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  • 3201.
    Al Moubayed, Samer
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Speech Technology, CTT.
    Beskow, Jonas
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Speech Technology, CTT.
    Salvi, Giampiero
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Speech Technology, CTT.
    SynFace Phone Recognizer for Swedish Wideband and Narrowband Speech2008In: Proceedings of The second Swedish Language Technology Conference (SLTC), Stockholm, Sweden., 2008, p. 3-6Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present new results and comparisons of the real-time lips synchronized talking head SynFace on different Swedish databases and bandwidth. The work involves training SynFace on narrow-band telephone speech from the Swedish SpeechDat, and on the narrow-band and wide-band Speecon corpus. Auditory perceptual tests are getting established for SynFace as an audio visual hearing support for the hearing-impaired. Preliminary results show high recognition accuracy compared to other languages.

  • 3202.
    Al Moubayed, Samer
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology.
    Beskow, Jonas
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology.
    Skantze, Gabriel
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology.
    Spontaneous spoken dialogues with the Furhat human-like robot head2014In: HRI '14 Proceedings of the 2014 ACM/IEEE international conference on Human-robot interaction, Bielefeld, Germany, 2014, p. 326-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We will show in this demonstrator an advanced multimodal and multiparty spoken conversational system using Furhat, a robot head based on projected facial animation. Furhat is an anthropomorphic robot head that utilizes facial animation for physical robot heads using back-projection. In the system, multimodality is enabled using speech and rich visual input signals such as multi-person real-time face tracking and microphone tracking. The demonstrator will showcase a system that is able to carry out social dialogue with multiple interlocutors simultaneously with rich output signals such as eye and head coordination, lips synchronized speech synthesis, and non-verbal facial gestures used to regulate fluent and expressive multiparty conversations. The dialogue design is performed using the IrisTK [4] dialogue authoring toolkit developed at KTH. The system will also be able to perform a moderator in a quiz-game showing different strategies for regulating spoken situated interactions.

  • 3203.
    Al Moubayed, Samer
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology.
    Beskow, Jonas
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology.
    Skantze, Gabriel
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology.
    The Furhat Social Companion Talking Head2013In: Interspeech 2013 - Show and Tell, 2013, p. 747-749Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this demonstrator we present the Furhat robot head. Furhat is a highly human-like robot head in terms of dynamics, thanks to its use of back-projected facial animation. Furhat also takes advantage of a complex and advanced dialogue toolkits designed to facilitate rich and fluent multimodal multiparty human-machine situated and spoken dialogue. The demonstrator will present a social dialogue system with Furhat that allows for several simultaneous interlocutors, and takes advantage of several verbal and nonverbal input signals such as speech input, real-time multi-face tracking, and facial analysis, and communicates with its users in a mixed initiative dialogue, using state of the art speech synthesis, with rich prosody, lip animated facial synthesis, eye and head movements, and gestures.

  • 3204.
    Al Moubayed, Samer
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology.
    Beskow, Jonas
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology.
    Skantze, Gabriel
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology.
    Granström, Björn
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology.
    Furhat: A Back-projected Human-like Robot Head for Multiparty Human-Machine Interaction2012In: Cognitive Behavioural Systems: COST 2102 International Training School, Dresden, Germany, February 21-26, 2011, Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Anna Esposito, Antonietta M. Esposito, Alessandro Vinciarelli, Rüdiger Hoffmann, Vincent C. Müller, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, p. 114-130Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, we first present a summary of findings from two previous studies on the limitations of using flat displays with embodied conversational agents (ECAs) in the contexts of face-to-face human-agent interaction. We then motivate the need for a three dimensional display of faces to guarantee accurate delivery of gaze and directional movements and present Furhat, a novel, simple, highly effective, and human-like back-projected robot head that utilizes computer animation to deliver facial movements, and is equipped with a pan-tilt neck. After presenting a detailed summary on why and how Furhat was built, we discuss the advantages of using optically projected animated agents for interaction. We discuss using such agents in terms of situatedness, environment, context awareness, and social, human-like face-to-face interaction with robots where subtle nonverbal and social facial signals can be communicated. At the end of the chapter, we present a recent application of Furhat as a multimodal multiparty interaction system that was presented at the London Science Museum as part of a robot festival,. We conclude the paper by discussing future developments, applications and opportunities of this technology.

  • 3205.
    Al Moubayed, Samer
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Speech Technology, CTT.
    Beskow, Jonas
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Speech Technology, CTT.
    Öster, Anne-Marie
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Speech Technology, CTT.
    Salvi, Giampiero
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Speech Technology, CTT.
    Granström, Björn
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Speech Technology, CTT.
    van Son, Nic
    Viataal, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Ormel, Ellen
    Viataal, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Herzke, Tobias
    HörTech gGmbH, Germany.
    Studies on Using the SynFace Talking Head for the Hearing Impaired2009In: Proceedings of Fonetik'09: The XXIIth Swedish Phonetics Conference, June 10-12, 2009 / [ed] Peter Branderud, Hartmut Traunmüller, Stockholm: Stockholm University, 2009, p. 140-143Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    SynFace is a lip-synchronized talking agent which is optimized as a visual reading support for the hearing impaired. In this paper wepresent the large scale hearing impaired user studies carried out for three languages in the Hearing at Home project. The user tests focuson measuring the gain in Speech Reception Threshold in Noise and the effort scaling when using SynFace by hearing impaired people, where groups of hearing impaired subjects with different impairment levels from mild to severe and cochlear implants are tested. Preliminaryanalysis of the results does not show significant gain in SRT or in effort scaling. But looking at large cross-subject variability in both tests, it isclear that many subjects benefit from SynFace especially with speech with stereo babble.

  • 3206.
    Al Moubayed, Samer
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Speech Technology, CTT.
    Beskow, Jonas
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Speech Technology, CTT.
    Öster, Ann-Marie
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Speech Technology, CTT.
    Salvi, Giampiero
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Speech Technology, CTT.
    Granström, Björn
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Speech Technology, CTT.
    van Son, Nic
    Ormel, Ellen
    Virtual Speech Reading Support for Hard of Hearing in a Domestic Multi-Media Setting2009In: INTERSPEECH 2009: 10TH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF THE INTERNATIONAL SPEECH COMMUNICATION ASSOCIATION 2009, BAIXAS: ISCA-INST SPEECH COMMUNICATION ASSOC , 2009, p. 1443-1446Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present recent results on the development of the SynFace lip synchronized talking head towards multilinguality, varying signal conditions and noise robustness in the Hearing at Home project. We then describe the large scale hearing impaired user studies carried out for three languages. The user tests focus on measuring the gain in Speech Reception Threshold in Noise when using SynFace, and on measuring the effort scaling when using SynFace by hearing impaired people. Preliminary analysis of the results does not show significant gain in SRT or in effort scaling. But looking at inter-subject variability, it is clear that many subjects benefit from SynFace especially with speech with stereo babble noise.

