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  • 301.
    Schilling, Fabian
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Robotik, perception och lärande, RPL.
    chen, xi
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Robotik, perception och lärande, RPL.
    Folkesson, John
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Robotik, perception och lärande, RPL.
    Jensfelt, Patric
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Robotik, perception och lärande, RPL.
    Geometric and visual terrain classification for autonomous mobile navigation2017Inngår i: 2017 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), IEEE, 2017, artikkel-id 8206092Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present a multi-sensory terrain classification algorithm with a generalized terrain representation using semantic and geometric features. We compute geometric features from lidar point clouds and extract pixel-wise semantic labels from a fully convolutional network that is trained using a dataset with a strong focus on urban navigation. We use data augmentation to overcome the biases of the original dataset and apply transfer learning to adapt the model to new semantic labels in off-road environments. Finally, we fuse the visual and geometric features using a random forest to classify the terrain traversability into three classes: safe, risky and obstacle. We implement the algorithm on our four-wheeled robot and test it in novel environments including both urban and off-road scenes which are distinct from the training environments and under summer and winter conditions. We provide experimental result to show that our algorithm can perform accurate and fast prediction of terrain traversability in a mixture of environments with a small set of training data.

  • 302.
    Schillinger, Philipp
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. Bosch Center for Artificial Intelligence.
    Specification Decomposition and Formal Behavior Generation in Multi-Robot Systems2017Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    While autonomous robot systems are becoming increasingly common, their usage is still mostly limited to rather simple tasks. This primarily results from the need for manually programming the execution plans of the robots. Instead, as shown in this thesis, their behavior can be automatically generated from a given goal specification. This forms the basis for providing formal guarantees regarding optimality and satisfaction of the mission goal specification and creates the opportunity to deploy these robots in increasingly sophisticated scenarios. Well-defined robot capabilities of comparably low complexity can be developed independently from a specific high-level goal and then, using a behavior planner, be automatically composed to achieve complex goals in a verifiably correct way. Considering multiple robots introduces significant additional planning complexity. Not only actions need to be planned, but also allocation of parts of the mission to the individual robots needs to be considered. Classically, either are planning and allocation seen as two independent problems which requires to solve an exponential number of planning problems, or the formulation of a joint team model leads to a product state space between the robots. The resulting exponential complexity prevents most existing approaches from being practically useful in more complex and realistic scenarios. In this thesis, an approach is presented to utilize the interplay of allocation and planning, which avoids the exponential complexity for independently executable parts of the mission specification. Furthermore, an approach is presented to identify these independent parts automatically when only being given a single goal specification for the team. This bears the potential of improving the efficiency to find an optimal solution and is a significant step towards the application of formal multi-robot behavior planning to real-world problems. The effectiveness of the proposed methods is therefore illustrated in experiments based on an existing office environment and in realistic scenarios.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 303.
    Schillinger, Philipp
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Reglerteknik. Bosch Center for Artificial Intelligence.
    Specification Decomposition and Formal Behavior Generation in Multi-Robot Systems2019Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomous robot systems are becoming increasingly common in service applications and industrial scenarios. However, their use is still mostly limited to rather simple tasks. This primarily results from the considerable effort that is required to manually program the execution plans of the robots. In this thesis, we discuss how the behavior of robots can be automatically generated from a given goal specification. This forms the basis for providing formal guarantees regarding optimality and satisfaction of the mission goal specification and creates the opportunity to deploy these robots in increasingly sophisticated scenarios. Well-defined robot capabilities of comparably low complexity can be developed independently from a specific high-level goal and a behavior planner can then automatically compose them to achieve complex goals in a verifiably correct way.

    Intelligent coordination of a robot team can highly improve the performance of a system, but at the same time, considering multiple robots introduces significant additional planning complexity. To address the complexity, a framework is proposed to efficiently plan actions for multi-robot systems. The generated behavior of the robots is guaranteed to fulfill complex, temporally extended, formal mission specifications posed to the team as a whole. To achieve this, several challenges are addressed such as decomposition of a specification into tasks, allocation of tasks to robots, planning of actions to execute the assigned tasks, and coordination of action execution. This enables the combination of heterogeneous robots for automating tasks in a wide range of practically relevant applications.

    The proposed methods determine efficient actions for each robot in the sense that these actions are optimal in the absence of execution uncertainty and otherwise, improve the solution performance over time based on online observations. First, to plan optimal actions, an approach called Simultaneous Task Allocation and Planning is proposed to utilize the interplay of allocation and planning based on automatically identified, independently executable tasks. Second, to improve performance in the presence of stochastic actions, a Hierarchical LTL-Task MDP is proposed to combine auction-based allocation with reinforcement learning to achieve the desired performance with feasible computational effort. Both approaches of the presented framework are evaluated in the considered use case areas of service robotics and factory automation. The results of this thesis enable to plan correct-by-construction behavior from expressive specifications in more complex and realistic scenarios than possible with previous approaches.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 304.
    Schillinger, Philipp
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Centra, Centrum för autonoma system, CAS. KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. Bosch Ctr Artificial Intelligence, Renningen, Germany..
    Buerger, Mathias
    Bosch Ctr Artificial Intelligence, Renningen, Germany..
    Dimarogonas, Dimos V.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Auctioning over Probabilistic Options for Temporal Logic-Based Multi-Robot Cooperation under Uncertainty2018Inngår i: 2018 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ROBOTICS AND AUTOMATION (ICRA), IEEE Computer Society, 2018, s. 7330-7337Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Coordinating a team of robots to fulfill a common task is still a demanding problem. This is even more the case when considering uncertainty in the environment, as well as temporal dependencies within the task specification. A multirobot cooperation from a single goal specification requires mechanisms for decomposing the goal as well as an efficient planning for the team. However, planning action sequences offline is insufficient in real world applications. Rather, due to uncertainties, the robots also need to closely coordinate during execution and adjust their policies when additional observations are made. The framework presented in this paper enables the robot team to cooperatively fulfill tasks given as temporal logic specifications while explicitly considering uncertainty and incorporating observations during execution. We present the effectiveness of our ROS implementation of this approach in a case study scenario.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 305.
    Schillinger, Philipp
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Reglerteknik. Bosch Center for Artificial Intelligence.
    Buerger, Mathias
    Bosch Center for Artificial Intelligence.
    Dimarogonas, Dimos V.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Reglerteknik.
    Improving Multi-Robot Behavior Using Learning-Based Receding Horizon Task Allocation2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Planning efficient and coordinated policies for a team of robots is a computationally demanding problem, especially when the system faces uncertainty in the outcome or duration of actions. In practice, approximation methods are usually employed to plan reasonable team policies in an acceptable time. At the same time, many typical robotic tasks include a repetitive pattern. On the one hand, this multiplies the increased cost of inefficient solutions. But on the other hand, it also provides the potential for improving an initial, inefficient solution over time. In this paper, we consider the case that a single mission specification is given to a multi-robot system, describing repetitive tasks which allow the robots to parallelize work. We propose here a decentralized coordination scheme which enables the robots to decompose the full specification, execute distributed tasks, and improve their strategy over time.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 306.
    Schillinger, Philipp
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. Bosch Ctr Artificial Intelligence, Robert Bosch Campus 1, DE-71272 Renningen, Germany.
    Buerger, Mathias
    Bosch Ctr Artificial Intelligence, Robert Bosch Campus 1, DE-71272 Renningen, Germany..
    Dimarogonas, Dimos V.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Simultaneous task allocation and planning for temporal logic goals in heterogeneous multi-robot systems2018Inngår i: The international journal of robotics research, ISSN 0278-3649, E-ISSN 1741-3176, Vol. 37, nr 7, s. 818-838Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a framework for automatically generating optimal action-level behavior for a team of robots based on temporal logic mission specifications under resource constraints. The proposed approach optimally allocates separable tasks to available robots, without requiring a priori an explicit representation of the tasks or the computation of all task execution costs. Instead, we propose an approach for identifying sub-tasks in an automaton representation of the mission specification and for simultaneously allocating the tasks and planning their execution. The proposed framework avoids the need to compute a combinatorial number of possible assignment costs, where each computation itself requires solving a complex planning problem. This can improve computational efficiency compared with classical assignment solutions, in particular for on-demand missions where task costs are unknown in advance. We demonstrate the applicability of the approach with multiple robots in an existing office environment and evaluate its performance in several case study scenarios.

