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  • 351.
    Sterner, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Oberhammer, Joachim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Wafer counter-bonding for integrating CTE-mismatched substrates and its application to MEMS tuneable metamaterials2009In: TRANSDUCERS 2009: 15th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, 2009, Vol. Actuators and Microsystems, p. 1722-1725Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents symmetrical counter-bonding as a method for integrating multiple substrates of non-compatible thermo-mechanical properties. This technique is successfully applied to fabricate MEMS tuneable high-impedance surfaces combining four substrates of two otherwise fabrication-incompatible materials (silicon and AF45 glass) on a wafer-level. A large-scale high-impedance surface with 200 x 52 array elements with a pitch of 350 ï¿œm and a total size of 70 x 18mm2 has been fabricated and the microwave properties of the devices have successfully been characterized at 70-114GHz. Furthermore, micron-sized surface waviness in the glass substrates, induced by the thermal cycling under mechanical stress in the bonding process, has been investigated during temperature cycling.

  • 352. Suarez, I.
    et al.
    Chirvony, V.
    Hill, Daniel
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Martinez-Pastor, J.
    Simulation of surface-modified porous silicon photonic crystals for biosensing applications2012In: Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications, ISSN 1569-4410, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 304-311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work realistic biosensing structures based on the integration of porous silicon photonic crystals with polymer coating technology are presented. Microcavities and rugate filters are chosen as the photonic crystal configuration. The deposition of a polymer layer on the pore walls of these structures is proposed to improve the selectivity and sensitivity of the sensing function. A complete effective refractive index model including the polymer layer, the target and external effects like silicon oxidation has been developed in order to accurately simulate the structures. It is expected that the proposed structures could be used as low cost, highly integrated and highly sensitive biological sensors.

  • 353. Taklo, M.M.V.
    et al.
    Bakke, T.
    Vogl, A.
    Wang, D. T.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Balgård, L.
    Vibration Sensor for Wireless Condition Monitoring2008In: Proceedings of the Pan Pacific Microelectronics Symposium, 2008, p. 305-331Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A microelectromechanical system (MEMS) accelerometer has been manufactured for wireless vibration measurements on AC motors for condition monitoring. The vibration sensor element has been encapsulated with glass using wafer scale adhesive bonding with Benzycyclobutene (BCB). Cavities in the glass allow the moving mass on the silicon sensor to vibrate freely. The wafer scale packaging greatly simplifies the subsequent packaging which includes mounting on a ceramics substrate. The ceramic board with the sensor element is densely packed inside a sensor node together with other components. The battery driven sensor node solution is optimized with regard to small scale and low power consumption to reduce price and extend life time. The sensor element has a linear response up to 30 g with a sensitivity of 0.3 mV/Vg and a resonance frequency of 7.7 kHz. Measurements were performed on a bare, unpackaged die and after glass encapsulation. The only recognizable effect of the glass encapsulation on the frequency response is a moderate damping.

  • 354. Tang, M.
    et al.
    Liu, A. Q.
    Oberhammer, Joachim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    A silicon-on-glass single-pole-double-throw (SPDT) switching circuit integrated with a silicon-core metal-coated transmission line2008In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 18, no 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a novel low-loss single-pole-double-throw (SPDT) switching circuit which integrates a silicon-core metal-coated coplanar waveguide (CPW) and two laterally moving switches in parallel. The circuit structure consists of single-crystal silicon as the core material and a thin layer of metal coated on the core surface to propagate the RF signal. The influences of the material property and the process variation on the RF performance of the silicon-core metal-coated CPW is analyzed in detail, including the silicon-core resistivity, the spreading metal on the substrate and the recess etching depth. Based on this analysis, the low-loss SPDT switching circuit is designed and fabricated using high-resistivity silicon (HRSi) as the core material and Pyrex 7740 glass as the substrate. The pull-in voltage of the laterally moving switch is 12.35 V. The insertion loss of the laterally moving switch is less than 1 dB up to 40 GHz. Both the return loss and the isolation are higher than 22 dB up to 40 GHz. The SPDT switching circuit has an insertion loss of less than 1 dB up to 22 GHz. The return loss is 17 dB and the isolation is 25 dB at 25 GHz. A silicon-on-glass (SOG)-based substrate-transfer micromachining process is developed for the SPDT switching circuit fabrication, which has the advantages of single mask, high design flexibility and low signal propagation losses.