  • 3207.
    Al Moubayed, Samer
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Speech Technology, CTT. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology.
    De Smet, Michael
    Van Hamme, Hugo
    Lip Synchronization: from Phone Lattice to PCA Eigen-projections using Neural Networks2008In: INTERSPEECH 2008: 9TH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF THE INTERNATIONAL SPEECH COMMUNICATION ASSOCIATION 2008, BAIXAS: ISCA-INST SPEECH COMMUNICATION ASSOC , 2008, p. 2016-2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lip synchronization is the process of generating natural lip movements from a speech signal. In this work we address the lip-sync problem using an automatic phone recognizer that generates a phone lattice carrying posterior probabilities. The acoustic feature vector contains the posterior probabilities of all the phones over a time window centered at the current time point. Hence this representation characterizes the phone recognition output including the confusion patterns caused by its limited accuracy. A 3D face model with varying texture is computed by analyzing a video recording of the speaker using a 3D morphable model. Training a neural network using 30 000 data vectors from an audiovisual recording in Dutch resulted in a very good simulation of the face on independent data sets of the same or of a different speaker.

  • 3208.
    Al Moubayed, Samer
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology.
    Edlund, Jens
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology.
    Beskow, Jonas
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology.
    Taming Mona Lisa: communicating gaze faithfully in 2D and 3D facial projections2012In: ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems, ISSN 2160-6455, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 25-, article id 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The perception of gaze plays a crucial role in human-human interaction. Gaze has been shown to matter for a number of aspects of communication and dialogue, especially for managing the flow of the dialogue and participant attention, for deictic referencing, and for the communication of attitude. When developing embodied conversational agents (ECAs) and talking heads, modeling and delivering accurate gaze targets is crucial. Traditionally, systems communicating through talking heads have been displayed to the human conversant using 2D displays, such as flat monitors. This approach introduces severe limitations for an accurate communication of gaze since 2D displays are associated with several powerful effects and illusions, most importantly the Mona Lisa gaze effect, where the gaze of the projected head appears to follow the observer regardless of viewing angle. We describe the Mona Lisa gaze effect and its consequences in the interaction loop, and propose a new approach for displaying talking heads using a 3D projection surface (a physical model of a human head) as an alternative to the traditional flat surface projection. We investigate and compare the accuracy of the perception of gaze direction and the Mona Lisa gaze effect in 2D and 3D projection surfaces in a five subject gaze perception experiment. The experiment confirms that a 3Dprojection surface completely eliminates the Mona Lisa gaze effect and delivers very accurate gaze direction that is independent of the observer's viewing angle. Based on the data collected in this experiment, we rephrase the formulation of the Mona Lisa gaze effect. The data, when reinterpreted, confirms the predictions of the new model for both 2D and 3D projection surfaces. Finally, we discuss the requirements on different spatially interactive systems in terms of gaze direction, and propose new applications and experiments for interaction in a human-ECA and a human-robot settings made possible by this technology.

  • 3209.
    Al Moubayed, Samer
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology.
    Edlund, Jens
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology.
    Gustafson, Joakim
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology.
    Analysis of gaze and speech patterns in three-party quiz game interaction2013In: Interspeech 2013, 2013, p. 1126-1130Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to understand and model the dynamics between interaction phenomena such as gaze and speech in face-to-face multiparty interaction between humans, we need large quantities of reliable, objective data of such interactions. To date, this type of data is in short supply. We present a data collection setup using automated, objective techniques in which we capture the gaze and speech patterns of triads deeply engaged in a high-stakes quiz game. The resulting corpus consists of five one-hour recordings, and is unique in that it makes use of three state-of-the-art gaze trackers (one per subject) in combination with a state-of-theart conical microphone array designed to capture roundtable meetings. Several video channels are also included. In this paper we present the obstacles we encountered and the possibilities afforded by a synchronised, reliable combination of large-scale multi-party speech and gaze data, and an overview of the first analyses of the data. Index Terms: multimodal corpus, multiparty dialogue, gaze patterns, multiparty gaze.

  • 3210.
    Al Moubayed, Samer
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Heylen, D.
    Bohus, D.
    Koutsombogera, Maria
    Papageorgiou, H.
    Esposito, A.
    Skantze, Gabriel
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    UM3I 2014: International workshop on understanding and modeling multiparty, multimodal interactions2014In: ICMI 2014 - Proceedings of the 2014 International Conference on Multimodal Interaction, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2014, p. 537-538Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present a brief summary of the international workshop on Modeling Multiparty, Multimodal Interactions. The UM3I 2014 workshop is held in conjunction with the ICMI 2014 conference. The workshop will highlight recent developments and adopted methodologies in the analysis and modeling of multiparty and multimodal interactions, the design and implementation principles of related human-machine interfaces, as well as the identification of potential limitations and ways of overcoming them.

  • 3211.
    Al Moubayed, Samer
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology.
    Skantze, Gabriel
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology.
    Effects of 2D and 3D Displays on Turn-taking Behavior in Multiparty Human-Computer Dialog2011In: SemDial 2011: Proceedings of the 15th Workshop on the Semantics and Pragmatics of Dialogue / [ed] Ron Artstein, Mark Core, David DeVault, Kallirroi Georgila, Elsi Kaiser, Amanda Stent, Los Angeles, CA, 2011, p. 192-193Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The perception of gaze from an animated agenton a 2D display has been shown to suffer fromthe Mona Lisa effect, which means that exclusive mutual gaze cannot be established if there is more than one observer. In this study, we investigate this effect when it comes to turntaking control in a multi-party human-computerdialog setting, where a 2D display is compared to a 3D projection. The results show that the 2D setting results in longer response times andlower turn-taking accuracy.

  • 3212.
    Al Moubayed, Samer
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology.
    Skantze, Gabriel
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology.
    Perception of Gaze Direction for Situated Interaction2012In: Proceedings of the 4th Workshop on Eye Gaze in Intelligent Human Machine Interaction, Gaze-In 2012, ACM , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate human perception of robots' gaze direction is crucial for the design of a natural and fluent situated multimodal face-to-face interaction between humans and machines. In this paper, we present an experiment targeted at quantifying the effects of different gaze cues synthesized using the Furhat back-projected robot head, on the accuracy of perceived spatial direction of gaze by humans using 18 test subjects. The study first quantifies the accuracy of the perceived gaze direction in a human-human setup, and compares that to the use of synthesized gaze movements in different conditions: viewing the robot eyes frontal or at a 45 degrees angle side view. We also study the effect of 3D gaze by controlling both eyes to indicate the depth of the focal point (vergence), the use of gaze or head pose, and the use of static or dynamic eyelids. The findings of the study are highly relevant to the design and control of robots and animated agents in situated face-to-face interaction.

