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  • 301. Ngirane-Katashaya, G.
    et al.
    Kizito, Frank William
    Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda .
    Thunvik, Roger
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630), Miljögeokemi och ekoteknik.
    Decision Support Systems for Water Resources Management in Uganda: The Need2007Inngår i: Sustainable Development of Water Resources, Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation: Proceedings of the 32nd WEDC International Conference, 2007, s. 267-270Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Water is a major factor in the socio-economic fabric of Ugandan society and a major determinant of the development potential of the country. However, management of water resources is a complex problem that typically involves a variety of stakeholder interests and environmental uncertainties. The plurality of concerns establishes a pressing need for improved planning and management capabilities, and in this respect it has been noted that decision-making related to water resource management would benefit from engineering expertise combined with suitable use of informatics. In spite of rapidly advancing computer technology and the proliferation of software for decision support, relatively few Decision Support Systems have been developed, implemented, and evaluated in the field of water resources management in Uganda. Such tools need to be structured to fit in with existing policy frameworks in Uganda?s water sector, and should be tailored to the local conditions prevailing in the country.

  • 302.
    Nickman, Alireza
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Predicting locations sensitive to flash flooding along forest roads considering physical catchment descriptors2013Inngår i: Comprehensive Flood Risk Management: Research for Policy and Practice, Taylor & Francis Group, London, 2013, s. 215-222Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Roads influence the hydrologic response of a watershed as they affect the water regime.This is important especially during extreme precipitation events in critical spots of roads and watersheds.This study suggests a method to analyze watershed characteristics and road descriptors, so-called PhysicalCatchment Descriptors (PCDs), for prediction of flood risk along roads. The method was developed andtested in a Geographical Information System using topographical, geological and road data from an areain W Sweden having experienced severe road flooding during an intensive rain event.The results show that there are two categories of intrinsic descriptors which are useful for prediction of criticalspots prone to flooding along roads in a watershed: (a) watershed-related descriptors and (b) road-relateddescriptors. Analysis of superimposed combinations of these two categories of descriptors can be used foridentification and pre-evaluation of critical spots with high risk of flooding in watersheds containing roads.

  • 303.
    Nickman, Alireza
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik. KTH/ The Royal Institute of Technology.
    Road disasters? Modeling and assessment of Swedish roads within crucial climate conditions2016Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    An efficient maintenance of roads to ensure high accessibility and durability of the transport capacity requires an understanding of how the hydrological response depends on both the road and the landscape characteristics. New methods and data were used to identify and explain interaction between roads and surrounding environment and their influence on hydrologic responses both in watershed scale and road-section scale. In the watershed scale, flood hazard probability was made with reference to the most influential physical catchment descriptors and road characteristics. Additionally, a physical based model was used to estimate the effect of road topography on the hydrological responses of 20 watersheds to storms with different intensities. A simple method was developed and discussed to address flood risk probability in the road-stream crossings concerning the correlation between the quantities of the physical catchment descriptors and occurrence/absence of flooding. The most influential factors in describing the probability of flooding along the roads were topographic wetness index, soil properties, road density and channel slopes. A detailed study of simulated flow duration curves showed differences between the 20 watersheds for three different storms based on topography with and without roads. An increase in peak flow and reduced time to pick occurred with existence of roads and increased storm intensity.In the road-section scale, an uncertainty-based simulation approach was used to identify the most influencing processes in controlling the dynamics of the groundwater level. A model (CoupModel) set up with four different geological stratifications was made to model two positions in a slope upstream of a road with drainage pipes and ditches. Results from the simulations indicate the significance of precipitation rate, road drainage and position in hillslope, and soil properties and stratifications in controlling groundwater levels. The same model was also applied to simulate soil moisture and temperature dynamics in two road sections by using groundwater and climate data. Porous media properties were obtained as statistical distribution function that provided the best performance of moisture and temperature dynamic in the road layers and underlying soil.

  • 304.
    Nickman, Alireza
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    The role of roads on hydrological response: Modeling and assessment for Swedish watersheds2014Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the role of road networks in alteration of hydrological responses is crucial for maintaining the accessibility and durability of road infrastructures. Road construction is one of the most common man made disturbances to a landscape. However, still the quantitative role of road topographical and geo-morphological properties on the hydrological response

    of storms in catchments is only partially understood. The aim of this study was to use new methods to estimate and quantify the flood hazard probability with reference to the most influential physical catchment descriptors and road characteristics. In addition physical based modelling was used to estimate the effect of road topography on the hydrological responses of watersheds to storms with different intensities. A simple method was developed and discussed to address the most susceptible locations to flooding along the roads. Multivariate statistical analysis (PLS) employed to quantify the flood risk probability in the road-stream crossings concerning the correlation between the quantities of the physical catchment descriptors and occurrence/absence of flooding. The most influential factors in describing the probability of flooding along the roads were topographic wetness index, soil properties, road density and channel slopes. A detailed study of simulated flow duration curves showed differences between 20 watersheds for three different storms based on a digital elevation data with and without roads. An increase in peak flow and reduced delay occurred with increased storm intensity. However, the impact of the roads was much smaller and only possible to identify by detailed examination of statistical descriptors.

  • 305.
    Nilsson, Måns
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms). Stockholm Environment Institute, Sweden.
    Nykvist, B.
    Governing the electric vehicle transition - Near term interventions to support a green energy economy2016Inngår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 179, s. 1360-1371Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper seeks to better understand how one plausible development in a green energy economy transition of the transport sector can be governed: a breakthrough of battery-electric vehicles (BEV). Drawing on recent results and lessons from BEV studies at local, national and regional scales, the paper presents two alternative scenarios of BEV uptake until 2030 - one incremental growth scenario and one breakthrough scenario. It then draws on the multilevel perspective (MLP) on socio-technical systems as an approach to identify the governance implications of the breakthrough scenario. Based on a characterisation of barriers and drivers at landscape, regime and niche levels, it identifies governance interventions to enable a BEV breakthrough. The results point towards a multidimensional governance approach that includes conventional policy instruments such as durable incentive policies, with a predictable mechanism for adjustment and phase-out, and mechanisms for mobilising investment finance for fast and super-fast charging and home charging along public roads. In addition, more innovation-systems oriented governance is required, such as familiarisation and experience building to ease cognitive barriers and build knowledge for both consumers and businesses, and supporting structural and technological change within automotive industries.

  • 306.
    Nilsson, Nina
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Effektiviserad fosforavskiljning: En studie på ett reningsverk i Vaxholm2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Occasionally, too high levels of total phosphorus have been measured in the outgoing water at Blynäs waste water treatment plant in Vaxholm. Consequently, there has been an interest to investigate how the separation of phosphorus can be made more effective. The aim of this report is to improve the precipitation strategy by analyzing the daily variations of phosphorus concentration in the incoming water. The result showed that there were no big differences in the daily variations of the concentration of total phosphorus. The result also showed some intervals during the day when the load of phosphorus was higher respectively lower. Two alternative solutions were discussed as suggestions for improving the precipitation strategy. The current system could either be optimized by taking the result of this project into account, or alternatively a machine that continually measures relevant information in the incoming water and, based on those values, adjusts the dose of precipitation chemicals could be purchased.

  • 307.
    Nordhammer, Caroline
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Stenberg, Amanda
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Etanol som drivmedel: En analys av etanolbränslets minskade användning och dess framtidsutsikter2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The use of biofuels within the Swedish transport sector has increased, although the use of ethanolhas decreased considerably since 2011. The purpose of this report is to examine why and onwhat grounds this decrease has occurred. Furthermore the report aims to discuss whether thisdevelopment is beneficial to reaching the climate goals of Sweden. The study focuses solely onethanol as a high proportion blend of E85 for road transportation and its future within theSwedish transport sector. The following questions have therefore been formulated: Why has thesale of ethanol (E85) decreased? Can ethanol (E85) be a tool for Sweden in order to reach itsclimate goals?

    In order to answer these questions, 12 interviews were conducted with different stakeholdersrelated to ethanol fuel. Stakeholders represented in this report are: organizations, authorities, fueldistributors, car manufacturers, scientists and purchasers. From the interviews, a number offactors that are assumed to have impacted the use of E85 were identified. The identified factorswere: the debate around the land use for ethanol production and its connection to increased foodprices and climate benefit, technical problems, increased operating costs, political means ofcontrol and pricing, and limited sales of new cars. It is probable that no single factor caused thedecrease in the use of E85, but that it was rather a combination of all of the aforementionedfactors over a certain period of time that lead to the decrease.

    In order for Sweden to reach its climate goals, three factors are significant: energy efficiency, adecrease in transportation and increased usage of renewable fuels must be implemented. E85could be part of the solution in order to reach these goals. There currently exists an infrastructurefor E85, which means that the goals can be reached in the short term, compared to electrification,which is considered to be a long term solution. Political means of control are crucial to the roleof the biofuel in the transition that is required to reach the goals, since they decide how E85 willbe able to compete on the fuel market going forward.