  • 307.
    Schillinger, Philipp
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Centrum för Autonoma System, CAS. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. Robert Bosch GmbH.
    Bürger, Mathias
    Robert Bosch GmbH.
    Dimarogonas, Dimos V.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Centrum för Autonoma System, CAS. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Decomposition of Finite LTL Specifications for Efficient Multi-Agent Planning2016Inngår i: / [ed] Roderich Gross, 2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Generating verifiably correct execution strategies from Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) mission specifications avoids the need for manually designed robot behaviors. However, when incorporating a team of robot agents, the additional model complexity becomes a critical issue. Given a single finite LTL mission and a team of robots, we propose an automata-based approach to automatically identify possible decompositions of the LTL specification into sets of independently executable task specifications. Our approach leads directly to the construction of a team model with significantly lower complexity than other representations constructed with conventional methods. Thus, it enables efficient search for an optimal decomposition and allocation of tasks to the robot agents.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    dars16_schillin_ltldecomp.pdf
  • 308.
    Schillinger, Philipp
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Reglerteknik. Bosch Center for Artificial Intelligence.
    Bürger, Mathias
    Bosch Center for Artificial Intelligence.
    Dimarogonas, Dimos V.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Reglerteknik.
    Hierarchical LTL-Task MDPs for Multi-Agent Coordination through Auctioning and Learning2019Inngår i: The international journal of robotics research, ISSN 0278-3649, E-ISSN 1741-3176Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Given a temporal behavior specification and a team of agents available for execution in a stochastic environment, it is still an open problem how to efficiently decompose and allocate the specification to the agents while coordinating their actions accordingly and while considering long-term performance under uncertain external events. Our proposed framework works towards this goal by constructing a so-called hierachical LTL-Task MDP automatically by formally decomposing a given temporal logic goal specification into a set of smaller MDP planning problems. In order to efficiently find a multi-agent policy in this generated LTL-Task MDP, we combine methods from planning under uncertainty and auction-based task allocation with techniques from reinforcement learning. A particular challenge is to consider uncertainty in the environment, which might require significant additional effort to satisfy the given specification. This is addressed here by a formalism that allows the agents to consider preparation of such possible future reactions instead of updating the set of tasks only after observing an event.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 309.
    Schillinger, Philipp
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Centrum för Autonoma System, CAS. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. Bosch Center for Artificial Intelligence, Germany.
    Bürger, Mathias
    Bosch Center for Artificial Intelligence, Germany.
    Dimarogonas, Dimos V.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Centrum för Autonoma System, CAS.
    Multi-Objective Search for Optimal Multi-Robot Planning with Finite LTL Specifications and Resource Constraints2017Inngår i: 2017 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, s. 768-774, artikkel-id 7989094Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an efficient approach to plan action sequences for a team of robots from a single finite LTL mission specification. The resulting execution strategy is proven to solve the given mission with minimal team costs, e.g., with shortest execution time. For planning, an established graphbased search method based on the multi-objective shortest path problem is adapted to multi-robot planning and extended to support resource constraints. We further improve planning efficiency significantly for missions which consist of independent parts by using previous results regarding LTL decomposition. The efficiency and practicality of the ROS implementation of our approach is demonstrated in example scenarios.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 310.
    Schillinger, Philipp
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. Bosch Center for Artificial Intelligence.
    Bürger, Mathias
    Bosch Center for Artificial Intelligence.
    Dimarogonas, Dimos V.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik.
    Simultaneous Task Allocation and Planning2017Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    When planning behaviors for a multi-robot system based on a Temporal Logic specification of the mission, not only actions need to be planned, but also allocation of parts of the mission needs to be considered. Classically, this is seen as two independent problems. However, utilizing the interplay of allocation and planning bears the potential of improving the efficiency to find an optimal solution.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 311.
    Schillinger, Philipp
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Centrum för Autonoma System, CAS. Bosch Center for Artificial Intelligence.
    Bürger, Mathias
    Robert Bosch GmbH.
    Dimarogonas, Dimos V.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Centrum för Autonoma System, CAS. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik.
    Simultaneous Task Allocation and Planning for Temporal Logic Goals in Heterogeneous Multi-Robot SystemsInngår i: The international journal of robotics research, ISSN 0278-3649, E-ISSN 1741-3176Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a framework for automatically generating optimal action-level behavior for a team of robots based on Temporal Logic mission specifications under resource constraints. The proposed approach optimally allocates separable tasks to available robots, without requiring a-priori an explicit representation of the tasks or the computation of all task execution costs. Instead, we propose an approach for identifying sub-tasks in an automaton representation of the mission specification and for simultaneously allocating the tasks and planning their execution. The proposed framework avoids the need of computing a combinatorial number of possible assignment costs, where each computation itself requires solving a complex planning problem. This can improve computational efficiency compared to classical assignment solutions, in particular for on-demand missions where task costs are unknown in advance. We demonstrate the applicability of the approach with multiple robots in an existing office environment and evaluate its performance in several case study scenarios.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 312. Schmidt, Bernard
    et al.
    Wang, Lihui
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion.
    Automatic work objects calibration via a global-local camera system2014Inngår i: Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, ISSN 0736-5845, E-ISSN 1879-2537, Vol. 30, nr 6, s. 678-683Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In a human robot collaborative manufacturing application where a work object can be placed in an arbitrary position, there is a need to calibrate the actual position of the work object. This paper presents an approach for automatic work-object calibration in flexible robotic systems. The approach consists of two modules: a global positioning module based on fixed cameras mounted around robotic workspace, and a local positioning module based on the camera mounted on the robot arm. The aim of the global positioning is to detect the work object in the working area and roughly estimate its position, whereas the local positioning is to define an object frame according to the 3D position and orientation of the work object with higher accuracy. For object detection and localization, coded visual markers are utilized. For each object, several markers are used to increase the robustness and accuracy of the localization and calibration procedure. This approach can be used in robotic welding or assembly applications.