  • 3213.
    Al Moubayed, Samer
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology.
    Skantze, Gabriel
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology.
    Turn-taking Control Using Gaze in Multiparty Human-Computer Dialogue: Effects of 2D and 3D Displays2011In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Audio-Visual Speech Processing 2011, Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2011, p. 99-102Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a previous experiment we found that the perception of gazefrom an animated agent on a two-dimensional display suffersfrom the Mona Lisa effect, which means that exclusive mutual gaze cannot be established if there is more than one observer. By using a three-dimensional projection surface, this effect can be eliminated. In this study, we investigate whether this difference also holds for the turn-taking behaviour of subjects interacting with the animated agent in a multi-party dialogue. We present a Wizard-of-Oz experiment where five subjects talk toan animated agent in a route direction dialogue. The results show that the subjects to some extent can infer the intended target of the agent’s questions, in spite of the Mona Lisa effect, but that the accuracy of gaze when it comes to selecting an addressee is still significantly lower in the 2D condition, ascompared to the 3D condition. The response time is also significantly longer in the 2D condition, indicating that the inference of intended gaze may require additional cognitive efforts.

  • 3214.
    Al Moubayed, Samer
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Skantze, Gabriel
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Beskow, Jonas
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Lip-reading: Furhat audio visual intelligibility of a back projected animated face2012In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, p. 196-203Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Back projecting a computer animated face, onto a three dimensional static physical model of a face, is a promising technology that is gaining ground as a solution to building situated, flexible and human-like robot heads. In this paper, we first briefly describe Furhat, a back projected robot head built for the purpose of multimodal multiparty human-machine interaction, and its benefits over virtual characters and robotic heads; and then motivate the need to investigating the contribution to speech intelligibility Furhat's face offers. We present an audio-visual speech intelligibility experiment, in which 10 subjects listened to short sentences with degraded speech signal. The experiment compares the gain in intelligibility between lip reading a face visualized on a 2D screen compared to a 3D back-projected face and from different viewing angles. The results show that the audio-visual speech intelligibility holds when the avatar is projected onto a static face model (in the case of Furhat), and even, rather surprisingly, exceeds it. This means that despite the movement limitations back projected animated face models bring about; their audio visual speech intelligibility is equal, or even higher, compared to the same models shown on flat displays. At the end of the paper we discuss several hypotheses on how to interpret the results, and motivate future investigations to better explore the characteristics of visual speech perception 3D projected faces.

  • 3215.
    Al Moubayed, Samer
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Skantze, Gabriel
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Beskow, Jonas
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    The Furhat Back-Projected Humanoid Head-Lip Reading, Gaze And Multi-Party Interaction2013In: International Journal of Humanoid Robotics, ISSN 0219-8436, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 1350005-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present Furhat - a back-projected human-like robot head using state-of-the art facial animation. Three experiments are presented where we investigate how the head might facilitate human - robot face-to-face interaction. First, we investigate how the animated lips increase the intelligibility of the spoken output, and compare this to an animated agent presented on a flat screen, as well as to a human face. Second, we investigate the accuracy of the perception of Furhat's gaze in a setting typical for situated interaction, where Furhat and a human are sitting around a table. The accuracy of the perception of Furhat's gaze is measured depending on eye design, head movement and viewing angle. Third, we investigate the turn-taking accuracy of Furhat in a multi-party interactive setting, as compared to an animated agent on a flat screen. We conclude with some observations from a public setting at a museum, where Furhat interacted with thousands of visitors in a multi-party interaction.

  • 3216.
    Al Moubayed, Samer
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology.
    Skantze, Gabriel
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology.
    Beskow, Jonas
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology.
    Stefanov, Kalin
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology.
    Gustafson, Joakim
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology.
    Multimodal Multiparty Social Interaction with the Furhat Head2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We will show in this demonstrator an advanced multimodal and multiparty spoken conversational system using Furhat, a robot head based on projected facial animation. Furhat is a human-like interface that utilizes facial animation for physical robot heads using back-projection. In the system, multimodality is enabled using speech and rich visual input signals such as multi-person real-time face tracking and microphone tracking. The demonstrator will showcase a system that is able to carry out social dialogue with multiple interlocutors simultaneously with rich output signals such as eye and head coordination, lips synchronized speech synthesis, and non-verbal facial gestures used to regulate fluent and expressive multiparty conversations.

  • 3217.
    Al Naami, Adam
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Techno-economic Feasibility Study of a Biogas Plant for Treating Food Waste Collected from Households in Kartamantul Region, Yogyakarta2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents the potential of biogas production using food waste collected from the region of Kartamantul in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Biogas can be used for cooking and generating electricity. The study compares two different end uses or markets for utilizing the biogas in the region. The daily food waste collected in the region of Kartamantul is 120 tonnes. This corresponds to a daily biogas production of 13 087 m3. Electricity generated from biogas can replace fossil-based coal electricity while cooking biogas can substitute the common fossil fuel liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). The price for selling one kWh of electricity to the state owned enterprise PLN is 16.5 USD cents. The price for selling one m3 of biogas for cooking is 38.5 USD cents, which is equivalent to the available price of LPG. The study finds that the avoided emission due to the substitution of fossil-based coal electricity and cooking LPG-gas is around 64 GgCO2-eq per year.

    Considering the economical results for a life span of 20 years in the first utilization option Biogas for Electricity gives a net present value (NPV) of 2 MUSD while for the utilization option Biogas for Cooking gives a net present value (NPV) of 5.82 MUSD. The breakeven for Biogas for Electricity is 13.8 USD cents per kWhe while for Biogas for Cooking is 25.5 USD cents per m3-biogas. The study concludes that it is feasible to invest in AD plant in the region of Kartamantul where both markets are profitable and environmentally friendly. 

  • 3218.
    Al Naami, Mahdi
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Thermal Conversion of MSW a Comparison of the System Performance: Direct Combustion Versus Conversion Through Syngas in CHP Plant2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is a study comparing two different thermal conversion paths for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW). The comparison will be focused on technical, economic and emission aspects. One path is the direct incineration of the MSW. Meanwhile the other consists of submitting the MSW to the process of gasification obtaining syngas which will be used for the production of energy. The thermal conversion is produced in a Combined Heat and Power system (CHP-system) looking at the economic, emission and technical aspects.

    CHP-incineration plant produces heat and power from mass burning MSW directly without pre-treatment and CHP-gasification plant produces heat and power from converting MSW to syngas in a gasifier and then use the syngas to produce heat and electricity. To get the result of the objective, the following questions have been answered:

    • What is the overall economic performance of the two thermal conversion paths?
    • What are the differences in emission depending on the path selected?
    • What is the overall efficiency?

    The results shows that the most profitable thermal conversion path is directly incinerated MSW in the CHP-incineration since it is a more mature technology and therefore the costs of applying it are much less than applying the other alternative, however there are other economic cases that is the opposite. In case of pollution, thermal conversion of MSW into syngas for production of heat and power is much more environmental friendly and in case of the overall efficiency is the thermal conversion of MSW into syngas higher.

  • 3219.
    Al Rifai, Ahmad
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Indoor Positioning at Arlanda Airport2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Recent years have witnessed remarkable developements in wireless positioning systems to satisfy the need of the market for real-time services. At Arlanda airport in Stockholm, LFV - department of research and developement wanted to invest in an indoor positioning system to deliver services for customers at the correct time and correct place.