  • 308.
    Norin, Isabelle
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Unevik, Ingrid
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    SJÄLVFÖRSÖRJNING AV JORDBRUKSPRODUKTER I SVERIGE: Att föredra eller ej ur ett klimatperspektiv2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Människor har de senaste århundradena bidragit till ökade emissioner av klimatgaser, vilket i sin tur har bidragit till den klimatförändring som idag upplevs. Jordbruket står för en stor del av dessa emissioner och i takt med att befolkningen ökar sätts ytterligare press på jordbruket att kunna förse denna befolkningsökning med livsmedel. Samtidigt ökar detta även pressen på miljön. Syftet med denna rapport var att utröna huruvida det ur ett klimatperspektiv är mest fördelaktigt att Sverige har en hög självförsörjningsgrad på ett urval av jordbruksprodukter, eller om dessa bör produceras i de länder som de idag importeras ifrån. Detta utfördes genom jämförelse av olika studier som utfört livscykelanalyser på dessa jordbruksprodukter. Klimatpåverkan uttrycktes i koldioxidekvivalenter i de studerade livscykelanalyserna.

    Resultaten visade att självförsörjningsgraden i Sverige för de utvalda produkterna fläskkött, mjölk, nötkött, tomat och ägg varierade mellan 14 och 103 procent. För fläskkött erhölls den lägsta klimatpåverkan vid produktion i Danmark med inkluderad transport till Sverige. För nötkött visade resultaten att den lägsta klimatpåverkan uppkom vid produktion i Danmark, och för mjölk vid produktion i Tyskland. Resultatet för tomat visade att lägst klimatpåverkan erhölls vid produktion i Spanien, med transport till Sverige. För ägg var produktion i Sverige det alternativ som gav lägst emissioner och således den enda produkt, utifrån resultaten i denna rapport, där Sverige borde ha en hög självförsörjningsgrad.

    Stora variationer uppvisades i de olika studierna, både mellan och inom länderna, för respektive produkt. Det diskuterades huruvida en viss del av dessa variationer kunde härledas till olikheter i studiernas utformning, med olika systemgränser och inkluderade processer som exempel. Att transport till Sverige ej inkluderades i samtliga studier noterades som en svaghet för resultaten i denna rapport. Detta kunde mycket väl tänkas påverka resultaten i den utsträckning att det optimala landet för produktion ändrades, och således att självförsörjning i Sverige blev mer fördelaktigt.

    Aspekter för självförsörjning som ej är kopplade till klimatperspektivet diskuterades till viss del i denna rapport. För vissa av dessa kunde det tänkas att motstridiga rekommendationer uppstod jämfört med de resultat som presenterades som fördelaktiga ur ett klimatperspektiv. Andra aspekter som sociala och ekonomiska utelämnades i denna rapport. För framtida studier rekommenderas att fler aspekter än klimatpåverkan integreras för att få ett mer allomfattande resultat gällande vilken självförsörjningsgrad som bör gälla för Sverige. 

  • 309.
    Norin, Isabelle
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Unevik, Ingrid
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    SJÄLVFÖRSÖRJNING AV JORDBRUKSPRODUKTER I SVERIGE: Att föredra eller ej ur ett klimatperspektiv2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Människor har de senaste århundradena bidragit till ökade emissioner av klimatgaser, vilket i sin tur har bidragit till den klimatförändring som idag upplevs. Jordbruket står för en stor del av dessa emissioner och i takt med att befolkningen ökar sätts ytterligare press på jordbruket att kunna förse denna befolkningsökning med livsmedel. Samtidigt ökar detta även pressen på miljön. Syftet med denna rapport var att utröna huruvida det ur ett klimatperspektiv är mest fördelaktigt att Sverige har en hög självförsörjningsgrad på ett urval av jordbruksprodukter, eller om dessa bör produceras i de länder som de idag importeras ifrån. Detta utfördes genom jämförelse av olika studier som utfört livscykelanalyser på dessa jordbruksprodukter. Klimatpåverkan uttrycktes i koldioxidekvivalenter i de studerade livscykelanalyserna.

    Resultaten visade att självförsörjningsgraden i Sverige för de utvalda produkterna fläskkött, mjölk, nötkött, tomat och ägg varierade mellan 14 och 103 procent. För fläskkött erhölls den lägsta klimatpåverkan vid produktion i Danmark med inkluderad transport till Sverige. För nötkött visade resultaten att den lägsta klimatpåverkan uppkom vid produktion i Danmark, och för mjölk vid produktion i Tyskland. Resultatet för tomat visade att lägst klimatpåverkan erhölls vid produktion i Spanien, med transport till Sverige. För ägg var produktion i Sverige det alternativ som gav lägst emissioner och således den enda produkt, utifrån resultaten i denna rapport, där Sverige borde ha en hög självförsörjningsgrad.

    Stora variationer uppvisades i de olika studierna, både mellan och inom länderna, för respektive produkt. Det diskuterades huruvida en viss del av dessa variationer kunde härledas till olikheter i studiernas utformning, med olika systemgränser och inkluderade processer som exempel. Att transport till Sverige ej inkluderades i samtliga studier noterades som en svaghet för resultaten i denna rapport. Detta kunde mycket väl tänkas påverka resultaten i den utsträckning att det optimala landet för produktion ändrades, och således att självförsörjning i Sverige blev mer fördelaktigt.

    Aspekter för självförsörjning som ej är kopplade till klimatperspektivet diskuterades till viss del i denna rapport. För vissa av dessa kunde det tänkas att motstridiga rekommendationer uppstod jämfört med de resultat som presenterades som fördelaktiga ur ett klimatperspektiv. Andra aspekter som sociala och ekonomiska utelämnades i denna rapport. För framtida studier rekommenderas att fler aspekter än klimatpåverkan integreras för att få ett mer allomfattande resultat gällande vilken självförsörjningsgrad som bör gälla för Sverige. 

  • 310.
    Norrman, Jenny
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Soori, Sara
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Plastic Debris on Shores: An Evaluation of Collecting and Recycling Possibilities in Fiji2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Today plastic debris is found in significant amounts in all the Earth’s oceans. The issue of marine plastic debris becomes most visible for people when it is drifted to shores and ends up on beaches and in harbours. Therefore, this study aims to investigate if collecting plastic debris on shores in Fiji for recycling purposes can be justified from ecological, economical and social perspectives. Collection and recycling possibilities are investigated partly through a literature study and partly by interviews and observations in Fiji. Large-scale collection and recycling of plastics comes with many challenges. A reduction of shore-based plastic debris could over time result in an improvement from an ecological perspective, as long as the collection does not occur during nesting times. With current conditions, collection is hard to justify from an economical perspective and would require internalization of damage costs. Besides being time consuming, collection activities in communities have no apparent disadvantages and could therefore be motivated from a social perspective. In conclusion, the ecological and social effects are mainly positive. However, the economical perspective requires the corrections of market failures. 

  • 311.
    Olson, Gustaf Falk
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Gliniewicz, Vincent
    FYSISK MODELLERING AV IEEE 14-BUS TEST SYSTEM2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna rapport beskrivs uppförandet av en fysisk modell av ett växelströmsystem baserad på IEEE 14-bus referensmodell. Projektets resultat, en prototyp monterad på en tavla, ämnar tjäna ett pedagogiskt syfte för att kunna användas för studieändamål och har konstruerats efter önskemål från avdelningen Industrial Information and Control Systems (ICS) på KTH. Arbetet har framskridit genom att identifiera eftersträvade modellfunktioner, samt genom att välja adekvata komponenter utifrån bl.a. datorsimuleringar, budgetrestriktioner och fortlöpande tester. Mot denna bakgrund har slutprodukten konstruerats med avsikten att göra denna flexibel, säker, tilltalande och användarvänlig. Den resulterande modellen står att finna i en modifierad, förenklad, och anpassningsbar version av referensmodellen. Arbete kvarstår emellertid för att kunna använda modellen i undervisningssyfte. Styrningssystemets opålitlighet är i dagsläget en springande punkt. Det finns också utrymme att förbättra modellens överensstämmelse med ett verkligt elsystem. Slutligen bör modellen testas i det sammanhang den kommer att användas i, för att bättre identifiera dess styrkor och brister. 

  • 312.
    Ottosson, Simon
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Wahlgren, Fredrik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Optimization of Cavity Receiver Geometry with regards to Radiation Heat Loss2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In order to maximize the e ciency of power generation in concentrated solar power systems (CSP) it is de- sired to achieve as high a tempera- ture in the receiver as possible due to the use of the Sterling cycle to gen- erate power. This report investigates three di↵erent geometries for cavity receivers in CSP systems; cylindrical, conical and truncated conical. The goal has been to minimize the heat loss due to radiation. This was achieved through mathematical mod- eling with the help of MATLAB. Five di↵erent cases with regards to oper- ating temperature and proportions of the receiver where investigated for each of the three chosen geometries. It was found that the conical geometry minimized this heat loss in all except one case. 

  • 313.
    Palén, Jennifer
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    A literature study on the cleaning of streets in Stockholm city: The flow of snow and dust2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Stockholm, the capital of Sweden, is a big city with almost one million citizens. The city have got almost 4000 streets of different kinds and it is therefore important to see how the city's cleaning of streets is being managed. The surrounding environment is widely affected by it and a lot of money is being invested in the area since the city is interested in minimize its environmental impact. This study is a literature study which addresses the two largest parts in cleaning of streets, handling of street snow and street dust. It will elucidate how these two flows appears, interact and effect each other as well as how they circulate and recirculate in the city. The report will highlight that the city of Stockholm is doing a lot to minimize the environmental impacts of these flows but also discuss what the city can do to become even better within cleaning of streets from an environmental point of view. 

