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  • 301.
    Alneberg, Johannes
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Genteknologi. KTH, Centra, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Bioinformatic Methods in Metagenomics2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Microbial organisms are a vital part of our global ecosystem. Yet, our knowledge of them is still lacking. Direct sequencing of microbial communities, i.e. metagenomics, have enabled detailed studies of these microscopic organisms by inspection of their DNA sequences without the need to culture them. Furthermore, the development of modern high- throughput sequencing technologies have made this approach more powerful and cost-effective. Taken together, this has shifted the field of microbiology from previously being centered around microscopy and culturing studies, to largely consist of computational analyses of DNA sequences. One such computational analysis which is the main focus of this thesis, aims at reconstruction of the complete DNA sequence of an organism, i.e. its genome, directly from short metagenomic sequences.

    This thesis consists of an introduction to the subject followed by five papers. Paper I describes a large metagenomic data resource spanning the Baltic Sea microbial communities. This dataset is complemented with a web-interface allowing researchers to easily extract and visualize detailed information. Paper II introduces a bioinformatic method which is able to reconstruct genomes from metagenomic data. This method, which is termed CONCOCT, is applied on Baltic Sea metagenomics data in Paper III and Paper V. This enabled the reconstruction of a large number of genomes. Analysis of these genomes in Paper III led to the proposal of, and evidence for, a global brackish microbiome. Paper IV presents a comparison between genomes reconstructed from metagenomes with single-cell sequenced genomes. This further validated the technique presented in Paper II as it was found to produce larger and more complete genomes than single-cell sequencing.

  • 302.
    Alneberg, Johannes
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Genteknologi. KTH, Centra, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Sundh, John
    Science for Life Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Stockholm University, Solna, Sweden.
    Bennke, Christin
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research, Warnemünde, Germany.
    Beier, Sara
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research, Warnemünde, Germany.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Centre for Ecology and Evolution in Microbial Model Systems, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Hugerth, Luisa
    KTH, Centra, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO).
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Centre for Ecology and Evolution in Microbial Model Systems, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Kisand, Veljo
    University of Tartu, Institute of Technology, Tartu, Estonia.
    Riemann, Lasse
    Section for Marine Biological Section, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Helsingør, Denmark.
    Jürgens, Klaus
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research, Warnemünde, Germany.
    Labrenz, Matthias
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research, Warnemünde, Germany.
    Andersson, Anders F.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Genteknologi. KTH, Centra, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    BARM and BalticMicrobeDB, a reference metagenome and interface to meta-omic data for the Baltic SeaManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The Baltic Sea is one of the world’s largest brackish water bodies and is characterised by pronounced physicochemical gradients where microbes are the main biogeochemical catalysts. Meta-omic methods provide rich information on the composition of, and activities within microbial ecosystems, but are computationally heavy to perform. We here present the BAltic Sea Reference Metagenome (BARM), complete with annotated genes to facilitate further studies with much less computational effort. The assembly is constructed using 2.6 billion metagenomic reads from 81 water samples, spanning both spatial and temporal dimensions, and contains 6.8 million genes that have been annotated for function and taxonomy. The assembly is useful as a reference, facilitating taxonomic and functional annotation of additional samples by simply mapping their reads against the assembly. This capability is demonstrated by the successful mapping and annotation of 24 external samples. In addition, we present a public web interface, BalticMicrobeDB, for interactive exploratory analysis of the dataset.

  • 303.
    Alnesjö, Robert
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC).
    Chunked DASH in JavaScript2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Chunked DASH is getting attention for reducing otherwise high delay oflive segment streaming but there are a lot of unexplored problems associatedwith it. This master’s thesis investigates the difficulties involved withimplementing a chunked DASH player in the browser with JavaScript.

    A small system containing one JavaScript client and a server which simulateslive streaming by repeating VOD segments is implemented. Issuesrelated to the downloading of chunked segments are addressed and solvedsuch that chunked segments can be streamed within expected delay, andwith accurate throughput metrics.

  • 304.
    Alnesjö, Robert
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC).
    Darnald, Johan
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC).
    Usability and enjoyability of natural language interface technology in computer games2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This report aims to examine the application of natural language interface (NLI) technology in computer games in terms of usability and enjoyability. To test this a NLI is compared to a formal language interface (FLI), using the system usability scale (SUS) to determine usability. Results show that even though the NLI scored less mean SUS score than the FLI, it was measured to be more enjoyable. It is concluded that using NLI technology is well motivated since the primary focus of a computer game is enjoyability.

  • 305. Alonso, O.
    et al.
    Kamps, J.
    Karlgren, Jussi
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Teoretisk datalogi, TCS. Gavagai .
    Foreword2014Inngår i: ESAIR 2014 - Proceedings of the 7th International Workshop on Exploiting Semantic Annotations in Information Retrieval, co-located with CIKM 2014, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 306. Alonso, O.a
    et al.
    Kamps, J.b
    Karlgren, Jussi
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Teoretisk datalogi, TCS.
    Seventh workshop on exploiting semantic annotations in information retrieval (ESAIR’14)2014Inngår i: CIKM 2014 - Proceedings of the 2014 ACM International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2014, s. 2094-2095Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increasing amount of structure on the Web as a result of modern Web languages, user tagging and annotation, emerging robust NLP tools, and an ever growing volume of linked data. These meaningful, semantic, annotations hold the promise to significantly enhance information access, by enhancing the depth of analysis of today’s systems. The goal of the ESAIR’14 workshop remains to advance the general research agenda on this core problem, with an explicit focus on one of the most challenging aspects to address in the coming years. The main remaining challenge is on the user’s side-the potential of rich document annotations can only be realized if matched by more articulate queries exploiting these powerful retrieval cues-and a more dynamic approach is emerging by exploiting new forms of query autosuggest. How can the query suggestion paradigm be used to encourage searcher to articulate longer queries, with concepts and relations linking their statement of request to existing semantic models? How do entity results and social network data in "graph search" change the classic division between searchers and information and lead to extreme personalization-are you the query? How to leverage transaction logs and recommendation, and how adaptive should we make the system? What are the privacy ramifications and the UX aspects-how to not creep out users?

  • 307. Alonso, Omar
    et al.
    Kamps, Jaap
    Karlgren, Jussi
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Teoretisk datalogi, TCS.
    Report on the Fourth Workshop on Exploiting Semantic Annotations in Information Retrieval (ESAIR 11)2012Inngår i: SIGIR Forum, ISSN 0163-5840, E-ISSN 1558-0229, Vol. 46, nr 1, s. 56-64Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increasing amount of structure on the Web as a result of modern Web languages, user tagging and annotation, and emerging robust NLP tools. These meaningful, semantic, annotations hold the promise to significantly enhance information access, by increasing the depth of analysis of today’s systems. Currently, we have only started to explore the possibilities and only begun to understand how these valuable semantic cues can be put to fruitful use. The workshop had an interactive format consisting of keynotes, boasters and posters, breakout groups and reports, and a final discussion, which was prolonged into the evening. There was a strong feeling that we made substantial progress. Specifically, each of the breakout groups contributed to our understanding of the way forward. First, annotations and use cases come in many different shapes and forms depending on the domain at hand, but at a higher level there are remarkable commonalities in annotation tools, indexing methods, user interfaces, and general methodology. Second, we got insights in the "exploitation" aspects, leading to a clear separation between the low-level annotations giving context or meaning to small units of information (e.g., NLP, sentiments, entities), and annotations bringing out the structure inherent in the data (e.g., sources, data schemas, document genres). Third, the plan to enrich ClueWeb with various document level (e.g., pagerank and spam scores, but also reading level) and lower level (e.g., named entities or sentiments) annotations was embraced by the workshop as a concrete next step to promote research in semantic annotations.

