and “taller” are equally natural. It is hoped that the results of this paper can be relevant for the analysis of natural language comparatives and of vague predicates in general. © 2014, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

  • 332.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    et al.
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Malkiewicz, Katarzyna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History.
    Rudén, Christina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History.
    Assessment factors for extrapolation from short-time to chronic exposure-Are the REACH guidelines adequate2009In: Toxicology Letters, ISSN 0378-4274, E-ISSN 1879-3169, Vol. 189, p. S243-S243Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 333.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Molander, Linda
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Rudén, Christina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    The substitution principle2011In: Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology, ISSN 0273-2300, E-ISSN 1096-0295, Vol. 59, no 3, p. 454-460Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the substitution principle, hazardous chemicals should be replaced by less hazardous alternatives. In this paper, the major issues concerning the more precise definition of the principle are analyzed, and a general purpose definition is proposed. It is claimed that the priority between reducing hazard, functionality and economical considerations in the application of the substitution principle is a matter for adjustment in each particular case that cannot be settled beforehand. None of these objectives can have absolute priority over the others, but the substitution principle is aimed at increasing the priority given to the reduction of hazards to human health and the environment. Major methods to promote and implement the principle are summarized, current legislative approaches are discussed, and proposals for efficient implementation are made. It is emphasized that the primary responsibility for avoiding hazardous substances and processes rests with industry.

  • 334.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Nordlander, EdvardSkogh, Inga-BrittKTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Teknikutbildning för framtiden: Perspektiv på teknikundervisningen i grundskola och gymnasium2011Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 335.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Oughton, D.
    Introduction2013In: Social and Ethical Aspects of Radiation Risk Management, Volume 19 (Radioactivity in the Environment), Elsevier, 2013, p. 3-13Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this introductory text, it is argued that there is need for a stronger emphasis on the ethical and social aspects of radiation protection. Furthermore, each of the book's chapters is briefly summarized.

  • 336.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Oughton, D.
    Public Participation-Potential and Pitfalls2013In: Social and Ethical Aspects of Radiation Risk Management, Volume 19 (Radioactivity in the Environment), Elsevier, 2013, p. 333-345Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of stakeholder participation in activities that give rise to radiation exposure has repeatedly been emphasized. However, it is often unclear why participation is undertaken and what its purpose is. In this chapter, participation is discussed from the viewpoint of democratic theory. Democratic decision-making has to take place in stable units such as nations and regions. Often, the group of persons affected by a particular decision does not coincide with any of these units. In such cases, other means are needed to ensure that those affected are involved in the decision-making process and have a real influence on its outcome. To achieve this, participatory procedures are needed. This means that such procedures are a necessary component in a well-functioning democracy, making up for the misfit between decision-making units and the groups affected by many decisions. Based on this analysis, five quality criteria for participatory procedures in a democratic society are proposed: representativeness, transparency, impact on the decision, early involvement, and full access to expert knowledge.

  • 337.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Palm, Elin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Conclusion2005In: The Ethics of Workplace Privacy, Brussels: Peter Lang , 2005Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 338.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Palm, Elin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Introduction: New Technologies – New Ethical Challenges2005In: The Ethics of Workplace Privacy / [ed] Sven Ove Hansson and Elin Palm, Brussels: Peter Lang , 2005, p. 11-14Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 339.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Palm, Elin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Preface2005In: The Ethics of Workplace Privacy / [ed] Sven Ove Hansson and Elin Palm, Brussels: Peter Lang , 2005, p. 9-10Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 340.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Palm, ElinKTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    The Ethics of Workplace Privacy2005Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 341.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Rosander, Per
    Synnerholm, Bo
    Evaluation of Swedish bilateral support to chemicals control in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania: Report to the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency2007Report (Other academic)
  • 342.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Rudén, Christina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    A Risk-Neutral Default for Chemical Risk Management2008In: American Journal of Industrial Medicine, ISSN 0271-3586, E-ISSN 1097-0274, Vol. 51, no 12, p. 964-967Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many risk management decisions concerning industrial chemicals, including decisions on classification and labeling, lack of toxicity data is interpreted as (or has the same implications as) absence of toxicity In other words, if the toxicity of a chemical is unknown, it is treated as having no or low toxicit) This practice is difficult to defend from a decision-theoretical point of view. We apply standard decision theory to toxicity data and investigate an alternative approach in which substances with unknown properties are treated as if they had the average toxicity among tested substances in the group to which they belong. An index of acute toxicity is proposed and then used to define a risk-neutral hazard default that can be applied to industrial chemicals for which no specific information on acute toxicity is available. It is proposed that such a risk-neutral approach is preferable to the current practice of treating substances with unknown acute toxicity in the same manner as substances that can reasonably be assumed to have no such harmful properties. The risk-neutral approach could be generalized to other toxicological endpoints. Am. J. Ind. Med. 51:964-967, 2008.