  • 355.
    Töpfer, Fritzi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Dudorov, Sergey
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Oberhammer, Joachim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Micromachined 100GHz near-field measurement probe for high-resolution microwave skin-cancer diagnosis2012In: IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest: 2012 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium, IMS 2012; Montreal, QC; Canada; 17 June 2012 through 22 June 2012, 2012, p. 6259671-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports for the first time on a novel micromachined millimeter-wave near-field measurement probe for skin-cancer diagnosis, which is designed for high lateral resolution for resolving small skin cancer speckles as well as for vertically discriminating shallow tissue-layer anomalies. A tip size as small as 0.18 mm 2, which is 18times smaller than conventional measurement tips for the design frequency of 100 GHz, could be achieved by micromachining a silicon-core tapered dielectric-rod waveguide. This metallized dielectric probe is positioned centrally into a standard WR-10 waveguide by a micromachined holder which allows for easily exchanging the probes at high reproducibility. The dielectric-wedge transition between the waveguide and the probe is optimized for 100-105 GHz. Furthermore, this paper presents a unique concept of micromachined test samples with tailor-made permittivity ranging from L.7 to 7.1, which enables emulation of the different water content of tissue anomalies. This test method results in highly reproducible test measurements for evaluating and comparing different prototype probe designs. The paper presents successful measurement results of fabricated probes and test samples. Different single test samples as well as sample stacks with emulated tissue anomalies could clearly be distinguished.

  • 356.
    van der Wijngaart, Wouter
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Chugh, Dipankar
    Man, Elisabeth
    Melin, Jessica
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    A low-temperature thermopneumatic actuation principle for gas bubble microvalves2007In: Journal of microelectromechanical systems, ISSN 1057-7157, E-ISSN 1941-0158, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 765-774Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce a novel type of microfluidic actuator in which a trapped air bubble functions as the thermally controlled volume displacing element. The pressure of the trapped air pocket is controlled by the changing equilibrium gas composition for static operation and by thermal expansion for dynamic operation. The volume displacement is determined by the liquid surface tension and the valve geometry. A fully functional demonstrator device was successfully fabricated and tested. The absence of moving mechanical parts, the electrical control of the valve, and the limited required actuation temperature make the actuator suitable for control of large-scale integration fluidic networking in biotechnical applications.

  • 357.
    van der Wijngaart, Wouter
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Chugh, Dipankar
    Man, Elisabeth
    Melin, Jessica
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    A low-temperature thermopneumatic gas bubble valve2006In: 19th IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (IEEE MEMS 2006), New York: IEEE conference proceedings, 2006, p. 198-201Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce a novel type of actuation for microvalves, in which a trapped air bubble functions as the thermally controlled volume displacing element. The pressure of the trapped air pocket is controlled thermally using a resistive heater. The volume displacement is determined by the liquid surface tension and the valve geometry. A fully functional demonstrator device was successfully fabricated and tested. The absence of moving mechanical parts, the electrical control of the valve, and the limited required actuation temperature make the actuator suitable for control of LSI fluidic networking in biotechnical applications.

  • 358.
    van der Wijngaart, Wouter
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Frisk, Thomas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    A micromachined interface for transfer of liquid or vapour sample to a liquid solution2005In: Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems, 2005. Digest of Technical Papers. TRANSDUCERS '05. The 13th International Conference on  (Volume:2 ), NEW YORK: IEEE conference proceedings, 2005, Vol. 2, p. 1276-1279Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel microfluidic interface for vapour-to-liquid adsorption and droplet-to-liquid transfer was designed and fabricated using silicon micromachining. The interface was characterised and successfully tested.

