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  • 301.
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Assessment of media and communication from a sustainability perspective2010Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to assess potential environmental impacts of media and communication and to contribute to the development of methods for sustainability assessment. Although the main focus is on printed and electronic media products and environmental impacts, a broader sector analysis is also included and social aspects are discussed. The thesis provides a review of different environmental assessment tools in order to better understand their relationships and the appropriateness of different tools in different situations. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is used to assess printed and electronic versions of newspapers, books and invoices. Results of the screening LCAs of newspapers and books indicate that when comparing printed and electronic versions there are benefits and drawbacks for both. For news and books read on e-reading devices with energy efficient e-ink screens, the main environmental impacts in the studies stemmed from the production of the device and partly from disposal, with the latter having the potential to reduce some environmental impacts through recycling of materials. However, there are data gaps regarding the production of the e-reading devices, most notably for the e-ink screen and the waste management of obsolete e-reading devices. Existing data on internet energy use are uncertain. The potential impacts from a hypothetical total change from paper invoices to electronic invoices in Sweden were assessed through a screening consequential LCA regarding greenhouse gas emissions and cumulative energy demand. The results indicate that emissions and energy demand could decrease as a result of a change. The screening LCAs performed indicate that users’ practices could substantially influence the environmental impacts. Key factors which can influence results and comparisons of printed and electronic media products are total use of electronic devices, total use of printed media, amount and type of paper, energy use of electronic devices, potential printing of electronic media, electricity mix, and the system boundaries set for the assessments.

    To get a wider perspective, a sector study of the ICT sector and media sector concerning global greenhouse gas emissions and operational electricity use was performed. It was estimated that the contribution to global greenhouse gas emissions in 2007 was roughly 1-2 % for each sector. To assess media and communication products from a sustainability perspective, social aspects should also be covered. The author participated in an international project group on social aspects and LCA, one outcome from which was guidelines for social LCA (S-LCA). In addition to providing guidance for S-LCA, another important role of the guidelines is to facilitate discussions, criticism and proposals for improvement and development of the methodology being developed.

    The LCA and sector studies in this thesis are limited to direct and to some extent indirect environmental impacts. Further studies of the environmental impacts of more long-term changes in practices and potential structural changes, as well as potential social impacts, could provide important additional insights. This could increase the possibility of facilitating sustainable practices related to ICT and media.

  • 302.
    Moberg, Åsa
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys. Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Borggren, Clara
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys. Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys. Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Books from an environmental perspective: Part 2. E-books as an alternative to paper books2011Inngår i: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 16, nr 3, s. 238-246Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Information and communication technology (ICT) has been proposed as a means to facilitate environmental sustainability. Dematerialisation is one potential way of DOIng this. Forbooks, this could be realized through using e-book readers, which share many of the qualities of printed media and have notably low-energy requirements during use. The main aim of this study was to analyse the environmental impacts of an e-book read on an e-book reader, and to identify key issues determining the magnitude of the impact. A second aim was to compare the e-book product system with a paper book product system using a life cycle perspective. Materials and methods A screening LCA was performed on an e-book produced and read in Sweden. The e-book reader was assumed to be produced in China. The data used were general data from Ecoinvent 2.0 and site-specific data from companies participating in the study, whenever average data were not available. Results and discussion The results showed that production of the e-book reader was the life cycle step contributing most to the environmentalimpact of the system studied, although data on the e-ink screen were lacking. The disposal phase leads to avoided impact as materials are recycled; however, these results are less certain due to limited data availability. When the e-book was compared with a paper book, the results indicated that the number of books read on the e-book reader during its lifetime was crucial when evaluating its environmental performance compared with paper books. The results indicate that there are impact categories and circumstances where paper books are preferable to e-booksfrom an environmental perspective and vice versa. Conclusions There is no single answer as to which book is better from an environmental perspective according to the results of the current study. To improve the e-book environmental performance, an e-book reader should be used frequently, the life time of the device should be prolonged, as far as possible, and when not in use anymore, the device should be disposed of in a proper way, making material recycling possible. In addition, the production of the e-reader should be energy efficient and striving towards minimisation of toxic and rare substances. 

  • 303.
    Moberg, Åsa
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Borggren, Clara
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Tyskeng, Sara
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Effects of a total change from paper invoicing to electronic invoicing in Sweden2008Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic invoicing is a current alternative to traditional invoices distributed on paper.There are reasons to believe that electronic invoicing is environmentally preferable totraditional invoicing, as the production of paper and envelopes, the printing process andthe physical distribution can be avoided. However, there are additional needs for servers,etc. when electronic invoices are used. To assess the environmental performance of aproduct or a service or to compare two alternative ways of providing a service, a life cycleperspective should preferably be used.

    The study presented here is a screening life cycle assessment (LCA) aimed at assessingthe consequences of a complete transition from all paper invoicing to all electronicinvoicing in Sweden. Readily accessible data were used and the focus was on cumulativeenergy demand and emissions of greenhouse gases. The main purpose of the study wasto increase our knowledge about the advantages and disadvantages of such a transition.An additional aim was to identify areas with a lack of data and major uncertainties.

    In an LCA, environmental impacts are related to the function provided by the product orservice studied. The function provided by invoices is to distribute information aboutpayment obligations from supplier to customer. This may be business-to business (B-to-B) or business-to-consumer (B-to-C).

    (läs vidare i rapporten)

  • 304.
    Moberg, Åsa
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Hedberg, Leif
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Henriksson, Greger
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Räsänen, Minna
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Människa-datorinteraktion, MDI (stängd 20111231). KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Westermark, Mary
    Screening sustainability assessment of a mediated service: a pilot study2008Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 305.
    Moberg, Åsa
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Johansson, Martin
    Lantmännen.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Jonsson, Alex
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Medieteknik och grafisk produktion, Media (stängd 20111231).
    Printed and tablet e-paper newspaper from an environmental perspective: a screening life cycle assessment2010Inngår i: Environmental impact assessment review, ISSN 0195-9255, E-ISSN 1873-6432, Vol. 30, nr 3, s. 177-191Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Viable alternatives to conventional newspapers, such as electronic papers, e-papers or e-readers, are intended to have many of the qualities of paper, such as reading using reflective light, high resolution, 180° viewing angle. It has been suggested that the environmental impact of e-paper can be lower than for printed and internet-based newspapers. However, in order to find the facts of the matter, a thorough life cycle perspective covering raw material acquisition, production, use and disposal should preferably be used to study the environmental performance of the different products. A screening life cycle assessment was performed to describe the potential environmental impacts of two product systems; printed on paper and tablet e-paper newspapers. Results show that the most significant phase of the life cycle for both product systems was the production of substrate or platform. Accordingly, key aspects that may affect the resulting environmental performance of newspaper product systems were for the printed newspaper number of readers per copy and number of pages per issue and for the tablet e-paper newspaper lifetime and multi-use of the device. The printed newspaper in general had a higher energy use, higher emissions of gases contributing to climate change and several other impact categories than the tablet e-paper newspaper. It was concluded that tablet e-paper has the potential to decrease the environmental impact of newspaper consumption. However, further studies regarding the environmental impact of production and waste management of electronic devices and internet use, as well as more comprehensive assessment of toxicological impacts are needed. As the data on the electronic devices becomes more comprehensive this may prove to be a major limitation of electronic newspaper systems. Developers are suggested to strive towards minimisation of toxic and rare substances in production.

  • 306.
    Moberg, Åsa
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Johansson, Martin
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Jonsson, Alex
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Medieteknik och grafisk produktion, Media (stängd 20111231). KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Screening environmental life cycle assessment of printed, web based and tablet e-paper newspaper2007Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 307.
    Moberg, Åsa
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys (flyttat 20130630). KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Picha, Malin
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Erlandsson-Segerström, Birgitta
    Karagianni, Catherine
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Malmodin, Jens
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Wiklund, Lennart
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Using a life-cycle perspective to assess potential social impacts of ICT services: a pre-study2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Buying that new mobile phone may make your life easier, provide continuous access to the net and change your image, but what social impact will your action have on others? Different stakeholders along the life cycle of the mobile phone will be affected, in positive and negative ways. Who is responsible and how can we know the impact?