  • 308.
    Alpcan, Tansu
    et al.
    Deutsche Telekom Laboratories, TU Berlin.
    Buchegger, Sonja
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Teoretisk datalogi, TCS. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Security Games for Vehicular Networks2011Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, ISSN 1536-1233, E-ISSN 1558-0660, Vol. 10, nr 2, s. 280-290Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicular networks (VANETs) can be used to improve transportation security, reliability, and management. This paper investigates security aspects of VANETs within a game-theoretic framework where defensive measures are optimized with respect to threats posed by malicious attackers. The formulations are chosen to be abstract on purpose in order to maximize applicability of the models and solutions to future systems. The security games proposed for vehicular networks take as an input centrality measures computed by mapping the centrality values of the car networks to the underlying road topology. The resulting strategies help locating most valuable or vulnerable points (e.g., against jamming) in vehicular networks. Thus, optimal deployment of traffic control and security infrastructure is investigated both in the static (e.g., fixed roadside units) and dynamic cases (e. g., mobile law enforcement units). Multiple types of security games are studied under varying information availability assumptions for the players, leading to fuzzy game and fictitious play formulations in addition to classical zero-sum games. The effectiveness of the security game solutions is evaluated numerically using realistic simulation data obtained from traffic engineering systems.

  • 309.
    Alpire, Adam
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT).
    Predicting Solar Radiation using a Deep Neural Network2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Simulating the global climate in fine granularity is essential in climate science research. Current algorithms for computing climate models are based on mathematical models that are computationally expensive. Climate simulation runs can take days or months to execute on High Performance Computing (HPC) platforms. As such, the amount of computational resources determines the level of resolution for the simulations. If simulation time could be reduced without compromising model fidelity, higher resolution simulations would be possible leading to potentially new insights in climate science research. In this project, broadband radiative transfer modeling is examined, as this is an important part in climate simulators that takes around 30% to 50% time of a typical general circulation model. This thesis project presents a convolutional neural network (CNN) to model this most time consuming component. As a result, swift radiation prediction through the trained deep neural network achieves a 7x speedup compared to the calculation time of the original function. The average prediction error (MSE) is around 0.004 with 98.71% of accuracy.

  • 310.
    Alpsten, Edward
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS).
    Holm, Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS).
    Ståhl, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS).
    Evaluation and optimization of an equity screening model2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Screening models are tools for predicting which stock are the most likely to perform well on a stock market. They do so by examining the financial ratios of the companies behind the stock. The ratios examined by the model are chosen according to the personal preferences of the particular investor. Furthermore, an investor can apply different weights to the different parameters they choose to consider, according to the importance they apply to each included parameter. In this thesis, it is investigated whether a screening model can beat the market average in the long term. It is also explored whether parameter-weight-optimization in the context of equity trading can be used to improve an already existing screening model. More specifically, a starting point is set in a screening model currently in use at a successful asset management firm, through data analysis and an optimization algorithm, it is then examined whether a programmatic approach can identify ways to improve the original screening model by adjusting the parameters it looks at as well as the weights assigned to each parameter. The data set used in the model contains daily price data and annual data on financial ratios for all stocks on the Stockholm Stock Exchange as well as the NASDAQ-100 over the time period 2004-2018. The results indicate that it is possible to beat the market average in the long term. Results further show that a programmatic approach is suitable for optimizing screening models.

  • 311.
    Al-Qaysi, Bashar
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinsk teknik, Data- och elektroteknik.
    Björk, Sara
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinsk teknik, Data- och elektroteknik.
    Evaluation of tools for automatedacceptance testing of webapplications2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Auddly provides a music management tool that gathers all information about a musical piece in oneplace. The acceptance testing on their web application is done manually, which has become bothtime and money consuming. To solve this problem, an evaluation on automated acceptance testingwas done to find a testing tool suitable for their web application. The evaluation was performed byfinding the current existing testing strategies to later compare the tools implementing these strategies.When analyzing the results it was found that two testing strategies were best suited for automatedacceptance testing. The Visual Recognition strategy that identifies components using screenshotsand the Record and Replay strategy that identifies them by their underlying ID. The choice betweenthem depends on which of these properties are modified more often.It was also found that automating acceptance testing is best applied for regression testing, otherwiseit should be performed with a manual approach.It was made clear that the Selenium tool, which uses the Record and Replay strategy, was best suitedfor Auddly’s acceptance testing. Selenium is able to test AJAX-calls with a manual modificationand is a free and open source tool with a large community.

  • 312.
    Al-qaysi, Ibrahim
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS).
    Communicating with a Smart Pillbox via Near Field Communication (NFC): A Mobile Application for Healthcare Professionals2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The lack of medication adherence leads to an incremental risk of diseases which can be a major burden on the individual, healthcare system, and society. Hence, healthcare professionals have a central role and should manage, guide, educate, and make their patient more involved in their treatment and thereby promoting a better medication adherence.

    Medication adherence is a great challenge for many patients with chronic conditions, elderly patient, or patient prescribed to long-term medication. The rapid development and deployment of mobile phones in the healthcare industry has an important role to play in this area and has led to the development of new phone features and applications that can help both caregivers and patients with managing and monitoring medication intakes. This development and support of mobile phones and applications have created and improved doctor-patient interaction.

    Today, there is no easy way for healthcare professionals to monitor and help patients with their medication intakes. A solution to this problem is to develop a mobile application that communicates with a smart pillbox via near field communication (NFC) to monitor, manage, and improve patient’s medication intakes in an easy and accessible manner. Using NFC as a communication technology allows data to be wirelessly transferred from phone to pillbox and vice versa. This solution will help healthcare professionals to create better treatment conditions and fewer side effects for their patients. These patients will be more knowledgeable and motivated to take greater responsibility in following doctor’s instructions, thereby improving their treatment process.

    The application is tested and evaluated during every iteration phase of the development process. These tests have been conducted by allowing healthcare professionals to test the application and provide feedback on their experience when using the app. Conducting these tests have helped with generating new ideas, features, and functionalities, but also helped to improve the user interface to make the application as user-friendly as possible.

  • 313.
    Alrup, Max
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT).
    Programutveckling för mobila enheter: Musikproduktionsapplikation för Android2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns många program som ger användaren möjlighet att producera musik. En delmängd av dem finns tillgängliga för mobila enheter, t ex smarta telefoner och surfplattor. Majoriteten av dessa program är välgjorda och erbjuder många användbara funktioner. Problemet är att det tar lång tid att lära sig att använda dessa program.

    Målet med det här projektet har varit att utveckla en lättanvänd musikproduktionsapplikation för plattformen Android. Utvecklingen har utförts med hjälp av olika utvecklingsstöd och tekniker. Exempel på dessa är mjukvaruutvecklingsramverket Scrum och desginmönstret Model, View, Controller (MVC). Koden är skriven i programmeringsspråket Java med utvecklingsmiljön Eclipse Integrated Development Envirionment (IDE) tillsammans med tillägget Android Development Tools (ADT). Projektet resulterade i en fungerande musikproduktionsapplikation. Applikationen är en hybrid mellan statisk not-inmatning och realtidsinmating. De flesta av funktionskraven blev implementerade i slutprodukten, men inte alla. Vissa lågprioriterade funktioner hoppades över på grund av tidsbrist.