  • 359.
    van der Wijngaart, Wouter
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Thorsen, Anders
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    A seat microvalve nozzle for optimal gas-flow capacity at large-controlled pressure2005In: Journal of microelectromechanical systems, ISSN 1057-7157, E-ISSN 1941-0158, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 200-206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seat microvalves are the most common microvalve type for gas-flow control. This paper presents a general method for optimizing the flow capacity of a seat valve nozzle and diminishing the requirements on the valve actuator's stroke length. Geometrical analysis and finite element (FE) simulations show that for controlling large gas flow at elevated pressure, the optimal nozzle design in terms of flow capacity for a given actuator performance is a multiple-orifice arrangement with miniaturized circular nozzles. Experimental results support the design introduced in this paper.

  • 360. Vieider, Christian
    et al.
    Wissmar, Stanley
    Ericsson, Per
    Halldin, Urban
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Kallhammer, Jan-Erik
    Pettersson, Hakan
    Eriksson, Dick
    Jakobsen, Henrik
    Kvisteroy, Terje
    Franks, John
    VanNylen, Jan
    Vercammen, Hans
    VanHulsel, Annick
    Low-cost far infrared bolometer camera for automotive use2007In: P SOC PHOTO-OPT INSTRUM ENG, 2007, Vol. 6542, p. 5421-5421Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new low-cost long-wavelength infrared bolometer camera system is under development. It is designed for use with an automatic vision algorithm system as a sensor to detect vulnerable road users in traffic. Looking 15 in in front of the vehicle it can in case of an unavoidable impact activate a brake assist system or other deployable protection system. To achieve our cost target below epsilon 100 for the sensor system we evaluate the required performance and can reduce the sensitivity to 150 mK and pixel resolution to 80 x 30. We address all the main cost drivers as sensor size and production yield along with vacuum packaging, optical components and large volume manufacturing technologies. The detector array is based on a new type of high performance thermistor material. Very thin Si/SiGe single crystal multi-layers are grown epitaxially. Due to the resulting valence barriers a high temperature coefficient of resistance is achieved (3.3%/K). Simultaneously, the high quality crystalline material provides very low 1/f-noise characteristics and uniform material properties. The thermistor material is transferred from the original substrate wafer to the read-out circuit using adhesive wafer bonding and subsequent thinning. Bolometer arrays can then be fabricated using industry standard MEMS process and materials. The inherently good detector performance allows us to reduce the vacuum requirement and we can implement wafer level vacuum packaging technology used in established automotive sensor fabrication. The optical design is reduced to a single lens camera. We develop a low cost molding process using a novel chalcogenide glass (GASIR (R) 3) and integrate anti-reflective and anti-erosion properties using diamond like carbon coating.

  • 361. Vivien, L.
    et al.
    Marris-Morrini, D.
    Griol, A.
    Gylfason, Kristinn Björgvin
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Hill, D.
    Alvarez, J.
    Sohlström, Hans
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Hurtado, J.
    Bouville, D.
    Cassan, E.
    Vertical multiple-slot waveguide ring resonators in silicon nitride2008In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 16, no 22, p. 17237-17242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes the first demonstration of ring resonators based on vertical multiple-slot silicon nitride waveguides. The design, fabrication and measurement of multiple-slot waveguide ring resonators with several coupling distances and ring radii (70 mu m, 90 mu m and 110 mu m) have been carried out for TE and TM polarizations at the wavelength of 1.3 mu m. Quality factors of 6,100 and 16,000 have been achieved for TE and TM polarization, respectively.