  • 343.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Infrastructure.
    Rudén, Christina
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Infrastructure.
    A science-based strategy for chemicals control2004In: Industry and Environment, ISSN 0378-9993, Vol. 27, no 2-3, p. 12-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of suggestions are made in this article for amending the data requirements of the proposed European chemicals control system, REACH. These data requirements are shown to be insufficient for applying current criteria to classify substances according to their adverse effects. Use of production volume as a priority-setting criterion for data acquisition is questioned. Three alternative priority-setting mechanisms are proposed: chemical properties of the substance; results from lower tier testing; and incentives for voluntary testing. A new classification category ("insufficiently investigated") is also proposed. Substances in this category would be identified with a warning label.

  • 344.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    Rudén, ChristinaKTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    BETTER CHEMICALS CONTROL WITHIN REACH2004Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 345.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy.
    Rudén, Christina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy.
    Evaluating the risk decision process2006In: Toxicology, ISSN 0300-483X, E-ISSN 1879-3185, Vol. 218, no 03-feb, p. 100-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to ensure that risk assessment and risk management serve their purposes efficiently, it is essential to systematically evaluate actual practices. In this overview, it is proposed that such evaluation studies constitute an important field Of Study that should be recognized as a Subdiscipline of regulatory toxicology with its own research issues and its own methodologies. Previous Such evaluation studies are summarized. Methods are described that can be used for comparing different risk assessments of one of the same substance, for checking the consistency of harmonized classifications with the available data, for assessing the actual margin of safety (i.e. size Of Uncertainty factors) in exposure limits, and for comparing different lists of exposure limits. In conclusion, some important problem areas for future evaluation studies are pointed out.

  • 346.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    Rudén, Christina
    Improving the incentives for toxicity testing2003In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 3-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The legal systems for the classification and labelling of chemical substances have an incentives structure that discourages rather than encourages companies to test their products. This is shown in a logical analysis of the European classification system and also in an analysis of recent changes in the classification of individual substances. Finally two methods to improve the incentives structure are proposed and discussed: the introduction of negative clauses that allow new information to lead to less strict classifications, and a new danger-class and a symbol (a question mark) that indicates serious lack of data.

  • 347.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Rudén, Christina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Improving the Scientific Basis for Decisions in the REACH System2005In: European Proposal for Chemicals Regulation: REACH and Beyond, Les Actes IDDRI no 2, Paris 2005 / [ed] Claire Weill, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 348.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Rudén, Christina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Priority-Setting in the REACH System2006In: Toxicological Sciences, ISSN 1096-6080, E-ISSN 1096-0929, Vol. 90, no 2, p. 304-308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the large number of chemicals for which toxicological and ecotoxicological information is lacking, priority setting for data acquisition is a major concern in chemicals regulation. In the current European system, two administrative priority-setting criteria are used, namely novelty (i.e., time of market introduction) and production volume. In the proposed Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) system, the novelty criterion is no longer used, and production volume will be the main priority-setting criterion for testing requirements, supplemented in some cases with hazard indications obtained from QSAR modelling. This system for priority setting has severe weaknesses. In this paper we propose that a multicriteria system should be developed that includes at least three additional criteria: chemical properties, results from initial testing in a tiered system, and voluntary testing for which efficient incentives can be created. Toxicological and decision-theoretical research is needed to design testing systems with validated priority-setting mechanisms.

  • 349.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    et al.
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Rudén, Christina
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    REACH: What has been achieved and what needs to be done?2010In: Regulating Chemical Risks: European and Global Challenges / [ed] Johan Eriksson, Michael Gilek, and Christina Rudén, Springer, 2010, p. 71-83Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 350.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Rudén, ChristinaKTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Science for a safe chemical environment2005Collection (editor) (Refereed)
456789 301 - 350 of 407
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