  • 314.
    Al-Shishtawy, Ahmad
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikation: Infrastruktur och tjänster, Programvaru- och datorsystem, SCS.
    Enabling and Achieving Self-Management for Large Scale Distributed Systems: Platform and Design Methodology for Self-Management2010Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomic computing is a paradigm that aims at reducing administrative overhead by using autonomic managers to make applications self-managing. To better deal with large-scale dynamic environments; and to improve scalability, robustness, and performance; we advocate for distribution of management functions among several cooperative autonomic managers that coordinate their activities in order to achieve management objectives. Programming autonomic management in turn requires programming environment support and higher level abstractions to become feasible.

    In this thesis we present an introductory part and a number of papers that summaries our work in the area of autonomic computing. We focus on enabling and achieving self-management for large scale and/or dynamic distributed applications. We start by presenting our platform, called Niche, for programming self-managing component-based distributed applications. Niche supports a network-transparent view of system architecture simplifying designing application self-* code.  Niche provides a concise and expressive API for self-* code. The implementation of the framework relies on scalability and robustness of structured overlay networks. We have also developed a distributed file storage service, called YASS, to illustrate and evaluate Niche.

    After introducing Niche we proceed by presenting a methodology and design space for designing the management part of a distributed self-managing application in a distributed manner. We define design steps, that includes partitioning of management functions and orchestration of multiple autonomic managers. We illustrate the proposed design methodology by applying it to the design and development of an improved version of our distributed storage service YASS as a case study.

    We continue by presenting a generic policy-based management framework which has been integrated into Niche. Policies are sets of rules that govern the system behaviors and reflect the business goals or system management objectives. The policy based management is introduced to simplify the management and reduce the overhead, by setting up policies to govern system behaviors. A prototype of the framework is presented and two generic policy languages (policy engines and corresponding APIs), namely SPL and XACML, are evaluated using our self-managing file storage application YASS as a case study.

    Finally, we present a generic approach to achieve robust services that is based on finite state machine replication with dynamic reconfiguration of replica sets. We contribute a decentralized algorithm that maintains the set of resource hosting service replicas in the presence of churn. We use this approach to implement robust management elements as robust services that can operate despite of churn.

     

  • 315.
    Al-Shishtawy, Ahmad
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikation: Infrastruktur och tjänster, Programvaru- och datorsystem, SCS.
    Asif Fayyaz, Muhammad
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikation: Infrastruktur och tjänster, Programvaru- och datorsystem, SCS.
    Popov, Konstantin
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science.
    Vlassov, Vladimir
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikation: Infrastruktur och tjänster, Programvaru- och datorsystem, SCS.
    Achieving robust self-management for large-scale distributed applications2010Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomic managers are the main architectural building blocks for constructing self-management capabilities of computing systems and applications. One of the major challenges in developing self-managing applications is robustness of management elements which form autonomic managers. We believe that transparent handling of the effects of resource churn (joins/leaves/failures) on management should be an essential feature of a platform for selfmanaging large-scale dynamic distributed applications, because it facilitates the development of robust autonomic managers and hence improves robustness of self-managing applications. This feature can be achieved by providing a robust management element abstraction that hides churn from the programmer. In this paper, we present a generic approach to achieve robust services that is based on finite state machine replication with dynamic reconfiguration of replica sets. We contribute a decentralized algorithm that maintains the set of nodes hosting service replicas in the presence of churn. We use this approach to implement robust management elements as robust services that can operate despite of churn. Our proposed decentralized algorithm uses peer-to-peer replica placement schemes to automate replicated state machine migration in order to tolerate churn. Our algorithm exploits lookup and failure detection facilities of a structured overlay network for managing the set of active replicas. Using the proposed approach, we can achieve a long running and highly available service, without human intervention, in the presence of resource churn. In order to validate and evaluate our approach, we have implemented a prototype that includes the proposed algorithm.

     

  • 316.
    Al-Shishtawy, Ahmad
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikation: Infrastruktur och tjänster, Programvaru- och datorsystem, SCS.
    Bao, Lin
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikation: Infrastruktur och tjänster, Programvaru- och datorsystem, SCS.
    Vlassov, Vladimir
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikation: Infrastruktur och tjänster, Programvaru- och datorsystem, SCS.
    Policy based self-management in distributed environments2010Inngår i: 2010 Fourth IEEE International Conference on Self-Adaptive and Self-Organizing Systems Workshop (SASOW), IEEE Computer Society Digital Library, 2010, s. 256-260Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

      Currently, increasing costs and escalating complexities are primary issues in the distributed system management. The policy based management is introduced to simplify the management and reduce the overhead, by setting up policies to govern system behaviors. Policies are sets of rules that govern the system behaviors and reflect the business goals or system management objectives. This paper presents a generic policy-based management framework which has been integrated into an existing distributed component management system, called Niche, that enables and supports self-management. In this framework, programmers can set up more than one Policy-Manager-Group to avoid centralized policy decision making which could become a performance bottleneck. Furthermore, the size of a Policy-Manager-Group, i.e. the number of Policy-Managers in the group, depends on their load, i.e. the number of requests per time unit. In order to achieve good load balancing, a policy request is delivered to one of the policy managers in the group randomly chosen on the fly. A prototype of the framework is presented and two generic policy languages (policy engines and corresponding APIs), namely SPL and XACML, are evaluated using a self-managing file storage application as a case study.

  • 317.
    Al-Shishtawy, Ahmad
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikation: Infrastruktur och tjänster, Programvaru- och datorsystem, SCS.
    Fayyaz, Muhammad Asif
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikation: Infrastruktur och tjänster, Programvaru- och datorsystem, SCS.
    Popov, Konstantin
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science (SICS), Kista, Sweden.
    Vlassov, Vladimir
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikation: Infrastruktur och tjänster, Programvaru- och datorsystem, SCS.
    Achieving Robust Self-Management for Large-Scale Distributed Applications2010Inngår i: Self-Adaptive and Self-Organizing Systems (SASO), 2010 4th IEEE International Conference on: SASO 2010, IEEE Computer Society, 2010, s. 31-40Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Achieving self-management can be challenging, particularly in dynamic environments with resource churn (joins/leaves/failures). Dealing with the effect of churn on management increases the complexity of the management logic and thus makes its development time consuming and error prone. We propose the abstraction of robust management elements (RMEs), which are able to heal themselves under continuous churn. Using RMEs allows the developer to separate the issue of dealing with the effect of churn on management from the management logic. This facilitates the development of robust management by making the developer focus on managing the application while relying on the platform to provide the robustness of management. RMEs can be implemented as fault-tolerant long-living services. We present a generic approach and an associated algorithm to achieve fault-tolerant long-living services. Our approach is based on replicating a service using finite state machine replication with a reconfigurable replica set. Our algorithm automates the reconfiguration (migration) of the replica set in order to tolerate continuous churn. The algorithm uses P2P replica placement schemes to place replicas and uses the P2P overlay to monitor them. The replicated state machine is extended to analyze monitoring data in order to decide on when and where to migrate. We describe how to use our approach to achieve robust management elements. We present a simulation-based evaluation of our approach which shows its feasibility.

  • 318.
    Al-Shishtawy, Ahmad
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektronik- och datorsystem, ECS.
    Höglund, Joel
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science (SICS), Kista, Sweden.
    Popov, Konstantin
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science (SICS), Kista, Sweden.
    Parlavantzas, Nikos
    INRIA, Grenoble, France.
    Vlassov, Vladimir
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektronik- och datorsystem, ECS.
    Brand, Per
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science (SICS), Kista, Sweden.
    Distributed Control Loop Patterns for Managing Distributed Applications2008Inngår i: SASOW 2008: SECOND IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SELF-ADAPTIVE AND SELF-ORGANIZING SYSTEMS WORKSHOPS, PROCEEDINGS / [ed] Serugendo GD, LOS ALAMITOS: IEEE Computer Society, 2008, s. 260-265Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we discuss various control loop patterns for managing distributed applications with multiple control loops. We introduce a high-level framework, called DCMS, for developing, deploying and managing component-based distributed applications in dynamic environments. The control loops, and interactions among them, are illustrated in the context of a distributed self-managing storage service implemented using DCMS to achieve various self-* properties. Different control loops are used for different self-* behaviours, which illustrates one way to divide application management, which makes for both ease of development and for better scalability and robustness when managers are distributed. As the multiple control loops are not completely independent, we demonstrate different patterns to deal with the interaction and potential conflict between multiple managers.

