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  • 301.
    Börjesson Rivera, Miriam
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms). KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Håkansson, Cecilia
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms). KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Svenfelt, Åsa
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms). KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms). KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Including second order effects in environmental assessments of ICT2014Inngår i: Environmental Modelling & Software, ISSN 1364-8152, E-ISSN 1873-6726, Vol. 56, s. 105-115Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) can have both negative and positive impacts on the environment. Immediate negative environmental impacts arise due to the production, use and disposal of ICT products, while positive effects can arise because ICT products and services replace other products. Other, more indirect consequences of introducing new technologies include e.g. that money saved by reducing costs due to ICT-induced energy efficiency, is being used in consumption of other goods and services that also need energy in their production. Such effects are examined within different disciplines under headings such as rebound effects, indirect effects, second order effects and ripple effects. This paper presents a review and discussion of different second order effects that can be linked to ICT usage in general, using e-commerce as an example. This is a first necessary step in developing methods which include second order effects when analysing the environmental impacts of ICT.

  • 302.
    Caballero Paz, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Inclusion of local actors in Sustainable Development Projects: Evaluation of co-management in Sustainable development projects based in the Bolivian Amazonia2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning 

    En av utmaningarna för de projekt som arbetar med hållbar utveckling är att mäta och analysera nivån på lokalt deltagande. Lokalt deltagande betraktas som en nyckelaspekt för att genomföra långsiktiga processer som kan bidra till bevarande av ekosystem och även förbättra förhållandena för lokala aktörer. 

    Avhandlingen syftar till att bedöma två fallstudier i bolivianska Amazonas enligt principerna av co- management/samverkan. Syftet är att uppnå följande huvudmål: - Granska litteratur om management för samverkan av hållbara utvecklingsprojekt. -Utveckla en kvalitativ ram för att bedöma intryck och resultat av projekt. -Utvärdera två befintliga projekt enligt den etablerade ramen. 

    Denna avhandling analyserar arbetet som en icke-statlig organisation (NGO) genomför i två olika samhällen i bolivianska Amazonas, i projekt relaterade till hållbar utveckling och bevarande. Ett av samhällena är urfolket Tacana, som ligger i regionen La Paz; den andra betraktas vara en multietnisk befolkningsgrupp som formellt är etablerad i en region som heter Santa Rosa del Abuna i regionen Pando. Trots att dessa två grupper uppvisar kulturella och organisatoriska skillnader arbetar de både med skörd av råvaror från skogen, dock ej skogs och trädavverkning. Råvarorna representerar de viktigaste ekonomiska intäkterna för dessa samhällen. 

    För att kunna utvärdera projekten, har besök till samhällen genomförts. Intervjuer och deltagarobservation har utförts för att studera relationerna mellan de olika aktörerna som är involverade i projekten. Flera intervjuer genomfördes också med medarbetare från NGOs på deras kontor i La Paz och Cobija. 

    För att förbereda utvärderingsprocessen har olika teorier använts för att skapa specifika kriterier för att utvärdera framgångsnivån för medverkande processer i projekten. Co-management and co-generation of knowledge har bedömts vara verktyg som kan användas för att utveckla en ram som kan utvärdera lokalt deltagande i olika projekt. För att utveckla detta har sex kriterier använts för att analysera lokalt engagemang i projekten och hur detta deltagande kan förbättras i det långsiktiga perspektivet. 

    Denna utvärdering kan bidra till att öka det lokala och aktiva deltagandet i projekten, men kan också hjälpa medlemmarna i externa organisationer (i detta fall frivilligorganisationer) att förstå den relevans som lokalt engagemang och lokal kunskap kan ha för projekten. Tanken är att olika aktörer / organisationer kan använda denna typ av utvärdering för att hitta möjliga svagheter vid genomförandet av projekt relaterade till hållbar utveckling. 

  • 303. Caceres Choque, Luis Fernando
    et al.
    Ramos Ramos, Oswaldo E.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Valdez Castro, Sulema N.
    Choque Aspiazu, Rigoberto R.
    Choque Mamani, Rocio G.
    Fernandez Alcazar, Samuel G.
    Sracek, Ondra
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Fractionation of heavy metals and assessment of contamination of the sediments of Lake Titicaca2013Inngår i: Environmental Monitoring & Assessment, ISSN 0167-6369, E-ISSN 1573-2959, Vol. 185, nr 12, s. 9979-9994Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical weathering is one of the major geochemical processes that control the mobilization of heavy metals. The present study provides the first report on heavy metal fractionation in sediments (8-156 m) of Lake Titicaca (3,820 m a.s.l.), which is shared by the Republic of Peru and the Plurinational State of Bolivia. Both contents of total Cu, Fe, Ni, Co, Mn, Cd, Pb, and Zn and also the fractionation of these heavy metals associated with four different fractions have been determined following the BCR scheme. The principal component analysis suggests that Co, Ni, and Cd can be attributed to natural sources related to the mineralized geological formations. Moreover, the sources of Cu, Fe, and Mn are effluents and wastes generated from mining activities, while Pb and Zn also suggest that their common source is associated to mining activities. According to the Risk Assessment Code, there is a moderate to high risk related to Zn, Pb, Cd, Mn, Co, and Ni mobilization and/or remobilization from the bottom sediment to the water column. Furthermore, the Geoaccumulation Index and the Enrichment Factor reveal that Zn, Pb, and Cd are enriched in the sediments. The results suggest that the effluents from various traditional mining waste sites in both countries are the main source of heavy metal contamination in the sediments of Lake Titicaca.

  • 304. Campos Pereira, H.
    et al.
    Ullberg, M.
    Kleja, D. B.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Ahrens, L.
    Sorption of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) to an organic soil horizon – Effect of cation composition and pH2018Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 207, s. 183-191Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate prediction of the sorption of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in soils is essential for environmental risk assessment. We investigated the effect of solution pH and calculated soil organic matter (SOM) net charge on the sorption of 14 PFASs onto an organic soil as a function of pH and added concentrations of Al3+, Ca2+ and Na+. Often, the organic C-normalized partitioning coefficients (KOC) showed a negative relationship to both pH (Δlog KOC/ΔpH = −0.32 ± 0.11 log units) and the SOM bulk net negative charge (Δlog KOC = −1.41 ± 0.40 per log unit molc g−1). Moreover, perfluorosulfonic acids (PFSAs) sorbed more strongly than perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) and the PFAS sorption increased with increasing perfluorocarbon chain length with 0.60 and 0.83 log KOC units per CF2 moiety for C3–C10 PFCAs and C4, C6, and C8 PFSAs, respectively. The effects of cation treatment and SOM bulk net charge were evident for many PFASs with low to moderate sorption (C5–C8 PFCAs and C6 PFSA). However for the most strongly sorbing and most long-chained PFASs (C9–C11 and C13 PFCAs, C8 PFSA and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA)), smaller effects of cations were seen, and instead sorption was more strongly related to the pH value. This suggests that the most long-chained PFASs, similar to other hydrophobic organic compounds, are preferentially sorbed to the highly condensed domains of the humin fraction, while shorter-chained PFASs are bound to a larger extent to humic and fulvic acid, where cation effects are significant.

  • 305.
    Cantone, Carolina
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Modelling sediment connectivity in Swedish catchments and application for flood prediction of roads.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Climate changes are predicted to increase precipitation intensities and occurrence of extreme rainfall events in the near future. Scandinavia has been identified as one of the most sensitive regions in Europe to such changes; therefore, an increase in the risk for flooding, landslides and soil erosion is to be expected also in Sweden. An increase in the occurrence of extreme weather events will impose greater strain on the built environment and major transport infrastructures such as roads and railways.

    This research aimed to identify the risk of flooding at the road-stream intersections, crucial locations where water and debris can accumulate and cause failures of the existing drainage facilities. Two regions in southwest of Sweden affected by an extreme rainfall event in August 2014, were used for calibrating and testing a statistical flood prediction model. A set of Physical Catchment Descriptors (PCDs) including road and catchment characteristics was identified for the modelling. Moreover, a GIS-based topographic Index of Sediment Connectivity (IC) was used as PCD.

    The novelty of this study relies on the adaptation of IC for describing sediment connectivity in lowland areas taking into account contribution of soil type, land use and different patterns of precipitation during the event. A weighting factor for IC was calculated by estimating runoff calculated with SCS Curve Number method, assuming a constant value of precipitation for a given time period, corresponding to the critical event. The Digital Elevation Model of the study site was reconditioned at the drainage facilities locations to consider the real flow path in the analysis. These modifications led to highlight the role of rainfall patterns and surface runoff for modelling sediment delivery in lowland areas.

    Moreover, it was observed that integrating IC into the statistic prediction model increased its accuracy and performance. The calibrated model was then validated in another area, located in the central part of Sweden, affected by severe rainfall event in August 2004, in order to verify its robustness even in ungauged catchments.