    Handling environmental impact with a life cycle perspective, for example using life cycle assessment (LCA), is today common practice. A similar technique for social impact, social and socio-economic LCA (S-LCA) is under development (Benoit and Mazijn, 2009). The aim of the current pre-study was to consider the use of S-LCA for information and communication technology (ICT) services to learn more about the product and facilitate consideration of social impact in different decision-making situations.

    From a company perspective, social responsibility is handled in various ways, often under the heading of CSR, corporate social responsibility. Firstly, the company’s own employees are easily targeted and acted on by providing good working conditions, fair wages and working hours, etc. Considering social impact throughout a product’s life cycle is the next step and here measures and responsibilities are less clear-cut. How is a product distributed (supply chain), how is it used and how is it finally disposed? Different stakeholders are differently affected, positively and negatively.

    Four companies and organisations, all partners in the Centre for Sustainable Communications, took part in this study. They currently have different experiences and degrees of activity regarding social responsibility. The telecommunications companies, Ericsson and TeliaSonera, have started to consider social aspects in their supply chain and for their consumers. Social aspects are not only considered in terms of impact of the company management but also of impact related to products (goods and services). The media organisations (Bonnier Group and the Swedish Media Association) have not handled social aspects to the same extent as the telecommunications companies, but of course their products also give rise to social impact throughout their life cycles.

    To enable a discussion on the usability of S-LCA, a simplified test was carried out, inspired by the ongoing work on including social aspects into LCA within the UNEP-SETAC Life Cycle Initiative (Benoit and Mazijn, 2009). This screening test was based on a selection of published and readily available information on potential social impacts along the life cycle of two defined ICT services. The goal was not to provide an assessment of social impact, but rather to give a rough sketch and reflect on possibilities and limitations with the method. The two ICT services in the test were mobile news and video conferencing, provided by a newspaper company and a telecommunications company respectively. An interesting feature of both these services was that the company providing the service was not providing the electronic device, the hardware platform of the service. This gives one more dimension in the consideration of who is responsible for social impacts with a life cycle perspective.

    There was a lot of information available on potential social impact for parts of the respective life cycles. This kind of information is gathered by scientists, NGOs and others. A small share of the information was compiled for the selected stakeholder groups: worker and consumer. This information indicated that there are social impacts all

    along the life cycle and that these may be positive or negative and of differing magnitude. As stakeholders become aware of the possible negative social impact, increasing engagement from organizations and companies in social responsibility will be requested.

    When companies start to consider social impacts in the supply chain, it is expected to be easier to reach the first and second tier of suppliers. However, ILO (2007) has established that the workers at the beginning of the supply chain (farthest away from the end-product) are generally the most disadvantaged. In some cases, handling e-waste is also leading to major negative social impacts. Raw material acquisition and waste management may have large implications on the social impact related to a product, with best case or worst case possibly leading to significantly different results. A life cycle perspective would facilitate identification of improvement potential. A key question is who is responsible, or rather who will accept responsibility.

    As there is information available for parts of the processes and stakeholders throughout the life cycle of the ICT services studied, the question remains how this information can be used by companies providing products for end-consumers. This pre-study indicates that it can be useful to apply a life cycle perspective and compile data in relation to a specific product also when considering potential social impacts. This would facilitate the inclusion of processes and stakeholders for example at the beginning of the life cycle, where impact may be considerable and negative, and make these more visible. Development of S-LCA is thus interesting in order to provide transparent and ‘standardised’ assessments of potential social impact. By providing guidelines or standards, the assessments of social impact could be interpreted and criticised more easily. The possibilities for using S-LCA to increase knowledge and ultimately improve social conditions should be further studied and developed.

    In the field of S-LCA there is plenty of future research to be carried out, examples of which are provided by Benoit and Mazijn (2009). One important way of getting more experience and enabling further development of the method and its practice is through performing case studies. ICT products would be an interesting field for this.

  • 308. Mohammadi, A.
    et al.
    Cowie, A. L.
    Anh Mai, T. L.
    Brandão, Miguel
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning. Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation, Poland.
    Anaya de la Rosa, R.
    Kristiansen, P.
    Joseph, S.
    Climate-change and health effects of using rice husk for biochar-compost: Comparing three pyrolysis systems2017Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 162, s. 260-272Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents a comparative analysis of the environmental impacts of different biochar-compost (COMBI) systems in North Vietnam relative to the conventional practice of open burning of rice husks. Three COMBI systems, using different pyrolysis technologies (pyrolytic cook-stove, brick kiln and the BigChar 2200 unit) for conversion of rice husk into biochar were modelled. Biochar was assumed to be composted with manure and straw, and the biochar-compost produced from each system was assumed to be applied to paddy rice fields. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) showed that the three COMBI systems significantly improved environmental and health impacts of rice husk management in spring and summer compared with open burning, in terms of climate change, particulate matter (PM) and human toxicity (HT) impacts. The differences between the three COMBI systems in the climate change and PM impacts were not significant, possibly due to the large uncertainties. In all systems, the suppression of soil CH4 emissions is the major contributor to the reduced climate effect for the COMBI systems, comprising 56% in spring and 40% in summer. The greatest reduction in the HT impact was offered by the BigChar 2200 system, where biochar is produced in a large-scale plant in which pyrolysis gases are used to generate heat rather than released into the atmosphere.

  • 309. Mohammadi, Ali
    et al.
    Cowie, Annette
    Mai, Thi Lan Anh
    Anaya de la Rosa, Ruy
    Brandao, Miguel
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Kristiansen, Paul
    Joseph, Stephen
    Quantifying the greenhouse gas reduction benefits of utilising straw biochar and enriched biochar2016Inngår i: EUROPEAN GEOSCIENCES UNION GENERAL ASSEMBLY 2016, Elsevier, 2016, s. 254-261Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the carbon footprint of two different biochar production systems for application to paddy fields. The impacts of using rice straw-derived biochar in raw form (System A) were compared with those arising from using rice straw biochar enriched with lime, clay, ash and manure (System B). The GHG abatement of the management of one Mg of rice straw in Systems A and B was estimated at 0.27 and 0.61 Mg CO2-eq, respectively, in spring season, and 0.30 and 1.22 Mg CO2-eq in summer. The difference is mainly due to greater reduction of soil CH4 emissions by enriched biochar.

  • 310.
    Molin, Staffan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Vattenvårdsteknik.
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Vattenvårdsteknik.
    Microbial risk assessment in heterogeneous aquifers: 1. Pathogen transport2010Inngår i: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 46, s. W05518-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Pathogen transport in heterogeneous aquifers is investigated for microbial risk assessment. A point source with time-dependent input of pathogens is assumed, exemplified as a simple on-site sanitation installation, intermingled with water supply wells. Any pathogen transmission pathway (realization) to the receptor from a postulated infection hazard is viewed as a random event, with the hydraulic conductivity varying spatially. For aquifers where VAR[lnK] < 1 and the integral scale is finite, we provide relatively simple semianalytical expressions for pathogen transport that incorporate the colloid filtration theory. We test a wide range of Damkohler numbers in order to assess the significance of rate limitations on the aquifer barrier function. Even slow immobile inactivation may notably affect the retention of pathogens. Analytical estimators for microbial peak discharge are evaluated and are shown to be applicable using parameters representative of rotavirus and Hepatitis A with input of 10-20 days duration.

  • 311.
    Molin, Staffan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Vattenvårdsteknik.
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Vattenvårdsteknik.
    Stenstrom, T. A.
    Microbial risk assessment in heterogeneous aquifers: 2. Infection risk sensitivity2010Inngår i: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 46, s. W05519-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The entire chain of events of human disease transmitted through contaminated water, from pathogen introduction into the source (E. coli, rotavirus, and Hepatitis A), pathogen migration through the aquifer pathway, to ingestion via a supply well, and finally, the potential infection in the human host, is investigated. The health risk calculations are based on a relevant hazardous event with safe setback distances estimated by considering the infection risk from peak exposure in compliance with an acceptable level defined by a regulatory agency. A site-specific hypothetical scenario is illustrated for an aquifer with similar characteristics as the Cape Cod site, Massachusetts (United States). Relatively large variation of safe distances for the three index pathogens is found; individually, none of the index pathogens could predict the safe distance under the wide range of conditions investigated. It is shown that colloid filtration theory (CFT) with spatially variable attachment-detachment rates yields significantly different results from the effective CFT model (i.e., assuming spatially constant parameters).