    In this thesis, three different technologies, WLAN, Bluetooth, and RFID and their combination are investigated for this purpose. Several approaches are considered and two searching algorithms are compared, namely Trilateration and RF fingerprinting. The proposed approaches should rely on an existing WLAN infrastructure which is already deployed at the airport. The performances of the different considered solutions in the aforementioned approaches are quantified by means of simulations.

    This thesis work has shown that RF fingerprinting provide more accurate results than Trilateration algorithm especially in indoor environments, and that infrastructures with a combination of WLAN and Bluetooth technologies result in lower average error if compared to infrastructures that adopt only WLAN.

  • 3220.
    AL SAATI, FIRAS
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Applied Mechanical Engineering (KTH Södertälje).
    ERIKSSON, MAX
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Applied Mechanical Engineering (KTH Södertälje).
    Ergonomisk Analys av Penclic Mouse medförbättringsförslag2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 3221.
    Al Saleem, Evan
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO).
    Improving unnatural amino acid mutagensis efficiency and selectivity in mammalian cell2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Genetically encoded, site-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids (UAA)into proteins through selective recoding of an amber stop codon provides apowerful route for expressing synthetic proteins in living cells. Recoding of theamber stop codon is achieved by introducing an amber suppressortRNA/synthetase pair orthogonal to the endogenous tRNA complement intocells. Methanosarcina is a methane producing archaea with the unusualcapability of suppressing the stop codon (specifically the amber codon). Bysuppressing the amber codon Methanosarcina facilitate the incorporation of thenon-canonical amino acid pyrrolysine (pyl). The suppressing mechanismoriginates from a evolutionary unique Pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase (PylRS) and itsmatching tRNApyl. The PylRS has been further evolved and modified to allowincorporation of a wide range of UAAs. Amber suppression is today used tocontrol and study protein function in living cells. By making a series of wellcontrolledexperiments with HEK293T cells we aimed to develop this techniqueinto a robust and general tool for mammalian cell biology. Specifically we weretesting the incorporation of the unnatural amino acid bicyclononyne (BCN) by aset of known PylRS mutants. Our results suggest the mutant aaRS PylRS “AF” isthe most robust and efficient synthetase for BCN. We have improved ambersuppression by determining which factors leads to a more efficient method andsimultaneously decreasing the cost of the method.

  • 3222.
    Al Samisti, Fanti Machmount
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Visual Debugging of Dataflow Systems2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Big data processing has seen vast integration into the idea of data analysis in live streaming and batch environments. A plethora of tools have been developed to break down a problem into manageable tasks and to allocate both software and hardware resources in a distributed and fault tolerant manner. Apache Spark is one of the most well known platforms for large-scale cluster computation. In SICS Swedish ICT, Spark runs on top of an in-house developed solution. HopsWorks provides a graphical user interface to the Hops platform that aims to simplify the process of configuring a Hadoop environment and improving upon it. The user interface includes, among other capabilities, an array of tools for executing distributed applications such as Spark, TensorFlow, Flink with a variety of input and output sources, e.g. Kafka, HDFS files etc.

    Currently the available tools to monitor and instrument a stack that includes the aforementioned technologies come from both the corporate and open source world. The former is usually part of a bigger family of products running on proprietary code. In contrast, the latter offers a wider variety of choices with the most prominent ones lacking either the flexibility in exchange for a more generic approach or the ease of gaining meaningful insight except of the most experienced users.

    The contribution of this project is a visualization tool in the form of a web user interface, part of the Hops platform, for understanding, debugging and ultimately optimizing the resource allocation and performance of dataflow applications. These processes are based both on the abstraction provided by the dataflow programming paradigm and on systems concepts such as properties of data, how much variability in the data, computation, distribution, and other system wide resources.

  • 3223.
    Al Sammarrie, Omar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Applied Mechanical Engineering (KTH Södertälje).
    Shano, Seif
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Applied Mechanical Engineering (KTH Södertälje).
    Design av flyttbar sarg för blindfotboll2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 3224.
    Al Sayegh, Safi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Bengtsson, Tobias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Solenergisystem i Hammarby Sjöstad2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Problems with the current energy system, which partially relies on non-renewable fuels, are increasingly recognized. Emissions of greenhouse gases from fossil fuels may speed up global warming, which in turn leads to a number of negative consequences. Nuclear energy is risky and relies on consumption of a scarce resource. This leads to a demand of renewable energy that is also economically feasible. One possible renewable source of energy is solar energy. This thesis investigates the possibilities of new solar energy systems in Hammarby sjöstad, a relatively new urban district in Stockholm, Sweden with a focus on sustainable development. Different technical solutions are presented along with their economic value for apartment houses in Hammarby sjöstad. The systems considered are based on either electricity generation by solar cells or heat generation by solar water heaters. Different uses of the obtained energy are discussed – grid-connected systems, local direct current systems and heating of tap water. The results show that two technologies are profitable – ordinary silicon cells and thin film cells in a local direct current system. Grid-connected systems are not profitable because of the cost of power converters, and also because of prohibition of net metering in Sweden. Solar water heaters are not profitable because there is currently no subsidy available.

  • 3225.
    Al Sayfi, Anhar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Kufa, Max
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Utveckling av webbaserat blixtdetekteringssystem2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we suggest a lightning detection system capable of warning a local populous of incoming lightning weather using a combination of the AS3935 sensor and the one-board-computer Raspberry Pi, in an attempt to design a product that is cheap, mobile and easy to use.

    The product is composed of a sensor net that registers and reports lightnings on a webserver. The server is reachable as a normal website based on the LAMP method.

    The project reached a stadium which should satisfy a “proof of concept”, however, the product is far from complete, as it lacks the necessary algorithms needed for proper data computation. The current system only uses Raspberry pi, but it is theoretically possible to introduce other hardware to the system, but the current developed product does not support such functionality.

  • 3226.
    Al Shadidi, Kamilla
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Oil Cooling of Electric Motor using CFD2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigated the heat transfer of internally oil cooled rotors in permanent magnet electric machines which are, among other things, used in hybrid vehicles or zero emission vehicles. The magnets become sensitive and can be demagnetized at high working temperatures, hence the need of cooling. The scope of this work included CFD simulations in STAR-CCM+. Three different 3D multiphase models simulating the oil propagation in the rotor were performed. A Lagrangian multiphase model combined with a fluid film model was the most suitable model for simulating the spray of the oil and the film thickness along the inner rotor wall. It was noticed that periodic boundaries caused problems for the fluid film model, therefore a complete geometry was preferred over a truncated model. The 3D solutions provided thicker film thicknesses than the analytical solutions from the fluid film thickness theory. The maximum analytical thickness was of the same order of magnitude as the surface average film thickness provided by the multiphase models. This thickness was assumed to be constant when used as the base for the fluid region in the 2D one-phase models.The study showed that aluminum was the most suitable rotor material due to its high conductive capacity, which provided a more even distribution of the temperature in the solid and hence resulted in lower overall temperatures. The cooling power increased linearly with the volumetric flow rate, however the heat transfer coefficient decreased for the higher flow rates. A volumetric flow rate of 10dl/min was recommended. A 2D model was compared to a preliminary experiment and showed that these were not correlated. The conclusion was that more experiments and simulations are needed in order to confirm the validity of the 2D model.