  • 306.
    Carlsson Kanyama, Annika
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Wikman-Svahn, Per
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och historia.
    Sonnek, Karin Mossberg
    Swedish Def Res Agcy, Def Anal, Stockholm, Sweden..
    "We want to know where the line is": comparing current planning for future sea-level rise with three core principles of robust decision support approaches2019Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 62, nr 8, s. 1339-1358Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Handling uncertainties is a major challenge in climate change adaptation. A variety of robust decision support approaches that aim for better management of uncertainty have recently been emerging and are used in environmental planning. The present study examined to what extent existing processes of planning for future sea-level rise in Sweden utilised similar approaches. Three core principles of robust decision support approaches were identified and used as a tool for analyzing five cases of planning for future sea-level rise in companies and authorities at different levels in society. The results show that planning processes typically do not embrace uncertainties, do not use a bottom-up approach and do not specifically aim for robustness, which points to a discrepancy between current planning paradigms and the core principles of robust decision support approaches.

  • 307.
    Carlsson Kanyama, Karin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Wester, Misse
    LTH, Div Risk Management & Societal Safety, Lund, Sweden..
    Snickare, Lotta
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande.
    Söderberg, Inga-Lill
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande.
    Climate change mitigation efforts among transportation and manufacturing companies: The current state of efforts in Sweden according to available documentation2018Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 196, s. 588-593Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Globally, transportation and manufacturing emit large amount of greenhouse gases that needs to be lowered for reaching agreed upon slim ate goals. In this context evidence of mitigation activities among eighty-five companies and their forty-five parent companies in these two polluting sectors were traced focusing on a country that has committed itself to leading the implementation of ambitious climate mitigation goals worldwide. Documentation from the companies in the transportation and manufacturing sectors was scrutinized (yearly reports, homepages and sustainability reports, if available) for evidence of any mitigation efforts, including emissions reporting and reduction goals. The study's results found that two thirds of the companies seemed to have done nothing to mitigate climate change, while efforts in the remaining companies were modest at best; mitigation activities among the forty-five parent companies were only slightly more ambitious. The implications of these depressing findings are discussed in the light of possible caveats and the possibilities of new policy measures such as gender quotas in company boards. The conclusion is that the study's results most likely reflect reality in the studied sectors and that novel approaches and more sector oriented research is needed in the quest for a carbon-neutral society..

  • 308.
    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Katzeff, Cecilia
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Svenfelt, Åsa
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Rädda maten - Åtgärder för svinnminskande beteendeförändringar hos konsument2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här rapporten redovisas resultat av en litteraturstudie av studier där man har försökt minska matsvinnet genom någon form av intervention som inriktar sig på privatpersoner. De interventioner som fokuseras är åtgärder som har vidtagits för att för- ändra ett existerande beteende, och som har utvärderats på ett vetenskapligt sätt. Med matsvinn avses i den här rapporten livsmedel som skulle kunna ha ätits om det hanterats annorlunda, men som slängts. Privatpersoners matsvinn kan uppstå både i hemmen och när de äter på restaurang och i de studier vi har hittat har olika typer av åtgärder använts: t.ex. utbildning och information om betydelsen av att minska matsvinn; appar och andra hjälpmedel så att människor kan hålla reda på vad de har hemma och inte köper ny mat i onödan; liksom appar som gör att de kan dela överbliven mat. Man har också provat att helt enkelt ge gästerna mindre tallrikar när de äter ute. Privatpersoner kan också uppmuntras till att bidra till minskat matsvinn i andra delar av kedjan, till exempel genom att de uppmuntras till inköp av mat som närmar sig bäst-före-datum. Ofta har de interventioner som gjorts bara utvärderats med en liten grupp personer och långsiktiga utvärderingar av resultaten saknas helt. De utvärderingar som gjorts visar dock på en märkbar effekt, både vad gäller minskning av matsvinnet och vad gäller medvetandegörande och reflektion hos hushållen. Samtidigt finns en rad initiativ för att minska konsumentens matsvinn som inte utvärderats alls. Med tanke på matsvinnets miljömässiga och ekonomiska konsekvenser anser vi att det är väl värt att utvärdera en del av dessa pågående initiativ både kort-och långsiktigt, t.ex. de pågående initiativ som finns för att minska matsvinn från restauranger genom att sälja överbliven mat billigare. Vi anser också att interventioner som provats i andra länder också bör implementeras i Sverige, exempelvis olika hjälpmedel för att hålla reda på vad som finns i kylen samt för att stimulera delning av överbliven mat. Det finns också behov av mer forskning om hur individen och den omgivande samhällsstrukturen kan samverka för att minska matsvinnet samt behov av utvärdering med större grupper av hushåll än vad som gjorts hittills. 

  • 309.
    Carstens, Christoffer
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik. Cty Adm Board Gavleborg, S-80266 Gavle, Sweden..
    Sonnek, Karin Mossberg
    Swedish Def Res Agcy, Def Anal, S-16490 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Raty, Riitta
    Swedish Def Res Agcy, Def Anal, S-16490 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wikman-Svahn, Per
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och historia.
    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Metzger, Jonathan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Insights from Testing a Modified Dynamic Adaptive Policy Pathways Approach for Spatial Planning at the Municipal Level2019Inngår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, nr 2, artikkel-id 433Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Dynamic Adaptive Policy Pathways (DAPP) approach has successfully been used to manage uncertainties in large infrastructure projects. However, the viability of the DAPP approach for spatial planning in smaller municipal settings is not clear. This paper examines opportunities and constraints of using adaptive pathways approaches to help small municipalities plan for future sea-level rise. The methodology was based on developing a simplified DAPP-approach, which was tested in a multiple experimental case study of spatial planning projects in three municipalities in Sweden. The results show that the approach promoted vulnerability-based thinking among the end-users and generated new ideas on how to manage the uncertain long-term impacts of future sea-level rise. However, the increased understanding of uncertainties was used to justify static, rather than adaptive, solutions. This somewhat surprising outcome can be explained by perceived legal constraints, lack of experience of adaptive pathways, and unwillingness to prescribe actions that could prove difficult to enforce in the future. More research is needed to further understand at what planning phases dynamic policy pathway approaches work best and how current barriers in legislation, practices, mind-set, organization, and resources can be overcome.

  • 310.
    Cavell, Julia
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Andersson, Sara
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Long-term water modelling of the Soil-Plant-Atmosphere System: A study conducted for the growing of Grape Leaves with drip irrigation in the Binh Thuan Province, Vietnam2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective was to set up models of the soil-plant-atmosphere system for the growing of Grape Leaves with drip irrigation in the Binh Thuan Province, Vietnam. The computer software tool CoupModel was used in this modelling process. The focus of the model was the systems soil hydraulics and the water balance between its components. When running several 21 years simulations it could be seen that slight variations in soil texture inputs resulted in relatively big output changes. For example, by either using the soil texture laboratory results or the soil water retention inputs gained from tensiometers and moisture meters in the field, gave an annual irrigation amount difference of 100 mm. However, it can be questioned if the models reached the goal of simulating an  efficient irrigation schedule  due to the soil evaporation output being high throughout the year.  For further research, longer time series of field measurements together with more knowledge about the plant would be preferable in order to validate and improve the model. 

  • 311. Cema, G.
    et al.
    Wiszniowski, J.
    Zabczyński, S.
    Zabłocka-Godlewska, E.
    Raszka, A.
    Surmacz-Górska, J.
    Płaza, Elzbieta
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Deammonification in an aerobic Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC)2008Inngår i: Int. Workshop Manage. Pollut. Emiss. Landfills Sludge, 2008, s. 211-218Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Leachate from landfills is a highly complex polluted wastewater. Landfill leachate with a high concentration of ammonium nitrogen is generally difficult to treat, efficiently. Furthermore, it can be very expensive when there is lack of an easily biodegradable carbon source. Combination of the nitrification/denitrification with the Anammox process can be a very attractive alternative. For the purpose of this study, a Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC) was used. The main objective of the research was to investigate the performance of the Anammox process that occurs together with heterotrophic denitrification in the same RBC. During the operation period the acclimation of biofilm to the Anammox process was successful at temperature not exceeding 20°C. Apparently, the process was not affected by a high concentration of nitrite up to 100 g NO2-N m-3 Additionally, it was shown that the Stover-Kincannon model could be used for description of the ammonium and nitrite removal rates.