  • 313. Schmidt, H.
    et al.
    Jacobsen, Elling W.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Signaler, sensorer och system.
    Identifying feedback mechanisms behind complex cell behavior2004Inngår i: Control Systems Magazine, ISSN 0272-1708, Vol. 24, nr 4, s. 91-102Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An analysis method based on linearization and decomposition of the network model was used to examine the early embryonic periodiccelldivisions of Xenopus eggs. The components andfeedbackinterconnections that generate periodic oscillations and bistability in the Xenopuscellcycle were identified. Thefeedbackmechanismsdriving the periodic oscillations in yeast glycolysis were also clarified.

  • 314.
    Scukins, Edvards
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Robotik, perception och lärande, RPL.
    Ögren, Petter
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Robotik, perception och lärande, RPL.
    Classical Formation Patterns and Flanking Strategies as a Result of Utility Maximization2019Inngår i: IEEE Control Systems Letters, ISSN 2475-1456, Vol. 3, nr 2, s. 422-427Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we show how classical tactical forma- tion patterns and flanking strategies, such as the line formation and the enveloping maneuver, can be seen as the result of maximizing a natural formation utility.

    The problem of automatic formation keeping is extremely well studied within the areas of control and robotics, but the reasons for choosing a particular formation shape and position is much less so.

    By analyzing a situation with two adversarial teams of agents facing each other, we show that natural assumptions regarding the target selection of the agents and decreasing weapon efficiency over distance, can be used to optimize a measure of utility over agent positions. This optimization in turn results in formations and positions that are very similar to the ones being used in practice. We present both analytical results for simple examples as well as numerical results for more complex situations.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 315.
    Shames, Iman
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Bishop, Adrian
    Australian National University.
    Matthew, Smith
    CEA Technologies.
    Anderson, Brian D. O.
    Australian National University.
    Doppler Shift Target Localization2013Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, ISSN 0018-9251, E-ISSN 1557-9603, Vol. 49, nr 1, s. 266-276Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper outlines the problem of doppler-based target position and velocity estimation using a sensor network. The minimum number of doppler shift measurements at distinct generic sensor positions to have a finite number of solutions, and later, a unique solution for the unknown target position and velocity is stated analytically. Furthermore, we study the same problem where not only doppler shift measurements are collected, but also other types of measurements are available, e.g. bearing or distance to the target from each of the sensors. Later, we study the Cramer-Rao inequality associated with the doppler-shift measurements to a target in a sensor network, and use the Cramer-Rao bound to illustrate some results on optimal placements of the sensors when the goal is to estimate the velocity of the target. Some simulation results are presented in the end.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 316.
    Shames, Iman
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Teixeira, André
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Agents Misbehaving in a Network: a Vice or a Virtue?2012Inngår i: IEEE Network, ISSN 0890-8044, E-ISSN 1558-156X, Vol. 26, nr 3, s. 35-40Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Misbehaviors among the agents in a network might be intentional or unintentional, they might cause a system-wide failure or they might improve the performance or even enable us to achieve an objective. In this article we consider examples of these possible scenarios. First, we argue the necessity of monitoring the agents in a network to detect if they are misbehaving or not and outline a distributed method in which each agent monitors its neighbors for any sign of misbehavior. Later, we focus on solving the problem of distributed leader selection via forcing the agents to temporarily misbehave, and introduce an algorithm that enables the agents in a network to select their leader without any interference from the outside of the network.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 317.
    Sharif Razavian, Ali
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Robotik, perception och lärande, RPL.
    Convolutional Network Representation for Visual Recognition2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Image representation is a key component in visual recognition systems. In visual recognition problem, the solution or the model should be able to learn and infer the quality of certain visual semantics in the image. Therefore, it is important for the model to represent the input image in a way that the semantics of interest can be inferred easily and reliably. This thesis is written in the form of a compilation of publications and tries to look into the Convolutional Networks (CovnNets) representation in visual recognition problems from an empirical perspective. Convolutional Network is a special class of Neural Networks with a hierarchical structure where every layer’s output (except for the last layer) will be the input of another one. It was shown that ConvNets are powerful tools to learn a generic representation of an image. In this body of work, we first showed that this is indeed the case and ConvNet representation with a simple classifier can outperform highly-tuned pipelines based on hand-crafted features. To be precise, we first trained a ConvNet on a large dataset, then for every image in another task with a small dataset, we feedforward the image to the ConvNet and take the ConvNets activation on a certain layer as the image representation. Transferring the knowledge from the large dataset (source task) to the small dataset (target task) proved to be effective and outperformed baselines on a variety of tasks in visual recognition. We also evaluated the presence of spatial visual semantics in ConvNet representation and observed that ConvNet retains significant spatial information despite the fact that it has never been explicitly trained to preserve low-level semantics. We then tried to investigate the factors that affect the transferability of these representations. We studied various factors on a diverse set of visual recognition tasks and found a consistent correlation between the effect of those factors and the similarity of the target task to the source task. This intuition alongside the experimental results provides a guideline to improve the performance of visual recognition tasks using ConvNet features. Finally, we addressed the task of visual instance retrieval specifically as an example of how these simple intuitions can increase the performance of the target task massively.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 318.
    Sharif Razavian, Ali
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Datorseende och robotik, CVAP.
    Aghazadeh, Omid
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Datorseende och robotik, CVAP.
    Sullivan, Josephine
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Datorseende och robotik, CVAP.
    Carlsson, Stefan
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Datorseende och robotik, CVAP.
    Estimating Attention in Exhibitions Using Wearable Cameras2014Inngår i: Pattern Recognition (ICPR), 2014 22nd International Conference on, Stockholm, Sweden: IEEE conference proceedings, 2014, , s. 2691-2696s. 2691-2696Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper demonstrates a system for automatic detection of visual attention and identification of salient items at exhibitions (e.g. museum or an auction). The method is offline and is done on a video captured by a head mounted camera. Towards the estimation of attention, we define the notions of "saliency" and "interestingness" for an exhibition items. Our method is a combination of multiple state of the art techniques from different vision tasks such as tracking, image matching and retrieval. Many experiments are conducted to evaluate multiple aspects of our method. The method has proven to be robust to image blur, occlusion, truncation, and dimness. The experiments shows strong performance for the tasks of matching items, estimating focus frames and detecting salient and interesting items. This can be useful to the commercial vendors and museum curators and help them to understand which items are appealing more to the visitors.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 319.
    Shi, Chao
    et al.
    Intelligent Robotics and Communications Laboratories, Advanced Telecommunications Research International.
    Shiomi, Masahiro
    Intelligent Robotics and Communications Laboratories, Advanced Telecommunications Research International.
    Smith, Christian
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Datorseende och robotik, CVAP. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Centrum för Autonoma System, CAS.
    Kanda, Takayuki
    Intelligent Robotics and Communications Laboratories, Advanced Telecommunications Research International.
    Ishiguro, Hiroshi
    Intelligent Robotics Laboratory, Osaka University.
    A model of distributional handing interaction for a mobile robot2013Inngår i: Robotics: Science and Systems IX, 2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports our research on developing a model for a robot distributing flyers to pedestrians. The difficulty is that potential receivers are pedestrians who are not necessarily cooperative; thus, the robot needs to appropriately plan its motion, making it is easy and non-obstructive for potential receivers to receive the flyers. In order to establish the model, we observed human interactions on distributional handing in the real world. We analyzed and evaluated different handing methods that people perform, and established a model for a robot to perform natural handing. The proposed model is implemented into a humanoid robot and is confirmed as effective in a field experimen