  • 319.
    Al-Shishtawy, Ahmad
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektronik- och datorsystem, ECS.
    Höglund, Joel
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science (SICS), Kista, Sweden.
    Popov, Konstantin
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science (SICS), Kista, Sweden.
    Parlavantzas, Nikos
    INRIA, Grenoble, France.
    Vlassov, Vladimir
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektronik- och datorsystem, ECS.
    Brand, Per
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science (SICS), Kista, Sweden.
    Enabling Self-Management Of Component Based Distributed Applications2008Inngår i: FROM GRIDS TO SERVICE AND PERVASIVE COMPUTING, Springer-Verlag New York, 2008, s. 163-174Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Deploying and managing distributed applications in dynamic Grid environments requires a high degree of autonomous management. Programming autonomous management in turn requires programming environment support and higher level abstractions to become feasible. We present a framework for programming self-managing component-based distributed applications. The framework enables the separation of application’s functional and non-functional (self-*) parts. The framework extends the Fractal component model by the component group abstraction and one-to-any and one-to-all bindings between components and groups. The framework supports a network-transparent view of system architecture simplifying designing application self-* code. The framework provides a concise and expressive API for self-* code. The implementation of the framework relies on scalability and robustness of the Niche structured p2p overlay network. We have also developed a distributed file storage service to illustrate and evaluate our framework.

  • 320.
    Al-Shishtawy, Ahmad
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikation: Infrastruktur och tjänster, Programvaru- och datorsystem, SCS.
    Vlassov, Vladimir
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikation: Infrastruktur och tjänster, Programvaru- och datorsystem, SCS.
    Brand, Per
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science.
    Haridi, Seif
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science.
    A design methodology for self-management in distributed environments2009Inngår i: IEEE International conference on Computational Science and Engineering, 2009, s. 430-436Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

      Autonomic computing is a paradigm that aims at reducing administrative overhead by providing autonomic managers to make applications selfmanaging. In order to better deal with dynamic environments, for improved performance and scalability, we advocate for distribution of management functions among several cooperative managers that coordinate their activities in order to achieve management objectives. We present a methodology for designing the management part of a distributed self-managing application in a distributed manner. We define design steps, that includes partitioning of management functions and orchestration of multiple autonomic managers. We illustrate the proposed design methodology by applying it to design and development of a distributed storage service as a case study. The storage service prototype has been developed using the distributing component management system Niche. Distribution of autonomic managers allows distributing the management overhead and increased management performance due to concurrency and better locality.

  • 321.
    Alsing, Oscar
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS).
    Mobile Object Detection using TensorFlow Lite and Transfer Learning2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    With the advancement in deep learning in the past few years, we are able to create complex machine learning models for detecting objects in images, regardless of the characteristics of the objects to be detected. This development has enabled engineers to replace existing heuristics-based systems in favour of machine learning models with superior performance. In this report, we evaluate the viability of using deep learning models for object detection in real-time video feeds on mobile devices in terms of object detection performance and inference delay as either an end-to-end system or feature extractor for existing algorithms. Our results show a significant increase in object detection performance in comparison to existing algorithms with the use of transfer learning on neural networks adapted for mobile use.

  • 322.
    Alsterman, Marcus
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS).
    Transfer Learning for Sales Volume Forecasting Using Convolutional Neural Networks2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Improved time series forecasting accuracy can enhance demand planning, and therefore save money and reduce environmental impact. The idea behind this degree project is to explore transfer learning for time series forecasting. This has boiled down to two concrete goals. The first one is to examine if transfer learning can improve the forecasting accuracy when using a convolutional neural network (CNN) with dilated causal convolutions. The second goal is to investigate whether transfer learning makes it possible to forecast time series with less historical data.In this project, time series describing sales volume and price from three different consumer appliances are used. The length of the time series is about three years. Two transfer learning techniques are used: shared-hidden-layer CNN and pre-training. To tackle the first goal, the two transfer learning techniques are benchmarked against a CNN. The second goal is investigated conducting an experiment where the training set size varies for both a CNN and the two transfer learning techniques.The results from the first experiment indicate that transfer learning neither increase nor decrease forecasting accuracy. Interestingly, the second experiment however show that only 60 % (40 % for the SHL-CNN) of training samples is optimal for all models. This goes against the intuition that more training data leads to better model performance and this is most likely a phenomenum related specifically to time series forecasting. However, the percentage of 60 % most likely is application specific, we also find that pre-training, from any of the other products, improves the forecasting accuracy. Finally, reducing the training set further (20 % of training samples) affect the model differently. One pre-training model performs better than the rest, which perform very similar. This indicates that there are cases when transfer learning allows for forecasting smaller time series. However, further studies are required to establish how general these observations are.

  • 323.
    Alstermark, Annica
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC).
    GROSZ, SANDRA
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC).
    Läsbarhetsalgoritmer: En utvärdering av möjligheten att bygga ut LIX-algoritmen2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Läsbarhet handlar om hur begriplig en text är och är ett område som har studerats under väldigt många år. I denna studie utvärderas möjligheten att bygga ut den existerande läsbarhetsalgoritmen LIX med syftet att konstruera en algoritm som gör en mer exakt bedömning. I studien utvecklas en algoritm baserat på LIX och tidigare forskning inom läsbarhet, även sambandet mellan läsbarhetsnivå och ordklassfördelning undersöks. Under studien visade det sig att det finns ett samband mellan en texts läsbarhetsnivå och andelen verb och substantiv. Algoritmen byggdes ut med två parametrar; andelen vanliga ord samt skillnaden mellan andelen verb och substantiv. Resultatet visade att den nya algoritmen ger ett åtminstone lika bra resultat som LIX-algoritmen. Det var dock inte möjligt att dra några slutsatser om dess exakthet i jämförelse med LIX-algoritmen då resultatet av testerna som involverade mänsklig bedömning var undermåligt. Vidare diskuteras då hurman kan få pålitliga resultat från läsbarhetstester som baseras på mänsklig bedömning.

  • 324.
    Al-Tai, Elias
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS).
    An evaluation of the expressive power and performance of JSON-to-JSON transformation languages2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    JSON-to-JSON transformation languages enable the transformation of a JSON document into another JSON document. As JSON is gradually becoming the most used interchange format on the Internet there is a need for transformation languages that can transform the data stored in JSON in order for the data to be used with other systems. The transformation can transform the document structurally, for example by altering the hierarchical structure of the document. The transformation can also transform the document textually, for example by renaming fields or altering values. None of the existing JSON-to-JSON transformation languages have become a standard (Jellife, 2017). This work evaluates the expressive power of the JSON-to-JSON transformation language Jolt. Jolt have recently been adopted by Apache and support have been introduced in some of their products. If a transformation language have expressive power that are at least equal to Nested Relational Algebra this implies that a transformation language can perform many advanced transformations. In this work  a formal model of Jolt is defined, referred to as Jolt0, in order to compare its expressive powers to Nested Relational Algebra. For that purpose, the operations of another formal model called MQuery which have been proven to have equivalent expressive power to Nested Relational Algebra are translated into Jolt0. It is shown that Jolt does not have expressive powers equivalent to Nested Relational Algebra.