  • 312.
    Chacha, Juan Diego Godoy
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Urban Water: Harvesting Rainwater at household level to improve the current water metabolism in Cuenca – Ecuador2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    With a global population about 7 billion people and their continued growth are pressuring global natural resources, in freshwater matter this pressure is altering both the river flows; timing season of water flows; and spatial patterns in order to meet human demands both in urban as rural areas. However, water stress in urban areas are increasing and expectations by 2050 are grim with a global urban development by 70 percent moreover urbanization rate expected by 2030 in Latin America is 80 percent, thus the water concerns because of high average water consumption 220 lpd, and water leakage by 29 percent in the third largest city of Ecuador Cuenca have motivated to perform this analysis.

    The analysis is based on a metabolic perspective in order to determine anomalies in the urban water cycle at household level for then apply one of the tools of stormwater management in short term such as harvesting rainwater to find how feasible can be this system both individually as communally in Cuenca urban area based on criteria of rainfall, roof surface, roof material, water average consumption, and costs; in order to generate social, economic, and environmental benefits. Moreover, give recommendations and strategies in mid and long term to get an Integrated Urban Water Management (IUWM) model that allow ensuring the enough natural resources, environmental health, and economic sustainability for current and future demands.

    The main problems in the urban water cycle are in a outdated urban water management because of water leakage in the delivery network and unsuitable water pricing as well as bad consumers habits; these are affecting economically the water enterprise; nonetheless these problems are not putting in risk freshwater resources, and infrastructure capacity to meet future demands but the implementation of harvesting rainwater systems both individual as community can allow water savings by 18 percent at household level, and by 11 percent in whole water production process at city level. Moreover, the implementation can generate 750.000 job positions both direct as indirect. Finally, the risk of floods can be mitigated due to, roughly 2.88 million m3 of runoff rainwater a year are not released on rivers.

    To conclude, economic losses are avoiding that this money can be used to improve and maintain the current infrastructures, and development socio-technical projects in order to get a more suitable water metabolism. In other hand, encourage a harvesting culture at household level is a good strategy in short term but its feasibility is related directly to five drivers of which four can be handled such as roof surface area, roof material, domestic water consumption, and costs; in order to get most efficient systems. Finally, there are more tools and strategies to get sustainable goals in short mid and long term through an Integrated Urban Water Management model, in order to urban dwellers can move from simply consumers to a status of suppliers and managers of resources. 

  • 313.
    Cham, Amanda-Kante
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Grön konsumtion och grönt medborgarskap: En undersökning om mänskligt beteende kring livsmedelskonsumtion2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Grön konsumtion och grönt medborgarskap är begrepp som blivit vanligare i takt med ökad medvetenhet om miljöpolitiska problem, klimatutveckling och vår omgivnings tillstånd och framtid. Livsmedelskonsumtion står för en väsentlig del av växthusgasutsläppen ett vanligt hushåll orsakar varje år och utgör därmed en adekvat avgränsning till den här studien. I det här arbetet presenteras båda begreppens bakgrund och betydelse baserat på en litteraturstudie. Skillnader, likheter och signifikanta karaktärsdrag analyseras för att sedan utgöra grunden till uppbyggandet av en enkätundersökning. Undersökningen baseras på fyra huvudgrenar;

    • Generella karaktäristiska egenskaper

    • Nivå av klimatanknytning

    • Förändringsbenägenhet i syfte att konsumera mer miljövänligt

    • Drivkrafter som kan kopplas till typiska konsumtionsbaserade aktiviteter

    Studien avgränsades till kollektivt beteende kring livsmedelskonsumtion. Resultatet av enkätundersökningen visade en överrepresentation av grönt medborgarskap och en positiv inställning till värderingar med tydlig psykologisk och moralisk koppling till miljö och konsumtion. Respondenterna svarade även i enlighet med grön konsumtion, vilket var framträdande vid påståenden om mervärde i utförande av vissa konsumtionsrelaterade aktiviteter. Slutsatsen av arbetet belyser svårigheterna i att gruppera grön konsumtion och grönt medborgarskap i två separata kategorier för att använda dem som en klassificering och/eller gruppering av mänskligt beteende. Däremot kan de med fördel användas som ett verktyg för att diskutera drivkrafter, livsstil, värderingar och sociala attityder kring miljömedvetenhet i olika sammanhang.

  • 314. Chatterjee, D.
    et al.
    Kundu, A. K.
    Barman, S.
    Biswas, U.
    Majumder, S.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Arsenic in the bengal delta plain: Geochemical complications and potential mitigation option2016Inngår i: Arsenic Research and Global Sustainability - Proceedings of the 6th International Congress on Arsenic in the Environment, AS 2016, CRC Press/Balkema , 2016, s. 47-49Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwaters from the Bengal Delta Plain (BDP) are now significantly enriched with natural arsenic (As), frequently exceeding the WHO guideline value (10 μg/L). The contaminated ground-water is often derived from geologically young sediments (Holocene), low-lying areas and flat terrain where groundwater movement is slow (poorly flushed aquifers). The As content of the aquifer material is not regularly high (3–18 mg/kg), however, the groundwater As content is often exceptionally high (up to 3200 μg/L). The most notable feature of the tubewell groundwater is their predominantly reducing conditions at near-neutral pH values (6.5–7.5) with high redox sensitive species. The issue of deeper aquifer (safe and unsafe) is most challenging in terms of both geological and public health point of view. In this context, deeper aquifer is possibly the most reliable source where remediation technologies are in many cases incapable of yielding As-safe water. 

  • 315.
    Chatzisideris, Marios Dimos
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Evaluation Of Vattenfall’s Sustainability Targets With Regard To The Swedish State Ownership Policy: An Outside Opinion2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    All Swedish state-owned companies have been mandated by the state to establish sustainability targets within 2013. This thesis intends to shed light on the sustainability targets adopted by Vattenfall AB in the areas of carbon emissions, renewables and energy efficiency. In contact with the company, the thesis evaluates the targets in terms of practicability, adequacy and market competition. In other words, it assesses how Vattenfall intends to achieve the targets, whether they raise the “sustainability bar” high enough for the company and how they compare with targets set by competitor companies such as E.ON and Fortum. Furthermore, the thesis identifies room for improvement within Vattenfall’s sustainability work, and makes recommendations to the company, on how to seek improvement. Having the targets and their related plan of action as the focal point, a number of different areas within the domain of corporate sustainability are covered, such as sustainability approach, strategy, work, performance and reporting, while the Swedish state-ownership policy works as a key guideline. The thesis work is based primarily on literature review and analysis of material published by Vattenfall, E.ON and Fortum, the Swedish state ownership policy, corporate energy target setting, and climate and energy policies of the European Union.

  • 316.
    Chen, Chao
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Bhamare, Yogesh Vishwas
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Life Cycle Cost Analysis and Optimization of Wastewater Pumping System2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Different attempts have been made to facilitate successful operation of Wastewater Pumping (WWP) system. The WWP units which are already existed in different parts of the world have been studied to identify its success, failure and different parameters associated with its suboptimal performance. The performance of WWP depends on three parameters namely pump, hydraulics, control system and pump station. These parameters are interdependent and must be carefully matched to achieve efficient WWP system. Nowadays the scenario has changed where organizations has started looking increasingly at the total cost of ownership, another way of saying Life Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA) and recognizing the need to get most out of their equipment purchase.

    The master thesis includes theory part which describes the different parameters associated with WWP unit especially focusing on Xylems WWP system. This thesis is an attempt to help companies to know how LCCA could be productive management tool in order to minimize maintenance cost and maximize energy efficiency

    The study reported in this thesis work has been conducted to shed light over the use of Life Cycle Cost Analysis in WWP system. The current study tries to suggest and assess an adopted approach to ensure successful and efficient operation of WWP system with lowering energy demand and decrease in maintenance cost. Initial cost, Maintenance cost and Energy costs are important issues in the operation of WWP system since they are responsible for total cost over time. Therefore, description of each cost, formulas necessary for LCC calculations, data and survey structure, material and energy flow has been described.

    This work also aims to provide an extensive literature review, different survey and data collection techniques, analysis of collected data, statistical modelling, customer interaction by questionnaires and an interview with experts were used. LCC calculations were used to support the design and selection of most cost-efficient WWP system.

    Therefore, the given thesis work is an attempt to achieve better functional performance, improve existing design principles associated with WWP System, contribution to asses economic viability, support decision making to enhance operational quality to achieve efficient and successful WWP system.