  • 362.
    Vivien, Laurent
    et al.
    Institut d'Electronique Fondamentale, CNRS UMR 8622, Bat. 220, Universite Paris-sud XI, F-91405 ORSAY cedex - France.
    Maire, Guillaume
    Institut d'Electronique Fondamentale, CNRS UMR 8622, Bat. 220, Universite Paris-sud XI, F-91405 ORSAY cedex - France.
    Sattler, G.
    Institut d'Electronique Fondamentale, CNRS UMR 8622, Bat. 220, Universite Paris-sud XI, F-91405 ORSAY cedex - France.
    Marris-Morini, Delphine
    Institut d'Electronique Fondamentale, CNRS UMR 8622, Bat. 220, Universite Paris-sud XI, F-91405 ORSAY cedex - France.
    Cassan, Eric
    Institut d'Electronique Fondamentale, CNRS UMR 8622, Bat. 220, Universite Paris-sud XI, F-91405 ORSAY cedex - France.
    Laval, Suzanne
    Institut d'Electronique Fondamentale, CNRS UMR 8622, Bat. 220, Universite Paris-sud XI, F-91405 ORSAY cedex - France.
    Kazmierczak, Andrzej
    Applied Photonics Departement, Multitel a.s.b.l., rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 2, B-7000 Mons, Belgium.
    Giannone, Domenico
    Applied Photonics Departement, Multitel a.s.b.l., rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 2, B-7000 Mons, Belgium.
    Sanchez, Benito
    Nanophotonics Technology Center, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, Valencia, Spain.
    Griol, Amadeu
    Nanophotonics Technology Center, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, Valencia, Spain.
    Hill, Daniel
    Nanophotonics Technology Center, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, Valencia, Spain.
    Gylfason, Kristinn B.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Sohlström, Hans
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    A high efficiency silicon nitride grating coupler2007In: 2007 4th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics, IEEE , 2007, p. 157-159Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The experimental demonstration of a high efficiency silicon nitride grating coupler is reported for wavelengths from lambda=1.25 to 1.45 mu m for TE polarization. At the resonant angle, a coupling efficiency higher than 60% has been measured.

  • 363.
    Vivien, Laurent
    et al.
    Institut d'Electronique Fondamentale, CNRS UMR 8622, Bat. 220, Universite Paris-sud XI, F-91405 ORSAY cedex - France.
    Marris-Morini, Delphine
    Institut d'Electronique Fondamentale, CNRS UMR 8622, Bat. 220, Universite Paris-sud XI, F-91405 ORSAY cedex - France.
    Alvarez, Jesus
    Univ. Politécnica de Valencia.
    Griol, Amadeu
    Univ. Politécnica de Valencia.
    Gylfason, Kristinn B.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Hill, Daniel
    Univ. Politécnica de Valencia.
    Sohlström, Hans
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Hurtado, Juan
    Univ. Politécnica de Valencia.
    Bouville, David
    Cassan, Eric
    Institut d'Electronique Fondamentale, CNRS UMR 8622, Bat. 220, Universite Paris-sud XI, F-91405 ORSAY cedex - France.
    Experimental demonstration of vertical multiple-slot waveguide ring resonators2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 364. Vorobyov, A.
    et al.
    Fourn, E.
    Sauleau, R.
    Baghchehsaraei, Zargham
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Oberhammer, Joachim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Chicherin, D.
    Räisänen, A.
    Iris-based 2-bit waveguide phase shifters and transmit-array for automotive radar applications2012In: Proceedings of 6th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation, EuCAP 2012, IEEE , 2012, p. 3711-3715Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three-pole iris-based bandpass filters are proposed as waveguide phase shifters for automotive applications at 77 GHz. Compared to standard configurations with symmetrical irises, asymmetrical designs have been preferred here in order to minimize technological constraints in the perspective of designing beam steering transmit-array antennas. Here the irises are printed on thin Silicon substrates integrated into a WR-12 metallic waveguide. A 210-element transmit-array antenna is also designed at 77GHz using, as building blocks, four different kinds of phase shifters providing a nearly 2-bit phase quantization in the radiation aperture. The phase shifter design are validated in X-band, and a very good agreement between simulations and measurements has been obtained both in amplitude and phase.