  • 320.
    Shi, Jiajun
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Robotik, perception och lärande, RPL.
    Yin, Wenjie
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Robotik, perception och lärande, RPL.
    Du, Yipai
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Robotik, perception och lärande, RPL.
    Folkesson, John
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Robotik, perception och lärande, RPL.
    Automated Underwater Pipeline Damage Detection using Neural Nets2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Pipeline inspection is a very human intensive taskand automation could improve efficiencies significantly. We propose a system that could allow an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), to detect pipeline damage in a stream of images.Our classifiers were based on transfer learning from pre-trained convolutional neural networks (CNN). This allows us to achieve good results despite relatively few training examples of damage. We test the approach using data from an actual pipeline inspection.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 321.
    Shilo, Albina
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS).
    Detection and tracking of unknown objects on the road based on sparse LiDAR data for heavy duty vehicles2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Environment perception within autonomous driving aims to provide a comprehensive and accurate model of the surrounding environment based on information from sensors. For the model to be comprehensive it must provide the kinematic state of surrounding objects. The existing approaches of object detection and tracking (estimation of kinematic state) are developed for dense 3D LiDAR data from a sensor mounted on a car. However, it is a challenge to design a robust detection and tracking algorithm for sparse 3D LiDAR data. Therefore, in this thesis we propose a framework for detection and tracking of unknown objects using sparse VLP-16 LiDAR data which is mounted on a heavy duty vehicle. Experiments reveal that the proposed framework performs well detecting trucks, buses, cars, pedestrians and even smaller objects of a size bigger than 61x41x40 cm. The detection distance range depends on the size of an object such that large objects (trucks and buses) are detected within 25 m while cars and pedestrians within 18 m and 15 m correspondingly. The overall multiple objecttracking accuracy of the framework is 79%.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 322. Shin, Su Ryon
    et al.
    Migliori, Bianca
    Miccoli, Beatrice
    Li, Yi-Chen
    Mostafalu, Pooria
    Seo, Jungmok
    Mandla, Serena
    Enrico, Alessandro
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Mikro- och nanosystemteknik. Harvard Medical School, United States.
    Antona, Silvia
    Sabarish, Ram
    Zheng, Ting
    Pirrami, Lorenzo
    Zhang, Kaizhen
    Zhang, Yu Shrike
    Wan, Kai-tak
    Demarchi, Danilo
    Dokmeci, Mehmet R.
    Khademhosseini, Ali
    Electrically Driven Microengineered Bioinspired Soft Robots2018Inngår i: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 30, nr 10, artikkel-id 1704189Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To create life-like movements, living muscle actuator technologies have borrowed inspiration from biomimetic concepts in developing bioinspired robots. Here, the development of a bioinspired soft robotics system, with integrated self-actuating cardiac muscles on a hierarchically structured scaffold with flexible gold microelectrodes is reported. Inspired by the movement of living organisms, a batoid-fish-shaped substrate is designed and reported, which is composed of two micropatterned hydrogel layers. The first layer is a poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogel substrate, which provides a mechanically stable structure for the robot, followed by a layer of gelatin methacryloyl embedded with carbon nanotubes, which serves as a cell culture substrate, to create the actuation component for the soft body robot. In addition, flexible Au microelectrodes are embedded into the biomimetic scaffold, which not only enhance the mechanical integrity of the device, but also increase its electrical conductivity. After culturing and maturation of cardiomyocytes on the biomimetic scaffold, they show excellent myofiber organization and provide self-actuating motions aligned with the direction of the contractile force of the cells. The Au microelectrodes placed below the cell layer further provide localized electrical stimulation and control of the beating behavior of the bioinspired soft robot.

  • 323.
    Sjöö, Kristoffer
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Datorseende och robotik, CVAP. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Centrum för Autonoma System, CAS.
    Functional understanding of space: Representing spatial knowledge using concepts grounded in an agent's purpose2011Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines the role of function in representations of space by robots - that is, dealing directly and explicitly with those aspects of space and objects in space that serve some purpose for the robot. It is suggested that taking function into account helps increase the generality and robustness of solutions in an unpredictable and complex world, and the suggestion is affirmed by several instantiations of functionally conceived spatial models. These include perceptual models for the "on" and "in" relations based on support and containment; context-sensitive segmentation of 2-D maps into regions distinguished by functional criteria; and, learned predictive models of the causal relationships between objects in physics simulation. Practical application of these models is also demonstrated in the context of object search on a mobile robotic platform.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 324. Smets, N. J. J. M.
    et al.
    Neerincx, M. A.
    Jonker, C. M.
    Båberg, Fredrik
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Datorseende och robotik, CVAP. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Centrum för Autonoma System, CAS.
    Ontology-based situation awareness support for shared control: Extended abstract2017Inngår i: ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, IEEE Computer Society , 2017, s. 289-290Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Situation Awareness (SA) during tele-operation in robot-assisted disaster management has a major impact on the effectiveness and efficiency. Data perceived by the human and robot agents should be processed and shared in such a way that these agents can understand and direct the other agent's behaviors. E.g., for safe and effective tele-operation, the human (team leader and/or operator) and robot need to be aware of (1) the state, location, position and movement of the robot platform and its arms, and (2) the state of robot's environment (such as obstacles, ...). This paper presents an SA-ontology that formalizes the effects of SA-components on the shared control performance. It is based on literature research, interviews with subject matter experts and a field test during a disaster management exercise. The SA-ontology captured all information needs for the teleoperation, and provided further requirements for SA-support functions.