  • 317. Chen, G.
    et al.
    Schmidt, E.
    Maraseni, T.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik. University of Southern Queensland, Australia.
    Banhazi, T.
    Antille, D. L.
    Opportunities of adopting renewable energy for the nursery industry in Australia2017Inngår i: Geothermal, Wind and Solar Energy Applications in Agriculture and Aquaculture, Taylor & Francis, 2017, s. 115-126Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 318.
    Chen, Samantha
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Jaldegren, Pontus
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Grid Capacity and Upgrade Costs2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study is to analyze the possibility of how and where wind farms should be integrated on the electrical grid. The challenges mainly concern grid capacity and transmission losses. Economic factors will be regarded as well. To fulfill the aim, the Skellefteälven river in Sweden is selected as study object. A regional grid along the river is thereupon simulated with regards to five existing hydro power plants, four electrical consumption points, and the national grid. Additionally, four wind farms are placed on probable sites around the grid. Considering the large amount of data to be calculated in this study, a grid model assembled through numerical analysis in MATLAB is henceforth deemed optimal. Through load flow simulation, the voltage variations and power losses are calculated. Hence, the costs of the losses is found. The investment costs for upgrading the grid are also determined. As the results show, an upgrade of the electrical grid certainly requires a relatively large investment sum. Nevertheless, the return of the project will eventually surpass the initial costs. Accordingly, there are economic benefits of investing in upgrading the grid capacity.

  • 319. Chen, Y.
    et al.
    Hu, R.
    Zhou, C.
    Jing, Lanru
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    A permeability evolution model for crystalline rocks subjected to coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical loading2013Inngår i: Chinese Journal of Rock Mechanics and Engineering, ISSN 1000-6915, Vol. 32, nr 11, s. 2185-2195Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An anisotropic damage model was established for fluid-saturated crystalline rocks of low permeability in coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) loading conditions by using the micromechanical approach in the framework of thermodynamics. The proposed damage model accounts for the impacts of some important micromechanisms, such as the interstitial water pressure, normal stiffness recovery induced by compressed microcracks and sliding and shear dilatancy of closed microcracks, on the macromechanical properties of rocks under non-isothermal condition. On this basis, using various homogenization approaches, estimates were presented for the variations in effective permeability of cracked rocks induced by anisotropic damage propagation. The predictive limitations associated with the lower bound estimates for the effective permeability of damaged rocks were discussed; and a rigorous upper bound estimate was then presented to account for the influence of some important microstructural features, such as the connectivity and persistence of microcrack system, on the permeability variation. Existing laboratory tests on granite samples for damage-induced variation in permeability in triaxial condition and for uniaxial mechanical response after high-temperature thermal treatment, together with the in-situ measurements of excavation-induced damage zone and permeability variation in the surrounding rock of the TSX tunnel, were used to validate the proposed models.

  • 320. Chen, Yifeng
    et al.
    Hu, Shaohua
    Wei, Kai
    Hu, Ran
    Zhou, Chuangbing
    Jing, Lanru
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Experimental characterization and micromechanical modeling of damage-induced permeability variation in Beishan granite2014Inngår i: International Journal of Rock Mechanics And Mining Sciences, ISSN 1365-1609, E-ISSN 1873-4545, Vol. 71, s. 64-76Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Triaxial compression tests with measurements of permeability were performed on core granite samples taken at 450-550 m depth from the Beishan area in Gansu Province, a potential site for China's high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal. Corresponding to the distinct features in the stress-strain behaviors, the permeability of the Beishan granite was found to evolve with a clear permeability decrease in the initial microcrack closure region, a constant permeability value in the elastic region and a dramatic permeability increase in the crack growth region. The permeability increases by up to and over two orders of magnitude as deviatoric stress increases up to sample failure; but at a given deviatoric stress, the permeability reduces remarkably with the increase of confining pressure. An empirical upper bound permeability model was presented by relating the mechanisms involved in the microstructure alteration to the permeability change, and the experimental results were well simulated by the proposed model. Combined with field geological characterization and numerical simulation, the implications of the experimental results for China's HLW disposal were discussed.

  • 321. Chen, Yifeng
    et al.
    Hu, Shaohua
    Zhou, Chuangbing
    Jing, Lanru
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Micromechanical Modeling of Anisotropic Damage-Induced Permeability Variation in Crystalline Rocks2014Inngår i: Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, ISSN 0723-2632, E-ISSN 1434-453X, Vol. 47, nr 5, s. 1775-1791Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study on the initiation and progress of anisotropic damage and its impact on the permeability variation of crystalline rocks of low porosity. This work was based on an existing micromechanical model considering the frictional sliding and dilatancy behaviors of microcracks and the recovery of degraded stiffness when the microcracks are closed. By virtue of an analytical ellipsoidal inclusion solution, lower bound estimates were formulated through a rigorous homogenization procedure for the damage-induced effective permeability of the microcracks-matrix system, and their predictive limitations were discussed with superconducting penny-shaped microcracks, in which the greatest lower bounds were obtained for each homogenization scheme. On this basis, an empirical upper bound estimation model was suggested to account for the influences of anisotropic damage growth, connectivity, frictional sliding, dilatancy, and normal stiffness recovery of closed microcracks, as well as tensile stress-induced microcrack opening on the permeability variation, with a small number of material parameters. The developed model was calibrated and validated by a series of existing laboratory triaxial compression tests with permeability measurements on crystalline rocks, and applied for characterizing the excavation-induced damage zone and permeability variation in the surrounding granitic rock of the TSX tunnel at the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's (AECL) Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in Canada, with an acceptable agreement between the predicted and measured data.

  • 322.
    Chen, Yuanying
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik. Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Scenarios of Nutrient-Related Solute Loading and Transport Fate from Different Land Catchments and Coasts into the Baltic Sea2019Inngår i: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, nr 7, artikkel-id 1407Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study uses controlled numerical experimentation to comparatively simulate and investigate solute transport and concentration responses and patterns in the Baltic Sea for various solute releases from the land through two different coastal cases. These cases are the Swedish Kalmar County coast and the Polish coast of the Vistula River outlet. For equivalent solute releases, the coastal flow conditions and their interactions with main marine currents determine the local coastal solute spreading, while the overall spreading over the Baltic Sea is similar for the two coastal cases, despite their large local differences. For nutrient-proportional solute release scenarios, the highly-populated Vistula catchment yields much greater total, but smaller per-capita nutrient impacts, in the Baltic Sea than the Kalmar County catchment. To be as low as from the Vistula catchment, the per-capita nutrient contribution from Kalmar County would have to be reduced much more than required on average per Swedish inhabitant by the Baltic Sea Action Plan. This highlights an unfairness issue in the per-capita distribution of nutrient load allowance among the Baltic countries, which needs to be considered and handled in further research and international efforts aimed to combat the Baltic Sea eutrophication.

  • 323.
    Chen, Yuanying
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Vigouroux, Guillaume
    Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, Dept Phys Geog, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Bring, Arvid
    Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, Dept Phys Geog, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, Dept Phys Geog, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Dominant Hydro-Climatic Drivers of Water Temperature, Salinity, and Flow Variability for the Large-Scale System of the Baltic Coastal Wetlands2019Inngår i: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, nr 3, artikkel-id 552Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    For the large-scale coastal wetland system of the Baltic Sea, this study develops a methodology for investigating if and to what degree the variability and changes in certain hydro-climatic drivers control key coastal-marine physical conditions. The studied physical conditions include: (a) water temperature, (b) water salinity, and (c) flow structures (magnitudes and directions of flows between marine basins and the associated coastal zones and wetlands). We use numerical simulations of three hydro-climatically distinct cases to investigate the variations in hydro-climatic drivers and the resulting physical conditions (a-c) among the cases. The studied hydro-climatic forcing variables are: net surface heat flux, wind conditions, saltwater influx from the North Sea, and freshwater runoff from land. For these variables, the available observation-based data show that the total runoff from land is significantly and positively correlated with precipitation on the sea itself, and negatively correlated with saltwater influx from the North Sea to the Baltic Sea. Overall, the physical condition (a-c) variability in the Baltic Sea and its coastal zones is found to be pairwise well-explained by simulation case differences as follows: (a) Net heat flux is a main control of sea water temperature. (b) Runoff from land, along with the correlated salt water influx from the North Sea, controls average sea salinity; with the variability of local river discharges shifting some coastal zones to deviate from the average sea condition. (c) Wind variability and change control the Baltic Sea flow structure, primarily in terms of flow magnitude and less so in terms of flow direction. For specific coastal wetland zones, considerable salinity differences from average Baltic Sea conditions (due to variability in local river discharges) are found for the coasts of Finland and Estonia, while the coastal wetland zones of south-eastern Sweden, and of Estonia and Latvia, emerge as particularly sensitive to wind shifts.