  • 312.
    Morling, Stig
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Development of SBR Technology - A review of the original activated sludge configuration.Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 313.
    Morling, Stig
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Landfill leachate, generation, composition, and some findings from leachate treatment at Swedish plants.2007Inngår i: Vann, ISSN 0042-2592, Vol. 2, s. 172-184Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 314.
    Morling, Stig
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Long time experiences from four SBR-plants operated with cold wastewater: comparisons and synthesis2008Inngår i: Proceedings of the 4th IWA Specialised Conference on Sequencing Batch Reactor Technology, 2008, s. 11-18Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 315.
    Morling, Stig
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Nitrogen removal and heavy metals in leachate treatment using SBR technology2010Inngår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 174, nr 1-3, s. 679-686Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Biological nitrogen removal by the use of Sequencing Batch Reactors (SBRs) is today an accepted and well proven model. The results of SBR performance on nitrogen removal have encouraged consultants, engineering companies and landfill operators to develop and build full scale SBR plants at a number of sites in Sweden. Two of these plants, Isatra and Norsa, have been studied closely. The Norsa plant treats leachate at a controlled water temperature, while the Isatra plant is exposed to temperature variation throughout the year. Both plants have very well proven nitrogen removal capacities, although winter conditions have an adverse impact on their performance. Typical nitrification efficiency is close to 100%, while the total nitrogen removal is about 90-95% under stable operation conditions. A good relationship between the nitrogen load and the nitrification rate has been observed at the Norsa SBR plant. The heavy metal content in the leachate is very low thanks to anaerobic precipitation inside the landfill into metal sulphides. The heavy metal content in the biological sludge is consequently also very low.

  • 316.
    Morling, Stig
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Nitrogen removal efficiency and nitrification rates at the Sequencing Batch Reactor in Nowy Targ, Poland.2008Inngår i: Vatten, ISSN 0042-2886, Vol. 64, nr 2, s. 121-128Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Biological nitrogen removal by the use of Sequencing Batch Reactors (SBR) is today an accepted and wellproven model. The Nowy Targ SBR plant has been in operation for 15 years, and comprehensive performancedata are available for assessment. This paper focuses on the 2005 year operation, characterised by high organicand nitrogen loading and also very high chromium loads. The available performance data allows an analysis ofboth nitrification rates and denitrification rates, along with an assessment of the temperature influence. Theresults reveal a high nitrification rate even at temperatures in the range 6–10°C, close to 2 g N/kg VSS/h, a clearrelation between nitrogen loading and nitrification as well as denitrification. Furthermore a relation betweenthe COD/N- ratio and the nitrification rate is found: the rate increases with decreasing COD/N-ratio.

  • 317. Morling, Stig
    Performance of an SBR-pla nt for advanced nutrient removal, using septic sludge as a carbon source2001Inngår i: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 43, nr 3, s. 131-138Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Tjustvik SBR-plant outside Stockholm, Sweden has been in operation for four years. The plant has to meet stringent effluent standards, BOD7 < 10 PPM, total N < 15 PPM and total P < 0.3 PPM. The plant is a typical two reactor SBR-plant, sized for about 15 000 inhabitants, During the first year of operation there were difficulties in meeting the P consent level. The difficulties were linked to a deficit of available organic carbon and a secondary phosphorus release. The problem was solved with the addition of septic sludge, in an amount equivalent to about 10,000 to 15,000 inhabitants with respect to the BOD-load. The altered operation resulted in a very stable and good effluent quality from the plant that has been maintained ever since, giving typical discharge levels as follows: BOD7, < 3 mg/l; Total-P, < 0.15 mg/l; Total-N, < 7 mg/l; NH4-N,< 1 mg/l. The change of process saved the community from a major investment in a separate treatment facility for the septic sludge. The stabilisation degree of the waste activated sludge is sufficient to by pass the anaerobic digestion for the time being, In the beginning, the SBR-process stability played an unwanted role during start up as it maintained a secondary phosphorus release for a considerable time. Later the process stability became an asset as the varying loads from the septic sludge addition were handled with very good results.

  • 318.
    Morling, Stig
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630).
    Plant performance of an Sequencing Batch Reactor in Poland, operated with high Chromium load, reaching advanced nutrient removal2009Inngår i: Water Practice & Technology, ISSN 1751-231X, Vol. 4, nr 1, s. 1-11Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents performance experiences from the operation of a large SBRfacility in Nowy Targ, Poland. The plant has been in operation since 1995, and a number ofinvestigations have contributed to the evaluation of the operating conditions at the NowyTarg plant. The plant was designed for treating municipal and industrial wastewater fromabout 150,000 person equivalents. The plant receives chromium rich wastewater from almost400 small and medium-sized tanneries in the area. Although the Cr concentration sometimesexceeds 20 ppm in the combined incoming wastewater, the nutrient removal as well asorganic removal has proven to be very good. The possible effect of Cr acting as a precipitantfor phosphorus is also addressed. The influence of water temperature on the nitrogenperformance is clearly demonstrated by the results. The prevailing low water temperaturehas affected but not inhibited the nitrogen removal. The phosphorus removal as found in thisinvestigation suggests an advanced biological removal; however the impact of a possibleprecipitation by Cr is addressed.

  • 319.
    Morling, Stig
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    SBR-technology - use and potential applications for treatment of cold wastewater2009Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Biological nutrient removal is used as an indicator of SBR performance at nine different SBRplants operated for a long period at low water temperatures (5 – 10oC). Typically needed aeratedSRT (Solids Residence Time) for complete nitrification is found to be in the range of 6 – 10 days.Biological phosphorus removal has been found to take place at 5oC.

    The specific nitrification and denitrification rates (g N/kg VSS/h) have been found to besubstantially higher than those found in design recommendations. At temperatures < 10 oC thenitrification rates have been found up to 4 g Nox/kg VSS/h.

    It has also been possible to establish a relation between the COD/N ratio and the nitrificationrate, showing that the rate increases to high rates when the ratio decreases.

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal has been demonstrated at two different plants even atlow water temperatures 5 – 7 oC.

    Efficient biological nitrogen removal and phosphorus removal has been demonstrated at bothlow water temperatures and in presence of very high Chromium concentrations in inlet water, upto 20 mg Cr/l.

    The plants operated with a short fill time in comparison with the total cycle time for the SBRprocess have all demonstrated good sludge settling properties, suggesting that the SBR processmay incorporate a good sludge selection performance.

    Once a flexible operation strategy has been installed (in most cases through PLC systems) it hasbeen possible to meet load variations to maintain good treatment results. This has been found tobe true for most of the plants included in the thesis.

    Finally, a modified way to assess the energy efficiency for the system is analysed and suggested.Instead of using the traditional ratio kWh/kg BODremoved the use of kWh/kg OCPremoved as a basisfor energy efficiency is used as a far more relevant efficiency measurement.

  • 320.
    Möller, Clemens
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Carbon Neutral Road Transportation: An Assessment of the Potential of Electrified Road Systems2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is striving towards a carbon neutral transportation sector by2030 which includes reductions from CO2 emissions by 70%. This thesis focusses especially on the decarbonization of road freight transportation. Even though electrification of vehicles is seen as one of the available options to reach this goal, present battery technology does not meet requirementsof energy density and cost.

    The electrification of roads with electrified road systems (ERS) enables vehicles to charge electrical energy while in motion and has the potential toreduce weight and costs of on-board batteries for electric vehicles and avoids range anxiety of vehicle operators.

    Within this Master’s thesis, available ERSs are assessed and it is shown which of the available systems performs best in selected categories. Furthermore, alterantive options for large CO2 emission reductions in the roadtransportation sector are evaluated and it is shown that ERSs constitute the most promising alternative.

    Results of this dissertation are based on a qualitative research approachand limited to data availability.