    We further compared the performance of four JSON-to-JSON transformation languages (Jolt, Handlebars, Liquid, and XSLT 3.0) by constructing tests where the different transformation languages executed equivalent transformations. The transformations were evaluated by measuring runtime and memory usage. The study shows that XSLT 3.0 performed worst in all run time and memory usage tests. When transforming large input data XSLT 3.0 performed significantly worse than the other languages.

  • 325.
    Altayr, Hydar
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Data- och systemvetenskap, DSV.
    Adis, Michael
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Data- och systemvetenskap, DSV.
    Utveckling och design av WiGID2003Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The Center for Genomics and Bioinformatics (CGB) is an academic department at Karolinska Institute. Generally stated, the CGB department is committed to the generation and management of genetic information by approaches aiming at elucidating the connection between genes, protein and function.

    WiGID is a genome information database that is available through WAP (Wireless Application Protocol).

    Our version of WiGID is based on WML, PHP and PostgreSQL as a database server.

    One of the changes on the old WiGID application was the creation of a relational database with seven tables and one view, instead of the file that represented the database on the old version. We also changed the script language from python to PHP.

    The search engine ability has been extended with three new search alternatives for a user to choose from. Each choice leads to other, sometimes multiple choices.

    A GUI has been created for the administrator, to be able to insert information into the database.

    The structure of the search engine is primarily for narrowing down the search result on the phone display, thereby making the search efficient.

  • 326. Altmann, U.
    et al.
    Oertel, Catharine
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH, Tal-kommunikation.
    Campbell, N.
    Conversational Involvement and Synchronous Nonverbal Behaviour2012Inngår i: Cognitive Behavioural Systems: COST 2102 International Training School, Dresden, Germany, February 21-26, 2011, Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Anna Esposito, Antonietta M. Esposito, Alessandro Vinciarelli, Rüdiger Hoffmann, Vincent C. Müller, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, s. 343-352Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Measuring the quality of an interaction by means of low-level cues has been the topic of many studies in the last couple of years. In this study we propose a novel method for conversation-quality-assessment. We first test whether manual ratings of conversational involvement and automatic estimation of synchronisation of facial activity are correlated. We hypothesise that the higher the synchrony the higher the involvement. We compare two different synchronisation measures. The first measure is defined as the similarity of facial activity at a given point in time. The second is based on dependence analyses between the facial activity time series of two interlocutors. We found that dependence measure correlates more with conversational involvement than similarity measure.

  • 327.
    Altosaar, Toomas
    et al.
    Aalto Univ. School of Science and Tech., Dept. of Signal Proc. & Acoustics.
    ten Bosch, Louis
    Radboud University Nijmegen, Language and Speech unit.
    Aimetti, Guillaume
    Univ. of Sheffield, Speech & Hearing group, Dept. of Computer Science.
    Koniaris, Christos
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Ljud- och bildbehandling (Stängd 130101).
    Demuynck, Kris
    K.U.Leuven - ESAT/PSI.
    van den Heuvel, Henk
    Radboud University Nijmegen, Language and Speech unit.
    A Speech Corpus for Modeling Language Acquisition: CAREGIVER2010Inngår i: 7th International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC) 2010, Valletta, Malta / [ed] Nicoletta Calzolari (Conference Chair) and Khalid Choukri and Bente Maegaard and Joseph Mariani and Jan Odijk and Stelios Piperidis and Mike Rosner and Daniel Tapias, European Language Resources Association (ELRA) , 2010, s. 1062-1068Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A multi-lingual speech corpus used for modeling language acquisition called CAREGIVER has been designed and recorded within the framework of the EU funded Acquisition of Communication and Recognition Skills (ACORNS) project. The paper describes the motivation behind the corpus and its design by relying on current knowledge regarding infant language acquisition. Instead of recording infants and children, the voices of their primary and secondary caregivers were captured in both infant-directed and adult-directed speech modes over four languages in a read speech manner. The challenges and methods applied to obtain similar prompts in terms of complexity and semantics across different languages, as well as the normalized recording procedures employed at different locations, is covered. The corpus contains nearly 66000 utterance based audio files spoken over a two-year period by 17 male and 17 female native speakers of Dutch, English, Finnish, and Swedish. An orthographical transcription is available for every utterance. Also, time-aligned word and phone annotations for many of the sub-corpora also exist. The CAREGIVER corpus will be published via ELRA.

  • 328.
    Alvarez Custodio, Maria
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS).
    Autonomous Recharging System for Drones: Detection and Landing on the Charging Platform2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In the last years, the use of indoor drones has increased significantly in many different areas. However, one of the main limitations of the potential of these drones is the battery life. This is due to the fact that the battery size has to be limited since the drones have a maximum payload in order to be able to take-off and maintain the flight. Therefore, a recharging process need to be performed frequently, involving human intervention and thus limiting the drones applications.

    In order to solve this problem, this master thesis presents an autonomous recharging system for a nano drone, the Crazyflie 2.0 by Bitcraze AB. By automating the battery recharging process no human intervention will be needed, and thus overall mission time of the drone can be considerably increased, broadening the possible applications.

    The main goal of this thesis is the design and implementation of a control system for the indoor nano drone, in order to control it towards a landing platform and accurately land on it. The design and implementation of an actual recharging system is carried out too, so that in the end a complete full autonomous system exists.

    Before this controller and system are designed and presented, a research study is first carried out to obtain a background and analyze existing solutions for the autonomous landing problem.

    A camera is integrated together with the Crazyflie 2.0 to detect the landing station and control the drone with respect to this station position. A visual system is designed and implemented for detecting the landing station. For this purpose, a marker from the ArUco library is used to identify the station and estimate the distance to the marker and the camera orientation with respect to it.

    Finally, some tests are carried out to evaluate the system. The flight time obtained is 4.6 minutes and the landing performance (the rate of correct landings) is 80%.

  • 329.
    Alvarez Jörgensen, Kristian
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT).
    Chlebek, Michael
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT).
    Near ultrasonic close range communication for modern smartphones2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    NFC is a technology that allows close-range communication between mobile devices. Unfortunately, not all modern smartphones have the required API’s or hardware to utilize it. This thesis seeks therefore to develop a viable alternative to NFC for close range communication (less than 10 cm) between mobile smart phones. The goal is to evaluate the feasibility of using a novel scheme that utilizes near ultrasonic frequencies for close range communication for both Android and iOS.An iPhone and an Android device were used to test our proposed scheme. Range test were preformed on a quiet and noisy environment (food court in a shopping mall), and an interference test was done in the quiet environment. The scheme was shown to work in the tested quiet and noisy environment for ranges less than 1 cm. In the noisy environment, significant data loss happened at 5 cm for the tested android device, while data was somewhat reliably received at up to 10 cm in a quiet environment among both tested devices. Our tests also show that concurrently communicating devices spaced at least 110 cm away will not interfere with each other.Our findings show that the proposed scheme could be a viable alternative for close range communication. By employing an error correcting code, tolerance to data loss could be improved. Using a different modulation technique is also advisable in order to improve the data transfer rate.For future work, we suggest testing the near ultrasonic capabilities of a wider array of devices in order to determine the usefulness of the proposed scheme.