  • 314.
    Pang, Xi
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    Sallnäs, Ola
    Trubins, Renats
    Nordström, Eva-Maria
    Böttcher, Hannes
    Ecological network assessment of forest bioenergy options using the landscape simulator LandSim: a case study of Kronoberg, southern SwedenManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The need to adapt to climate change as well as to secure the supply of energy has led to a shift in energy consumption from fossil fuel to renewables. In this context, forest biomass is a resource that is increasingly utilised for bioenergy purposes in Sweden, which along with the extraction of industrial wood may conflict with other sustainability goals such as those related to biodiversity conservation. In order to balance between main sustainability objectives, land zoning policies and related management regimes has been proposed, differentiating between the main management categories protected areas, multi-purpose forestry and intensive forestry. The aim of this project was to develop methods and tools for integrated sustainability assessment of forest biomass extraction, in particular from bioenergy and biodiversity perspectives.

    For this purpose, the landscape simulator LandSim was developed and applied in a case study in Kronoberg County in southern Sweden. Forest growth and management was simulated in 5-year time steps for the period 2010-2110. The management followed two land zoning scenarios, one applying even-aged forestry on all forest land except for protected areas (EAF-tot), and one was applying continuous cover forestry on parts of the forest land, combined with protected areas and a shorter rotation time on the other parts (CCF-int). The outcome of the simulations was raster data on tree species, volume and age for each time step and scenario. From the outcome, harvested volumes and bioenergy feedstock yields were derived. The same outcome was used for an ecological network assessment, using the indicator Equivalent Connected Area (ECA) for two model species tied to mature and old coniferous and southern broadleaved forest, respectively.

    The results showed that the EAF-tot scenario implied higher yields of biomass feedstock for bioenergy than the CCF-int scenario, while the CCF-int scenario displayed more even yields over the years. By contrast, the CCF-int scenario performed substantially better than the EAF-tot scenario when it came to the ECA indicators. However, the CCF-int scenario involved a range of assumptions mirroring major uncertainties on habitat suitability, which yielded separate results and thus will need further exploration. Moreover, in order to support the model species and related biodiversity components, the forest management would need to allow larger areas to become suitable habitat, as well as to plan for habitat amount and connectivity on landscape scale in order to not only increase habitat size but also ECAs. Conclusively, the modelling framework linking the landscape simulator with the ecological network model could be used for integrated sustainability assessment of bioenergy options, integrating main policy concerns when assessing renewable energy options.

  • 315.
    Papalexandrou, Tryfon
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Integrated Energy Recovery Scenarios of Biomass Residues in the Non-interconnected Island of Crete: A Pre-Feasibility Study in Greece2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The cornerstone of our production system is based on the concept “take, make, waste”. Moreover, the manufacture of a product requires the input of energy and raw materials which produce waste and products. The latter ultimately end up becoming wastes. In other words, the root problem of this production system is that is designed on a linear, one-way cradle-to grave model (McDonough, W. and Braungart, M., 2002). This approach coupled with the population explosion and our thirst for growth has led to an unprecedented pressure to the environment. The consequences are multiple; climate change, dwindling energy resources and waste generation.

    This study lies in two pillars: the concept of sustainable development and the waste management hierarchy. The idea was how these two fundamental concerns (energy generation and waste production) could be tackled. This study assesses the availability of biomass residues and wastes in the off-grid island of Crete with the aim to ‘close the loop’ by converting waste to an energy resource. In addition, the exploration of the most sustainable energy generation solutions was attempted in order to drive forward the synergies between biomass waste production and energy generation.

    The collected information was extracted from the literature about agricultural, livestock, Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) and Industrial & Commercial (I&C) waste. It is also based on numerous interviews to waste management associations, the Greek Ministry of Rural Development & Food and all the Waste Water Treatment Plants in the island were analysed in order to shed light on the potential energy generation from all the aforementioned biomass sources and its contribution to the electric energy production system of Crete.

    It is considered that the biomass potential in Crete is a sleeping giant. There is considerable potential for biomass-to-energy technologies in Crete providing improved rural energy services based on agricultural residues. From the findings of this study it appears that the biomass potential is more than estimated in previous papers. Based on the findings it is concluded that the largest portion of Crete’s biomass potential is agricultural residues and animal wastes. The utilisation of low-cost biomass power in Crete could help provide cleaner, more efficient energy services and to reduce the island’s economic and environmental vulnerability. Biomass can provide both base load power and turn into liquid transportation fuels and contributes to reducing energy dependence due to import fuel from the mainland.

    In terms of the study’s goal to select the most sustainably viable biomass-to-energy technologies, that was based on the multi-criteria methodology. A number of integrated biomass-to-energy alternatives were assessed against technical, environmental, financial and social criteria with the aim to assist the regional authority’s decision making process of energy generation planning.

    From the final screening of the integrated biomass-to-energy alternatives it was concluded that the best in a descending order technologies from the regional authority’s standpoint are:

    • F - Anaerobic digestion & Fuel cell;

    • E – Anaerobic digestion & Gas engine;

    • C - Gasification & Gas engine;

    • A – Combustion & Steam turbine; and

    • B – Gasification & Steam turbine. 

  • 316.
    Parsanezhad, Pouriya
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geoinformatik och Geodesi.
    Ranhagen, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö.
    Ban, Yifang
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geoinformatik och Geodesi.
    Towards an Integrated Web-based Visualization Tool: A Comparative Survey of Visualization Techniques for Enhancing Stakeholders’ Participation in Planning2011Inngår i: Proceedings of SIGRAD 2011: Evaluations of Graphics and Visualization — Efficiency, Usefulness, Accessibility, Usability. November 17–18, 2011 KTH, Stockholm, Sweden / [ed] Thomas Larsson, Lars Kjelldahl & Kai-Mikael Jää-Aro, Linköping University Electronic Press, 2011, s. 61-68Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital visualization tools are widely used in planning nowadays around the world by various contributors to the field and in different planning scales. Visualization facilitates perception of underlying thoughts and objectives of planning alternatives and consequently assists with communication of the plan to different stakeholders. This, in turn, enables them to actively and efficiently participate in the procedure from the very initial stages to the implementation phase thanks to the insight provided by user-friendly visualization tools. Available visualization tools for planning, however, are either not integrated and efficient enough or too resource- or expertise-demanding and thus not entirely fulfilling the qualities mentioned above. This study is a search for a conceptual framework for an integrated web-based visualization tool. Web-accessibility diminishes temporal and spatial distance among the users and planning agents and provides the possibility for more participation in and interaction with planning projects. Within this study, major characteristics of an integrated tool have been investigated through literature, online resources, contacts with experts and practitioners, a survey over off-the-shelf products and comparative analysis of the outcomes. An evaluation cube was initially developed and used as the basis for provision of a set of dual criteria. A selection of visualization tools were examined against those criteria and results were demonstrated visually. Eventually, findings were used to provide a back-casted example of the integrated tool.

  • 317.
    PASQUIER, JEAN-BAPTISTE
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Remote surveys to monitor IDPs leaving displacement sites: A case study in the eastern DR Congo2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In the last 20 years, on-going conflicts in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and neighbouring countries have led to massive displacements. In the province of Nord-Kivu, epicentre of the crisis, there are currently 53 displacement sites that host about 185,000 Internally Displaced People (IDPs). IDPs tend to leave camps as soon as they consider their home villages to be safe. At the same time, camps are also being closed for political motivations, creating large flows of IDPs to unknown areas. The World Food Programme (WFP) and other humanitarian actors need to track returnees and understand their need for assistance. WFP conducts a monthly phone survey in Mugunga III, an IDP camp on the outskirts of Goma, the capital of Nord-Kivu. The main goal of this remote survey is to monitor the food security situation in the camp. However, this paper demonstrates that this innovative tool also proves successful in monitoring the situation of returnees and understanding the dynamics of their returns. This remote monitoring technology is expected to be even more useful when the authorities decide to close the camp. If the results are disseminated, an increase in government accountability should be observed. This research was conducted in collaboration with WFP in an attempt to extend the applications of high frequency survey data. To continue this research, methodological adjustments should be taken before considering applying the tool to another displacement site. 

  • 318.
    Pedrouso, A.
    et al.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Rúa de Lope Gómez de Marzoa s/n, Santiago de Compostela, Galicia E-15782, Spain.
    Trela, Jozef
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Val del Rio, A.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Rúa de Lope Gómez de Marzoa s/n, Santiago de Compostela, Galicia E-15782, Spain.
    Mosquera-Corral, A.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Rúa de Lope Gómez de Marzoa s/n, Santiago de Compostela, Galicia E-15782, Spain.
    Plaza, Elzbieta
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Performance of partial nitritation-anammox processes at mainstream conditions in an IFAS system2019Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 250, artikkel-id 109538Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The partial nitritation-anammox processes implementation in the main line of wastewater treatment plants would lead them closer to the energy autarky. With this purpose, an integrated fixed film activated sludge (IFAS) reactor was operated at pilot scale. Efficient nitrogen removal (72 ± 11%) was achieved for anaerobically pre-treated municipal wastewater at low temperature (21 – 15 °C), with a nitrogen removal rate of 37 ± 3 g N/(m3·d) at 15 °C. The ammonium oxidizing bacteria were more abundant in the activated sludge, while anammox bacteria were primarily located in biofilm attached onto the carriers surface. Nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) activity was similar between both fractions and its specific activity decreased more than that of other populations when the operating temperature was reduced. Furthermore, the IFAS operational strategy (aerobic/anoxic periods) allowed an efficient NOB activity suppression inside the reactor, which accounted only for the 10 – 20% of the maximum potential activity.