  • 321. Nguyen, Thanh Son
    et al.
    Börgesson, Lennart
    Chijimatsu, Masakazu
    Hernelind, Jan
    Jing, Lanru
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Teknisk geologi och geofysik.
    Kobayashi, Akira
    Rutqvist, Jonny
    A case study on the influence of THM coupling on the near field safety of a spent fuel repository in sparsely fractured granite2009Inngår i: Environmental Geology, ISSN 0943-0105, E-ISSN 1432-0495, Vol. 57, nr 6, s. 1239-1254Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to demonstrate the feasibility of geological disposal of spent CANDU fuel in Canada, a safety assessment was performed for a hypothetical repository in the Canadian Shield. The assessment shows that the maximum long term radionuclide release from such repository would meet international criteria for dose rate; however, uncertainties in the assumed evolution of the repository were identified. Such uncertainties could be resolved by the consideration of coupled Thermal-Hydro-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) processes. In Task A of the DECOVALEX-THMC project, THM models were developed within the framework of the theory of poroelasticity. Such model development was performed in an iterative manner, using experimental data from laboratory and field tests. The models were used to perform near-field simulations of the evolution of the repository in order to address the above-mentioned uncertainties. This paper presents the definition and rationale of task A and the results of the simulations. From a repository safety point of view, the simulations predict that the maximum temperature would be well below the design target of 100A degrees C; however, the stress on the container can marginally exceed the design value of 15 MPa. However, the most important finding from the simulations is that a rock damage zone could form around the emplacement borehole. Such damage zone can extend a few metres from the walls of the emplacement holes, with permeability values that are orders of magnitude higher than the initial values. The damage zone has the potential to increase the radionuclide transport flux from the geosphere; the effect of such an increase should be taken into account in the safety assessment and mitigated if necessary by the provision of sealing systems.

  • 322.
    Niarchos, Georgios
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Vatten- och miljöteknik.
    Electrodialytic Remediation of PFAS-Contaminated Soil2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a group of anthropogenic aliphatic compounds, widelyknown for their environmental persistence and toxicity to living beings. While they are ubiquitous in theenvironment, interest has been focused on contaminated soil, which can act as a primary recipient andsource of groundwater contamination. Electrokinetic technology is based on the movement of ionsunder the effect of an electric field. This could be a promising remediation solution, since PFASs areusually present in their anionic form. The contaminants can then be concentrated towards the anode,thus reducing a plume’s volume and possibly extracting the substances from soil. The preliminary aimof the present study was to evaluate the potential of using electrodialysis for the remediation of PFAScontaminatedsoil for the first time. Experiments were run with natural contaminated soil samples,originating from a fire-fighting training site at Arlanda Airport, and at Kallinge, Sweden, as well as inartificially spikedsoil. Electrodes were placed in electrolyte-filled chambers and separated by the soilwith ion-exchange membranes for pH-control. In total, five experiments were conducted. Two differentsetups were tested, a typical 3-compartment EKR cell and a 2-compartment setup, to allow for pHincrease and facilitate PFAS desorption. Two different current densities were tested; 0.19 mA cm-2 and0.38 mA cm-2. After twenty-one days, soil was cut in ten parts lengthwise and triplicate samples wereanalysed for PFAS concentrations, with HPLC-MS/MS. Sixteen out of the twenty-six screened PFASswere detected above MDL in the natural soil samples. The majority of the detected PFASs showed apositive trend of electromigration towards the anode, under both current densities, with only longerchainedcompounds (c>8) being immobile. This can be attributed to the stronger sorption potential oflong-chained PFAS molecules, as has been reported in previous sorption studies. Mass balancedistribution for a high current density (0.38 mA cm-2) experiment revealed that 73.2% of Σ26PFAS wasconcentrated towards the anode, with 59% at the soil closer to the anode, 5.7% at the anion exchangemembrane and 8.5% at the anolyte. It also showed higher mobility for short-chained molecules (c≤6),as they were the only compounds to be extracted from soil and be concentrated in the anolyte. Highercurrent densities were not directly correlated with higher electromigration rates, as to the lack of massbalance data for the low current density experiments. Regardless, electrodialysis could be a viable optionfor PFAS soil remediation and further research to encourage the understanding of the migrationmechanism, as well as combination with other treatment methods is encouraged.

  • 323.
    Nickman, Alireza
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik. KTH/ The Royal Institute of Technology.
    Modeling moisture and temperature dynamics in road structure during winter conditionsManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Excess moisture significantly impact durability and sustainability of road components especially in cold regions. To improve understanding of moisture dynamics in roads with drainage system, hourly measured moisture content, soil temperature and groundwater level data during a 3-year period from a test site in Växjö, Sothern Sweden were utilized. Seasonal and manipulated changes in the groundwater level and moisture dynamics were observed that describe extreme conditions providing extra moisture to the upper layers of road. CoupModel was used to estimate mass and heat balance in four depths of two spots of the road section. Good performances of the model were achieved in calculation of the soil moisture in different depths. Soil water retention curve parameters were sensitive to constrain criteria which demonstrate importance of soil texture in controlling moisture dynamics. Model could properly capture temperature dynamic during winter time but simulated excess evaporation from soil layers reduced performance of model in the estimation of temperature during summer The combined monitoring and modelling of physical conditions in the road structure will be highly relevant to help decision makers and road engineers to avoid moisture in road structures and to also identify crucial events from meteorological data.

  • 324.
    Nickman, Alireza
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik. KTH/ The Royal Institute of Technology.
    Uncertainty based approach to simulate groundwater levels in a hillslope upstream of a roadManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of the processes governing groundwater dynamics in the areas close to roads is important for sustainable road infrastructure in the face of a changing climate. This study established an uncertainty based approach to simulate groundwater oscillations in a hillslope upstream of a road by using a process based model. Four different soil configurations were analyzed in CoupModel to simulate groundwater dynamics in presence of a road drainage system by implementation of meteorological data as driving factors. An approach similar to GLUE method was applied to analyze the statistical performance of the simulated groundwater level versus high resolution measured groundwater level dynamics. Results of the simulations indicate deviations in simulated results due to different soil stratifications. Uncertainties resulted from the lack of precise information about the geological structure of the site are important contributors to deviated simulation results. Different scenarios showed different model performances in which a simpler soil profile describes better the groundwater dynamics when it is closer to the road drainage system while a more complicated soil profile better describes groundwater dynamics in undisturbed soils. Correlation between hydraulic conductivity of each layer and the model performance was discussed. The results also indicate significance of variables such as physical drainage characteristics of the road in governing level of saturations also the position of the road structure in a hillslope. Texture (hydraulic conductivity) of the soil layers that fluctuation of groundwater occurs in those layers and types of modifications that have been done due to road construction are important driving factors. These factors are suggested as suitable indicators for designing an early warning system based on physical characteristics of a road site.

  • 325.
    Nickman, Alireza
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik. KTH/ The Royal Institute of Technology.
    Uncertainty based approach to simulate groundwater levels in a hillslope upstream of a roadManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of the processes governing groundwater dynamics in the areas close to roads is important for sustainable road infrastructure in the face of a changing climate. This study established an uncertainty based approach to simulate groundwater oscillations in a hillslope upstream of a road by using a process based model. Four different soil configurations were analyzed in CoupModel to simulate groundwater dynamics in presence of a road drainage system by implementation of meteorological data as driving factors. An approach similar to GLUE method was applied to analyze the statistical performance of the simulated groundwater level versus high resolution measured groundwater level dynamics. Results of the simulations indicate deviations in simulated results due to different soil stratifications. Uncertainties resulted from the lack of precise information about the geological structure of the site are important contributors to deviated simulation results. Different scenarios showed different model performances in which a simpler soil profile describes better the groundwater dynamics when it is closer to the road drainage system while a more complicated soil profile better describes groundwater dynamics in undisturbed soils. Correlation between hydraulic conductivity of each layer and the model performance was discussed. The results also indicate significance of variables such as physical drainage characteristics of the road in governing level of saturations also the position of the road structure in a hillslope. Texture (hydraulic conductivity) of the soil layers that fluctuation of groundwater occurs in those layers and types of modifications that have been done due to road construction are important driving factors. These factors are suggested as suitable indicators for designing an early warning system based on physical characteristics of a road site.