  • 365.
    Weisser, Karl
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Gas monitoring system using ultrasound sensors2011Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis reports a collaboration between KTH Microsystem Technology Labs and Maquet critical care. Maquet is a company that produces medical ventilators and anesthesia machines. In an anesthesia machine it is important to monitor the anesthesia concentration that is delivered so that the delivered anesthesia concentration does not deviate from the desired concentration. Furthermore, in case of fail function there is a need to stop the delivery of anesthesia to the patient and flush the system. The anesthetic agent concentration is presently monitored with an infrared spectrometer. By using ultrasound technology it is possible to determine the volume concentration of a gas mixture by knowing the sound speed in the gases. Maquet has an ultrasound sensor that is developed to measure the oxygen concentration in air. This sensor was modified in order to measure nitrous oxide and anesthesia. The anesthesia concentration was measured by placing sensors upstream and downstream from the vaporizer. Using this ultrasound sensor system one can observe that the average discrepancy of the entire concentration range is ±0.84 % for Desflurane and 0.17 % for Isoflurane in relation to the infraredspectrometer sensor that is presently used in the anesthesia machine to monitor the anesthetic agent. Measurements show that the rise time of the ultrasound sensor varies when placing the sensor in different orientations with respect to the airway flow. It also show that by placing a flow restrictor that is used to force the airway flow in to the sensors measurement chamber reduces the rise time to a tenth of its previous value.

  • 366.
    Wijngaart, Wouter van der
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Despont, R. Michel
    Bhattacharyya, Debrabata
    Kirby, Paul B.
    Wilson, Stephen
    Jourdain, Roland
    Braun, Stefan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Sandström, Niklas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Barth, Johannes
    Grund, Thomas
    Kohl, Manfred
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Lapisa, Martin
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Zimmer, Fabian
    Increasing the Performance per Cost of Microsystems by Transfer Bonding Manufacturing Techniques2008Other (Other academic)
  • 367.
    Wijngaart, Wouter van der
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Jaouen, Frederic
    Haasl, Sjoerd
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Lundblad, Anders
    Electrochemical device2005Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    A polymer electrolyte electrochemical device comprising an anode current collector (1), a membrane electrode assembly (2) with anode and cathode gas backings (3, 4), and a cathode current collector (5), wherein the membrane electrode assembly is sealed and attached at least to the anode current collector by adhesive means, thereby creating an anode gas chamber, and optionally attached to the cathode current collector by adhesive means, said adhesive means being electrically conducting or electrically non-conducting. The invention also relates to polymer electrolyte electrochemical device components adapted for use in a single cell electrochemical device and a series arrangement electrochemical device.

  • 368. Wilson, Stephen A.
    et al.
    Jourdain, Renaud P. J.
    Zhang, Qi
    Dorey, Robert A.
    Bowen, Chris R.
    Willander, Magnus
    Wahab, Qamar Ul
    Safaa, M. Al-hilli
    Nur, Omer
    Quandt, Eckhard
    Johansson, Christer
    Pagounis, Emmanouel
    Kohl, Manfred
    Matovic, Jovan
    Samel, Björn
    van der Wijngaart, Wouter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Jager, Edwin W. H.
    Carlsson, Daniel
    Djinovic, Zoran
    Wegener, Michael
    Moldovan, Carmen
    Iosub, Rodica
    Abad, Estefania
    Wendlandt, Michael
    Rusu, Cristina
    Persson, Katrin
    New materials for micro-scale sensors and actuators An engineering review2007In: Materials science & engineering. R, Reports, ISSN 0927-796X, E-ISSN 1879-212X, Vol. 56, no 06-jan, p. 1-129Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides a detailed overview of developments in transducer materials technology relating to their current and future applications in micro-scale devices. Recent advances in piezoelectric, magnetostrictive and shape-memory alloy systems are discussed and emerging transducer materials such as magnetic nanoparticles, expandable micro-spheres and conductive polymers are introduced. Materials properties, transducer mechanisms and end applications are described and the potential for integration of the materials with ancillary systems components is viewed as an essential consideration. The review concludes with a short discussion of structural polymers that are extending the range of micro-fabrication techniques available to designers and production engineers beyond the limitations of silicon fabrication technology.