  • 325.
    Smith, Christian
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Datorseende och robotik, CVAP. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Centrum för Autonoma System, CAS.
    Christensen, Henrik I.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Numerisk Analys och Datalogi, NADA.
    Robot Manipulators Constructing a High-Performance Robot from Commercially Available Parts2009Inngår i: IEEE robotics & automation magazine, ISSN 1070-9932, E-ISSN 1558-223X, Vol. 16, nr 4, s. 75-83Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a design study and technical specifications of a high performance robotic manipulator to be used for ball catching experiments using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components. Early evaluation shows that very good performance can be achieved using standardized PowerCube actuator modules from Amtec and a standard workstation using CAN bus communication. Implementation issues of low-level control and software platform are also described, as well as early experimental evaluation of the system.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Smith_RAM_2009
  • 326.
    Smith, Christian
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Datorseende och robotik, CVAP. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Centrum för Autonoma System, CAS.
    Christensen, Henrik I.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Centrum för Autonoma System, CAS.
    Using COTS to construct a high performance robot arm2007Inngår i: Proceedings - IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, IEEE , 2007, s. 4056-4063Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a design study and technical specifications of a high performance robotic manipulator to be used for ball catching experiments using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components. Early evaluation shows that very good performance can be achieved using standardized PowerCube actuator modules from Amtec and a standard workstation using CAN bus communication. Implementation issues of low-level control and software platform are also described, as well as early experimental evaluation of the system.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Smith_IROS_2007
  • 327.
    Smith, Christian
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Datorseende och robotik, CVAP. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Centrum för Autonoma System, CAS.
    Christensen, Henrik I.
    Wiimote Robot Control Using Human Motion Models2009Inngår i: 2009 IEEE-RSJ INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INTELLIGENT ROBOTS AND SYSTEMS, NEW YORK: IEEE , 2009, s. 5509-5515Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As mass-market video game controllers have become more advanced, there has been a recent increase in interest for using these as intuitive and inexpensive control devices. In this paper we examine position control for a robot using a wiimote game controller. We show that human motion models can be used to achieve better precision than traditional tracking approaches, sufficient for simpler tasks. We also present an experiment that shows that very intuitive control an be achieved, as novice subjects can control a robot arm through simple tasks after just a few minutes of practice and minimal instructions.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Smith_IROS_2009
  • 328.
    Smith, Christian
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Datorseende och robotik, CVAP. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Centrum för Autonoma System, CAS.
    Karayiannidis, Ioannis
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Datorseende och robotik, CVAP. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Centrum för Autonoma System, CAS.
    Nalpantidis, Lazaros
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Datorseende och robotik, CVAP. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Centrum för Autonoma System, CAS.
    Gratal, Javier
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Datorseende och robotik, CVAP. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Centrum för Autonoma System, CAS.
    Qi, Peng
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Datorseende och robotik, CVAP. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Centrum för Autonoma System, CAS.
    Dimarogonas, Dimos
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Centrum för Autonoma System, CAS.
    Kragic, Danica
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Datorseende och robotik, CVAP. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Centrum för Autonoma System, CAS.
    Dual arm manipulation-A survey2012Inngår i: Robotics and Autonomous Systems, ISSN 0921-8890, E-ISSN 1872-793X, Vol. 60, nr 10, s. 1340-1353Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advances in both anthropomorphic robots and bimanual industrial manipulators had led to an increased interest in the specific problems pertaining to dual arm manipulation. For the future, we foresee robots performing human-like tasks in both domestic and industrial settings. It is therefore natural to study specifics of dual arm manipulation in humans and methods for using the resulting knowledge in robot control. The related scientific problems range from low-level control to high level task planning and execution. This review aims to summarize the current state of the art from the heterogenous range of fields that study the different aspects of these problems specifically in dual arm manipulation.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 329.
    Smith, Christian
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Datorseende och robotik, CVAP. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Centrum för Autonoma System, CAS.
    Karayiannidis, Yiannis
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Datorseende och robotik, CVAP. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Centrum för Autonoma System, CAS.
    Optimal Command Ordering for Serial Link Manipulators2012Inngår i: 2012 12th IEEE-RAS International Conference on Humanoid Robots (Humanoids), IEEE Robotics and Automation Society, 2012, s. 255-261Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Reducing the number of cables needed for the actuators and sensors of humanoid and other robots with high numbers of degrees of freedom (DoF) is a relevant problem, often solved by using a common bus for all communication, which may result in bandwidth limitation problems. This paper proposes an optimized method to re-order the commands sent to the joint-local controllers of a high DoF serial manipulator. The proposed method evaluates which local controller would benefit the most from an updated command given a cost function, and sends a command to this controller. As is demonstrated in both simulation and in experiments on a real robot, the resulting scheme can significantly improve system performance, equivalent to increasing the communication frequency by up to 3 times.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    SmithHumanoids2012
  • 330.
    Smith, Christian
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Datorseende och robotik, CVAP. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Centrum för Autonoma System, CAS.
    Shi, Chao
    Advanced Telecommunications Research International.
    Shiomi, Masahiro
    Advanced Telecommunications Research International.
    Kanda, Takayuki
    Advanced Telecommunications Research International.
    Ishiguro, Hiroshi
    Osaka University.
    A model of handing interaction towards a pedestrian2013Inngår i: 8th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction (HRI), 2013, IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, s. 415-415Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This video reports our research on developing a model for a robot handing flyers to pedestrians. The difficulty is that potential receivers are pedestrians who are not necessarily cooperative; thus, the robot needs to appropriately plan its motion making it is easy and non-obstructive for potential receivers to receive the flyers. In order to establish a model, we analyzed human interaction, and found that (1) a giver approaches a pedestrian from frontal right/left but not frontal center, and (2) he simultaneously stops his walking motion and arm-extending motion at the moment when he hands out the flyer. Using these findings, we established a model for a robot to perform natural proactive handing. The proposed model is implemented in a humanoid robot and is confirmed as effective in a field experiment.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    SMITH_HRI_2013.pdf
  • 331.
    Song, Dan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Datorseende och robotik, CVAP. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Centrum för Autonoma System, CAS.
    Kyriazis, N.
    Oikonomidis, I.
    Papazov, C.
    Argyros, A.
    Burschka, D.
    Kragic, Danica
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Datorseende och robotik, CVAP. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Centrum för Autonoma System, CAS.
    Predicting human intention in visual observations of hand/object interactions2013Inngår i: 2013 IEEE International Conference On Robotics And Automation (ICRA), New York: IEEE , 2013, s. 1608-1615Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The main contribution of this paper is a probabilistic method for predicting human manipulation intention from image sequences of human-object interaction. Predicting intention amounts to inferring the imminent manipulation task when human hand is observed to have stably grasped the object. Inference is performed by means of a probabilistic graphical model that encodes object grasping tasks over the 3D state of the observed scene. The 3D state is extracted from RGB-D image sequences by a novel vision-based, markerless hand-object 3D tracking framework. To deal with the high-dimensional state-space and mixed data types (discrete and continuous) involved in grasping tasks, we introduce a generative vector quantization method using mixture models and self-organizing maps. This yields a compact model for encoding of grasping actions, able of handling uncertain and partial sensory data. Experimentation showed that the model trained on simulated data can provide a potent basis for accurate goal-inference with partial and noisy observations of actual real-world demonstrations. We also show a grasp selection process, guided by the inferred human intention, to illustrate the use of the system for goal-directed grasp imitation.