  • 326.
    Nickman, Alireza
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Jansson, Per-Erik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Lyon, Steve W.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Kalantari, Zahra
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    The impact of roads on hydrological responses: A case study in SwedenManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A method engaged for simulating and assessing the alterations excreted by road topography within watersheds and estimating the road effects on hydrologic responses. The method uses Geographic Information System (GIS) to allocate and eliminate roads from the elevation data. HEC-HMS was used to model surface and near surface hydrological responses of watersheds with roads and without roads in response to three storms with different intensities. A detailed study of the simulated flow duration curves showed differences between 20 watersheds for three different storms based on a digital elevation data with and without roads. To compare flow duration curves, L-moment ratios were calculated and their variation compared. An increase in peak flow and reduced delay occurred with increased storm intensity. Variations of the L-moment ratios were larger in larger watersheds. However, the impact of the roads was much smaller and only possible to identify by detailed examination of statistical descriptors. The results are useful to gain a better estimating of the effect of road topography in hydrological processes and responses especially in high storm intensities.

  • 327.
    Nilsson, Måns
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö.
    Sustainable energy for all: From basic access to a shared development agenda2012Inngår i: Carbon Management, ISSN 1758-3004, E-ISSN 1758-3012, Vol. 3, nr 1, s. 1-3Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 328.
    Nilsson, Måns
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö.
    Hillman, K.
    Magnusson, T.
    How do we govern sustainable innovations?: Mapping patterns of governance for biofuels and hybrid-electric vehicle technologies2012Inngår i: Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, ISSN 2210-4224, Vol. 3, s. 50-66Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines patterns of governance aimed at sustainable technological innovation in the transport sector. It makes an overall assessment of governance emerging in the fields of biofuel and hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) technologies, and makes a classification of its characteristics. It examines the role of different actors and levels of governance as well as preferred mechanisms and targets of governance. The assessment reveals that there are rather differential patterns of governance influencing the two fields. For instance, international-level and market-based governance are much more prevalent in biofuels, whereas industry-led and cognitive governance play comparatively stronger roles in HEV. These patterns can be understood in light of both the different institutional and actor characteristics of the two technologies, and their positions in relation to socio-technical regimes.

  • 329.
    Nilsson, Måns
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Persson, Åsa
    Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Can Earth system interactions be governed?: Governance functions for linking climate change mitigation with land use, freshwater and biodiversity protection2012Inngår i: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 75, s. 61-71Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Earth system interactions, as highlighted by the planetary boundaries framework, occur within and across natural, social and economic systems and shape global environmental change. This paper addresses the multi-level governance problem of coherently addressing key interactions between four Earth sub-systems - climate change, freshwater use, land use and biodiversity - taking into account concerns over problem shifting. After discussing possibilities for regional downscaling of the boundaries, we explore challenges for the EU region to coherently address this particular set of interacting Earth sub-systems and reduce the risk of problem shifting. This analysis demonstrates that Earth system interactions can be governed, but that they likely require comprehensive packages of governance responses across both sub-systems and levels. Three overarching governance functions are tentatively identified that directly or indirectly address Earth system interactions: reduction of system stress, risks and vulnerabilities; triggering and navigation of transformation of economic activity; and development of a diversity of options. Finally, the paper briefly discusses political and institutional challenges for developing, enabling and stabilising these governance functions.

  • 330.
    Nilsson, Måns
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Persson, Åsa
    Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Reprint of "Can Earth system interactions be governed?: Governance functions for linking climate change mitigation with land use, freshwater and biodiversity protection"2012Inngår i: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 81, s. 10-20Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Earth system interactions, as highlighted by the planetary boundaries framework, occur within and across natural, social and economic systems and shape global environmental change. This paper addresses the multi-level governance problem of coherently addressing key interactions between four Earth sub-systems - climate change, freshwater use, land use and biodiversity - taking into account concerns over problem shifting. After discussing possibilities for regional downscaling of the boundaries, we explore challenges for the EU region to coherently address this particular set of interacting Earth sub-systems and reduce the risk of problem shifting. This analysis demonstrates that Earth system interactions can be governed, but that they likely require comprehensive packages of governance responses across both sub-systems and levels. Three overarching governance functions are tentatively identified that directly or indirectly address Earth system interactions: reduction of system stress, risks and vulnerabilities; triggering and navigation of transformation of economic activity: and development of a diversity of options. Finally, the paper briefly discusses political and institutional challenges for developing, enabling and stabilising these governance functions.

  • 331.
    Nyblom, Åsa
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik. Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Eriksson, Elina
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID. Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Time is of essence: Changing the horizon of travel planning2014Inngår i: Proceedings of the 2014 conference ICT for Sustainability, Atlantis Press , 2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent years have seen a rapid growth of ICT-services related to the transportation area, and for example Advanced Travel Information Services (ATIS) have been proposed as one means to achieve a decrease of environmental impacts of transportation through behavioural change. However, empirical studies have shown that travel planning in every day life is a fragmented, distributed and fluid process, that is not as enclosed in time and space, or delimited in its content, as today’s ICT-services for travel planning imply – in spite of smart and mobile solutions. Hence, in this paper we discuss the role of planning and coordination in the time-constrained travel-choices of everyday life, together with the question of which time horizons and what decisions that are part of today’s travel planning services. Furthermore we will also sketch how travel planners of tomorrow, linked with other ICT-services, could be designed in order to stretch the horizon of assistance so that they are better equipped to support travel planning processes in everyday life. We will also critically discuss the role of travel information services and ICT as being a part of the work for more sustainable mobility.

  • 332. Nylinder, Josefine
    et al.
    Stenberg, Maria
    Jansson, Per-Erik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Klemedtsson, Asa Kasimir
    Weslien, Per
    Klemedtsson, Leif
    Modelling uncertainty for nitrate leaching and nitrous oxide emissions based on a Swedish field experiment with organic crop rotation2011Inngår i: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, ISSN 0167-8809, E-ISSN 1873-2305, Vol. 141, nr 1-2, s. 167-183Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    High uncertainties are common in detailed quantification of the N budget of agricultural cropping systems. The process-based CoupModel, integrated with the parameter calibration method known as Generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE), was used here to define parameter values and estimate an N budget based on experimental data from an organic farming experiment in south-west Sweden. Data on nitrate (NO3-) leaching and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions were used as a basis for quantifying N budget pools. A complete N budget with uncertainties associated with the different components of the N cycle compartments for two different fields (B2 and B4) is presented. Simulated N2O emissions contributed 1-2% of total N output, which corresponded to 7% and 8.7% of total N leaching for B2 and B4, respectively. Measured N2O emissions contributed 3.5% and 10.3% of total N leaching from B2 and B4, respectively. Simulated N inputs (deposition, plant N fixation and fertilisation) and outputs (emissions, leaching and harvest) showed a relatively small range of uncertainty, while the differences in N storage in the soil exhibited a larger range of uncertainty. One-fifth of the GLUE-calibrated parameters had a significant impact on simulated NO3- leaching and/or N2O emissions data. Emissions of N2O were strongly associated with the nitrification process. The high degree of equifinality indicated that a simpler model could be calibrated to the same field data.

  • 333.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Bertling, Sofia
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Corrosion-induced release and environmental interaction of chromium, nickel and iron from stainless steel2006Inngår i: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 170, nr 1-4, s. 17-35Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A cross-disciplinary research project has been implemented because of increased awareness of the potential environmental effects caused by dispersion of metals from external applications into the environment. The work comprises a 4-year (1998-2002) field exposure of grades 304 and 316 stainless steels, and a laboratory percolation study simulating 20-25 years of chromium and nickel containing runoff water interactions with soil. Total metal annual release rates varied between 0.2 and 0.7 mg m(-2) yr(-1) for Cr, between 0.1 and 0.8 mg m(-2) yr(-1) for Ni and between 10 and 200 mg m(-2) yr(-1) for Fe. Most Cr and Ni is present in an ionic form as a result of the limited presence of organic matter at the immediate release situation. Metal ion concentrations in the runoff water are far below reported ecotoxic concentrations. Studies of the environmental interaction between runoff water from stainless steel and soil show the majority of released Cr and Ni to be retained and their concentrations in percolation water to be very low (0.5-1 mu g L-1 and 1-5.5 mu g L-1 for Cr and Ni, respectively). Speciation calculations showed Cr to be primarily complexed to dissolved organic carbon while Ni also was present in an ionic form in the solution phase. Soil extractions showed Cr and Ni to be very strongly retained within the soil.