  • 3227.
    Al Shadidi, Kamilla
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Ghattas, Andreas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Solenergi i Norrra Djurgårdsstaden2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report will examine various solar energy technologies in order to decide if they could be applied in the Royal Seaport. The Royal Seaport is a Swedish urban district under development in Stockholm, with the goal of becoming a sustainable district. Two main techniques, solar collectors and solar cells, including sub-categories, are addressed in this report. Another sub-category, a hybrid system, will also be mentioned. The main difference between solar collectors and solar cells is the type of energy produced by the system. Solar collectors generate heat, while solar cells generate electricity.Analysis of the different systems shows that solar collectors can supply the entire domestic hot water need, during the summer, in the Royal Seaport. While the electricity from the solar cells is negligible in comparison to the buildings electricity need, even during summertime. Nevertheless, the solar cells could provide electricity to the electric vehicles that will be used in the area. A solution that is suitable for the royal Seaport would be to cover 25% of the roof area by flat plate collectors and solar cells integrated into the rest of the roof surface, i.e. 75%. With this solution, the Royal Seaport of Stockholm will achieve its objectives in the best possible way.

  • 3228. Al Soubaihi, R. M.
    et al.
    Furesi, G.
    Saoud, K. M.
    Al-Muhtaseb, S. A.
    Khatat, A. E.
    Delogu, L. G.
    Dutta, Joydeep
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Silica and carbon decorated silica nanosheet impact on primary human immune cells2018In: Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, Vol. 172, p. 779-789Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3229. Al Soubaihi, Rola Mohammad
    et al.
    Furesi, Giulia
    Saoud, Khaled Mohammad
    Al-Muhtaseb, Shaheen A
    El Khatat, Ahmed
    Delogu, Lucia Gemma
    Dutta, Joydeep
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Silica and carbon coated silica nanosheet impact on primary human immune cells2018In: Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, Vol. 172Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3230.
    Al Soubaihi, Rola Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Saoud, Khaled Mohammad
    Virginia Commonwealth Univ Qatar, Liberal Arts & Sci Program, POB 8095, Doha, Qatar..
    Dutta, Joydeep
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Critical Review of Low-Temperature CO Oxidation and Hysteresis Phenomenon on Heterogeneous Catalysts2018In: CATALYSTS, ISSN 2073-4344, Vol. 8, no 12, article id 660Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing demand for new heterogeneous catalysts for cost-effective catalysis. Currently, the hysteresis phenomenon during low-temperature CO oxidation is an important topic in heterogeneous catalysis. Hysteresis provides important information about fluctuating reaction conditions that affect the regeneration of active sites and indicate the restoration of catalyst activity. Understanding its dynamic behavior, such as hysteresis and self-sustained kinetic oscillations, during CO oxidation, is crucial for the development of cost-effective, stable and long-lasting catalysts. Hysteresis during CO oxidation has a direct influence on many industrial processes and its understanding can be beneficial to a broad range of applications, including long-life CO2 lasers, gas masks, catalytic converters, sensors, indoor air quality, etc. This review considers the most recent reported advancements in the field of hysteresis behavior during CO oxidation which shed light on the origin of this phenomenon and the parameters that influence the type, shape, and width of the conversion of the hysteresis curves.

  • 3231. Al Soubaihi, Rola
    et al.
    Saoud, Khaled
    Dutta, Joydeep
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Critical Review of Low Temperature CO Oxidation and Hysteresis Phenomenon on Heterogeneous Catalysts2018In: Catalysts, Vol. 8, no 12Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3232.
    Al Tamimi, Ibrahim
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Roslagen Mosque2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A room for meditation and remembering Allah,where spiritual qualities unified in architectural and artistic style.The simple origin of the mosque is the prophet Muhammad's mosque in Medina,which was built from mud-bricks walls and palm-tree trunks and fibre for roofing,it has evolved into an intricate system of spatial designing and decorative creativity.This Project is located at Stockholm Northern outer suburb of Österåker, to house the Muslim community's association offices and mosque , with total area of sqm.1700.500 -700 persons are  estimated to gather in high time feasts' services.The minaret and the dome are in  abstraction form , Mihrab and Minbar "a raised structure similar to a pulpit from where the Friday sermon is given" at the Qiblah "southern" wall made of painted wood work in Arabesque .Mosques are centres for Muslim community gatherings,both  social and cultural .They also functioned as ”Madrasah” for weekend's Quranic classes .

  • 3233.
    Al Taweel, Maher
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    CFD simulering av kallras: Undersökning av temperatur- och luftbeteende intill höga glasfasader och i vistelsezon med golvvärme som en värmekälla2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Glass has sophisticated front properties and are used as facades in high buildings. During cold periods, these glass facades could cause thermal discomfort, due to cold downdraught. Cold downdraught can be countered by placing heaters under glass surfaces. Nowadays technology offers highly insulating windows, which is why there is an interest to investigate the indoor climate with only underfloor heating. The research in this area is limited, and few empirical methods are available. Theoretical analysis has begun but it still brand new.

    The aim of this investigation was to present the thermal indoor climate influenced by various parameters, such as outdoor temperature, U-value and the glass height. The results were also meant to be used as reference tools in future projects. A reference building was modeled in simulation software called CFD Star-CCM+.

    The assignment was initiated by Incoord, a leading consulting company in energy, indoor climate and installation planning.

    The results showed that the air velocity increases with decreasing outdoor temperature and decreases with increasing thermal insulation (lower U-value). At the edges of the glass the air velocity becomes twice as large compared to the velocity of the air in the middle of the atrium. The air velocity (maximum and average) at 0.1 m above the floor is always higher than at 2.0 m. The lowest air velocities start from about 0.25 m/s at 0 ℃ and reaches to 0.60 m/s at -20 ℃. That means these air velocities are too high for what is accepted as a good indoor climate, where the maximum allowable air velocity is 0.15 m/s.

    The outdoor temperatures and the glass facade’s U-value also have an effect on the surface temperature of the glass facade. This decreases the surface temperature with decreased outdoor temperature, and the surface temperature increases at lower U-value.

    The height of the glass facades proved to affect both the air velocity in the occupied zone and in the glass surface temperature. The air velocity increases with the glass’ height. The increase is higher at 0.1 m than at 2.0 m above the floor.

    The result shows also that the average air velocity is lower than 0,15 m/s at window height lower than 5 m. But, at the same height the maximum air velocity is higher than 0.3 m/s. The surface temperature of the glass facades increases with the glass’ height. This is because the indoor heat transfer coefficient increases with height. The outdoor heat transfer coefficient is a function of the wind speed and was assumed to be constant.

    The underfloor heating, which is represented in the simulations with a floor surface temperature of 27 ℃, is not enough to maintain a good indoor climate in any of simulations.

    The results of this thesis showed a strong relation between indoor climate, outdoor temperature, U-value and the glass height. This study also showed that the floor heating is not enough to counteract the cold draft during extreme cold periods, in high glass buildings. The presented results can be used as a reference tool for the assessment of air velocities and surface temperatures, in similar high buildings.