  • 332.
    Sprague, Christopher
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Robotik, perception och lärande, RPL.
    Özkahraman, Özer
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Robotik, perception och lärande, RPL.
    Munafo, Andrea
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Robotik, perception och lärande, RPL.
    Marlow, Rachel
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Robotik, perception och lärande, RPL.
    Phillips, Alexander Brian
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Robotik, perception och lärande, RPL.
    Ögren, Petter
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Robotik, perception och lärande, RPL.
    Improving the Modularity of AUV Control Systems using Behaviour Trees2018Inngår i: AUV 2018 - 2018 IEEE/OES Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Workshop, Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we show how behaviour trees (BTs) can be used to design modular, versatile, and robust control architectures for mission-critical systems. In particular, we show this in the context of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). Robustness, in terms of system safety, is important since manual recovery of AUVs is often extremely difficult. Further more, versatility is important to be able to execute many different kinds of missions. Finally, modularity is needed to achieve a combination of robustness and versatility, as the complexity of a versatile systems needs to be encapsulated in modules, in order to create a simple overall structure enabling robustness analysis. The proposed design is illustrated using a typical AUV mission.

  • 333. Srinivas, S.
    et al.
    Virk, Gurvinder
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Datorseende och robotik, CVAP. University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Haider, U.
    Multipurpose supernumerary robotic limbs for industrial and domestic applications2015Inngår i: 2015 20th International Conference on Methods and Models in Automation and Robotics, IEEE , 2015, s. 289-293Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Robotic exoskeleton arms have been around for a long time and they have successfully evolved from research prototypes to commercial products. Multipurpose supernumerary robotic limbs (MSRLs) have been recently introduced as new types of aids which do not directly replace missing limbs, but they are additional mechanical arms with changeable end-effectors which can be worn by the user to provide needed functionalities. This paper presents the mechanical design and kinematics modelling and control of a MSRL system. The MSRL presented could have good application in industrial and domestic situations.

  • 334.
    Stefansson, Thor
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Robotik, perception och lärande, RPL.
    3D obstacle avoidance for drones using a realistic sensor setup2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Obstacle avoidance is a well researched area, however most of the works only consider a 2D environment. Drones can move in three dimensions. It is therefore of interest to develop a system that ensures safe flight in these three dimensions. Obstacle avoidance is of highest importance for drones if they are intended to work autonomously and around humans, since drones are often fragile and have fast moving propellers that can hurt humans. This project is based on the obstacle restriction algorithm in 3D, and uses OctoMap to conveniently use the sensor data from multiple sensors simultaneously and to deal with their limited field of view. The results show that the system is able to avoid obstacles in 3D.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    3D obstacle avoidance for drones using a realistic sensor setup
  • 335.
    Stenbeck, Filip
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Mekatronik.
    Lobell, Oden
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Mekatronik.
    Localization and Mapping for Outdoor Mobile Robots with RTK GPS and Sensor Fusion: An Investigation of Sensor Technologies for the Automower Platform2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The following thesis addresses the problem of localizing an outdoor mobile robot and mapping the environment using the state of the art of consumer grade RTK GPS. The thesis investigates limitations and possibilities for sensor fusion to increase reliability and usability. The main subject of research is a robotic lawn mower from Husqvarna, the Automower 430x, connected to existing hardware on the product with an auxiliary real time kinematic global positioning system, the Emlid Reach. The test conducted showed that the auxiliary RTK GPS module is currently unsatisfactory as sole absolute position sensor for the Automower platform, mainly due to inconsistent performance. This thesis is meant as a preliminary study for future use of GNSS sensors for outdoor mobile robots and as a suggestive study of the current performance of the increasingly popular Emlid Reach GPS module.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 336.
    Stork, Johannes A.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Datorseende och robotik, CVAP. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Centrum för Autonoma System, CAS.
    Pokorny, Florian T.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Datorseende och robotik, CVAP. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Centrum för Autonoma System, CAS.
    Kragic, Danica
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Datorseende och robotik, CVAP. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Centrum för Autonoma System, CAS.
    A Topology-based Object Representation for Clasping, Latching and Hooking2015Inngår i: IEEE-RAS International Conference on Humanoid Robots (HUMANOIDS 2013), 2015, s. 138-145Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a loop-based topological object representation for objects with holes. The representation is used to model object parts suitable for grasping, e.g. handles, and it incorporates local volume information about these. Furthermore, we present a grasp synthesis framework that utilizes this representation for synthesizing caging grasps that are robust under measurement noise. The approach is complementary to a local contact-based force-closure analysis as it depends on global topological features of the object. We perform an extensive evaluation with four robotic hands on synthetic data. Additionally, we provide real world experiments using a Kinect sensor on two robotic platforms: a Schunk dexterous hand attached to a Kuka robot arm as well as a Nao humanoid robot. In the case of the Nao platform, we provide initial experiments showing that our approach can be used to plan whole arm hooking as well as caging grasps involving only one hand.

  • 337.
    Stork, Johannes A.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Datorseende och robotik, CVAP. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Centrum för Autonoma System, CAS.
    Pokorny, Florian T.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Datorseende och robotik, CVAP. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Centrum för Autonoma System, CAS.
    Kragic, Danica
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Datorseende och robotik, CVAP. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Centrum för Autonoma System, CAS.
    Integrated Motion and Clasp Planning with Virtual Linking2013Inngår i: 2013 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), IEEE , 2013, s. 3007-3014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we address the problem of simultaneous clasp and motion planning on unknown objects with holes. Clasping an object enables a rich set of activities such as dragging, toting, pulling and hauling which can be applied to both soft and rigid objects. To this end, we define a virtual linking measure which characterizes the spacial relation between the robot hand and object. The measure utilizes a set of closed curves arising from an approximately shortest basis of the object's first homology group. We define task spaces to perform collision-free motion planing with respect to multiple prioritized objectives using a sampling-based planing method. The approach is tested in simulation using different robot hands and various real-world objects.

  • 338.
    Stork, Johannes A.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Datorseende och robotik, CVAP.
    Pokorny, Florian T.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Datorseende och robotik, CVAP.
    Kragic, Danica
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Datorseende och robotik, CVAP.
    Towards Postural Synergies for Caging Grasps2013Inngår i: Hand Synergies - how to tame the complexity of grapsing: Workshop, IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA 2013), 2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Postural synergies have in recent years been successfully used as a low-dimensional representation for the control of robotic hands and in particular for the synthesis of force-closed grasps. This work proposes to study caging grasps using synergies and reports on an initial analysis of postural synergies for such grasps. Caging grasps, which have originally only been analyzed for simple planar objects, have recently been shown to be useful for certain manipulation tasks and are now starting to be investigated also for complicated object geometries. In this workshop contribution, we investigate a synthetic data-set ofcaging grasps of four robotic hands on several every-day objects and report on an analysis of synergies for this data-set.