  • 334.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Materialvetenskap.
    Bertling, Sofia
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Materialvetenskap.
    Zhang, Xueyuan
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Materialvetenskap.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Materialvetenskap.
    Predictive models of copper runoff from external structures2004Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Monitoring, ISSN 1464-0325, E-ISSN 1464-0333, Vol. 6, nr 8, s. 704-712Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A general model for annual runoff rate predictions of total copper from naturally patinated copper on buildings at specific urban or rural sites of low chloride influence has been deduced from laboratory and field data. All parameters within the model have a physical meaning and include the average annual rain acidity ( pH), the annual rain quantity and the geometry of a building in terms of surface inclination. In 70% of all reported annual runoff rates, the predicted values are within 30% from the observed values.

    The individual and interactive effect of rain composition in terms of pH, sulfate, chloride and nitrate concentration was investigated in immersion experiments in artificial rain water representative of urban and rural sites of Europe. The results show pH to have a dominating effect on patina dissolution, nitrate to have a small inhibiting effect, whereas no significant effect was seen for chloride and sulfate.

    In case pH data are not available, a model has been statistically deduced from field data by considering SO2 as influencing parameter, rather than pH. The predictability with the SO2 model is not as good as with the pH model i.e. the pH model should preferentially be used since it is a better predictor and all parameters within the model can be physically explained.

  • 335.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinelement. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Järnvägsgruppen, JVG.
    Zhu, Yi
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Järnvägsgruppen, JVG. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinelement.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinelement. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Järnvägsgruppen, JVG.
    Lewis, Roger
    Lewis, Steve
    Tribology of the wheel rail contact: aspects of wear, particle emission and adhesion2013Inngår i: Vehicle System Dynamics, ISSN 0042-3114, E-ISSN 1744-5159, Vol. 51, nr 7, s. 1091-1120Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The wheel−rail contact is a safety critical interface. Wear, particle emission and adhesion are all wheel−rail contact phenomena and are discussed here. All three phenomena are material and system parameters and are linked together. Different countermeasures to one phenomenon such as adhesion enhancement with a friction modifier can increase the wear in the contacting bodies. The wear of railway wheel and rail is linked to the number of airborne particles generated, but the exact number and size distribution of the aerosols particles are unknown. The main objective of this study is to review recent work in this field and to discuss future trends.

  • 336.
    Olsson, Alexander
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Energiprocesser.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Energiprocesser.
    Lind, M.
    Yan, Jinyue
    School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    The elephant in the room - A comparative study of uncertainties in carbon offsets2016Inngår i: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 56, s. 32-38Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The clean development mechanism (CDM) is a flexible mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol, which makes it possible for developed countries to offset their emissions of greenhouse gases through investing in climate change mitigation projects in developing countries. When the mitigation benefit of a CDM project is quantified, measurable uncertainties arise that can be minimised using established statistical methods. In addition, some unmeasurable uncertainties arise, such as the rebound effect of demand-side energy efficiency projects. Many project types related to land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) have been excluded from the CDM in part because of the high degree of statistical uncertainty in measurements of the carbon sink and risk of non-permanence. However, recent discussions within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) have opened up for the possibility of including more LULUCF activities in the future. In the light of this discussion, we highlight different aspects of uncertainties in LULUCF projects (e.g. the risk of non-permanence and the size of the carbon sink) in relation to other CDM project categories such as renewables and demand-side energy efficiency. We quantify the uncertainties, compare the magnitudes of the uncertainties in different project categories and conclude that uncertainties could be just as significant in CDM project categories such as renewables as in LULUCF projects. The CDM is a useful way of including and engaging developing countries in climate change mitigation and could be a good source of financial support for LULUCF mitigation activities. Given their enormous mitigation potential, we argue that additional LULUCF activities should be included in the CDM and other future climate policy instruments. Furthermore, we note that Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) are currently being submitted to the UNFCCC by developing countries. Unfortunately, the under-representation of LULUCF in comparison to its potential is evident in the NAMAs submitted so far, just as it has been in the CDM. Capacity building under the CDM may influence NAMAs and there is a risk of transferring the view on uncertainties to NAMAs.

  • 337.
    Olsson, Susanna
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Miljögeokemi och ekoteknik.
    Kleja, D. Berggren
    Department of Soil Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Bendz, D.
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Linköping.
    Persson, I.
    Department of Chemistry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Metal leaching from MSWI bottom ash as affected by salt or dissolved organic matter2009Inngår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 29, nr 2, s. 506-512Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to manage municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash safely, risk assessments, including the prediction of leaching under different field conditions, are necessary. In this study, the influence of salt or dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the influent on metal leaching from MSWI bottom ash was investigated in a column experiment. The presence of salt (0.1 M NaCI) resulted in a small increase of As leaching, whereas no impact on leachate concentration was found when lakewater DOM (35.1 mg/I dissolved organic carbon) was added. Most of the added DOM was retained within the material. Further, X-ray spectroscopy revealed that Cu(II) was the dominating form of Cu and that it probably Occurred as a CuO-type mineral. The CU2+ activity in the MSWI bottom ash leachate was most likely determined by the dissolution of CuO together with the formation of Cu-DOM complexes and possibly also by adsorption to (hydr)oxide minerals. The addition of lake DOM in the influent resulted in lower saturation indices for CuO in the leachates. which may be due to slow CuO dissolution kinetics in combination with strong Cu-DOM complexation.

  • 338.
    Olsson, Susanna
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Van Schaik, Joris W. J.
    Department of Soil Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Kleja, Dan Berggreb
    Department of Soil Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Van Hees, Patrick A. W.
    Man-Technology Environment Research Center, Department of Natural Science, Örebro University.
    Copper(II) binding to dissolved organic matter fractions in municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash leachate2007Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 41, nr 12, s. 4286-4291Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Information on Cu speciation in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash leachate is needed for Cu leaching predictions and toxicity estimates. The complexation of Cu with dissolved organic matter (DOM) in leachates from a stored MSWI bottom ash was studied potentiometrically using a Cu-ion selective electrode. More than 95% of the copper was bound to DOM in the hydrophilic fraction of the leachate, indicating that the hydrophilic acids contribute to Cu complex formation. The hydrophilic acids constituted 58% of the dissolved organic carbon in the ash leachate. Comparisons between experimental results and speciation calculations with the NICA-Donnan model and the Stockholm humic model indicated differences between the ash DOM and the natural DOM for which the models have been calibrated. The ratio of carboxylic binding sites to phenolic binding sites was 2 times larger in ash DOM, and the Cu-binding affinity of the former was stronger than accounted for by the generic Cu-binding parameters. The Cu-binding affinity of the phenolic sites, on the other hand, was weaker. When these parameters were adjusted, a good description of the experimental data was obtained.

  • 339. Ostman, M.
    et al.
    Wahlberg, Olle
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Oorganisk kemi.
    Martensson, A.
    Leachability and metal-binding capacity in ageing landfill material2008Inngår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 28, nr 1, s. 142-150Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to study the stability of landfilled heavy metals, landfill material from a combined household and industrial waste landfill was aerated for 14 months to simulate the natural ageing processes as air slowly begins to penetrate the landfill mass. During aeration, the pH of the landfill material decreased from around 8.6 to 8.1 and the carbon content also decreased. In order to investigate the possible fate of metals in ageing landfills, a four-stage sequential extraction technique was applied. The ability of the materials to bind metal ions by electrostatic attractions and to form stronger complexes was studied separately. The amount of exchangeable cations, the capacity to bind metal ions by electrostatic attraction and the capacity of the landfill material to complex copper ions were increased by the aeration process. However, results from the sequential analysis showed an increased solubility of sulphur and some metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Ni and Zn). Equilibrium speciation models (Medusa) indicated that the organic matter deposit had a significant capacity to bind metal ions provided that pH was sufficiently high. However, as carbonates are consumed over time, the risk for metal mobility increases. Therefore, the landfills can become an environmental risk, depending on variations in the solubility of metal ions due to changes in pH, redox status and the availability of organic material.