  • 3234.
    Al Tayr, Hydar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Al Hakim, Mahmud
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Mobile Ajax2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes a master thesis performed at SICS (Swedish Institute of Computer Science) and KTH (The Royal Institute of Technology) in Stockholm.

    Ajax stands for "Asynchronous JavaScript and XML" and it's not a programming language, but a suite of technologies used to develop web applications with more interactivity than the traditional web pages.

    Ajax applications can be adapted for mobile and constrained devices. This has been called Mobile Ajax. While the technique is the same, Mobile Ajax generally is considered to be a special case of Ajax, because it deals with problems specific to the mobile market.

    The purpose of this thesis has been to examine which possibilities and disadvantages has the Mobile Ajax from developers and users perspective. In addition we compare Mobile Ajax with Java Micro Edition (Java ME) and Flash Lite.

    This has been done through literature studies and development of a databased chat client (MAIM -Mobile Ajax Instant Messenger). The application sends and receives direct messages in real time between differently mobile devices. Then MAIM application has been compared with our own developed Java ME and Flash Lite chat clients.

    We have tested all three applications with different models of mobile devices and on different web browsers. The results have shown that mobile Ajax makes possible the creation of sophisticated and dynamic mobile web applications and is better than the classic web application model, but this requires that the mobile device has a modern and compatible web browser like Opera mobile.

     

  • 3235.
    Ala Khalil, Mostafa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Johansson, Kenneth
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    ICA DE KALLHÄLLSPROJEKTSTYRNINGSMODELL: HUR OCH VARFÖR SKILJER DEN SIG FRÅNPRAKTISK PROJEKTSTYRNING2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The majority of companies today work with projects whether the aim is to reorganize thecompany’s infrastructure or develop a new product or service. Several models, such as PPS andPROPS, have been developed for this purpose. PPS was develop in the late 1980s by Tieto, andis today the model of choice for a wide range of different companies in Sweden. Companieschoose to either purchase consulting from Tieto or customize the PPS model for their own line ofbusiness. A project can generally be divided into three phases: initiation, execution and closure. Theinitiation phase is considered to be the most important phase because it can minimize the risks ofa project failing. It is during this process where the decision to continue the project or to put itdown is made. Important questions that should be answered is whether or not the goals projectare realistic, if time and cos is in line with the expected revenue and if the company has thecapacity to complete the project. It is very important to minimize the uncertainty surrounding theproject and set up clear objectives. The purpose of this study was to examine how and why ICA has developed its own projectmodel from the PPS model. An initial study on the PPS model was made before The empiricaldata was collected through informal interviews with a group called Operational Excellence(Opex), which handles the projects at ICA DE Kallhäll. It was during these interviews where theproject model of ICA was thoroughly mapped out. The conclusion made was that the ICA's made some minor changes in their model compared toPPS in order to adapt it to their own operations. ICA is a large group where different branchesoften work individually with a directive from the board. By simplifying the PPS model, ICA DEKallhäll are able to complete projects at a faster rate with less bureaucracy.

  • 3236.
    Al-Abaychi, Mustafa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Ellvin, Joanna
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Evaluation of VPNs2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis evaluated the performance of four different virtual private networks (VPNs): IP security (IPsec), OpenVPN, SSH port forwarding and SSH using virtual interfaces. To evaluate these VPNs, three comparative performance tests were carried out in which the maximum throughput of each VPN was measured. In every test, a specific parameter was varied to observe how it affected the VPNs throughput. The parameters varied were the type of transport layer protocol used, the encryption algorithm used and whether the VPN used compression or not. The results showed, among others, that when TCP traffic was transferred through the VPN and AES-128 was used as encryption algorithm in a Gigabit Ethernet network, the throughput for SSH port forwarding was 168 Mbit/s, 165 Mbit/s for IPsec, 95,0 Mbit/s for SSH using virtual interfaces and 83,3 Mbit/s for OpenVPN. These results are to be compared to the through put measured when no VPN was used, 940 Mbit/s. Three conclusions are drawn from the results of the performance tests. The first conclusion is that the throughput of a VPN depends on the technology the VPN solution is based on, the encryption method that is used and the type ofdata that is sent over the VPN. The second conclusion is that IPsec and SSH port forwarding are the most effective VPNs of the ones compared in this thesis, while OpenVPN and SSH using virtual interfaces are less effective. Lastly, it is concluded that although the different parameters affected the throughput of each VPN, the relation between the VPNs is the same in almost every test. In other words a VPN that performs well in one test performs well in every test.

  • 3237.
    Alabbasi, Abdulrahman
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Cavdar, Cicek
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Delay-Aware Green Hybrid CRAN2017In: 2017 15th International Symposium on Modeling and Optimization in Mobile, Ad Hoc, and Wireless Networks, WiOpt 201727 June 2017, IEEE conference proceedings, 2017, article id 7959942Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a potential candidate architecture for 5G systems,cloud radio access network (CRAN) enhances the system’s capacityby centralizing the processing and coordination at the centralcloud. However, this centralization imposes stringent bandwidthand delay requirements on the fronthaul segment of the networkthat connects the centralized baseband processing units (BBUs)to the radio units (RUs). Hence, hybrid CRAN is proposed toalleviate the fronthaul bandwidth requirement. The concept ofhybrid CRAN supports the proposal of splitting/virtualizing theBBU functions processing between the central cloud (centraloffice that has large processing capacity and efficiency) and theedge cloud (an aggregation node which is closer to the user,but usually has less efficiency in processing). In our previouswork, we have studied the impact of different split points onthe system’s energy and fronthaul bandwidth consumption. Inthis study, we analyze the delay performance of the end user’srequest. We propose an end-to-end (from the central cloud tothe end user) delay model (per user’s request) for differentfunction split points. In this model, different delay requirementsenforce different function splits, hence affect the system’s energyconsumption. Therefore, we propose several research directionsto incorporate the proposed delay model in the problem ofminimizing energy and bandwidth consumption in the network.We found that the required function split decision, to achieveminimum delay, is significantly affected by the processing powerefficiency ratio between processing units of edge cloud and centralcloud. High processing efficiency ratio ( 1) leads to significantdelay improvement when processing more base band functionsat the edge cloud.

  • 3238.
    Alabbasi, Abdulrahman
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS. King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal, Saudi Arabia.
    Rezki, Zouheir
    Shihada, Basem
    Outage Analysis of Spectrum Sharing Over M-Block Fading With Sensing Information2017In: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, ISSN 0018-9545, E-ISSN 1939-9359, Vol. 66, no 4, p. 3071-3087Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Future wireless technologies, such as fifth-generation (5G), are expected to support real-time applications with high data throughput, e.g., holographic meetings. From a bandwidth perspective, cognitive radio (CR) is a promising technology to enhance the system's throughput via sharing the licensed spectrum. From a delay perspective, it is well known that increasing the number of decoding blocks will improve system robustness against errors while increasing delay. Therefore, optimally allocating the resources to determine the tradeoff of tuning the length of the decoding blocks while sharing the spectrum is a critical challenge for future wireless systems. In this paper, we minimize the targeted outage probability over the block-fading channels while utilizing the spectrum-sharing concept. The secondary user's outage region and the corresponding optimal power are derived, over two-block and M-block fading channels. We propose two suboptimal power strategies and derive the associated asymptotic lower and upper bounds on the outage probability with tractable expressions. These bounds allow us to derive the exact diversity order of the secondary user's outage probability. To further enhance the system's performance, we also investigate the impact of including the sensing information on the outage problem. The outage problem is then solved via proposing an alternating optimization algorithm, which utilizes the verified strict quasi-convex structure of the problem. Selected numerical results are presented to characterize the system's behavior and show the improvements of several sharing concepts.