  • 369.
    Wissmar, Stanley
    et al.
    Acreo AB.
    Vieider, Christian
    Acreo AB.
    Savage, Susan
    Acreo AB.
    Ericsson, Per
    Acreo AB.
    Höglund, L.
    Andersson, J.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    SiGe Thermistor Infrared Bolometers2006In: Proceedings Micro System Workshop MSW, 2006, p. 62-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 370. Yu, A. B.
    et al.
    Liu, A. Q.
    Oberhammer, Joachim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Zhang, Q. X.
    Hosseini, H. M.
    Characterization and optimization of dry releasing for the fabrication of RF MEMS capacitive switches2007In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 17, no 10, p. 2024-2030Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses fabrication aspects of photoresist sacrificial layers for fabricating metal bridges of capacitive radio frequency (RF) microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) switches. First, reflow of the photoresist layer after lithography is investigated for reducing mechanical fracture of the metal layer by smoothing the edges of the sacrificial layer. Second, the dry-etch releasing process of the structures in an O-2 plasma has been investigated by identifying suitable etching parameters. The findings in this paper reveal that the mechanical performance of the released bridges strongly depends on the etch parameters. It is shown that especially the etching power affects the mean stress and the stress gradient in the bridge, which results in buckling and deformed bridge shape for an etching power above 500 W, drastically increasing the actuation voltage and reducing the down-state capacitance. Finally, the paper presents a suitable parameter set for the release etching of capacitive MEMS metal bridges.

  • 371. Zimmer, F.
    et al.
    Friedrichs, M.
    Lapisa, Martin
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Mueller, M.
    Bakke, T.
    Schenk, H.
    Lakner, H.
    The integration of mono-crystalline silicon micro-mirrors on CMOS for SLM applications2008In: International Conference on Multi-Material Micro Manufacture, 2008, p. 35-38Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 372. Zimmer, Fabian
    et al.
    Bring, Martin
    List, Matthias
    Lapisa, Martin
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Fabrication of mono-crystalline Silicon Micro-mirror Arrays using adhesive Wafer Transfer Bonding2009In: MikroSystemTechnik KONGRESS 2009, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Spatial light modulators (SLMs) based on indivvidually addressable micro-mirrors do show an increased use in projection displays, DUV lithography and adaptive optics. Mirror planarity and deflection characteristics are important issues for these applications. Mono-crystalline silicon as mirror material offers a great possibility to combine the perfect surface with the good mechanical properties of the crystalline material. Nevertheless, the challenge is the integration of mono-crystalline silicon in a CMOS process with low temperature budget (below 450deg C) and restricted material options. Thus, standard processes like epitaxial growth or re-crystallization of poly-silicon cannot be used. We will present a CMOS-compatible approach, using adhesive wafer transfer bonding with Benzocyclobutene (BCB) of a 300nm thin silicon membrane, located on a SOI donor wafer. After the bond process, the SOI donor wafer is grinded and spin etched to remove the handle silicon and the buried oxide layer, which results in a transfer of the mono-crystalline silicon membrane to the CMOS wafer. This technology is fully compatible for integration in a CMOS process, in order to fabricate SLMs, consisting of one million indivvidually addressable mono-crystalline silicon micro-mirrors. In this paper, we present fabrication process as well as first results of SLM devices with a pixel pitch of 16 micrometer.