  • 340. Owusu, V.
    et al.
    Adjei-Addo, E.
    Sundberg, C.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Energy & Technol, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Do economic incentives affect attitudes to solid waste source separation?: Evidence from Ghana2013Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 78, s. 115-123Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the willingness of urban households in Ghana to accept economic incentives to participate in solid waste source separation. Low income households were less inclined to accept cash incentives than middle or high income households indicating that other factors than purely costs for waste management are important for households to participate in source-separation of waste. Perceptions on health and sorting and the availability of open space in the households were important for the willingness to accept incentives for source separation. The empirical findings indicate that household-level solid waste separation is positively influenced by gender (female) and sorting or health-related perceptions on source separation. About 80% of the households are willing to accept cash incentive of GH¢1.6374 (US$1.6347) per month to participate in source separation, and the mean cash incentive per month is GH¢1.2186 (US$1.2166). Fruitful solid waste management policy recommendations based on the empirical magnitudes and directions are made.

  • 341.
    Owusu-Agyeman, Isaac
    et al.
    Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany.
    Malovanyy, Andriy
    Plaza, Elzbieta
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE).
    UASB/Anammox technology: A sustainable approach for energy recovery and cost effective nitrogen removal from wastewate2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 342.
    Paul, Prabin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630).
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630).
    Integrating hydrologic and hydrodynamic models for decision support systems and management of coastal zones and estuaries2010Inngår i: Management and Sustainable Development of Coastal Zone Environments, Springer Netherlands, 2010, s. 85-97Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An estuary may be defined as a semi-enclosed coastal basin, or system of basins, which has limited water exchange with the open sea, and which is measurably diluted with freshwater discharge from the land. Often the dynamics of an estuary are also strongly affected by tidal forcing. An exact understanding of all the processes occurring, and their application to make reliable predictions in real estuarine system, remains as a challenge.

  • 343.
    Penaloza, Diego
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsmaterial.
    Royne, Frida
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Sandin, Gustav
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Svanstrom, Magdalena
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Div Environm Syst Anal, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Erlandsson, Martin
    IVL Swedish Environm Res Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    The influence of system boundaries and baseline in climate impact assessment of forest products2019Inngår i: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 24, nr 1, s. 160-176Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    PurposeThis article aims to explore how different assumptions about system boundaries and setting of baselines for forest growth affect the outcome of climate impact assessments of forest products using life cycle assessment (LCA), regarding the potential for climate impact mitigation from replacing non-forest benchmarks. This article attempts to explore how several assumptions interact and influence results for different products with different service life lengths.MethodsFour products made from forest biomass were analysed and compared to non-forest benchmarks using dynamic LCA with time horizons between 0 and 300years. The studied products have different service lives: butanol automotive fuel (0years), viscose textile fibres (2years), a cross-laminated timber building structure (50years) and methanol used to produce short-lived (0years) and long-lived (20years) products. Five calculation setups were tested featuring different assumptions about how to account for the carbon uptake during forest growth or regrowth. These assumptions relate to the timing of the uptake (before or after harvest), the spatial system boundaries (national, landscape or single stand) and the land-use baseline (zero baseline or natural regeneration).Results and discussionThe implications of using different assumptions depend on the type of product. The choice of time horizon for dynamic LCA and the timing of forest carbon uptake are important for all products, especially long-lived ones where end-of-life biogenic emissions take place in the relatively distant future. The choice of time horizon is less influential when using landscape- or national-level system boundaries than when using stand-level system boundaries and has greater influence on the results for long-lived products. Short-lived products perform worse than their benchmarks with short time horizons whatever spatial system boundaries are chosen, while long-lived products outperform their benchmarks with all methods tested. The approach and data used to model the forest carbon uptake can significantly influence the outcome of the assessment for all products.ConclusionsThe choices of spatial system boundaries, temporal system boundaries and land-use baseline have a large influence on the results, and this influence decreases for longer time horizons. Short-lived products are more sensitive to the choice of time horizon than long-lived products. Recommendations are given for LCA practitioners: to be aware of the influence of method choice when carrying out studies, to use case-specific data (for the forest growth) and to communicate clearly how results can be used.

  • 344.
    Penzenstadler, Birgit
    et al.
    University of California-Irvine, USA.
    Eriksson, Elina
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID. Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Picha Edwardsson, Malin
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID. Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Pargman, Daniel
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID. Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    ICT4S 2029: What will be the Systems Supporting Sustainability in 15 Years?2014Inngår i: Proceedings of the 2014 conference ICT for Sustainability, Atlantis Press , 2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Research is often inspired by visions of the future. These visions can take on various narrative forms, and can fall anywhere along the spectrum from utopian to dystopian. Even though we recognize the importance of such visions to help us shape research questions and inspire rich design spaces to be explored, the opportunity to discuss them is rarely given in a research context. Imagine how civilization will have changed in 15 years. What is your vision for systems that will be supporting sustainability in that time Which transformational changes will have occurred in the mean time that allow for these systems Is ICT even the right tool or does it contradict sustainability by making our world ever more complex How can we make systems and our societies more sustainable and resilient by ICT4S This paper presents a compilation of fictional abstracts for inspiration and discussion, and provides means to stimulate discussion on future research and contributes to ICT4S community building.

  • 345. Persson, F.
    et al.
    Sultana, Razia
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Suarez, M.
    Hermansson, M.
    Plaza, Elzbieta
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Wilén, B. -M
    Structure and composition of biofilm communities in a moving bed biofilm reactor for nitritation-anammox at low temperatures2014Inngår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 154, s. 267-273Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is a challenge to apply anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) for nitrogen removal from wastewater at low temperatures. Maintenance of anammox- and aerobic ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and suppression of nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) are key issues. In this work, a nitritation-anammox moving bed biofilm pilot reactor was operated at 19-10°C for 300d. Nitrogen removal was decreasing, but stable, at 19-13°C. At 10°C removal became unstable. Quantitative PCR, fluorescence in situ hybridization and gene sequencing showed that no major microbial community changes were observed with decreased temperature. Anammox bacteria dominated the biofilm (0.9-1.2×1014 16S rRNA copies m-2). Most anammox bacteria were similar to Brocadia sp. 40, but another smaller Brocadia population was present near the biofilm-water interface, where also the AOB community (Nitrosomonas) was concentrated in thin layers (1.8-5.3×1012 amoA copies m-2). NOB (Nitrobacter, Nitrospira) were always present at low concentrations (&lt;1.3×1011 16S rRNA copies m-2).

  • 346.
    Peñaloza, Diego
    et al.
    KTH. RISE Res Inst Sweden, Eklandagatan 86, S-41261 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Erlandsson, Martin
    IVL Swedish Environm Res Inst, Valhallavagen 8, S-11427 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Berlin, Johanna
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Eklandagatan 86, S-41261 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Wålinder, Magnus
    KTH.
    Falk, Andreas
    KTH.
    Future scenarios for climate mitigation of new construction in Sweden: Effects of different technological pathways2018Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 187, s. 1025-1035Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A variety of climate mitigation strategies is available to mitigate climate impacts of buildings. Several studies evaluating the effectiveness of these strategies have been performed at the building stock level, but do not consider the technological change in building material manufacturing. The objective of this study is to evaluate the climate mitigation effects of increasing the use of biobased materials in the construction of new residential dwellings in Sweden under future scenarios related to technological change. A model to estimate the climate impact from Swedish new dwellings has been proposed combining official statistics and life cycle assessment data of seven different dwelling typologies. Eight future scenarios for increased use of harvested wood products are explored under different pathways for changes in the market share of typologies and in energy generation. The results show that an increased use of harvested wood products results in lower climate impacts in all scenarios evaluated, but reductions decrease if the use of low-impact concrete expands more rapidly or under optimistic energy scenarios. Results are highly sensitive to the choice of climate impact metric. The Swedish construction sector can only reach maximum climate change mitigation scenarios if the low-impact building typologies are implemented together and rapidly.