  • 319.
    Perennes, Marie
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Household plastic waste management in France: opportunities and barriers to niche innovations2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Due to their inherent properties including lightweight, versatility and low production costs, the production and use of plastic material is continually growing. Packaging is the primary application of plastic materials and plastic packaging represent a significant part of overall household waste generation. For several years, the reduction and avoidance of the negative impacts of waste on the environment and public health has been of major importance to the European Union environmental policies, with a long‐term vision to moving towards a recycling society. Yet, almost half of all postconsumer plastic packaging waste is still landfilled in France. Recently, a new national legislation has been implemented, with more strict recycling objectives, which should imply changes within the plastic waste management regime.

    Several technologies for plastic waste recycling are available, which can be broadly categorized into mechanical recycling and chemical recycling. However, the implementation of these technologies is influenced by the technological trajectory of the national waste management regime. The purpose of this thesis is to lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of the technological diffusion and transition processes within the regime, through the identification of the main factors impeding or driving the dispersion of these treatment techniques. The Multi-Level Perspective framework was used in order to address this question. This analyse includes a  description of the regime’s trends, tensions and characteristics, the identification and characterization of the main promising innovations and plastic recycling filières, the identification of the landscape key factors and the assessment of the development of the main niches at the regime level.

    This analyse reveals that the main innovations barriers are: the institutional, economical and technological dimensions, which provide inertia to the regime through a network of actors relatively indisposed to major changes, allow economical viability of recycling processes and investments in this field, and the historically predominance of landfill and incineration options and (more recently) mechanical recycling technologies.

    The main opportunities leading to potential windows of opportunities for innovation development are: the sustainability dimensions and security/affordability of the raw material supply concerns throughout the stakeholders, which have influenced a broad range of dimensions at the regime level, such as policy, cultural, financial and market dimensions. As the raw material supply price is increasing, recycling processes can become more commercially viable. The sustainability dimensions and the growing European harmonization over regulations have led to more strict national recycling objectives, which can provide windows of opportunities for radical recycling innovations.

    The results of this thesis could be used as a basis for policy recommendations as it provides a broad picture of the plastic waste management, with the main mechanisms involved and factors that have stimulated the occurrence of technological transitions within the existing regime and barriers to their development. Policies can be adapted to exploit‘ windows of opportunities’ and relax barriers for the development of alternative filières highlighted in this work. However, the system seems to be‘ locked in’ at multiple dimensions, mainly institutional and technological. These locks in would limit the influence of the policy dimension on waste management and therefore make the management of technological transitions difficult to achieve.

     

  • 320.
    Pereverza, Kateryna
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Resurser, energi och infrastruktur.
    Steering sustainability transitions? Modular participatory backcasting for strategic planning in the heating and cooling sector2019Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Fostering sustainability transitions in the heating and cooling sector is a necessary and urgent issue. Steering mechanisms can enable coordination of actions by different actors towards common sustainability goals. Previous studies have identified requirements relevant for such steering frameworks, but have not specifically addressed planning in the highly contextual heating and cooling sector. Participatory backcasting (PB) possesses a number of relevant characteristics for use as a planning framework in this sector, but its adaptability and potential impact first need to be addressed.

    This thesis sought to advance strategic planning in the heating and cooling sector by improving the adaptability, transparency and reflexivity of PB processes and extending their impact beyond individuals directly involved, so-called social scales of impact. Key research objectives of the present work were to: (1) develop a strategic planning framework for the heating and cooling sector based on PB and examine its adaptability to local contexts, (2) develop methods for scenario development, selection and analysis to allow for co-informing between modelling and participatory processes within PB-based strategic planning, and (3) identify factors that could influence the social scales of the impact of participatory strategic planning processes.

    Objectives 1 and 2 were pursued in a multiple case study involving transdisciplinary research over one-year PB-based planning processes in Bila Tserkva, Ukraine (Case I) and Niš, Serbia (Case II). The social scales of impact (Objective 3) were studied in a single case – a Swedish project aimed at advancing the practice of long-term planning in regions ‘Region 2050’ (Case III). In all cases, both theoretical and empirical research were conducted.

    The study proposes a novel framework, modular participatory backcasting (mPB), for strategic planning in the heating and cooling sector. The framework integrates principles of modularity, participatory modelling, and transdisciplinarity. The results of mPB implementation in Case I and Case II suggest that the framework has acceptable adaptability to local contexts. Greater reflexivity and transparency in the scenario development, selection and analysis were achieved by developing a morphological method and implementation of participatory modelling approaches. Finally, boundary spanning individuals, collaborations and institutional plurality were identified in Case III as important factors for broadening the social scales of impact of participatory strategic planning processes.

  • 321.
    Persson, Josefine
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Sellgren, Felicia
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    KOLLABORATIV KONSUMTION I NORRA DJURGÅRDSSTADEN: Hur den delande ekonomin kan bidra till hållbar stadsutveckling2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Kollaborativ konsumtion är en slags ekonomi som handlar om att människor konsumerar genom att hyra, dela, byta eller låna saker av varandra. Den här rapporten handlar om hur en sådan typ av konsumtion skulle kunna implementeras och utvecklas i stadsbebyggelse. För att undersöka detta gjordes en fallstudie över stadsdelen Norra Djurgårdsstaden som är ett stadsutvecklingsprojekt i Stockholm med fokus på miljö och hållbarhet. Där studerades i vilken utsträckning Stockholms stad har tagit med kollaborativ konsumtion i sitt hållbarhetsarbete samt vad som planeras göras i framtiden. Dessutom tog författarna till den här rapporten fram förslag på hur kollaborativ konsumtion skulle kunna utvecklas ännu mer i stadsdelen. Syftet med det här arbetet var således att genom fallstudien redogöra för hur kollaborativ konsumtion skulle kunna bidra till mer ekologisk och social hållbar stadsutveckling. Dessutom undersöktes vilka aktörer som skulle kunna tillhandahålla kollaborativ konsumtion och vilka som skulle använda sig av den i Norra Djurgårdsstaden.

    Resultatet i rapporten visar att Stockholms stad, och särskilt Östermalms stadsdelsförvaltning, redan idag arbetar med vissa typer av kollaborativ konsumtion i Norra Djurgårdsstaden. Exempelvis finns stads- och biodlingar och bilpooler. Stockholms stad satsar även mycket på utbildning och information till de boende för att inspirera till hållbarare livsstilar och därmed förändrade konsumtionsmönster. Det finns många utvecklingsmöjligheter för den delande ekonomin i Norra Djurgårdsstaden. Exempelvis skulle fler lokaler för olika typer av byteshandel kunna finnas, mer delande av transportmedel och även byten av tjänster mellan de boende i området (exempelvis barnpassning, rasta hunden, matlagning, och så vidare). Dessutom skulle fler samarbeten mellan Stockholms stad och andra aktörer, såsom företag och organisationer, kunna uppstå.

    Fallstudien visade att det finns en viss problematik när lokala beslutsfattare planerar för att skapa förändrade konsumtionsmönster hos de boende i en stadsdel eftersom sådan planering kan inskränka på människors egna val och personliga integritet. Planeringsarbete som handlar om att styra människors vardagsvanor är kontroversiellt. Samtidigt krävs det att människor förändrar sina livsstilar till att bli mer hållbara. Förvisso är det inte givet att en mer delande ekonomi i en stadsdel ger mer hållbarhet, men den här studien visar att det finns positiva effekter av kollaborativ konsumtion, både miljömässiga och sociala, och att den delande ekonomin har potential att utvecklas i stadsbebyggelse. 

  • 322. Petersen, Lovisa Eriksson
    et al.
    Singh, Archit
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Biogas: En systemanalys av Solna Stads matavfallsprocess2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Global warming is a huge issue that humans have contributed to through over-exploitation of natural resources and extensive usage of fossil fuels. Now more than ever, we need to embrace a recycle thinking and reuse our waste, for example through producing biogas from our food waste. The purpose of this report was therefore to identify the energy usage and emissions resulting from the biogas chain which spans from Solna Stad to Uppsala Vatten. Furthermore, potential efficiency improvements were to be identified and proposed. This report focused mainly on the first part of the biogas chain that includes the collection of the food waste and the reloading process. Gathering of information was done through study visits, interviews and literature studies.

    The transports accounted for a large part of the emissions and energy use. A reduction of these can be achieved by switching to more environmental friendly fuels. The useful energy obtained was higher for the reference alternative compared to the biogas process. However, social benefits were obtained from the biogas in the form of a renewable fuel and environmentally friendly manure. The energy usage during the winter months was significantly higher in the reloading facility compared to the summer due to heat leakage. A reduction of this can be achieved by building an accompanying construction with a high speed door in front of the reloading facility. 

  • 323. Peuportier, Bruno
    et al.
    Scarpellini, Sabina
    Glaumann, Mauritz
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Malmqvist, Tove
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Krigsvoll, Guri
    Wetzel, Christian
    Staller, Heimo
    Szalay, Zsuzsa
    Degiovanni, Valeria
    Stoykova, Evelina
    State of the art for use of LCA in building sector: Deliverable D2 of the project ENSLIC_BUILDING : Energy Saving through Promotion of Life Cycle Assessment in Buildings2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 324.
    Phumpiu, Patricia
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Vattenförvaltning.
    Water Institutional Development for the Water Sector in Honduras2005Inngår i: Proceedings World Water Week: Workshop 6, 2005Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 325.
    Phumpiu, Patricia
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Vattenförvaltning.
    Gustafsson, Jan-Erik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Vattenförvaltning.
    Policy Implementation in the Water and Sanitation Sector- Perspectives for Water Governance in Honduras2005Inngår i: Proceedings SIWI World Warter Week, 2005Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 326.
    Poulikidou, Sofia
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Assessing design strategies for improved life cycle environmental performance of vehicles2016Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicle manufactures have adopted different strategies for improving the environmental performance of their fleet including lightweight design and alternative drivetrains such as EVs. Both strategies reduce energy during use but may result in a relative increase of the impact during other stages. To address this, a lifecycle approach is needed when vehicle design strategies are developed. The thesis explores the extent that such a lifecycle approach is adopted today and assesses the potential of these strategies to reduce the lifecycle impact of vehicles. Moreover it aims to contribute to method development for lifecycle considerations during product development and material selection.