  • 330.
    Alvelid, Jesper
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC).
    Frantzén, Fredrik
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC).
    Lexical Acquisition Made by Machine – A simulation of how a machine learns the meaning of words.2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Learning the meaning of words is a complicated task with many problems. In this study an algorithm to map words to meanings was developed regarding the three problems: handling of sentences (not only singular words), distinguishing the correct of multiple events in a scene and building a lexicon with no entries at the beginning. The aim of this study was to implement an algorithm that would replicate the results of a previous study. The results acquired confirmed the work previously done, the same percentage of word meanings (100%) were learned with equal conditions. To further develop the algorithm problems with words that are spelled identically but mean different things and contexts where events are not describing the utterances said need to be solved. This would make the algorithm more applicable in real world situations.

  • 331. Alwen, Joël
    et al.
    de Rezende, Susanna F.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Teoretisk datalogi, TCS.
    Nordström, Jakob
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Teoretisk datalogi, TCS.
    Vinyals, Marc
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Teoretisk datalogi, TCS.
    Cumulative Space in Black-White Pebbling and Resolution2017Inngår i: Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics, LIPIcs, Schloss Dagstuhl- Leibniz-Zentrum fur Informatik GmbH, Dagstuhl Publishing , 2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We study space complexity and time-space trade-offs with a focus not on peak memory usage but on overall memory consumption throughout the computation. Such a cumulative space measure was introduced for the computational model of parallel black pebbling by [Alwen and Serbinenko 2015] as a tool for obtaining results in cryptography. We consider instead the nondeterministic black-white pebble game and prove optimal cumulative space lower bounds and trade-offs, where in order to minimize pebbling time the space has to remain large during a significant fraction of the pebbling. We also initiate the study of cumulative space in proof complexity, an area where other space complexity measures have been extensively studied during the last 10-15 years. Using and extending the connection between proof complexity and pebble games in [Ben-Sasson and Nordström 2008, 2011], we obtain several strong cumulative space results for (even parallel versions of) the resolution proof system, and outline some possible future directions of study of this, in our opinion, natural and interesting space measure.

  • 332.
    Aly, Mazen
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT).
    Automated Bid Adjustments in Search Engine Advertising2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In digital advertising, major search engines allow advertisers to set bid adjustments on their ad campaigns in order to capture the valuation differences that are a function of query dimensions. In this thesis, a model that uses bid adjustments is developed in order to increase the number of conversions and decrease the cost per conversion. A statistical model is used to select campaigns and dimensions that need bid adjustments along with several techniques to determine their values since they can be between -90% and 900%. In addition, an evaluation procedure is developed that uses campaign historical data in order to evaluate the calculation methods as well as to validate different approaches. We study the problem of interactions between different adjustments and a solution is formulated. Real-time experiments showed that our bid adjustments model improved the performance of online advertising campaigns with statistical significance. It increased the number of conversions by 9%, and decreased the cost per conversion by 10%.

  • 333.
    Al-Zubaidy, Hussein
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Fodor, Viktoria
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Nätverk och systemteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Dán, György
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Nätverk och systemteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Flierl, Markus
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Teknisk informationsvetenskap. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Reliable Video Streaming With Strict Playout Deadline in Multihop Wireless Networks2017Inngår i: IEEE transactions on multimedia, ISSN 1520-9210, E-ISSN 1941-0077, Vol. 19, nr 10, s. 2238-2251Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivated by emerging vision-based intelligent services, we consider the problem of rate adaptation for high-quality and low-delay visual information delivery over wireless networks using scalable video coding. Rate adaptation in this setting is inherently challenging due to the interplay between the variability of the wireless channels, the queuing at the network nodes, and the frame-based decoding and playback of the video content at the receiver at very short time scales. To address the problem, we propose a low-complexity model-based rate adaptation algorithm for scalable video streaming systems, building on a novel performance model based on stochastic network calculus. We validate the analytic model using extensive simulations. We show that it allows fast near-optimal rate adaptation for fixed transmission paths, as well as cross-layer optimized routing and video rate adaptation in mesh networks, with less than 10% quality degradation compared to the best achievable performance.

  • 334.
    Al-Zubaidy, Hussein
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES).
    Liebeherr, Joerg
    Burchard, Almut
    Network-Layer Performance Analysis of Multihop Fading Channels2016Inngår i: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, ISSN 1063-6692, E-ISSN 1558-2566, Vol. 24, nr 1, s. 204-217Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A fundamental problem for the delay and backlog analysis across multihop paths in wireless networks is how to account for the random properties of the wireless channel. Since the usual statistical models for radio signals in a propagation environment do not lend themselves easily to a description of the available service rate, the performance analysis of wireless networks has resorted to higher-layer abstractions, e. g., using Markov chain models. In this paper, we propose a network calculus that can incorporate common statistical models of fading channels and obtain statistical bounds on delay and backlog across multiple nodes. We conduct the analysis in a transfer domain, where the service process at a link is characterized by the instantaneous signal-to-noise ratio at the receiver. We discover that, in the transfer domain, the network model is governed by a dioid algebra, which we refer to as the algebra. Using this algebra, we derive the desired delay and backlog bounds. Using arguments from large deviations theory, we show that the bounds are asymptotically tight. An application of the analysis is demonstrated for a multihop network of Rayleigh fading channels with cross traffic at each hop.

  • 335.
    Amaya de la Pena, Ignacio
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT).
    Fraud detection in online payments using Spark ML2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Frauds in online payments cause billions of dollars in losses every year. To reduce them, traditional fraud detection systems can be enhanced with the latest advances in machine learning, which usually require distributed computing frameworks to handle the big size of the available data.

    Previous academic work has failed to address fraud detection in real-world environments. To fill this gap, this thesis focuses on building a fraud detection classifier on Spark ML using real-world payment data.

    Class imbalance and non-stationarity reduced the performance of our models, so experiments to tackle those problems were performed. Our best results were achieved by applying undersampling and oversampling on the training data to reduce the class imbalance. Updating the model regularly to use the latest data also helped diminishing the negative effects of non-stationarity.

    A final machine learning model that leverages all our findings has been deployed at Qliro, an important online payments provider in the Nordics. This model periodically sends suspicious purchase orders for review to fraud investigators, enabling them to catch frauds that were missed before.

  • 336. Ambrazaitis, G.
    et al.
    Svensson Lundmark, M.
    House, David
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH, Tal-kommunikation.
    Head beats and eyebrow movements as a function of phonological prominence levels and word accents in Stockholm Swedish news broadcasts2015Inngår i: The 3rd European Symposium on Multimodal Communication, Dublin, Ireland, 2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 337. Ambrazaitis, G.
    et al.
    Svensson Lundmark, M.
    House, David
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH, Tal-kommunikation.
    Head Movements, Eyebrows, and Phonological Prosodic Prominence Levels in Stockholm2015Inngår i: 13th International Conference on Auditory-Visual Speech Processing (AVSP 2015), Vienna, Austria, 2015, s. 42-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 338. Ambrazaitis, G.
    et al.
    Svensson Lundmark, M.
    House, David
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH, Tal-kommunikation.
    Multimodal levels of promincence: a preliminary analysis of head and eyebrow movements in Swedish news broadcasts2015Inngår i: Proceedings of Fonetik 2015 / [ed] Lundmark Svensson, M.; Ambrazaitis, G.; van de Weijer, J., Lund, 2015, s. 11-16Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 339.
    Ambrus, Rares
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Centrum för Autonoma System, CAS. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Robotik, perception och lärande, RPL.
    Unsupervised construction of 4D semantic maps in a long-term autonomy scenario2017Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Robots are operating for longer times and collecting much more data than just a few years ago. In this setting we are interested in exploring ways of modeling the environment, segmenting out areas of interest and keeping track of the segmentations over time, with the purpose of building 4D models (i.e. space and time) of the relevant parts of the environment.