  • 339.
    Sundvall, Paul
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Centrum för Autonoma System, CAS.
    Jensfelt, Patric
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Centrum för Autonoma System, CAS. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Datorseende och robotik, CVAP.
    Fault detection for mobile robots using redundant positioning systems2006Inngår i: 2006 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ROBOTICS AND AUTOMATION (ICRA), VOLS 1-10, NEW YORK, NY: IEEE , 2006, s. 3781-3786Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Reliable navigation is a very important part of an autonomous mobile robot system. This means for instance that the robot should not lose track of its position, even if unexpected events like wheel slip and collisions occur. The standard approach to this problem is to construct a navigation system that is robust in itself. This paper proposes that detecting faults can also be made outside the normal navigation system, as an additional fault detector. Besides increasing the robustness, a means for detecting deviations is obtained, which can be important for the rest of the robot system, for instance the top level planner. The method uses two or more sources of robot position estimates, and compares them to detect unexpected deviation without getting deceived by drift or different characteristics in the position systems it gets information from. Both relative and absolute position sources can be used. meaning that existing positioning systems already implemented can be used in the detector. For detection purposes, an extended Kalman filter is used in conjunction with a CUSUM test. The detector is able to not only detect faults, but also give an estimate of when the fault occurred, which is useful for doing fault recovery. The detector is easy to implement, as it requires no modification of existing systems. Also the computational demands are very low. The approach is implemented and demonstrated on a mobile robot, using odometry and a scan matcher as sources of position information. It is shown that the system is able to detect wheel slip in real-time.

  • 340.
    Svensson, Lars
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Inbyggda styrsystem.
    Masson, Lola
    Mohan, Naveen
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Inbyggda styrsystem.
    Ward, Erik
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Robotik, perception och lärande, RPL.
    Pernestål Brenden, Anna
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Feng, Lei
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Inbyggda styrsystem.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Inbyggda styrsystem.
    Safe Stop Trajectory Planning for Highly Automated Vehicles:An Optimal Control Problem Formulation2018Inngår i: 2018 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018, s. 517-522, artikkel-id 8500536Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Highly automated road vehicles need the capabilityof stopping safely in a situation that disrupts continued normaloperation, e.g. due to internal system faults. Motion planningfor safe stop differs from nominal motion planning, since thereis not a specific goal location. Rather, the desired behavior isthat the vehicle should reach a stopped state, preferably outsideof active lanes. Also, the functionality to stop safely needs tobe of high integrity. The first contribution of this paper isto formulate the safe stop problem as a benchmark optimalcontrol problem, which can be solved by dynamic programming.However, this solution method cannot be used in real-time. Thesecond contribution is to develop a real-time safe stop trajectoryplanning algorithm, based on selection from a precomputedset of trajectories. By exploiting the particular properties ofthe safe stop problem, the cardinality of the set is decreased,making the algorithm computationally efficient. Furthermore, amonitoring based architecture concept is proposed, that ensuresdependability of the safe stop function. Finally, a proof of conceptsimulation using the proposed architecture and the safe stoptrajectory planner is presented.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 341.
    Sylvan, Andreas
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID.
    Internet of Things in Surface Mount TechnologyElectronics Assembly2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Currently manufacturers in the European Surface Mount Technology (SMT) industry seeproduction changeover, machine downtime and process optimization as their biggestchallenges. They also see a need for collecting data and sharing information betweenmachines, people and systems involved in the manufacturing process. Internet of Things (IoT)technology provides an opportunity to make this happen. This research project gives answers tothe question of what the potentials and challenges of IoT implementation are in European SMTmanufacturing. First, key IoT concepts are introduced. Then, through interviews with expertsworking in SMT manufacturing, the current standpoint of the SMT industry is defined. The studypinpoints obstacles in SMT IoT implementation and proposes a solution. Firstly, local datacollection and sharing needs to be achieved through the use of standardized IoT protocols andAPIs. Secondly, because SMT manufacturers do not trust that sensitive data will remain securein the Cloud, a separation of proprietary data and statistical data is needed in order take a stepfurther and collect Big Data in a Cloud service. This will allow for new services to be offered byequipment manufacturers.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 342.
    Tajvar, Pouria
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Robotik, perception och lärande, RPL.
    Varava, Anastasiia
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Robotik, perception och lärande, RPL.
    Kragic, Danica
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Robotik, perception och lärande, RPL.
    Tumova, Jana
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Robotik, perception och lärande, RPL.
    Robust motion planning for non-holonomicrobots with planar geometric constraints2019Inngår i: Proceedings of the ISRR2019, 2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a motion planning algorithm for cases where geometry of the robot cannot be neglected and where its dynamics are governed by non-holonomic constraints. While the two problems are classically treated separately, orientation of the robot strongly affects its possible motions both from the obstacle avoidance and from kinodynamic constraints perspective. We adopt an abstraction based approach ensuring asymptotic completeness. To handle the complex dynamics, a data driven approach is presented to construct a library of feedback motion primitives that guarantee a bounded error in following arbitrarily long trajectories. The library is constructed along local abstractions of the dynamics that enables addition of new motion primitives through abstraction refinement. Both the robot and the obstacles are represented as a union of circles, which allows arbitrarily precise approximation of complex geometries. To handle the geometrical constraints, we represent over- and under-approximations of the three-dimensional collision space as a finite set of two-dimensional "slices" corresponding to different intervals of the robot's orientation space. Starting from a coarse slicing, we use the collision space over-approximation to find a valid path and the under-approximation to check for  potential path non-existence. If none of the attempts are conclusive, the abstraction is refined. The algorithm is applied for motion planning and control of a rover with slipping without its prior modelling.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 343.
    Tang, Jiexiong
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Robotik, perception och lärande, RPL. KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Centra, Centrum för autonoma system, CAS.
    Ericson, Ludvig
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Robotik, perception och lärande, RPL. KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Centra, Centrum för autonoma system, CAS.
    Folkesson, John
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Robotik, perception och lärande, RPL. KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Centra, Centrum för autonoma system, CAS.
    Jensfelt, Patric
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Robotik, perception och lärande, RPL. KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Centra, Centrum för autonoma system, CAS.
    GCNv2: Efficient Correspondence Prediction for Real-Time SLAM2019Inngår i: IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, ISSN 2377-3766, E-ISSN 1949-3045, Vol. 4, nr 4, s. 3505-3512Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this letter, we present a deep learning-based network, GCNv2, for generation of keypoints and descriptors. GCNv2 is built on our previous method, GCN, a network trained for 3D projective geometry. GCNv2 is designed with a binary descriptor vector as the ORB feature so that it can easily replace ORB in systems such as ORB-SLAM2. GCNv2 significantly improves the computational efficiency over GCN that was only able to run on desktop hardware. We show how a modified version of ORBSLAM2 using GCNv2 features runs on a Jetson TX2, an embedded low-power platform. Experimental results show that GCNv2 retains comparable accuracy as GCN and that it is robust enough to use for control of a flying drone. Source code is available at: https://github.com/jiexiong2016/GCNv2_SLAM.