    Current practices were explored in an empirical study with four vehicle manufacturers. The availability of tools for identifying, monitoring and assessing design strategies was explored in a literature review. The results of the empirical study showed that environmental considerations during product development often lack a lifecycle perspective. Regarding the use of tools a limited number of such tools were utilized systematically by the studied companies despite the numerous tools available in literature.

    The influence of new design strategies on the lifecycle environmental performance of vehicles was assessed in three case studies; two looking into lightweight design and one at EVs. Both strategies resulted in energy and GHG emissions savings though the impact during manufacturing increases due to the advanced materials used. Assumptions relating to the operating conditions of the vehicle e.g. lifetime distance or for EVs the carbon intensity of the energy mix, influence the level of this tradeoff. Despite its low share in terms of environmental impact EOL is important in the overall performance of vehicles.

    The thesis contributed to method development by suggesting a systematic approach for material selection. The approach combines material and environmental analysis tools thus increases the possibilities for lifecycle improvements while minimizing risk for sub-optimizations.

  • 327.
    Poulikidou, Sofia
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Literature review: Methods and tools for environmentally friendly product design and development: Identification of their relevance to the vehicle design context2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 328.
    Poulikidou, Sofia
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys (flyttat 20130630). KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Overview and classification of Design for Environment tools – A diverse toolbox for vehicle developersManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Design for environment (DfE) tools, are defined as any type of systematised aid that facilitates the integration of environmental considerations during product development. A variety of DfE tools is available and informed selection based on the company’s, user’s and product’s needs is important for their successful implementation. Through systematic review of the literature, the goal of this paper is to provide a compilation of DfE tools that can be used during vehicle design and development processes. The review resulted in a rich and diverse toolbox of 41 DfE tools the majority of which exhibiting features that are relevant from a vehicle design perspective, such as environmental impacts that are important to monitor for this product category, life cycle considerations, functional and regulation requirements and more. No tool covers all features thus the use of a combination of tools may be necessary. By collecting and presenting the DfE tools available, this paper is expected to assist the adoption and systematic use of existing tools. Gaps and limitations are identified, indicating areas for improvement, for the development of future tools.

  • 329.
    Poulikidou, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms). KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Tools for sustainable product development: experience and requirements from the vehicle manufacturing industry in Sweden2013Inngår i: Perspectives on managing life cycles: Proceedings on the 6th International Conference on Life Cycle Management, 2013, s. 573-576Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an empirical study on the use of tools for sustainable product development at four vehicle manufacturing companies in Sweden. Different tools that are used in the studied companies are identified and listed while the obstacles and needs for an increased and successful use of those tools are discussed. The study shows that a limited number the identified tools are used in a systematic way, for instance product specific tools that monitor regulation requirements. Impact assessment tools are applied more centrally in the companies with less integration to the design process. However, interest on the available tools has increased and on the ways that such tools can assist and influence design decisions in a more efficient way.

  • 330.
    Poulikidou, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms). KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Tyskeng, Sara
    The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
    Empirical study on integration of environmental aspects into product development: processes, requirements and the use of tools in vehicle manufacturing companies in Sweden2014Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 81, s. 34-45Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An empirical study was conducted on integration of environmental aspects and requirements into four vehicle manufacturing companies in Sweden. The aim was to gain insights into how Design for Environment (DfE) is organised in these companies and, thus help bridge the gap between methodological development and practice. The processes for identifying and integrating environmental aspects into product development, the type of environmental requirements considered and the use of different types of DfE tools were investigated through semi-structured interviews.

    Despite similarities regarding the type of environmental requirements considered and the major drivers for these, the companies studied have adopted different ways to identify and integrate environmental requirements into their product development process and use DfE tools to differing extents. Such variations reflect differences in the success and maturity levels of the DfE practices adopted. When compared to success factors mentioned in the existing literature, the study concluded that some components needed for efficient integration of environmental aspects into the product development process of all participating companies are lacking. Some of the companies had a greater need for measures that would increase systematic integration of environmental requirements during design decisions. Others first need to establish the processes (in terms of people and use of supporting tools) that could enable such integration.

  • 331.
    Poulikidou, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Tyskeng, Sara
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Wennhage, Per
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg.
    Integration of environmental aspects in product design and development: An interview study of vehicle manufacturers in Sweden2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 332.
    Quin, Andrew
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Miljöbedömning och -förvaltning.
    Information, systems and water management: Information systems which support water management - cases from rural water supply in Uganda and WFD implementation in the North Baltic River Basin District, Sweden2012Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Successfulwater management implies tackling multi-level governance and improvingintegration between sectors. Sound information and related processes will berequired to support water management decision-making at these various levels.Additionally, considering Principle 10 of the UN’s Agenda 21, actors shouldhave access to information to enable their involvement in shaping watermanagement outcomes. This thesis draws on the results of two separate caseswhere information systems support action: (i) rural water supply in Uganda;and, (ii) water management according to the Water Framework Directive in Sweden.A research approach was formed based on: (a) a model conceptualising how informationsystems support organisational processes which lead to action; and, (b) asystems-thinking methodology. The results reveal that there are numerous,similar challenges to achieving information support for action in both theUgandan and Swedish cases. In both cases, information quantity and quality islimited; consequentially, the use of information to support action is inhibited.Furthermore, not all actors are involved in information system processes; in particular,local-level actors. Overall, there is limited support of strategic decision-makingand weak support of operational, or local, decision-making. The results suggestthat it might be possible to tailor strategic-level information processes tolocal needs, hopefully encouraging active involvement of local actors. Improvedinvolvement, together with a suitable systems approach, could be used to furtherdevelop information systems, improving integration between multiple levels ofgovernance and across sectors – suiting not just the needs ofstrategic decision-making but also the needs of operational, or local,decision-making.

  • 333.
    Qvarfordt, Johanna
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Utveckling av cykelnätet i Upplands Väsby kommun: En multikriterieanalys2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Transportsektorn är en av de största bidragare till klimatförändringar idag, där en stor andel är bilburna persontransporter under 5km. Många av dessa resor skulle kunna ersättas med cykel som både har folkhälsofördelar och är ett klimat- och miljöneutralt transportmedel. För att andelen cyklister ska kunna öka krävs att det finns en bra och tillgänglig cykelinfrastruktur. I länder som Holland och Danmark har den stora satsningen på cykelvänlig infrastruktur resulterat i att ett sort antal personer väljer att cykla istället för att åka bil. I detta arbete tas lösningar fram för att utveckla cykelnätet i Upplands Väsby kommun, vilket ska resultera i att fler resor företas med cykel. De vägar som inkluderas här är Ekebovägen och Valhallavägen samt en sträcka längs med Stockholmsvägen. Alla tre sträckor saknar idag cykelinfrastruktur och kommunen planerar att inom de närmaste åren åtgärda detta. En omfattande litteraturstudie utfördes i ämnet cykelinfrastruktur för att få en förståelse för hur förutsättningarna ser ut idag. Kunskapen om cykelinfrastruktur användes sedan för att ta fram ett antal hypotetiska lösningsförslag till de tre vägarna. Att designa infrastruktur är ett komplext problem och eftersom det idag inte finns några formella standarder, råd eller riktlinjer för cykelinfrastruktur i Sverige varierar kvalitén mellan kommunerna. För att utvärdera de olika lösningarna som tagits fram i detta arbete utfördes en multikriterieanalys. Analysverktyget strukturerar komplex information där lösningar ställs mot ett antal kriterier som definierar bra cykelinfrastruktur. Analysen resulterar sedan i ett svar på hur väl lösningarna uppfyller kriterierna och ger då en tydlig bild av vilka lösningar som är att föredra. Bland alla lösningar som togs fram för de tre vägarna, uppfyllde följande lösningar kriterierna bäst:

    • Ekebovägen- Dubbelriktad cykelbana på västsidan

    • Stockholmsvägen- Överfart över Stockholmsvägen i korsningen vid Smedbyvägen

    • Valhallavägen- En 2-1 väg längs med hela Valhallavägen

      Resultaten i analysen skiljer sig dock lite bland lösningsalternativen som rankats mellan 1 och 5, därför bör alla de lösningarna anses som användbara och utgöra underlag för ytterligare utveckling och utvärdering. Förslaget är att sätta in de användbara lösningarna i ett bredare kontext där hänsyn tas till hela vägprojektet så att även gång- och motortrafikanter inkluderas. 