  • 347.
    Picha Edwardsson, Malin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID. Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Ahmadi Achachlouei, Mohammad
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys (flyttat 20130630). Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys (flyttat 20130630). Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Magazine Publishing: Editorial Process Structure and Environmental Impacts - Case study2012Inngår i: Taga proceedings: 64th annual technical conference, Sewickley , 2012, s. 184-203Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the structure of the editorial processes at a Swedish monthly magazine for interior decorating and design, Sköna hem, and assesses the carbon footprint (greenhouse gas emissions) of the editorial content production during one year. The objective is to define the processes using a computer based process modeling tool and to analyze the workflow in order to discover how the different steps in the production process relate to different environmentally related parameters. An additional objective is to present the carbon footprint of the overall editorial work and to identify the major reasons for greenhouse gas emissions, as well as any major data gaps and uncertainties. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken in order to identify the process steps involved in the content production. Environmentally related parameters, such as travel distance, mode of transports, and computer hours, were then collected for each process step. Life cycle assessment methodology was used to assess the potential greenhouse gas emissions of the editorial work at Sköna hem. A number of process steps were identified in the content production. Three overall phases were identified, into which the process steps can be grouped. Firstly, the planning phase consists of meetings with different key persons in order to plan the content of the next issues of the magazine. Secondly, the executive phase was identified. Here, all the articles and pictures are produced. Thirdly, the assembly phase includes text editing and page design. Finally, ready-made pages are sent to printing or to the digital publishing channels such as tablets and the web. According to the assessment made, the editorial content production at Sköna hem has a carbon footprint of 23 tons of carbon dioxide equivalents per year. The major reasons are the manufacturing of computers and screens used at the office, business trips by plane, and transports by delivery firms mainly used for transporting furniture and other objects to and from photo sessions. The use of computers and screens is mostly associated with the assembly phase, business trips by plane with the planning phase and transports by delivery firms with the executive phase.

  • 348.
    Picha Edwardsson, Malin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID. Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys (flyttat 20130630). Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys (flyttat 20130630). Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Local Television Content Production: Process Structures and Climate Impacts – a Case Study2012Inngår i: Journal of Print and Media Technology Research, ISSN 2223-8905, Vol. 1, nr 4, s. 215-232Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The business environment in which media companies exist today is rapidly changing. If they have not done so already, media companies need to position themselves to this ongoing change and find their place in the new media landscape. However, this could also mean a good opportunity to optimize work processes on different levels. In order to meet these opportunities, as well as being proactive when it comes to environmental performance, we first need to understand the current structure of media companies, for example when it comes to work processes.

    The aim of this study is to identify and analyze the process structure and the potential climate impact of the content production of the local television station TV4 Gävle/Dalarna in Sweden. The study objectives are:

    • to identify the major editorial and marketing processes and to visualize the two workflows in order to discover how the processes could be optimized and how this in turn may affect the environmental impact.
    • to assess the carbon footprint of the content production of the local television station and to identify the major reasons for this climate change impact.

    Two main methods were used – semi-structured interviews and carbon footprint assessment.

    The editorial part of the workflow is centered on broadcasting news at certain times. A total of nine process steps were identified in the editorial workflow. The largest amount of person hours can be found in the process steps of content production and content editing. Work is done in order to meet the deadlines which come every time there is a broadcast. This fact puts special demands on the personnel, such as an ability to manage stress and short deadlines, and an ability to handle the technical equipment in one-person teams. There is a total of seven process steps on the marketing side, two of which are located outside of the local television station.

    A large part of the carbon footprint from the TV4 Gävle/Dalarna content production is caused by business trips by car. The editorial department makes most of the business trips, but the marketing department is also responsible for some of the trips. The total carbon footprint from the television production is estimated to 52 tons of CO2 eq/year, including the employees’ trips to andfrom the workplace. The trips to and from work is the second largest contributor to the carbon footprint. When considering the impact per viewer, the result is 0.35 kg of CO2 eq/viewer and year.

    Judging from today’s situation, the efficiency on the editorial side is very good. However, it might still be fruitful to consider the travelling practices in order to improve the overall environmental performance.

  • 349.
    Picha Edwardsson, Malin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID. Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys (flyttat 20130630). Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Local newspaper publishing: editorial structure and environmental effects - a case study2011Inngår i: Advances in Printing and Media Technology, ISSN 0892-2284, E-ISSN 1942-597X, Vol. 38, s. 403-410Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Media companies operate in a dynamic environment where change is a constant. Pursuing change in a media company implies an opportunity to optimize processes on different levels. In order to meet these opportunities, as well as being proactive when it comes to environmental performance, we need to understand the current structure of media companies. Better understanding can lead to finding ways to optimize the workflow and to implement other improvements.

    This study investigates the structure of the editorial processes and other processes regarding content production of a local newspaper in Sweden, Norrtelje Tidning. The objective is to analyze the workflow in order to discover how the different steps in the production process might affect potential environmental impact. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken to identify the process steps involved in the content production. Environmental data was then collected for each process step, and a screening environmental assessment with a life-cycle perspective was performed.

    The major reasons for potential environmental impact related to content production at Norrtelje Tidning are travel and the use of electronic devices. These two areas are relevant to focus on when striving to reduce environmental impact on a general level.

  • 350.
    Pirak Kuoljok, Simon
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Wallin, Tony
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Småskalig vattenkraft i Tyresån: En undersökning av ekologiska åtgärder utifrån de globala hållbarhetsmålen2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige finns det ungefär 2 100 vattenkraftverk som står för ca 40 % av Sveriges elproduktion.Ungefär 1 700 av dem är småskaliga vattenkraftverk och utgör 2,1 % av vattenkraftens elproduktion.Vattenkraften har negativa ekologiska konsekvenser på vattendragets konnektivitet vilket skaparproblem för den biologiska mångfalden. Tyresån vattensystem ligger i Stockholms län och är reglerat.Vattensystemet har tre vandringshinder, inklusive ett småskaligt vattenkraftverk – Uddby kvarn,vilket medför att vattensystemet har en dålig ekologisk status utifrån konnektivitet. Syftet medrapporten är att sammanställa de nyttor och problem som finns kopplade till den småskaligavattenkraften i Sverige och utifrån detta ta reda på vilka av FN:s globala hållbarhetsmål som påverkasav den småskaliga vattenkraftens verksamhet. För att undersöka det genomförs en litteraturstudiesamt en fallstudie, med inslag av intervjuer från sakkunniga informanter, som fokuserar på Tyresånsvattensystem. Platsbesök har även förekommit vid två tillfällen.

    De värden som är kopplade till småskalig vattenkraft är betydelsen för elsystemet, ekologiskaeffekter samt sociala och kulturella värden. I nedre Tyresån finns de tre strömmarnaFollbrinksströmmen, Nyfors och Uddby kvarn som alla är reglerade på olika sätt. Uddby kvarnlevererar el till ungefär 500 hushåll. Utifrån intervjuerna är närheten till höga naturvärden samt högakulturvärden positivt i Tyresån och bör behållas. Tyresåns ekologiska status utifrån konnektivitet ochfisk är dålig samt näringsämnen och bottenfaunan är måttlig. De åtgärder som tas upp för förbättradkonnektivitet är inlöp, anpassad reglering, återställning i Nyfors, biotopvård i Follbrinksströmmen,fingaller och uppsamling av ål. Sex globala hållbarhetsmål har tagits fram som går att koppla tillTyresåns vattensystem.

    Målkonflikter och synergier diskuteras, likaså ekologiska effekter kontra elproduktion och betydelsenav den småskaliga vattenkraften i Sverige. Den åtgärd som skulle gynna alla globala målen förTyresån är en återställning i Nyfors. Det finns även synergier mellan de globala målen rent vatten ochekologisk mångfald samt hållbar energi och bekämpa klimatförändringarna. Den störstamålkonflikten mellan de globala målen hållbar energi för alla och ekosystem och biologisk mångfald.

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