  • 324.
    Chong, Chung Heng
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Regnell, Fredrick
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Fastställande av sorptionsförmågan hos Musa spp och Coffea canephora: Biomassa som alternativ rening av blykontaminerat grundvatten i Uganda2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Vatten är en förutsättning för allt liv, men det är inte bara vatten som krävs, utan även att vattnet är rent och går att dricka. Det finns goda tillgångar till vatten på vår jord, men bara en bråkdel av detta vatten är av tillräckligt god kvalité för att det ska kunna drickas. Idag saknar fler än 700 miljoner människor i världen tillgång till tjänligt dricksvatten. Uganda är ett av många länder som berörs av detta och många dricksvattenkällor i Ugandas urbana miljöer riskerar dessutom att förorenas av metaller, såsom bly och mangan. Landet är i en kraftig utvecklingsfas, men de ekonomiska resurserna är begränsade. Det är därför viktigt att försöka lösa dricksvattenförsörjningen både snabbt och på ett ekonomiskt fördelaktigt sett. Till följd av att Uganda är ett land rikt på naturresurser så har det börjat undersökas kring möjligheterna att använda biomassa från resterna av vissa jordbruksprodukter för att rena vattnet. I denna studie fokuseras det på två av de största jordbruksprodukterna i Uganda, Coffea canephora och Musa spp, vilka är en sorts kaffeplanta respektive bananplantor. Biomassa från dessa produkter har i tidigare studier visat sig vara teoretiskt lämpade för att rena vatten från metaller.

    Syftet med denna studie är att fastställa sorptionsförmågan av bly hos biomassa från Coffea canephora och Musa spp för att bidra med ny data och information för praktiskt tillämpning av dessa biomassor vid rening av dricksvatten i Uganda. Detta har genomförts med laboration. I laborationen konstruerades sex olika vattenprover innehållande olika sammansättningar av metallerna bly, mangan och kalcium. Halterna av mangan och kalcium varierades för att fastställa hur deras förekomst påverkade biomassornas sorptionsförmåga av bly.

    Resultaten visade att både Coffea canephora och Musa spp kan rena vatten, med en ursprunglig blykoncentration av 50 μg/L, så pass bra att blyhalten hamnar under WHOs gränsvärde på 10 μg/L efter sorptionsprocessen. Detta gällde för samtliga vattenprover, trots olika metallinnehåll. Sorptionskapaciteten var för Musa spp från 6,64 μg/g till 7,17 μg/g och för Coffea canephora var den från 5,94 μg/g till 6,40 μg/g. Biomassa från Musa spp hade bättre sorptionsförmågan i jämförelsen mellan de båda biomassorna, oberoende av vattenprovernas olika sammansättningar. Sorptionskapaciteten visade sig dock minska för Musa spp då det fanns mangan men inget kalcium i vattnet. Soprtionskapaciteten för Coffea canephora försämrades då vattenproverna innehöll andra metaller än bly. Utöver detta fanns inget tydligt samband över hur koncentrationen av mangan och kalcium förhöll sig till sorptionsförmågan av bly.

    Studien har varit begränsad vad gäller tid och resurser. Ytterligare studier behövs för att få en bättre helhetsuppfattning av hur användning av biomassor kan bidra till dricksvatten av god kvalité. Trots detta visade resultaten på bra sorptionsförmåga hos de båda biomassorna, vilket är ett bra underlag för att fortsätta arbeta mot en verklig implementering av biomassornas användning vid dricksvattenrening i Uganda. 

  • 325.
    Chordia, Mudit
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Need for Speed – A Systems Perspective on the Environmental Cost of High Top Speeds in German Passenger Cars2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Automobiles have evolved from meeting transportation needs of their owners a century ago, to addressing transportation desires of their owners today. They now meet the owner’s desire for status though sign values such as speed, safety, environmental consciousness, sexual desire, freedom, masculinity etc., and are anthropomorphised by creatively invented names. It comes as little surprise that the transport sector alone accounts for nearly a quarter of the global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions – levels that are further expected to double by 2050. Germany, which is the highest emitter of GHGs in Europe recorded nearly 1 Gt GHG emissions in 2016 alone. Such high concentration of emissions from the German transport sector can in some part be attributed to the autobahn network in Germany – 2/3rd of which have no mandated speed limits, thus encouraging the car manufacturers to design cars that are operation worthy even at speeds of up to 250 km/ h (or higher), that are unrepresentative of real world driving conditions.

    This thesis aims at quantifying the environmental impact of this design for high top speeds in passenger cars from a systems perspective. This is achieved by using a comparative lifecycle assessment of passenger cars from a cradle-to-grave approach. A number of passenger car specifications are modelled which include a representative base case for a German car, vehicle light-weighting approach through material substitution, and down engineered car. The results of the comparative lifecycle assessment showed that, light-weighting a passenger car through material substitution showed a reduction of between 3 to 9% in impact categories such climate change, particulate matter formation, fossil depletion, human toxicity and terrestrial eco-toxicity as compared to the baseline levels. Higher reductions of nearly 12% and 31%, were observed in the marine eco-toxicity and the metal depletion impact categories respectively. However, there exists potential to reduce up to 40% in all selected environmental impact categories when comparing baseline passenger car to a down engineered one. Further, light-weighting a passenger car through higher material substitution showed an increase in the indirect energy consumption and higher impacts in ten out of the eighteen impact categories, as compared to a lower material substitution option. Thus, an important conclusion drawn from this thesis is that when implementing steps to reduce environmental impacts of passenger cars, shift of burden must be avoided between the lifecycle phases as well as the impact categories.

  • 326.
    Chowra, Isabella
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    The Ecological Impacts of Marine Plastic Debris in the South Pacific Region2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The population in the Pacific Islands region is vastly dependant on their oceanic resources, for food, protection and economic income. Today the Pacific Ocean faces many threats that could risk the living hood of its population. This study aims to map the extent of plastic pollution in the South Pacific and possible measurements against it. The study will also be focused on plastic shopping bags and try to assess the most environmentally friendly option. This will be achieved by literature reviews, personal interviews and experimental studies. The results showed that the pollution is of the same magnitude that in the more commonly known North Pacific Garbage Patch and may affect the ecosystems by killing animals as well as transporting environmental pollutants through the food web and invasive species through oceans. Much is still unknown about the affects of microplastics and further studies are needed. Main focus should be to stop the plastic pollution at the source, for example by levying plastic bags and only allowing completely compostable bags.  

  • 327.
    Claesson, Gabriel
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Integration of Large Scale Wind Power and the Issue of Flexibility2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The increase of wind power in the power gridsystem is becoming more noticeable. This is somewhat due to climate change and the need for more energy. As wind power is considered a green renewable energy resource and its one of the cheapest ways of generating power during operation, it has become more of afavorable energy resource. Although, there are certain benefits of using wind power instead of the alternatives,wind power brings other factors to the power system that must be considered.

    The power grid system operator strives to always sustain the balance between the load and the supply inthe power grid system. The more wind power that is integrated the more dependent on a resilient powergrid system we become. This is due to the fact that windpower is an unreliable energy resource, as it is always changing, and unlike other methods of generating power it lacks the control mechanisms and cannot be regulated. The more wind power integrated to the power system the more of a challenge sustaining the balance becomes. If large amounts of wind power were integrated to the power grid system, a distinct drop in wind power could correspond to a shortage. Therefore, it is necessary to construct a power system which is reliable and can at any time with stand definite changes in load and supply, if large amount of wind power is to be integrated. We define flexibility as the ability of the power system to always be able to compensate for the changes in load and supply, to sustain balance withinthe power system.

    In this bachelor thesis, the flexibility of a two-areapower system is investigated by using a mathematic optimization model. The author will also be looking into the impact of carbon policy instruments, such as carbon tax and carbon cap, on the power system together with enhancements to increase the flexibility of the power system.

  • 328.
    Clarin, Amanda
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Samhällsplanering med BREEAM Communities: Certifieringsverktygets påverkan med hänsyn till miljömässig hållbarhet2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I takt med urbanisering och samhällstrender har utvecklingen och samhällsplaneringen av städer blivit allt viktigare. BREEAM Communities är ett relativt nytt, brittiskt, certifieringssystem för stadsdelar och fungerar som ett verktyg samt bedömningsunderlag för samhällsplanerare. Verktyget fungerar som ett systematiskt underlag för att kunna bygga hållbara stadsdelar och tar således hänsyn till alla tre dimensioner av hållbarhet; sociala, ekonomiska och ekologiska.

    I Sverige har stadsdelscertifiering på senare år uppmärksammats. Projektet HCS, Hållbarhetscertifiering av stadsdelar, pågår sedan 2010 och initierades för att utvärdera och anpassa BREEAM Communities till den svenska planprocessen. HCS-projektet syftar till att skapa dialog kring hållbarhetscertifiering av stadsdelar och även skapa en gemensam arbetsprocess som leder till hållbar stadsutveckling (Karlsson, o.a., 2011). Täby kommun är med och påverkar anpassningen genom att de har utfört en betatest på Täby galoppfält och deras erfarenheter från detta projekt har beaktats i detta arbete. Betatesterna är till för att utvärdera BREEAM Communities-processen och samla synpunkter om verktyget till Swedish Green Building Council, SGBC, som är mottagare för resultaten av HCS-projektet och som för arbetet med en svensk-anpassad manual vidare.