  • 334.
    Raouz, Khalid
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Mrad, Abeer
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Nätanslutning av Solcellsanläggning i Husby: Feasibility Study of Grid-Tied Solar Cells in Husby2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Den senaste FN-rapporten som utfördes av IPCC sätter punkt på faktumet att katastrofala klimatförändringar kan undvikas utan märkbar inverka på levnadsstandarden. Det gör förnybar energi till den billigaste och minst riskabla vägen till en fossilfri framtid. Detta motiverar intresset för att undersöka lönsamheten i solcellsanläggningar för elnätinmatning. I detta arbete dimensionerades Husbybadet för solcellsinstallation. Grundtanken var att Husbybadet ska både försörja sig genom solel och mata in till elnätet vid överskott. Anläggningen studerades för solcellsmontering och monteringsytorna valdes utifrån deras riktning. Den maximaltinstallerade dc-effekten på Husbybadet beräknades till 69 kWp 1 med en inmatningseffekt till elnätet på 51 kW. Skillnaden beror på att anläggningen underdimensionerades. Underdimensionering tillåts när solcellerna har horisontell och vertikal montering. Något som hindrar solcellerna från att generera märkeffekten. Enligt växelriktarnas tillverkare så kan överbelastningen av omriktarna uppgå till 30 % av deras maximala dc-effekt. Anläggningen underdimensionerades eftersom sannolikheten att solcellerna skulle generera sin maximala effekt bedömdes vara låg. Komponenterna som valdes för anläggningens design redovisas tillsammans med en kostnadskalkyl på dessa. Energiförlusterna från ledningarna beräknades och ställdes mot den beräknade årliga energiproduktionen. Växelriktarna som användes var trefasiga och uppfyllde anslutningskraven som ställs av den svenska elstandarden. I brist på information om installationspriser för solcellsanläggningar användes marknadspriser för nyckelfärdiga solcellsanläggningar. Priset som användes är 20000 kronor för varje installerad kWp. Investeringskostnaden beräknades till 1,4 Mkr inklusive komponenter och arbete. Det statliga stödet är på 35 % och reducerar investeringskostnaden till 910 kkr. Anläggningens återbetalningstid beräknades till ca 26 år. 

  • 335.
    Rashid, Farhana
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Assessing resilience of agricultural system of Dhaka, Bangladesh2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 poäng / 120 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Due to rapid urbanization agricultural lands in metropolitan areas are shrinking.  As a result our cities are getting more dependent on distant places for food, which is making the food system vulnerable. In the context of rapid urbanization and climate change a resilient agricultural system of Dhaka could be one of the key to ensure a sustainable future. To investigatethe impact of urbanization and climate change on the resilience of the agricultural system of Dhaka a resilience assessment of agricultural system of Dhaka has been done. The study followed the resilience assessment wordbook for practitioner as method of assessment. As methods to collect and analyze data field studies, interview, GIS analysis, policy analysis were conducted. This study shows that, urbanization is directly responsible for changes in both quality and quantity of the agricultural land of Dhaka whereas climate change does not affect directly. Even with this rapid urbanization there is still scope to take measures to make agricultural system resilient by preserving land within Dhaka metropolitan area. Therefore two Strategies have been proposed. First one is; increasing local food production without administrative reformation and the second; reducing the future demand by administrative and economic decentralization of Dhaka. Both of the strategies will require strong political will along with recognition of importance of agricultural land within the city boundary. 

  • 336.
    Reniers, Jorn
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Analysis of a real-time signal for greenhouse gas emissions of district heating consumption2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The district heating system (DHS) of Stockholm is one of the largest systems in the world with a total yearly production of 10TWh of heat and 2TWh of electricity (through combined heat and power plants). Large amounts of greenhouse gasses (GHG) are emitted to produce this heat and electricity. Given the goal of the City of Stockholm to reduce the amount of GHG emissions to 3 ton per capita in 2015 and to keep reducing emissions at a similar rate after 2015, it is important to identify the potentials for further reductions.

    Numerous studies have been done on how the DHS can become more sustainable by installing new generation units. However, also the consumers have an influence on the DHS. After all, it are the consumers who decide when and how much heat or electricity they use. Most former studies and environmental guidelines for the DHS in Stockholm focussed on the producer side.

    This thesis looks at the consumer perspective of the (heat of the) district heating system. A real-time signal giving the greenhouse gas emissions of individual households is developed and its potential and challenges are discussed. With this signal, households that want to minimise their environmental impact have a tool to decrease their environmental impact by changing their consumption. This can be a first step to transform the DHS to a smart district heating system.

    First, generic models to calculate the dynamic greenhouse gas intensity of the heat production of district heating and to calculate the greenhouse gas emissions related to the heat consumption of households are suggested. Then the feedback signal with those real-time household emissions is calculated for representative households in Stockholm based on data of Stockholm’s DHS and data about hot tap water consumption in Sweden. Results indicate that variations in household level greenhouse gas emissions mostly reflect changes in consumption but can also result from changes by the producer. Intraday variations are mostly caused by changes in hot tap water consumption, while variations on a timescale of a few days are caused by changes in heating consumption (changing weather) and changes made by the producer (to use different fuels).

    Then several scenarios are calculated, each scenario looking at the actions a consumer can take to shift or reduce his/her consumption (decrease hot tap water usage, lower indoor temperature etc.). The real-time household emissions are calculated again to see if the signal gives the needed incentives (is the household rewarded for its effort? Does it get further incentives?). It was found that a strong time-incentive (to decrease consumption when it saves most emissions) is missing if the average perspective is used to calculate the emission intensity of the heat production. Also, the results confirmed the finding that the feedback signal might not reflect changes in consumption.

    Finally, challenges for the signal are discussed. One of the major hurdles is the fact that household consumption of heat (heating and hot tap water) can often not be measured on a household level. Thus, it has to be estimated but it seems very difficult to get this estimation accurate enough to give correct feedback to households, especially about the emissions saved by their efforts to reduce/shift their consumption. Secondly, the time resolution should be chosen well to still get accurate results but not make the signal to data-intensive. Finally, the result is heavily dependent on the chosen methodology (average or marginal perspective? Do you account for the electrical side of the DHS? How about the distribution losses? Etc.). 

  • 337.
    Richter, Vide
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Assessing greenhouse gas emissions from Swedish Production: A study on the possibility to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions from the ten most valuable production categories in Sweden2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Industrialised and developing countries face an urgent challenge to decouple economic growth and greenhouse gas emissions. The aim of this study is to investigate where the largest potentials are to the Swedish industry decrease greenhouse gas emissions without increasing their costs. To limit the scope of the study is made by assessing the 10 largest categories of production by value sold in Sweden. The objectives are to investigate: (a) which the 10 largest categories are; (b) how much the productions of the products in the categories emit and where in the production those emissions come from; and (c) if policies or other actions can help lowering the amount emitted. For (a) statistics from Eurostat is used, for (b) an EIO-LCA database is used for most cases, but forestry is done with the help of a report on Swedish forestry emissions, while (c) is done by a literature review regarding the industries included in the study. The top 10 categories by value sold is: (1) Vehicle compression-ignition internal combustion piston engines; (2) Chemical wood pulp, soda or sulphate, other than dissolving grades; (3) Coniferous wood; (4) Pine wood; (5) Parts and accessories of bodies; (6) Bodies for motor vehicles including completely equipped and incomplete bodies; (7) Drive-axles with differential, non-driving axles and their parts; (8) Spruce wood and fir wood; (9) Prefabricated buildings of wood; And (10) Other parts and accessories for vehicles. Results show that chemical wood pulp had the largest emissions both per value produced and total. Additionally, chemical wood pulp is the category where the most clear cut improvements can be done. Besides, it is found that improvement possibilities exist for forestry and motor vehicle parts production, while prefabricated buildings of wood are very sustainable compared to other building methods. Suggestions are also made for policies that could decrease greenhouse gas emissions from chemical wood pulp and forestry. A suggestion for further investigation is to assess whether those would be better than improving existing broad policies in Sweden. 

  • 338.
    Rigole, Pierre-Jean
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Study of a Shared Autonomous Vehicles Based Mobility Solution in Stockholm2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this report is to provide an analysis of potential benefits of a fleet of Shared Autonomous Vehicles (SAV) providing a taxi service to replace private car commuter trips in a metropolitan area. We develop a framework for dynamic allocation of SAVs to passenger trips, empty-vehicle routing and multi-criteria evaluation with regard to passenger waiting time, trip time and fleet size.

    Using a representation of current private trip demand for the Stockholm metropolitan area and a detailed road network representation, different scenarios (varying levels of accepted passenger waiting time at origin and accepted increase in travel time) are compared with respect to passenger travel time, number of vehicles needed and vehicle mileage.

    In a second step the environmental impacts of the different scenarios are assessed and compared using a life cycle approach. The assessment includes both a fleet consisting of currently in use gasoline and diesel cars as well as electrical cars. The results show that an SAV-based personal transport system has the potential to provide an on-demand door-to-door transport with a high level of service, using less than 10 % of today's private cars and parking places. In order to provide an environmental benefit and lower congestion an SAV-based personal transport system requires users to accept ride-sharing, allowing a maximum 30% increase of their travel time (15% on average) and a start time window of 10 minutes. In a scenario where users are not inclined to accept any reduced level of service, i.e. no ride-sharing and no delay, empty vehicle drive of an SAV-based personal transport system will lead to increased road traffic increasing environmental impacts and congestion.

    Envisioning a future using electrical cars a SAV-based system and electrical vehicle technology seems to be a “perfect” match that could definitely contribute to a sustainable transport system in Stockholm. 