  • 3239.
    Alabbasi, Abdulrahman
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Shihada, Basem
    Optimal Cross-Layer Design for Energy Efficient D2D Sharing Systems2017In: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, ISSN 1536-1276, E-ISSN 1558-2248, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 839-855Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we propose a cross-layer design, which optimizes the energy efficiency of a potential future 5G spectrum-sharing environment, in two sharing scenarios. In the first scenario, underlying sharing is considered. We propose and minimize a modified energy per good bit (MEPG) metric, with respect to the spectrum sharing user's transmission power and media access frame length. The cellular users, legacy users, are protected by an outage probability constraint. To optimize the non-convex targeted problem, we utilize the generalized convexity theory and verify the problem's strictly pseudoconvex structure. We also derive analytical expressions of the optimal resources. In the second scenario, we minimize a generalized MEPG function while considering a probabilistic activity of cellular users and its impact on the MEPG performance of the spectrum sharing users. Finally, we derive the associated optimal resource allocation of this problem. Selected numerical results show the improvement of the proposed system compared with other systems.

  • 3240.
    Alabbasi, Abdulrahman
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Shihada, Basem
    Cavdar, Cicek
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    On Energy Efficiency of Prioritized IoT Systems2017In: Globecom 2017 - 2017 IEEE Global Communications Conference, IEEE, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The inevitable deployment of 5G and the Internet of Things (IoT) sheds the light on the importance of the energy efficiency (EE) performance of Device-to- Device (DD) communication systems. In this work, we address a potential IoT application, where different prioritized DD system, i.e., Low-Priority (LP) and High-Priority (HP) systems, co-exist and share the spectrum. We maximize the EE of each system by proposing two schemes. The first scheme optimizes the individual transmission power and the spatial density of each system. The second scheme optimizes the transmission power ratio of both systems and the spatial density of each one. We also construct and analytically solve a multi- objective optimization problem that combines and jointly maximizes both HP and LP EE performance. Unique structures of the addressed problems are verified. Via numerical results we show that the system which dominates the overall EE (combined EEs of both HP and LP) is the system corresponding to the lowest power for low/high power ratio (between HP and LP systems). However, if the power ratio is close to one, the dominating EE corresponds to the system with higher weight.

  • 3241. Al-Abri, Mohammed
    et al.
    Al-Ghafri, Buthayna
    Bora, Tanujjal
    Dobretsov, Sergey
    Dutta, Joydeep
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Castelletto, Stefania
    Rosa, Lorenzo
    Boretti, Albert
    Author Correction: Chlorination disadvantages and alternative routes for biofouling control in reverse osmosis desalination2019In: npj Clean Water, Vol. 2, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3242. Al-Abri, Mohammed
    et al.
    Al-Ghafri, Buthayna
    Bora, Tanujjal
    Dobretsov, Sergey
    Dutta, Joydeep
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Castelletto, Stefania
    Rosa, Lorenzo
    Boretti, Albert
    Chlorination Disadvantages and Alternative Routes for Biofouling Control in Reverse Osmosis Desalination2019In: NPJ CLEANWATER, Vol. 2, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3243.
    Al-Abri, Mohammed
    et al.
    Sultan Qaboos Univ, Dept Chem & Petr Engn, Coll Engn, POB 33, Al Khoud 123, Oman.;Sultan Qaboos Univ, Nanotechnol Res Ctr, POB 17, Al Khoud 123, Oman..
    Al-Ghafri, Buthayna
    Sultan Qaboos Univ, Nanotechnol Res Ctr, POB 17, Al Khoud 123, Oman..
    Bora, Tanujjal
    Asian Inst Technol, Ctr Excellence Nanotechnol, POB 4, Klong Luangpathumthani 12120, Thailand..
    Dobretsov, Sergey
    Sultan Qaboos Univ, Dept Marine Sci & Fisheries, Coll Agr & Marine Sci, POB 34, Al Khoud 123, Oman.;Sultan Qaboos Univ, Ctr Excellence Marine Biotechnol, POB 50, Muscat 123, Oman..
    Dutta, Joydeep
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Castelletto, Stefania
    RMIT Univ, Sch Engn, Bundoora, Vic 3083, Australia..
    Rosa, Lorenzo
    Univ Modena & Reggio Emilia, Dept Engn Enzo Ferrari, Via Vivarelli 10, I-41125 Modena, Italy..
    Boretti, Albert
    14 Chancellor Ave, Bundoora, Vic 3083, Australia..
    Chlorination disadvantages and alternative routes for biofouling control in reverse osmosis desalination (vol 2, 2, 2019)2019In: NPJ CLEAN WATER, ISSN 2059-7037, Vol. 2, article id 8Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3244. Al-Abri, Mohammed
    et al.
    Boretti, Alberto
    Al-Ghafri, Buthayna
    Bora, Tanujjal
    Dobretsov, Sergey
    Dutta, Joydeep
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Castelletto, Stefania
    Rosa, Lorenzo
    Chlorination Disadvantages and Alternative Routes for Biofouling Control in Reverse Osmosis Desalination2019In: NPJ CLEANWATER, Vol. 2, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3245.
    Alaei, Zahra
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE).
    Release of Solubilizate from Micelle Triggered by Core Freezing2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present thesis focuses on the release of solubilizate from micelle triggered by core freezing studied using 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The surfactant studied was the nonionic BrijTM S20 with a concentration of 1 wt% in water and hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) was used as the model solubilizate to be loaded in micelle. The solubilizate in the micelle was found be squeezed out by core shrinking of the micelle upon decreasing the temperature. Besides 1H-NMR spectra, self-diffusion coefficients and longitudinal relaxation times                          were also measured upon decreasing the temperature. The temperature-dependent fraction of HMDSO in the micelle was determined together with relevant properties of the micelle, such as core freezing point, internal dynamics and size. The results were compared to corresponding data in the neat micellar system.