    Our approach relies on repeatedly observing the environment and creating local maps at specific locations. The first question we address is how to choose where to build these local maps. Traditionally, an operator defines a set of waypoints on a pre-built map of the environment which the robot visits autonomously. Instead, we propose a method to automatically extract semantically meaningful regions from a point cloud representation of the environment. The resulting segmentation is purely geometric, and in the context of mobile robots operating in human environments, the semantic label associated with each segment (i.e. kitchen, office) can be of interest for a variety of applications. We therefore also look at how to obtain per-pixel semantic labels given the geometric segmentation, by fusing probabilistic distributions over scene and object types in a Conditional Random Field.

    For most robotic systems, the elements of interest in the environment are the ones which exhibit some dynamic properties (such as people, chairs, cups, etc.), and the ability to detect and segment such elements provides a very useful initial segmentation of the scene. We propose a method to iteratively build a static map from observations of the same scene acquired at different points in time. Dynamic elements are obtained by computing the difference between the static map and new observations. We address the problem of clustering together dynamic elements which correspond to the same physical object, observed at different points in time and in significantly different circumstances. To address some of the inherent limitations in the sensors used, we autonomously plan, navigate around and obtain additional views of the segmented dynamic elements. We look at methods of fusing the additional data and we show that both a combined point cloud model and a fused mesh representation can be used to more robustly recognize the dynamic object in future observations. In the case of the mesh representation, we also show how a Convolutional Neural Network can be trained for recognition by using mesh renderings.

    Finally, we present a number of methods to analyse the data acquired by the mobile robot autonomously and over extended time periods. First, we look at how the dynamic segmentations can be used to derive a probabilistic prior which can be used in the mapping process to further improve and reinforce the segmentation accuracy. We also investigate how to leverage spatial-temporal constraints in order to cluster dynamic elements observed at different points in time and under different circumstances. We show that by making a few simple assumptions we can increase the clustering accuracy even when the object appearance varies significantly between observations. The result of the clustering is a spatial-temporal footprint of the dynamic object, defining an area where the object is likely to be observed spatially as well as a set of time stamps corresponding to when the object was previously observed. Using this data, predictive models can be created and used to infer future times when the object is more likely to be observed. In an object search scenario, this model can be used to decrease the search time when looking for specific objects.

  • 340.
    Ambrus, Rares
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Centrum för Autonoma System, CAS.
    Bore, Nils
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Centrum för Autonoma System, CAS.
    Folkesson, John
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Centrum för Autonoma System, CAS.
    Jensfelt, Patric
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Centrum för Autonoma System, CAS.
    Autonomous meshing, texturing and recognition of object models with a mobile robot2017Inngår i: 2017 IEEE/RSJ INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INTELLIGENT ROBOTS AND SYSTEMS (IROS) / [ed] Bicchi, A Okamura, A, IEEE , 2017, s. 5071-5078Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a system for creating object models from RGB-D views acquired autonomously by a mobile robot. We create high-quality textured meshes of the objects by approximating the underlying geometry with a Poisson surface. Our system employs two optimization steps, first registering the views spatially based on image features, and second aligning the RGB images to maximize photometric consistency with respect to the reconstructed mesh. We show that the resulting models can be used robustly for recognition by training a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) on images rendered from the reconstructed meshes. We perform experiments on data collected autonomously by a mobile robot both in controlled and uncontrolled scenarios. We compare quantitatively and qualitatively to previous work to validate our approach.

  • 341.
    Ambrus, Rares
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Robotik, perception och lärande, RPL. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Centrum för Autonoma System, CAS.
    Bore, Nils
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Centrum för Autonoma System, CAS.
    Folkesson, John
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Centrum för Autonoma System, CAS. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Robotik, perception och lärande, RPL.
    Jensfelt, Patric
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Centrum för Autonoma System, CAS. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Robotik, perception och lärande, RPL.
    Autonomous meshing, texturing and recognition of objectmodels with a mobile robot2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a system for creating object modelsfrom RGB-D views acquired autonomously by a mobile robot.We create high-quality textured meshes of the objects byapproximating the underlying geometry with a Poisson surface.Our system employs two optimization steps, first registering theviews spatially based on image features, and second aligningthe RGB images to maximize photometric consistency withrespect to the reconstructed mesh. We show that the resultingmodels can be used robustly for recognition by training aConvolutional Neural Network (CNN) on images rendered fromthe reconstructed meshes. We perform experiments on datacollected autonomously by a mobile robot both in controlledand uncontrolled scenarios. We compare quantitatively andqualitatively to previous work to validate our approach.

  • 342.
    Ambrus, Rares
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Robotik, perception och lärande, RPL. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Centrum för Autonoma System, CAS.
    Claici, Sebastian
    Wendt, Axel
    Automatic Room Segmentation From Unstructured 3-D Data of Indoor Environments2017Inngår i: IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, ISSN 2377-3766, E-ISSN 1949-3045, Vol. 2, nr 2, s. 749-756Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an automatic approach for the task of reconstructing a 2-D floor plan from unstructured point clouds of building interiors. Our approach emphasizes accurate and robust detection of building structural elements and, unlike previous approaches, does not require prior knowledge of scanning device poses. The reconstruction task is formulated as a multiclass labeling problem that we approach using energy minimization. We use intuitive priors to define the costs for the energy minimization problem and rely on accurate wall and opening detection algorithms to ensure robustness. We provide detailed experimental evaluation results, both qualitative and quantitative, against state-of-the-art methods and labeled ground-truth data.

  • 343.
    Ambrus, Rares
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Datorseende och robotik, CVAP. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Centrum för Autonoma System, CAS.
    Ekekrantz, Johan
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Datorseende och robotik, CVAP. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Centrum för Autonoma System, CAS.
    Folkesson, John
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Datorseende och robotik, CVAP. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Centrum för Autonoma System, CAS.
    Jensfelt, Patric
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Datorseende och robotik, CVAP. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Centrum för Autonoma System, CAS.
    Unsupervised learning of spatial-temporal models of objects in a long-term autonomy scenario2015Inngår i: 2015 IEEE/RSJ INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INTELLIGENT ROBOTS AND SYSTEMS (IROS), IEEE , 2015, s. 5678-5685Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a novel method for clustering segmented dynamic parts of indoor RGB-D scenes across repeated observations by performing an analysis of their spatial-temporal distributions. We segment areas of interest in the scene using scene differencing for change detection. We extend the Meta-Room method and evaluate the performance on a complex dataset acquired autonomously by a mobile robot over a period of 30 days. We use an initial clustering method to group the segmented parts based on appearance and shape, and we further combine the clusters we obtain by analyzing their spatial-temporal behaviors. We show that using the spatial-temporal information further increases the matching accuracy.

  • 344.
    Ambrus, Rares
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Robotik, perception och lärande, RPL. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Centrum för Autonoma System, CAS.
    Folkesson, John
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Robotik, perception och lärande, RPL. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Centrum för Autonoma System, CAS.
    Jensfelt, Patric
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Robotik, perception och lärande, RPL. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Centrum för Autonoma System, CAS.
    Unsupervised object segmentation through change detection in a long term autonomy scenario2016Inngår i: IEEE-RAS International Conference on Humanoid Robots, IEEE, 2016, s. 1181-1187Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work we address the problem of dynamic object segmentation in office environments. We make no prior assumptions on what is dynamic and static, and our reasoning is based on change detection between sparse and non-uniform observations of the scene. We model the static part of the environment, and we focus on improving the accuracy and quality of the segmented dynamic objects over long periods of time. We address the issue of adapting the static structure over time and incorporating new elements, for which we train and use a classifier whose output gives an indication of the dynamic nature of the segmented elements. We show that the proposed algorithms improve the accuracy and the rate of detection of dynamic objects by comparing with a labelled dataset.