  • 339.
    Ring, Mikaela
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Reducing Swedish Banks’ Negative Impacts on Biodiversity: An Analysis of Possible Strategies2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Svenska banker har stor förbättringspotential när det gäller att säkerställa att finansieringar och investeringar inte bidrar till utrotning av växt- och djurarter och förödelse av skog, våtmarker och orörda miljöer. I en rankning utförd av Fair Finance Guide fick sju av de största svenska bankerna mycket låga betyg för sina åtaganden och handlingar inom temat ”biodiversitet”. Denna studie syftar därför till att identifiera möjliga strategier för svenska banker att minska sin negativa påverkan på biodiversitet genom att integrera en ökad hänsyn för skogs- och biodiversitetsfrågor i bankernas finansierings- och investeringsaktivititer.

    Genom att genomföra intervjuer med utländska banker som uppmärksammats för sina framsteg inom skogsskydd, och genom att granska det material som dessa banker publicerat på sina hemsidor, har denna studie samlat vägledande information som kan ge svenska banker en bättre förståelse för hur skogs- och biodiversitetsfrågor kan konfronteras på en inledande nivå. Ämnesfokus inom området för biodiversitet ligger på skogsskydd och studien har även ett tydligt fokus på hur banker kan arbeta för att minska den negativa biodiversitetspåverkan från sina generella finansierings- och investeringsaktiviteter. Nisch-investeringar som syftar till att öka bankers positiva biodiversitetspåverkan hamnar således utanför studiens primära områdesfokus.

    Studiens resultat visar att svenska banker har mycket att lära från sina internationella konkurrenter. Till att börja med finns ett antal frivilliga branschinitiativ, inklusive FN:s principer för hållbara investeringar (UN PRI), FN:s miljöprograms finansiella initiativ (UNEP FI), Ekvatorprinciperna, ”Carbon Disclosure Project” (CDP), ”Round Table on Responsible Soy” (RTRS), ”Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil” (RSPO), ”Forest Stewardship Council” (FSC) och ”Soft Commodities Compact”, som kan hjälpa banker att kommunicera, definiera och implementera en ökad hänsyn för skogs- och biodiversitetsfrågor. Dessutom erbjuder Rabobank, UBS och Credit Suisse inspirerande exempel på hur banker kan utveckla interna åtaganden, processer och metoder för att konfrontera frågor som rör avskogning och biodiversitetsförlust.

    En vanlig strategi bland de banker som intervjuats är att angripa skogs- och biodiversitetsfrågor genom att utveckla policyer som adresserar produktionen av några av de mest skogsintensiva handelsvarorna i världen, nämligen soja, palmolja, kött och timmer (inklusive papper och pappersmassa). Dessa policyer innehåller ofta ett åtagande att avstå från finansierings- och investeringsaffärer som bidrar till avskogning i urskogar, i områden med högt bevarandevärde, i områden som finns med på UNESCO:s världsarvslista, i våtmarker som skyddas av Ramsarkonventionen och i områden som skyddas av Internationella naturvårdunionen (IUCN). Ett vanligt tillvägagångssätt för att säkerställa att potentiella klienter lever upp till dessa policyer är att se till att klienterna i fråga är medlemmar i RTRS, RSPO och FSC och certifierade enligt de riktlinjer och principer som etablerats av dessa organisationer. De granskningar som utförs av dessa certifieringsorgan används sedan för att säkerställa kontinuerlig åtlydnad bland klienter.

    Trots att Rabobank, UBS och Credit Suisse alla blivit uppmärksammade för sina framsteg inom skogsskydd så har samtliga banker utsatts för mycket allvarlig kritik som antyder att bankernas åtaganden, processer och metoder inte alltid är tillräckligt omfattande eller väldefinierade för att säkerställa ett verkligt skydd av skog och biodiversitet. Således understryker studiens samlade rekommendationer till svenska banker vikten av att avancera längre än Rabobank, UBS och Credit Suisse och utforma ännu striktare och bredare åtaganden. Några av de viktigaste rekommendationerna till svenska banker innefattar uppmaningen att i) undvika svepande och otydligt språkbruk i utformandet av åtaganden, processer och metoder ii) se till att dessa åtaganden, processer och metoder täcker alla branscher förenade med skogs- och biodiversitetsrisker iii) se till att dessa åtaganden, processer och metoder appliceras såväl inom bankens finansieringsaktiviteter som inom bankens investeringsaktiviteter iv) använda de certifieringar som RTRS, RSPO och RTRS erbjuder som utgångspunkt i bankens utvärderings- och uppföljningsprocesser, men se till att komplementera dessa certifieringar med research, due diligence och stickkontroller som utförs av banken själv.

    Slutligen kan konstateras att behovet för banker att ta ett större ansvar för deras inverkan på den globala biodiversiteten nu är mer akut än någonsin. Vi står nu inför den sjätte massutrotningen i jordens historia och om banker inte vidtar omedelbara åtgärder för att minska sin negativa biodiversitetspåverkan så hotas inte bara den långsiktiga ekonomiska avkastningen av bankens finanseringar och investeringar, utan även den långsiktiga resiliensen hos våra ekosystem. De svenska bankernas låga betyg inom området för biodiversitet bör således tas på högsta allvar och svenska banker bör allvarligt överväga att anta de rekommendationer som presenteras i denna studie. 

  • 340.
    Ringenson, Tina
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    How municipalities can work with digitalisation for environmental aims2018Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Humanity is facing big environmental challenges. Apart from the climate changes, there is also an ongoing depletion of the natural resources necessary for our survival in general, and for highly electronics-dependant lifestyles especially. At the same time, both urbanisation and digitalisation are progressing at a rapid pace. Digitalisation holds a potential to decrease environmental impact from cities and urban lifestyles, and many cities want to increase their use of digital technologies and services. This is often at least partially motivated by environmental concerns. In these cases, it is often the municipality that is responsible for strategies and support of increased digitalisation.

    This dissertation places itself in the Smart Sustainable City field, but more specifically aims to support municipalities’ work with digitalisation for environmental goals. The results are structured around three parts. The first part accounts for six cities’ promising digital solutions with possible environmental benefits, and of possible digital tools to support two EU directives that can affect municipalities’ environmental work. The second part suggests how municipalities can work with digitalisation for environmental goals, and especially stresses evaluation and strategic investments. The third part looks at possible long-term societal changes in relation to digitalisation, and the risks with a city depending on electronics: It is important that a city can remain adequately functional, even in the case of a short- or long term shortage of resources and/or energy.

    Finally, I discuss some of the uncertainties in digitalisation for environmental goals. There are uncertainties regarding digitalisation’s actual effects, which can make it harder to know what investments to make. Implementing digital technologies for municipal aims often demands cooperation between actors with different interests, but if the municipality relates its decision to environmental goals, it facilitates demanding that digital services and tools have environmental benefits.

  • 341.
    Ringenson, Tina
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Arnfalk, Peter
    Kramers, Anna H.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier. Integrated Transport Research Lab (ITRL).
    Sopjani, Liridona
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Integrerad produktutveckling.
    Indicators for Promising Accessibility and Mobility Services2018Inngår i: Sustainability: Science, Practice, & Policy, ISSN 1548-7733, E-ISSN 1548-7733, Vol. 10, nr 8, artikkel-id 2836Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cities are increasingly facing major transportation challenges, and new sustainable solutions are needed. New ICT-enabled services can be part of solving the problems, including both improving and finding new transportation services and providing digital access to different services. It is important to identify which services have the best potential for environmental benefits (e.g., travel reduction leading to lesser emissions), economic viability and spread. Such identification can be carried out with the help of indicators. This article uses four types of new accessibility services to test out a previously formulated set of indicators and suggest changes to make them more useful. Using common indicators for transportation and digital accessibility services seem to support collecting and condensing information about the services and simplifies understanding their benefits and challenges. However, a challenge for this approach is finding indicators that are both specific and broad enough to be useful. Full article

  • 342.
    Ringenson, Tina
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms). KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Höjer, Mattias
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms). KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Smart City Planning and Environmental Aspects?: Lessons from six cities2016Inngår i: Proceedings of ITC for Sustainability 2016, Atlantis Press , 2016, s. 159-166Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we explore some promising Smart Sustainable City initiatives and solutions in Amsterdam, Barcelona, San Francisco, Seoul, Shanghai and Vienna, with a focus on environmental aspects. These initiatives and solutions include implementations of smart sustainable city technologies, and municipal support for such implementations. We analyse these initiatives and solutions with respect to their potential for replacing or intensifying products/spaces/travels/transports, leaning processes and activities, or informing city inhabitants or visitors of better choices from an environmental perspective, as well as their connection with a number of smart city challenges. We also discuss some of the problems we have found in these initiatives and solutions, especially regarding risks of rebound effects. Finally, we formulate three lessons for smart sustainable city implementation.

  • 343.
    Ringenson, Tina
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Höjer, Mattias
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Kramers, Anna
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Viggedal, A.
    Digitalization and environmental aims in municipalities2018Inngår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, nr 4, artikkel-id 1278Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many municipalities express a wish to use digital technologies to achieve environmental aims. However, there is still a need for a better understanding of how this should practically be done, both among municipalities and among ICT developers. We have used workshops and literature studies to formulate technological abilities of digitalization.We use two EU directives that are relevant for municipal environmental goals and combine the activities that these directives indicate with technological abilities of digitalization, in order to formulate practical implementations of digital technology to help these activities and reach the directives' goals. We suggest that this method can be used for any municipal goal, as follows: (1) Identify the objective (in our case set by the EU-directives); (2) Identify what activities these points will require or generate; (3a) From a municipal viewpoint: Based on the results of 1 and 2, formulate and structure ideas of how digitalization can support the objectives and how those ideas can be implemented; (3b) From a provider's viewpoint: Investigate what digital solutions supporting 1 and 2 exist, or how existing services can be tweaked to support the objectives and explore how new digital solutions supporting 1 and 2 can be developed.