    Avsikten med detta arbete är att beskriva och belysa hur samhällsplaneringen av nya stadsdelar förändras med hjälp av certifieringsverktyget BREEAM Communities med hänsyn till miljömässiga hållbarhetsaspekter. För att åstadkomma detta har teori kring hållbar utveckling och stadsplanering studerats. Vidare har BREEAM Communities-manualen analyserats och kvalitativa intervjuer har utförts med anställda på Täby kommun, Swedish Green Building Council samt COWI, konsultföretag inom samhällsplanering. De är på olika sätt är involverade i pågående certifieringsprojekt i stadsdelar. Insamlad empiri ställs mot teoriunderlaget varpå analys genomförts och slutsatser dragits.

    Slutsatserna pekar på att samhällsplaneringen förändras främst genom att verktyget fungerar som en check-lista och att samhällsplaneringens vanliga arbetssätt förändras. Det tillkommer inte nya professionella aktörer via BREEAM Communities. Dock ändras samhällsplaneringen för alla iblandade intressenter genom att samarbete och en bredare dialog förs i ett tidigare skede i planprocessen än i praxis.

    Miljöaspekter som tycks framhävas via BREEAM Communities är biologisk mångfald och miljövänliga energilösningar eftersom dessa planeras i ett tidigt stadie. De aspekter som i nuläget hamnar i skymundan och bör beaktas i miljösynpunkt är avfallshantering, blå struktur och ekosystemtjänster. Genom att bättre integrera dessa aspekter, förslagsvis inom metodens steg 1, kan BREEAM Communities förbättras inom miljömässig hållbarhet.

    Samverkan mellan kommun och andra inblandade stadsplanerare är nödvändigt för att kunna förverkliga vissa hållbarhetsaspekter i BREEAM Communities. Med det engagemang som verkar finnas inom stadsplaneringen ses på kort och lång sikt god potential för ökade satsningar både inom samverkan och inom miljömässigt hållbar stadsplanering. 

  • 329.
    Cofre, Aliro
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Ljunggren, Tim
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Infrastructure, Sizing and Installation of a Photovoltaic System at Kungliga Tennishallen2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 330. Cole, S. G.
    et al.
    Kinell, G.
    Söderqvist, T.
    Håkansson, Cecilia
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Hasselström, L.
    Izmalkov, S.
    Mikkelsen, E.
    Noring, M.
    KTH.
    Sandberg, A.
    Sjöberg, E.
    Soutukorva, Å.
    Franzén, F.
    Khaleeva, Y.
    Arctic games: An analytical framework for identifying options for sustainable natural resource governance2016Inngår i: The Polar Journal, ISSN 2154-896X, E-ISSN 2154-8978, Vol. 6, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in the Arctic are fuelled by a variety of drivers, including global warming, economic growth, improved access to natural resources, technological advances and globalisation processes. Further, the region is characterised by a diverse set of international agreements, national legislations and common pool resources. This presents challenges for actors to suggest, evaluate and agree on sustainable development alternatives. We propose an analytical framework to better understand (1) the types of trade-offs associated with Arctic futures and (2) actors’ incentives for strategic behaviour. In the framework, game theory illuminates incentives and strategies among actors, cost-benefit analysis and economic valuation of ecosystem services help identify socially desirable outcomes and institutional analysis provides insight on how governance structures can support or interfere with policy intervention. We apply the proposed framework by analysing possible oil development futures for Lofoten in Northern Norway. For example, institutional analysis and estimates of costs and benefits of reducing oil spill risk and their distribution among actors are used for discussing incentive structures, including the use of side payments as a mechanism to mitigate conflicting interests. 

  • 331.
    Coomar, Poulomee
    et al.
    IIT, Dept Geol & Geophys, Kharagpur 721302, W Bengal, India..
    Mukherjee, Abhijit
    IIT, Dept Geol & Geophys, Kharagpur 721302, W Bengal, India..
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    USQ, Sch Civil Engn & Surveying, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia.;USQ, Int Ctr Appl Climate Sci, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia..
    Verma, Swati
    IIT, Dept Geol & Geophys, Kharagpur 721302, W Bengal, India.;NGRI, CSIR, Hyderabad 500007, Telangana, India..
    Fryar, Alan E.
    Univ Kentucky, Dept Earth & Environm Sci, Lexington, KY 40506 USA..
    Ramos Ramos, Oswaldo Eduardo
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik. Univ Mayor San Andres, La Paz 303, Bolivia..
    Ormachea Muñoz, Mauricio
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik. Univ Mayor San Andres, La Paz 303, Bolivia..
    Gupta, Saibal
    IIT, Dept Geol & Geophys, Kharagpur 721302, W Bengal, India..
    Mahanta, Chandan
    IIT, Dept Civil Engn, Gauhati 781039, Assam, India..
    Quino Lima, Israel
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik. Univ Mayor San Andres, La Paz 303, Bolivia..
    Thunvik, Roger
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Contrasting controls on hydrogeochemistry of arsenic-enriched groundwater in the homologous tectonic settings of Andean and Himalayan basin aquifers, Latin America and South Asia2019Inngår i: SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, Vol. 689, s. 1370-1387Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    High groundwater arsenic (As) across the globe has been one of the most well researched environmental concerns during the last two decades. Consequently, a large scientific knowledge-base has been developed on As distributions from local to global scales. However, differences in bulk sediment As concentrations cannot account for the As concentration variability in groundwater. Instead, in general, only aquifers in sedimentary basins adjacent to mountain chains (orogenic foreland basins) along continental convergent tectonic margins are found to be As enriched. We illustrate this association by integrating observations from long-term studies of two of the largest orogenic systems (i.e., As sources) and the aquifers in their associated foreland basins (As sinks), which are located in opposite hemispheres and experience distinct differences in climate and land-use patterns. The Andean orogenic system of South America (AB), an active continental margin, is in principle a modern analogue of the Himalayan orogenic system associated with the Indus-Ganges-Brahmaputra river systems in South Asia (HB). In general, the differences in hydrogeochemistry between AB and HB groundwaters are conspicuous. Major-solute composition of the arid, oxic AB groundwater exhibits a mixed-ion hydrochemical facies dominated by Na-Ca-Cl-SO4-HCO3. Molar calculations and thermodynamic modeling show that although groundwater of AB is influenced by cation exchange, its hydrochemical evolution is predominated by feldspar dissolution and relationships with secondary clays. In contrast, humid, strongly reducing groundwater of HB is dominated by Ca-HCO3 facies, suggestive of calcite dissolution, along with some weathering of silicates (monosiallitization). This work demonstrates that although hydrogeochemical evolutionary trends may vary with local climate and lithology, the fundamental similarities in global tectonic settings can still lead to the elevated concentrations of groundwater As.

  • 332.
    Coroama, Vlad C.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms). Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Höjer, Mattias
    Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Assessing GHG Benefits Induced by ICT Services in Practice A Case Study and Resulting Challenges2016Inngår i: Proceedings of ICT for Sustainability 2016, Atlantis Press , 2016, s. 29-35Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    High expectations are placed on the ability of ICT to play an important role in reducing GHG emissions, now and in the future. Several calculations of such benefits were put forward over the last years, usually performed by the industry. Their methods and assumptions, however, remained often unspecified, and the assessments frequently led to hardly plausible claims. In this paper, we present the results of applying a stricter approach to one specific service - the detection of gas leakages in the US through gas sensors installed on Google street view cars, together with an advanced algorithm for translating the collected data to useful information on the location and magnitude of gas leakages. We further discuss a new set of four practical challenges for such assessments that were identified during this exercise, and which are new compared to previous theoretical work: the allocation between ICT and non-ICT sectors, practical challenges in defining the baseline, the usually polluted indirect data at hand, and issues of the generalisation to society-wide potentials. We then discuss to which extent these challenges can be addressed, and which of them are of a more fundamental nature.

  • 333. Coroama, Vlad C
    et al.
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms). KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Hilty, Lorenz M
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Dematerialization Through Electronic Media?2015Inngår i: ICT Innovations for Sustainability, Springer, 2015, s. 405-421Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    While the traditional roles of the computer as a machine for scientific calculations, text editing, and graphic design are still significant, computers are increasingly perceived as means of accessing information and interacting with other people – i.e., as electronic media. The aim of this chapter is to analyze digital electronic media and their effects on environmental sustainability. Two fields of application are addressed: electronic media that may replace or augment traditional print media such as newspapers or magazines, and videoconferencing as a potential substitute for traveling to a face-to-face meeting or conference. In both cases, the environmental costs of the electronic media are compared to those of their conventional counterparts. The examples show that electronic media can represent an energy-efficient alternative to traditional activities such as long-distance travel. But they can also be added on top of existing activities instead of replacing them. In such cases, a net increase in the environmental impact results. The availability of small, energy-efficient devices being used as electronic media does not guarantee dematerialization. The overall resource use and emissions throughout the life cycle of the media product systems and, more importantly, at the macro level of total global production and consumption need to be considered. To achieve the dematerialization potential of new electronic media solutions, their efficiency needs to be combined with sufficiency; thus additional measures are necessary to turn the dematerialization potential of electronic media into environmental relief.