  • 3246.
    Alaei, Zohreh
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Axonal Membrane in Traumatic Brain Injury2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The following project presents in silico investigation of axonal damage in Diffuse Axonal Injury (DAI). When axons face a shear force, orientation of the lipids in the axonal membrane gets disrupted. Depending on the value of the force, a tensile strain causes the axons to get partially or fully deformed and in some cases a pore forms in the membrane. Using Molecular Dynamic (MD) simulation and a coarse grain model, a series of bilayers with various bilayer structure (single bilayer, parallel bilayer and cylindrical bilayer) and similar composition to biological axonal membrane were simulated. This was initially done to investigate the strain rate dependency of the bilayers, and their viscoelastic ability on returning to their original shape from their deformed forms. To achieve this, various deformation velocities were applied to the bilayers reaching 20% strain and relaxing the bilayer after. Additionally, the bilayers were deformed further until they reached a pore. It was found that the bilayers can almost recover from their deformed forms to their original length when they were deformed at 20% strain level. In conjunction, no correlation between the deformation velocity and lipid deformation was observed. Further, it was found that bilayers with different lipid percentage to axonal bilayer has different strain values for water penetration and for pore formation. The strain value for cylindrical bilayer was found very high compared to the strain values found in vitro. The strain for pore formation of parallel and single bilayer was found to be around 80% to 90% and for water penetration was found to be 70% for single bilayer and 50% for parallel bilayer. A slight difference in strain for pore formation between single and parallel bilayer was found which showed the bilayer structure can play a role in simulation results. The effect of the length in the simulations results was also observed where shorter bilayers showed lower strain for pore formation compared to longer bilayers. 

  • 3247.
    Alaei, Zohreh
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Power Enhancement in Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Piezoelectric energy harvesting has been around for almost a decade to generate power from the ambient vibrations. Although the generated power is very small, but there are several ways to increase and enhance the generated power. This project presents different methods of optimizing the output power by changing the structural configuration of the energy harvesters, selection of piezoelectric material and circuit interface of these harvesters. To understand the different steps of the enhancement, the process of energy conversion by piezoelectric material has been first looked at.

    Different groups of piezoelectric material were studied to see what kind of materials have the ability of increasing the generated power. As mechanical configuration of the energy harvesters has a significant effect on the output voltage, their configuration such as Cantilever beam type, Cymbal type and Circular diaphragms has been described and compared. After the power generated in the piezoelectric crystal , the current is sent to through an interface circuit to get rectified and regulated. This circuit can be modified to increase the power as well. There are several types of circuits that can increase the output voltage significantly. Synchronized Switch Harvesting (SSH) techniques, Synchronous Electric Charge Extraction technique and voltage doubler are such examples. These techniques have been also studied and compared. Because of the outgrowing industry of piezoelectric energy harvesting in Medical field, their function and their progress has also been reviewed.

  • 3248.
    Alagha, Alireza
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Requirements for improving Contemporary e-tourism Information systems in terms of customer satisfaction2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Who can ignore the impact of technology in different industries in 21st century? Various types of online tourism services have been offered by several firms who claim their services will be more accurate, more sufficient and better than traditional agencies’ offers. In this work, an investigation of a Tourism Information system will show how online services can bring value for each stakeholder in the firm and for others who interact with the e-tourism form.

    Data collection strategy for this work was survey and methods for data collection, included interviews and questionnaires.

    "Kano’s method" which shows how can bring "WOW "to the customer by adding unexpected features and make her satisfy by increasing her satisfaction. This work focused on IT’s impact to the current situation of the tourism industry in order to improve customers’ satisfaction. Optimized TIS

    1 may involve changes across many parts of a firm. In order to determine these factors, data collection using surveys of tourism experts in firm is needed. A complementary source of data includes literature, articles, and tourism brochure.

    Finally the collected data, analyses by Factor-Analysis method and the result of analyzed data shows the main factors of client satisfaction are convenience, specialization, accessibility and web design.

  • 3249.
    Alagic, Almir
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Standardiserat arbetssätt för kunskapsprocesser: – En fallstudie på en prototypverkstad2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, Lean has been implemented in a variety of companies with focus areas that differ from the conditions that characterizes manufacturing. This transfer has contributed to fairly superficial results because companies almost exclusively focus on Toyotas methodology and not on the goal of Lean. The effort of transforming Lean from manufacturing to any organization requires a definition on a general level and a view of Lean as a system. One of the core principles of Lean and the foundation of continuous improvements is standardized work. In product development there is a negative view on standardized work, where the engineers state that the principle is not applicable for knowledge processes that include non-repetitive and creative work.

    In the framework of this master thesis literature has been studied to find support that standardized work is applicable for product development and areas that include knowledge processes. Standardized work within product development and manufacturing at Toyota will be presented in this master thesis to emphasize that this principle supports the philosophy even if the application is made on different levels. Standardized work at Toyota is not based on similar work; it is rather saturated by Lean philosophy and associated values and principles.

    This thesis aims to identify problems and its root causes at the prototype workshop UTPW, at Scania, and conclude what measures that can be established for improvement. The thesis is based on methodology with close relations to action research because the workshop is continuously improving. The results obtained during the work have therefore been presented during three occasions to contribute to these improvements. The methodology used for achieving the purpose of this thesis is based on both scientific theory and Lean theory.

    The manufacturing process at mechanical workshop works great, but is characterized in some aspects of abnormalities, long deliveries and complex information- and product flows. The majority of the identified abnormalities in the mechanical processing are based on a flawed communication between customer and workshop. The additive manufacturing has a high workload and has therefore difficulties to keep up with the work. The additive manufacturing is working standardized but needs to eliminate waste in the process and further investigated the takt time in order to reduce the workload. The mechanical processing must primarily stabilize manufacturing through standardization at a high level to eliminate the identified abnormalities and problem areas.

  • 3250.
    Alagic, Almir
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Henriksson, Johan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Rosengren, Jonas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Autonom hjulmodul för skotare2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the project was to investigate whether it’s possible to construct a corner module for the propulsion of forwarders. The aim was to show how such a concept could look like and be constructed to be able to work in the forest as well as on common roads. The concept development have mainly been about how a motor, brake and steering can be put together to a module that can fit the limited volume of the rim, but also about how to the module can be fixed to the suspension. After several concepts been tabled, two of those were chosen. One concept to show the zero-point-steering and weight reduction was possible to integrate in the Corner Module 2009. The other concept was chosen to investigate if a solution from electric cars is able to apply on a forestry vehicle. The two concepts were modeled in the CAD-program Solid Edge ST. The first concept, of those chosen, is of a more traditional type. It is a brushless DC electric motor coupled to a planetary drive that rotates the wheel, an electric brake system and a zero-point-steering which is made possible by two electrical motors which by chain-drive rotates the wheel. From that concept it was clear that a large proportion of the modules weight is the weight of the tire. The other components weight one by one is small which leads to the conclusion that a reduction of these components weight is difficult. Especially since they have to be dimensioned for high forces. The other concept is a solution that under the information search showed in the concept cars Siemens VDO and Michelin Hylight. The concept holds a frameless brushless motor, with a rotor directly fixed to the rim. In this concept too is there an electric brake system and the steering is made possible by a linear motor or hydraulic piston. The concept shows that the construction with a frameless brushless motor reduces the modules weight further. It is reduced because the motor makes it possible to use a smaller rim and thereby a smaller tire. Further reduction is possible since the motor is not supposed to need a planetary drive. Since no motor strong enough were found the project stalled.

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