  • 344.
    Ringenson, Tina
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Höjer, Mattias
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Kramers, Anna
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Viggedal, Anna
    Ericsson.
    Digitalization and Environmental Aims in MunicipalitiesManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Many municipalities express a wish to use digital technologies to reach environmental aims. However, there is still a need for better understandings of how this should practically be done, both among municipalities and among ICT developers. We have used workshops and literature studies to formulate technological abilities of digitalization. We use two EU directives that are relevant for municipal environmental goals, and combine the activities that these directives indicate, in order to formulate practical implementations of digital technology to help these activities and reach the directives’ goals. We suggest that this method can be used for any municipal goal, as follows: 1. Identify the objective (in our case set by the EU-directives); 2. Identify what activities these points will require or generate; 3a. From a municipal viewpoint: Based on the results of 1 and 2, formulate and structure ideas of how digitalization can support the objectives, and how those ideas can be implemented; 3b. From a provider´s viewpoint: Investigate what digital solutions supporting 1 and 2 exist, or how existing services can be tweaked to support the objectives, and explore how new digital solutions supporting 1 and 2 can be developed.

  • 345.
    Romero Guastavino, Diego Alonso
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Entreprenörskap och Innovation.
    Development of the Chilean mining industry – its dependence of natural resources2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The resource curse, also known as the “paradox of plenty”, basically states that countries that have natural resources in abundance, particularly in terms of non-renewable resources such as oil and gas and minerals, in the long run tend to have less economic growth and prosperity, than countries with relatively lesser endowments of natural resources.

    This research investigates the case of the Chilean economy; its erstwhile saltpeter mining industry and current copper mining industry. The study attempts to answer the research question of whether Chile is still under the resource curse.

    Through the facts of the case study, semi-structured formal and informal interviews and extensive literature review, the researcher identified four main outcomes of the resource curse which are true to the Chilean history and current events; plundering of national wealth by political leaders, weak policy enforcements and military challenges to the government and the subsequent threats to the country’s democracy. The results of the case study suggest that, Chile is indeed still under the resource curse.

    The researcher draws on economic theory by Joseph Schumpeter in his most celebrated publication, “The theory of Economic Development” to gain understanding into the Chilean reality of economic under development and any other possible factors besides the resource curse, mainly lack of entrepreneurial ambitions by the human capital of the economy. The study contrasts, Schumpeter’s economic theory to Marxist economic theory of total control of nation states’ resources by governments and the Keynesian economic theory of government intervention aimed at supporting growth.

  • 346. Routh, J.
    et al.
    Saraswathy, A.
    Bhattacharya, A.
    Nag, S.K.
    Ray, S.P.S.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Miljögeokemi och ekoteknik.
    Arsenic reduction by bacteria in shallow aquifers from Ambikanagar in West Bengal, India2006Inngår i: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 68, nr 11, s. A515-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 347.
    Saha, Goutam
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Comparative Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of a newly designed plastic bottle: Materials selection and end- of-life strategies.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, plastic bottles are one of the essential parts of our daily life. TriU bottle is a newly designed plastic bottle using as a beverage container, which can also be used for building bottle houses as well as different types of architectural structures after its first life. In this thesis, it is considered that the bottle will be produced from both crude oil and sugarcane based low-density polyethylenes (LDPE). The aim of this thesis is to investigate which raw material source has less environmental impacts during the life cycle of the TriU bottle.

    The main objectives of this thesis are to assess potential environmental impacts of production, consumption, waste management of the bottle from a life cycle perspective and to compare the potential environmental impacts of a crude oil based bottle with a sugarcane-based bottle.

    Besides, this thesis examines some specific research questions about major potential environmental impacts and end-of-life strategies of the bottle. In addition, this life cycle assessment (LCA) research is conducted according to the ISO (international organization for standardization) 14040 LCA methodology with the help of the GaBi 4 academic software.

    Results of this study demonstrate that during the life cycle of the bottle, the sugarcane based LDPE has less environmental impacts than the crude oil based LDPE as long as the used resources for producing the sugarcane LDPE are considered as renewable. However, if the used resources are considered as non- renewable, the positive effects of the sugarcane based LDPE are inverted by the emissions from the non- renewable resources.

    Results also demonstrate that from the environmental and Tanzanian national energy production policy view, an incineration process is the best choice than a landfill process if the raw material for producing the bottle is considered from a renewable source (sugarcane LDPE). However, if the raw material for producing the bottle is considered from a non-renewable source (crude oil LDPE), the positive effects of the incineration process are also overturned by the green house gases (GHGs) emissions from the non- renewable source.

    In addition, the global warming potential (GWP) is the major potential environmental impact from the both types of bottles. 

  • 348.
    Samak, Sakarias
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Kväverening via stripping med parametervariation: En projekterad anläggning i samarbete med Ragn-Sells2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The demand and usage of fertilizer is growing while complications with eutrophication is ever so observable throughout the world today, with excessive algae growth which causes lack of oxygen in lakes. This paper focuses on a mechanical technique to remove ammonium from polluted water, by leading it through a column filled with carries to enhance the area whereas ammonia is allowed to converge to gaseous ammonia hence no longer resolved in the water. This process was tested with water pollution levels resembling to those surveyed in Ragn- Sells, a Swedish waste treatment company. Parameters that had an effect on the convergence efficiency was recognized in literary studies and in self-made tests with artificial water in order to find the most optimal set of parameters to test real wastewater. High pH-levels at around 11.7 and high “air-to-water” ratio provided the highest level of convergence (44 %), however it was not comparable with the literary studies which had convergence levels as high as 92,8 %. The reason for this was thought to stem from the fact that the absorbationtower that was used didn’t allow for enough air to pass through for it to be comparable with tests done by others. An environmental analysis of whether or not this was a feasible method concluded that this method only sought to convert the problematic ammonia from a liquid phase to a gaseous one and that the air in which it exited with also needed to be treated. It was concluded that the effectiveness this air treatment has alongside with the energy cost of the ammoniastripping process determine if this process could ever be a better way to treat ammonium filled water in order to stop eutrophication on our planet. 

  • 349.
    Sandhi, Arifin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik. Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, SE 10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Landberg, Tommy
    Department of Ecology, Environment & Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Greger, Maria
    Department of Ecology, Environment & Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Phytofiltration of arsenic by aquatic moss (Warnstorfia fluitans)2017Inngår i: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This work investigates whether aquatic moss (Warnstorfia fluitans) originating from an arsenic (As)-contaminated wetland close to a mine tailings impoundment may be used for phytofiltration of As. The aim was to elucidate the capacity of W. fluitans to remove As from arsenite and arsenate contaminated water, how nutrients affect the As uptake and the proportion of As adsorption and absorption by the moss plant, which consists of dead and living parts.

    Arsenic removal from 0, 1, or 10% Hoagland nutrient solution containing 0–100 μM arsenate was followed over 192 h, and the total As in aquatic moss after treatment was analysed. The uptake and speciation of As in moss cultivated in water containing 10 μM arsenate or arsenite were examined as As uptake in living (absorption + adsorption) and dead (adsorption) plant parts.

    Results indicated that W. fluitans removed up to 82% of As from the water within one hour when 1 μM arsenate was added in the absence of nutrients. The removal time increased with greater nutrient and As concentrations. Up to 100 μM As had no toxic effect on the plant biomass. Both arsenite and arsenate were removed from the solution to similar extents and, independent of the As species added, more arsenate than arsenite was found in the plant. Of the As taken up, over 90% was firmly bound to the tissue, a possible mechanism for resisting high As concentrations. Arsenic was both absorbed and adsorbed by the moss, and twice as much As was found in living parts as in dead moss tissue. This study revealed that W. fluitans has potential to serve as a phytofilter for removing As from As-contaminated water without displaying any toxic effects of the metalloid.

  • 350.
    Schlotter, Rudolf
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Carbon emission reduction targets for project-focused construction companies: A case study of the Skanska group2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry is responsible for about one third of the annual global GHG emissions and its products carry significant lock-in risks: infrastructure and structures built today will contribute to anthropogenic GHG emissions for the next decades. Due to operational diversity, structural complexity, and the emission fluctuations associated with project-based work, construction companies struggle, however, with defining relevant carbon reduction targets. This study aimed at deriving a conceptual model for how these organizations can set targets that are meaningful in respect to their business characteristics. Conducted as a case study of the Skanska group, a qualitative approach was used: Interviews with different business units as well as literature reviews about the existing target setting methodologies, science-based methods, and approaches in other yet similar industries as well as competitors were leveraged to collect information. This data was qualitatively analyzed, discussed and compared against the requirements of defining reduction targets in the construction industry. An overarching, company-wide target is neither practically conceivable nor environmentally robust. Companies such as the Skanska group are recommended to differentiate between their different operations and to develop separate targets for each. Depending on the business volatility of these operations absolute or relative target setting methods are to be used. Meaningful relative targets require operations with low emission homogeneity to be broken down into further separate targets for individual activities, e.g., individual targets for the manufacturing of asphalt and concrete. Construction work itself has to be addressed by individual targets on project level for each project type, e.g., highways, bridges, offices, and residential, in order to avoid the issues of structural complexity and emission fluctuations. Creating a company-wide performance indicator embracing all construction work is only possible by normalizing these project-based targets a second time, e.g., by measuring the turnover of projects meeting the individual reduction targets. 

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