  • 334.
    Corvellec, Hervé
    et al.
    Institutionen för service management och tjänstevetenskap, Lunds universitet.
    Ek, Richard
    Institutionen för service management och tjänstevetenskap, Lunds universitet.
    Johansson, Nils
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Svingstedt, Anette
    Institutionen för service management och tjänstevetenskap, Lunds universitet.
    Zapata, Patrik
    Förvaltningshögskolan, Göteborgs universitet.
    Zapata-Campos, María-José
    Management och Organisation, Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Handelshögskolan, Göteborgs universitet.
    Avfallsförebyggande handlar om effektiv produktion och genomtänkt konsumtion –inte om avfall.: sju lärdomar från forskningsprojektet från avfallshantering till avfallsförebyggande2018Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 335. Coucheney, E.
    et al.
    Eckersten, H.
    Hoffmann, H.
    Jansson, Per Erik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Gaiser, T.
    Ewert, F.
    Lewan, E.
    Key functional soil types explain data aggregation effects on simulated yield, soil carbon, drainage and nitrogen leaching at a regional scale2018Inngår i: Geoderma, ISSN 0016-7061, E-ISSN 1872-6259, Vol. 318, s. 167-181Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of aggregating soil data (DAE) by areal majority of soil mapping units was explored for regional simulations with the soil-vegetation model CoupModel for a region in Germany (North Rhine-Westphalia). DAE were analysed for wheat yield, drainage, soil carbon mineralisation and nitrogen leaching below the root zone. DAE were higher for soil C mineralization and N leaching than for yield and drainage and were strongly related to the presence of specific soils within the study region. These soil types were associated to extreme simulated output variables compared to the mean variable in the region. The spatial aggregation of these key functional soils within sub-regions additionally influenced the DAE. A spatial analysis of their spatial pattern (i.e. their presence/absence, coverage and aggregation) can help in defining the appropriate grid resolution that would minimize the error caused by aggregating soil input data in regional simulations.

  • 336. Coutard, Olivier
    et al.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Kabisch, Sigrun
    Kitchin, Rob
    Matos, Rafaela
    Nijkamp, Peter
    Pronello, Cristina
    Robinson, Darren
    Urban Megatrends:Towards a European Research Agenda: A report by the Scientific Advisory Boardof the Joint Programming Initiative Urban Europe2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 337. Cowie, Annette
    et al.
    Ximenes, Fabiano
    Berndes, Goran
    Brandao, Miguel
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Lamers, Patrick
    Marland, Gregg
    Policy institutions and forest carbon2016Inngår i: Nature Climate Change, ISSN 1758-678X, E-ISSN 1758-6798, Vol. 6, nr 9, s. 805-805Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 338.
    Croset, Elliott
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Opportunities and challenges of a Sustainable Solid Waste Management in Tsumeb, Namibia2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The handling of wastes is an eternal problem, all societies are confronted to this issue. Their origins are very diverse, they could come from industrial activities, power production, shops, retail or household for instance. While in developed countries the collection is generally efficient and the disposal safe, the situation in developing countries is different. The municipal budget does not allow the construction of advanced and expensive methods of disposal and the collection suffer from the age of vehicles. This generalisation is nevertheless not totally truth as the situation is extremely depend on the country but also of the city considered. Each city will need to adapt its waste management according to its size, climate, wealth, culture, etc...

    This report will focus on a Namibian medium town, Tsumeb. The aim is to be able to draw a clear picture of the waste management currently achieved. When the situation is well known, new directions to make Tsumeb refuse management more sustainable can be decided. Implementing progressively an integrated waste management (IWM) is a solution to the waste problem as it is considering economic, social and environmental impacts. A waste characterization was done in order to know the exact amount and composition of the waste generated in Tsumeb to implement afterwards the most suitable solution. The refuse of Tsumeb are surprisingly very similar to high income country. Moreover the stakeholders involved in recycling were investigated. A small informal sector is already making a living by recycling a few materials as glass bottle and cans. There is also a possibility to include extra stakeholder in the recycling process in Tsumeb. Recycling companies, recycling organization or investors are also important stakeholder who can be include in Tsumeb recycling plan.

    Developing recycling in Tsumeb is facing some challenges but it is also full of opportunities. The main issue when it comes to recycling in Namibia is the long transportation distances what makes it expensive. Furthermore, most of the recovered materials have to be sent in South Africa because Namibia does not possess the necessary industries to recycle paper and glass for instance. On another hand the presence in Tsumeb of a small informal sector already working with waste is promising. The workers could be more organized and the municipality can also helping them with logistic and storage to improve the recycling done. The dump site will also be close within the next years and a new sanitary landfill will be open. It will be a great opportunity to implement a recycling facility on site. Informal workers working on the landfill will be more controlled, to avoid for instance children labour. Some stricter health and safety measure can be decided, to give better working condition to the informal manpower. The development of recycling activities in Tsumeb will be highly beneficial to the community. It will create jobs for the poorest part of the population, decrease the cost of the waste management, reduce the pollution and stimulate the local economy. 

  • 339. Crépin, Anne-Sophie
    et al.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Hennlock, Magnus
    Neij, Lena
    Nilsson, Måns
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Engström, Gustav
    Berg, Lars
    Turesson, Anders
    Möjligheter och begränsningar med samhällsekonomiska analyser.2018Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 340.
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    How accurate is predictive modeling of groundwater transport?: A case study of advection, macrodispersion, and diffusive mass transfer at the Forsmark site (Sweden)2013Inngår i: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 49, nr 9, s. 5317-5327Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We study predictive modeling of groundwater transport that accounts for three mechanisms: mean advection, macrodispersion, and mass transfer. A general methodology is presented and applied to a series of nonsorbing tracer tests along multiple pathways on scales ranging from ca. 70 to 300 m, in a highly heterogeneous aquifer at Forsmark (Sweden). The mean water residence time cannot be predicted well using a simple water balance model. Longitudinal macrodispersivity (L) (L) and a mass transfer parameter group (1/root T) are extrapolated from the control tracer experiments, to yield accurate predictions of tracer discharge, once the mean water residence time is constrained. A relatively simple modeling framework based on Fickian macrodispersion and diffusion seems to be adequate for reproducing the tracer discharge in this complex and highly heterogeneous porous media.

  • 341.
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Resurser, energi och infrastruktur.
    Statistical Formulation of Generalized Tracer Retention in Fractured Rock2017Inngår i: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 53, nr 11, s. 8736-8759Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We study tracer retention in fractured rock by combing Lagrangian and time domain random walk frameworks, as well as a statistical representation of the retention process. Mass transfer is quantified by the retention time distribution that follows from a Lagrangian coupling between advective transport and mass exchange processes, applicable for advection-dominated transport. A unifying parametrization is presented for generalized diffusion using two rates denoted by k(1) and k(2) where k(1) is a forward rate and k(2) a reverse rate, plus an exponent as an additional parameter. For the Fickian diffusion model, k(1) and k(2) are related to measurable retention properties of the fracture-matrix by the method of moments, whereas for the non-Fickian case dimensional analysis is used. The derived retention time distributions are exemplified for interpreting tracer tests as well as for predictive modeling of expected tracer breakthrough. We show that non-Fickian effects can be notable when transport is upscaled based on a non-Fickian interpretation of a tracer test for which deviations from Fickianity are relatively small. The statistical representation of retention clearly shows the significance of the forward rate k(1) which depends on the active specific surface area and is the most difficult parameter to characterize in the field.

  • 342.
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Fiori, A.
    Dagan, G.
    Tracer travel and residence time distributions in highly heterogeneous aquifers: Coupled effect of flow variability and mass transfer2016Inngår i: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The driving mechanism of tracer transport in aquifers is groundwater flow which is controlled by the heterogeneity of hydraulic properties. We show how hydrodynamics and mass transfer are coupled in a general analytical manner to derive a physically-based (or process-based) residence time distribution for a given integral scale of the hydraulic conductivity; the result can be applied for a broad class of linear mass transfer processes. The derived tracer residence time distribution is a transfer function with parameters to be inferred from combined field and laboratory measurements. It is scalable relative to the correlation length and applicable for an arbitrary statistical distribution of the hydraulic conductivity. Based on the derived residence time distribution, the coefficient of variation and skewness of residence time are illustrated assuming a log-normal hydraulic conductivity field and first-order mass transfer. We show that for a low Damkohler number the coefficient of variation is more strongly influenced by mass transfer than by heterogeneity, whereas skewness is more strongly influenced by heterogeneity.