  • 345. Ambuehl, Christoph
    et al.
    Mastrolilli, Monaldo
    Svensson, Ola
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Teoretisk datalogi, TCS.
    INAPPROXIMABILITY RESULTS FOR MAXIMUM EDGE BICLIQUE, MINIMUM LINEAR ARRANGEMENT, AND SPARSEST CUT2011Inngår i: SIAM journal on computing (Print), ISSN 0097-5397, E-ISSN 1095-7111, Vol. 40, nr 2, s. 567-596Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider the Minimum Linear Arrangement problem and the (Uniform) Sparsest Cut problem. So far, these two notorious NP-hard graph problems have resisted all attempts to prove inapproximability results. We show that they have no polynomial time approximation scheme, unless NP-complete problems can be solved in randomized subexponential time. Furthermore, we show that the same techniques can be used for the Maximum Edge Biclique problem, for which we obtain a hardness factor similar to previous results but under a more standard assumption.

  • 346.
    Ameur, Adam
    et al.
    Swedish Inst. of Computer Science.
    Aurell, Erik
    Swedish Inst. of Computer Science.
    Carlsson, Mats
    Swedish Inst. of Computer Science.
    Orzechowski Westholm, Jakub
    Swedish Inst. of Computer Science.
    Global gene expression analysis by combinatorial optimization2004Inngår i: In Silico Biology, ISSN 1386-6338, Vol. 4, nr 2, s. 225-241Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Generally, there is a trade-off between methods of gene expression analysis that are precise but labor-intensive, e.g. RT-PCR, and methods that scale up to global coverage but are not quite as quantitative, e.g. microarrays. In the present paper, we show how how a known method of gene expression profiling (K. Kato, Nucleic Acids Res. 23, 3685-3690 (1995)), which relies on a fairly small number of steps, can be turned into a global gene expression measurement by advanced data post-processing, with potentially little loss of accuracy. Post-processing here entails solving an ancillary combinatorial optimization problem. Validation is performed on in silico experiments generated from the FANTOM data base of full-length mouse cDNA. We present two variants of the method. One uses state-of-the-art commercial software for solving problems of this kind, the other a code developed by us specifically for this purpose, released in the public domain under GPL license.

  • 347.
    Amighi, Afshin
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC).
    Flow Graph Extraction for Modular Verification of Java Programs.2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The starting point for the project is a framework for compositional program verification based on program flow graphs, an abstraction of program control flow giving rise to an over-approximation of the source code behavior. Flow graph extraction for modular verification should allow the independent extraction of flow graphs of subsystems or modules. Furthermore, the composition of the flow graphs of the modules should give a safe approximation of the complete program flow graph. The existing tools for flow graph extraction are not flexible enough for modular purposes, since they typically assume that they are given a complete program.

    The goal of this study is the formal definition and implementation of modular flow graph extraction. In this project a formal translation from Java programs to target flow graph is specified. Then based on an operational semantics for the source language and for flow graphs, the correctness of the translation is proved. Flow graph extraction has to respect the modularity of programs, which is the main contribution of the work. Finally, a tool is developed based on specification of the translation.

  • 348.
    Amighi, Afshin
    et al.
    University of Twente.
    de Carvalho Gomes, Pedro
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Teoretisk datalogi, TCS.
    Gurov, Dilian
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Teoretisk datalogi, TCS.
    Huisman, Marieke
    University of Twente.
    Provably Correct Control Flow Graphs from Java Bytecode Programs with Exceptions2015Inngår i: International Journal on Software Tools for Technology Transfer (STTT), ISSN 1433-2779, E-ISSN 1433-2787, ISSN 1433-2779Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an algorithm for extracting control flow graphs from Java bytecode that captures normal as well as exceptional control flow. We prove its correctness, in the sense that the behaviour of the extracted control flow graph is a sound over-approximation of the behaviour of the original program. This makes control flow graphs suitable for performing various static analyses, such as model checking of temporal safety properties.Analyzing exceptional control flow for Java bytecode is difficult because of the stack-based nature of the language. We therefore develop the extraction in two stages. In the first, we abstract away from the complications arising from exceptional flows, and relativize the extraction on an oracle that is able to look into the stack and predict the exceptions that can be raised at each instruction. This idealized algorithm provides a specification for concrete extraction algorithms, which have to provide a suitable implementation for the oracle. We prove correctness of the idealized algorithm by means of behavioural simulation.In the second stage, we develop a concrete extraction algorithm that consists of two phases. In the first phase, the program is transformed into a BIR program, a stack-less intermediate representation of Java bytecode, from which the control flow graph is extracted in the second phase. We use this intermediate format because it provides the information needed to implement the oracle, and since it gives rise to more compact graphs. We show that the behaviour of the control flow graph extracted via the intermediate representation is a sound over-approximation of the behaviour of the graph extracted by the direct, idealized algorithm, and thus of the original program. The concrete extraction algorithm is implemented as the ConFlEx tool. A number of test cases are performed to evaluate the efficiency of the algorithm.

  • 349. Amighi, Afshin
    et al.
    de Carvalho Gomes, Pedro
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Teoretisk datalogi, TCS.
    Huisman, Marieke
    Provably Correct Control-Flow Graphs from Java Programs with Exceptions2011Inngår i: Formal Verification of Object-Oriented Software, 2011, Vol. 26, s. 31-48Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an algorithm to extract flow graphs from Java bytecode, focusing on exceptional control flows. We prove its correctness, meaning that the behaviour of the extracted control-flow graph is an over-approximation of the behaviour of the original program. Thus any safety property that holds for the extracted control-flow graph also holds for the original program. This makes control-flow graphs suitable for performing different static analyses. For precision and efficiency, the extraction is performed in two phases. In the first phase the program is transformed into a BIR program, where BIR is a stack-less intermediate representation of Java bytecode; in the second phase the control-flow graph is extracted from the BIR representation. To prove the correctness of the two-phase extraction, we also define a direct extraction algorithm, whose correctness can be proven immediately. Then we show that the behaviour of the control-flow graph extracted via the intermediate representation is an over-approximation of the behaviour of the directly extracted graphs, and thus of the original program.

  • 350.
    Amilon, Jesper
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS).
    Lindberg, Axel
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS).
    Verifying Temporal Properties Using Deductive Verifiers2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Formal verification is an area of theoretical computer science where mathematical logic is used to prove that a program behaves in a certain way. With the methods in formal verification, you can prove that the program follows some given specification and thereby behaves in the desired way. The area is largely split up into two distinct parts. One deals with how the program transforms data. This uses Hoare logic and deductive verification to prove that the program follows a given specification. The other part deals with temporal properties of the program, this uses temporal logic and model checkers.

    The two areas are today largely separated. This report builds on a framework by Alur and Chaudhuri [1] which proves temporal properties in a Hoare logic style reasoning. By using this framework, this report aims to check the viability of using it with deductive verifiers. Thereby bridging the gap between the two areas for formal verification.

    In conclusion, the report finds that it is certainly possible to prove temporal properties for C programs using Alur and Chaudhuri’s framework with deductive verifiers. In practical terms, though, it requires too much work to be feasible to use this framework by manually creating annotations for the deductive verifiers. In a small example program of 13 lines, proving a temporal property required around 50 extra lines of annotations. However, some parts of the annotation process could be automated with tooling support but to achieve full automation is probably not possible. This is partly due to ranking functions that the framework requires which, in general, are not easy to generate automatically.

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