  • 373. Zimmer, Fabian
    et al.
    Lapisa, Martin
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Bakke, Thor
    Bring, Martin
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    One-Megapixel Monocrystalline-Silicon Micromirror Array on CMOS Driving Electronics Manufactured With Very Large-Scale Heterogeneous Integration2011In: Journal of microelectromechanical systems, ISSN 1057-7157, E-ISSN 1941-0158, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 564-572Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we demonstrate the first high-resolution spatial-light-modulator chip with 1 million tilting micromirrors made of monocrystalline silicon on analog high-voltage complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor driving electronics. This device, as result of a feasibility study, shows good optical and excellent mechanical properties. The micromirrors exhibit excellent surface properties, with a surface roughness below 1-nm root mean square. Actuated micromirrors show no imprinting behavior and operate drift free. Very large-scale heterogeneous integration was used to fabricate the micromirror arrays. The detailed fabrication process is presented in this paper, together with a characterization of the SLM devices. Large arrays of individually controllable micromirrors are the enabling component in high-perfomance mask-writing systems and promising for high throughput deep-ultraviolet maskless lithography systems. The adoption of new materials with enhanced characteristics is critical in meeting the challenging demands with regard to surface quality and operation stability in the future. Very large-scale heterogeneous integration may enable virtually any solid-state material to be integrated together with CMOS electronics. [2010-0272]

  • 374. Zimmer, Fabian
    et al.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Lapisa, Martin
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Theory.
    Ludewig, Thomas
    Bring, Martin
    Friedrichs, Martin
    Bakke, Thor
    Schenk, H.
    van der Wijngaart, Wouter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Fabrication of large-scale mono-crystalline silicon micro-mirror arrays using adhesive wafer transfer bonding2009In: Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering / [ed] David L. Dickensheets, Harald Schenk, Wibool Piyawattanametha, 2009, Vol. 7208, p. 720807-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today,spatial light modulators (SLMs) based on individually addressable micro-mirrors playan important role for use in DUV lithography and adaptiveoptics. Especially the mirror planarity and stability are important issuesfor these applications. Mono-crystalline silicon as mirror material offers agreat possibility to combine the perfect surface with the goodmechanical properties of the crystalline material. Nevertheless, the challenge isthe integration of mono-crystalline silicon in a CMOS process withlow temperature budget (below 450°C) and restricted material options. Thus,standard processes like epitaxial growth or re-crystallization of poly-silicon cannotbe used. We will present a CMOS-compatible approach, using adhesivewafer transfer bonding with Benzocyclobutene (BCB) of a 300nm thinsilicon membrane, located on a SOI-donor wafer. After the bondprocess, the SOI-donor wafer is grinded and spin etched toremove the handle silicon and the buried oxide layer, whichresults in a transfer of the mono-crystalline silicon membrane tothe CMOS wafer. This technology is fully compatible for integrationin a CMOS process, in order to fabricate SLMs, consistingof one million individually addressable mono-crystalline silicon micro-mirrors. The mirrors,presented here, have a size of 16×16 µm2. Deflection isachieved by applying a voltage between the mirrors and theunderlying electrodes of the CMOS electronics. In this paper, wewill present the fabrication process as well as first investigationsof the mirror properties.

  • 375. Zvolensky, T.
    et al.
    Chicherin, Dmitry
    Department of Radio Science and Engineering, SMARAD Centre of Excellence, Aalto University.
    Räisäinen, Antti
    Department of Radio Science and Engineering, SMARAD Centre of Excellence, Aalto University.
    Simovski, C.
    Sterner, Mikael
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Oberhammer, Joachim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Hakojarvi, H.
    Leaky-wave antenna at 77 GHz2011In: Proceedings of the 41st European Microwave Conference, 2011, p. 1039-1042Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microelectromechanical (MEMS) technology is being used for many purposes in reconfigurable devices due to its advantages compared to other technologies, e.g., varactors. In this paper MEMS are suggested to be used for the development of leaky-wave antenna for 77 GHz. Antenna comprises a right-left handed transmission line, where a microstrip is used as the right handed transmission line. The left handed loading comprises series reconfigurable MEMS capacitors and shunt narrow strip inductors. Analytical design, simulation and measurement of a planar leaky-wave antenna structure are carried out and compared.

5678 351 - 375 of 375
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