  • 344.
    Tang, Jiexiong
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Robotik, perception och lärande, RPL.
    Folkesson, John
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Robotik, perception och lärande, RPL.
    Jensfelt, Patric
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Robotik, perception och lärande, RPL.
    Sparse2Dense: From Direct Sparse Odometry to Dense 3-D Reconstruction2019Inngår i: IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, ISSN 2377-3766, E-ISSN 1949-3045, Vol. 4, nr 2, s. 530-537Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this letter, we proposed a new deep learning based dense monocular simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) method. Compared to existing methods, the proposed framework constructs a dense three-dimensional (3-D) model via a sparse to dense mapping using learned surface normals. With single view learned depth estimation as prior for monocular visual odometry, we obtain both accurate positioning and high-quality depth reconstruction. The depth and normal are predicted by a single network trained in a tightly coupled manner. Experimental results show that our method significantly improves the performance of visual tracking and depth prediction in comparison to the state-of-the-art in deep monocular dense SLAM.

  • 345.
    Tao, Jiangpeng
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS).
    3D LiDAR based Drivable Road Region Detection for Autonomous Vehicles2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate and robust perception of surrounding objects of interest, such as onroad obstacles, ground surface, curb and ditch, is an essential capability for path planning and localization in autonomous driving. Stereo cameras are often used for this purpose. Comparably, 3D LiDARs directly provide accurate depth measurements of the environment without the need for association of pixels in image pairs. In this project, disparity is used to bridge the gap between LiDAR and stereo cameras, therefore efficiently extracting the ground surface and obstacles from 3D point cloud in the way of 2D image processing. Given the extracted ground points, three kinds of features are designed to detect road structures with large geometrical variation, such as curbs, ditches and grasses. Based on the feature result, a robust regression method named least trimmed squares is used to fit the final road boundary. The proposed approach is verified with the real dataset from a 64-channel LiDAR mounted on Scania bus Klara, as well as the KITTI road benchmark, both achieving satisfying performances in some particular situations.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 346.
    Tardioli, Danilo
    et al.
    University of Zaragoza.
    Parasuraman, Ramviyas
    University of Georgia.
    Ögren, Petter
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Robotik, perception och lärande, RPL.
    Pound: A multi-master ROS node for reducing delay and jitter in wireless multi-robot networks2019Inngår i: Robotics and Autonomous Systems, ISSN 0921-8890, E-ISSN 1872-793X, Vol. 111, s. 73-87Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Robot Operating System (ROS) is a popular and widely used software framework for building robotics systems. With the growth of its popularity, it has started to be used in multi-robot systems as well. However, the TCP connections that the platform relies on for connecting the so-called ROS nodes presents several issues regarding limited-bandwidth, delays, and jitter, when used in wireless multi-hop networks. In this paper, we present a thorough analysis of the problem and propose a new ROS node called Pound to improve the wireless communication performance by reducing delay and jitter in data exchanges, especially in multi-hop networks. Pound allows the use of multiple ROS masters (roscores), features data compression, and importantly, introduces a priority scheme that allows favoring more important flows over less important ones. We compare Pound to the state-of-the-art solutions through extensive experiments and show that it performs equally well, or better in all the test cases, including a control-over-network example.

  • 347. Tavallaey, Shiva Sander
    et al.
    Ganz, Christopher
    R&D Digital Lead ABB Zürich, Switzerland .
    Automation to Autonomy2019Inngår i: Proceedings of  the 2019 24th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA, 2019, s. 31-34Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a tremendous technology push as well as business pull towards autonomous systems, somehow recasting the automation industry as we know it. While the usage of data-driven approaches in consumer products affecting our lives in all its aspects seems to be a non-reversible movement covering the big portion of the life on the globe, there still remain some technical, commercial, societal and ethical challenges to be solved in industrial application. In this talk we will share our (ABBs) experiences and learnings from this extremely exciting transformation.

  • 348.
    Tegin, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.).
    Wikander, Jan
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.).
    Iliev, Boyko
    Örebro University, Sweden .
    A sub 1000 Euro robot hand for grasping: Design, simulation and evaluation2008Inngår i: Advances in Mobile Robotics - Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Climbing and Walking Robots and the Support Technologies for Mobile Machines, CLAWAR 2008, 2008, s. 828-835Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A subset of grasps useful for service robots were identified and a low-cost robotic hand was designed and assembled to execute those. Dynamic simulation allows control algorithms to be efficiently developed and enables testing also in simulation. The performance of the actual hand is evaluated. The bill of materials, assembly instructions, drawings, and CAD-files are all available on the Internet (www.md.kth.se/kthand) to facilitate for those wishing to build their own sub € 1000 robot hand for service robotics research and development.

  • 349.
    Thippur, Akshaya
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Datorseende och robotik, CVAP. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Centrum för Autonoma System, CAS.
    Ambrus, Rares
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Datorseende och robotik, CVAP. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Centrum för Autonoma System, CAS.
    Agrawal, G.
    Del Burgo, Adria Gallart
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Datorseende och robotik, CVAP. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Centrum för Autonoma System, CAS.
    Ramesh, J. H.
    Jha, M. K.
    Akhil, M. B. S. S.
    Shetty, N. B.
    Folkesson, John
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Datorseende och robotik, CVAP. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Centrum för Autonoma System, CAS.
    Jensfelt, Patric
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Datorseende och robotik, CVAP. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Centrum för Autonoma System, CAS.
    KTH-3D-TOTAL: A 3D dataset for discovering spatial structures for long-term autonomous learning2014Inngår i: 2014 13th International Conference on Control Automation Robotics and Vision, ICARCV 2014, IEEE , 2014, s. 1528-1535Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Long-term autonomous learning of human environments entails modelling and generalizing over distinct variations in: object instances in different scenes, and different scenes with respect to space and time. It is crucial for the robot to recognize the structure and context in spatial arrangements and exploit these to learn models which capture the essence of these distinct variations. Table-tops posses a typical structure repeatedly seen in human environments and are identified by characteristics of being personal spaces of diverse functionalities and dynamically changing due to human interactions. In this paper, we present a 3D dataset of 20 office table-tops manually observed and scanned 3 times a day as regularly as possible over 19 days (461 scenes) and subsequently, manually annotated with 18 different object classes, including multiple instances. We analyse the dataset to discover spatial structures and patterns in their variations. The dataset can, for example, be used to study the spatial relations between objects and long-term environment models for applications such as activity recognition, context and functionality estimation and anomaly detection.

  • 350.
    Topp, Elin A.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Centrum för Autonoma System, CAS.
    Christensen, Henrik I.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Centrum för Autonoma System, CAS.
    Topological modelling for human augmented mapping2006Inngår i: 2006 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Vols 1-12, NEW YORK: IEEE , 2006, s. 2257-2263Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Service robots designed for domestic settings need to navigate in an environment that they have to share with their users. Thus, they have to be able to report their current state and whereabouts in a way that is comprehensible for the user. Pure metric maps do not usually correspond to the understanding of the environment a user would provide. Thus, the robotic map needs to be integrated with the human representation. This paper describes our framework of Human Augmented Mapping that allows us to achieve this integration. We propose further a method to specify and represent regions that relate to a user's view on the environment. We assume an interactive setup for the specification of regions and show the applicability of our method in terms of distinctiveness for space segmentation and in terms of localisation purposes.

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