  • 343.
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Fiori, Aldo
    Dagan, Gedeon
    Solute transport in aquifers of arbitrary variability: A time-domain random walk formulation2014Inngår i: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 50, nr 7, s. 5759-5773Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Solute transport in three-dimensional aquifers, with spatially varying hydraulic conductivity of arbitrary point distribution is investigated. The basis of our study is a multiindicator model (MIM) representation of the heterogeneity, combined with a self-consistent approximation for groundwater flow and particle transport. A time-domain random walk (TDRW) approach is presented for computing the expected mass arrival along the longitudinal transport direction that is simple and honors the hydrodynamics of flow for any variability. Using hydraulic conductivity measurements at the MADE site and the MIM, it is shown that the travel time distribution for large variability, cannot be well reproduced by the common distributions used for modeling hydrological transport, such as the log-normal distribution, or the inverse-Gaussian distribution. The proposed TDRW approach directly relates to the Lagrangian trajectory formulation and is appropriate for applications where occurrence of negative flow velocities is small. These results open new possibilities for modeling solute transport in aquifers of arbitrary variability by the time-domain random walk that can readily account for a wide range of mass transfer reactions.

  • 344.
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Gotovac, Hrvoje
    Flow-dependence of matrix diffusion in highly heterogeneous rock fractures2013Inngår i: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 49, nr 11, s. 7587-7597Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Diffusive mass transfer in rock fractures is strongly affected by fluid flow in addition to material properties. The flow-dependence of matrix diffusion is quantified by a random variable ("transport resistance'') denoted as beta [T/L] and computed from the flow field by following advection trajectories. The numerical methodology for simulating fluid flow is mesh-free, using Fup basis functions. A generic statistical model is used for the transmissivity field, featuring three correlation structures: (i) highly connected non-multiGaussian; (ii) poorly connected (or disconnected) non-multi-Gaussian; and (iii) multi-Gaussian. The moments of beta are shown to be linear with distance, irrespective of the structure, after approximately 10 integral scales of ln T. Percentiles of beta are found to be linear with the mean beta when considering all three structures. Taking advantage of this property, a potentially useful relationship is presented between beta percentiles and the fracture mean water residence time that integrates all structures with high variability; it can be used in discrete fracture network simulations where T statistical data on individual fractures are not available.

  • 345.
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Gotovac, Hrvoje
    On the upscaling of chemical transport in fractured rock2014Inngår i: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 50, nr 7, s. 5797-5816Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of flow heterogeneity on chemical transport from single to multiple fractures is investigated. The emphasis is on the dynamic nature of the specific surface area (SSA) due to heterogeneity of the flow, relative to a purely geometrical definition. The flow-dependent SSA is interpreted probabilistically, following inert tracer particles along individual fractures. Upscaling to a fracture network is proposed as a time domain random walk based on the statistics of SSA for single fractures. Statistics of SSA are investigated for three correlation structures of transmissivity: multi-Gaussian and two non-multi-Gaussian. The mean of SSA stabilizes after similar to 20 fractures at different values depending on whether the cubic or quadratic hydraulic law is assumed. The results are tested against comprehensive DFN simulations based on site-specific data but also against direct estimates from a wider range of tracer tests. The proposed time domain random walk methodology sets bounds for SSA in a 75% confidence interval as similar to 1800 1/m and 27,000 1/m, with a median of 14,000 1/m; these values capture reasonably well both the DFN simulation and tracer test SSA data. Presented results may be particularly relevant when quantifying uncertainty of reactive transport modeling in fractured rock.

  • 346.
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Soltani, Safeyeh
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Vigouroux, Guillaume
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Global sensitivity analysis of groundwater transport2015Inngår i: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 531Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work we address the model and parametric sensitivity of groundwater transport using the Lagrangian-Stochastic Advection-Reaction (LaSAR) methodology. The 'attenuation index' is used as a relevant and convenient measure of the coupled transport mechanisms. The coefficients of variation (CV) for seven uncertain parameters are assumed to be between 0.25 and 3.5, the highest value being for the lower bound of the mass transfer coefficient k0. In almost all cases, the uncertainties in the macro-dispersion (CV = 0.35) and in the mass transfer rate k0 (CV = 3.5) are most significant. The global sensitivity analysis using Sobol and derivative-based indices yield consistent rankings on the significance of different models and/or parameter ranges. The results presented here are generic however the proposed methodology can be easily adapted to specific conditions where uncertainty ranges in models and/or parameters can be estimated from field and/or laboratory measurements.

  • 347. Dabrowska, B.B.
    et al.
    Vithanage, M.
    Gunaratna, Kuttuva Rajarao
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Industriell bioteknologi.
    Mukherjee, A.B.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Bioremediation of arsenic in contaminated terrestrial and aquatic environments2012Inngår i: Environmental Chemistry for a Sustainable World, Springer Netherlands , 2012, Vol. 2, s. 475-509Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The name Arsenic is derived from the Greek word arsenikon, meaning potent. This element occurs in the ecosystem in different oxidation states of which As(III) and As(V) are most common to humans, animals, plant species. As is present in drinking water and soil from natural sources as well as a pollutant from agricultural and industrial processes. Differences in arsenic uptake by different plant species is controlled by many factors such as root surface area, root exudates, and rate of evapotranspiration. Some plant species have high affinity to accumulate arsenic in tissues above ground. Hyperaccumulator plants have a threshold arsenic content above 1,000 μg g-1 DM. We review bioremediation studies with especial emphasis on biosorption research on different arsenic species, plants and their biomass, agricultural and industry wastes, as well as the biomass of some fungi species. Bioremediation is considered as an alternative technique for the removal of As in groundwater. One of the popular methods among bioremediation techniques, phytoremediation uses living plants to remove arsenic from the environment or to render it less toxic, in bioaccumulation processes. Phytoremediation techniques often do not take into account the biosorption processes of living plants and plant litter. In biosorption techniques, contaminants can be removed by a biological substrate as a sorbent such as bacteria, fungi, algae or vascular plants. Bioremediation assures in situ treatment of polluted soils. Biosorption characteristics, equilibrium and kinetics of different biosorbents have also been addressed here. Evaluation of the current literature suggests that arsenic bioavailability and molecular level phytoremediation processes in bioremediation are crucial for designing phytoremediation technologies with improved, predictable remedial success.

  • 348.
    Dahiya, Anuj
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik. 1994.
    Energy Flow Analysis of Muesli Production: To Identify Cleaner Production Measures2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Production of muesli is an energy intensive process which consumes enormous amount of energy invarious forms. In this study, energy flow accounting tool has been employed which is a valuable tool for mapping and quantifying the energy flows within a specific system such as a nation, city or factory. Thistool aids in highlighting the pathways of energy throughout the system and identifies the sources ofenergy loss. Furthermore, to support identification and assessment of CP measures the energy flowaccounting method was integrated within the CP assessment methodology framework. Energy balance established with the help of energy flow accounting method, also highlights different energy inflows andoutflows in the process such as steam, oil, gas and raw material. The utmost energy consuming subprocesses in muesli production are cleaning, rolling, air blowers, husk removal, extruder and mothermachine. Since Läntmannen Cerealia at Järna generates steam, hot water and district heating from removed husk, along with recovering the steam loss in form of condensate, the overall efficiency of their system is approximately 90%. Moreover, an attempt to establish extensive energy balance at the plant has not been undertaken. This factor serves as the stimulus for the study project as it promises futurework in this domain. This comprehensive report demonstrates a nearly accurate picture of the energybalance of muesli production at Läntmannen Cerealia. The energy losses in different manifestation ofenergy during various sub processes have also been presented in the report. Additionally, suggestions for improvement have been furnished to reduce the energy losses during the process of production. However, feasibility analysis is recommended before the implementations of these measures. Implementation of the aforementioned measures could potentially decrease the energy losses in production of muesli and can boost the environmental performance of the entire process.

  • 349.
    Dahlberg, Annika
    et al.
    Dept of Physical geography, Stockholm University.
    Borgström, Sara
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik. Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Urbana gröna allmänningar för alla – eller inte? Tillgänglighet och mångfunktionalitet i en föränderlig stad2017Inngår i: Urban utveckling och interaktion / [ed] SSAG, Svenska sällskapet för Antropologi och Geografi, Stockholm: Svenska sällskapet för Antropologi och Geografi , 2017, s. 165-188Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 350. Dahlberg, Johan
    et al.
    Moritz, Marcel
    Rosenqvist, Moa
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Jönsson Strandberg, Kristin
    Brokking, Peter
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Berggren, Eva
    Engberg, Tobias
    Södertörnsanalysen (The Sodertorn Analysis)2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
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