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  • 351.
    Pirak Kuoljok, Simon
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Wallin, Tony
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Småskalig vattenkraft i Tyresån: En undersökning av ekologiska åtgärder utifrån de globala hållbarhetsmålen2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige finns det ungefär 2 100 vattenkraftverk som står för ca 40 % av Sveriges elproduktion.Ungefär 1 700 av dem är småskaliga vattenkraftverk och utgör 2,1 % av vattenkraftens elproduktion.Vattenkraften har negativa ekologiska konsekvenser på vattendragets konnektivitet vilket skaparproblem för den biologiska mångfalden. Tyresån vattensystem ligger i Stockholms län och är reglerat.Vattensystemet har tre vandringshinder, inklusive ett småskaligt vattenkraftverk – Uddby kvarn,vilket medför att vattensystemet har en dålig ekologisk status utifrån konnektivitet. Syftet medrapporten är att sammanställa de nyttor och problem som finns kopplade till den småskaligavattenkraften i Sverige och utifrån detta ta reda på vilka av FN:s globala hållbarhetsmål som påverkasav den småskaliga vattenkraftens verksamhet. För att undersöka det genomförs en litteraturstudiesamt en fallstudie, med inslag av intervjuer från sakkunniga informanter, som fokuserar på Tyresånsvattensystem. Platsbesök har även förekommit vid två tillfällen.

    De värden som är kopplade till småskalig vattenkraft är betydelsen för elsystemet, ekologiskaeffekter samt sociala och kulturella värden. I nedre Tyresån finns de tre strömmarnaFollbrinksströmmen, Nyfors och Uddby kvarn som alla är reglerade på olika sätt. Uddby kvarnlevererar el till ungefär 500 hushåll. Utifrån intervjuerna är närheten till höga naturvärden samt högakulturvärden positivt i Tyresån och bör behållas. Tyresåns ekologiska status utifrån konnektivitet ochfisk är dålig samt näringsämnen och bottenfaunan är måttlig. De åtgärder som tas upp för förbättradkonnektivitet är inlöp, anpassad reglering, återställning i Nyfors, biotopvård i Follbrinksströmmen,fingaller och uppsamling av ål. Sex globala hållbarhetsmål har tagits fram som går att koppla tillTyresåns vattensystem.

    Målkonflikter och synergier diskuteras, likaså ekologiska effekter kontra elproduktion och betydelsenav den småskaliga vattenkraften i Sverige. Den åtgärd som skulle gynna alla globala målen förTyresån är en återställning i Nyfors. Det finns även synergier mellan de globala målen rent vatten ochekologisk mångfald samt hållbar energi och bekämpa klimatförändringarna. Den störstamålkonflikten mellan de globala målen hållbar energi för alla och ekosystem och biologisk mångfald.

  • 352.
    Poulikidou, Sofia
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms). KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Integration of Design for Environment in the vehicle manufacturing industry in Sweden: Focus on practices and tools2013Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Design for Environment (DfE) promotes the systematic consideration of environmental aspects during product design and development. Despite the maturity of concepts and tools in literature, efficient implementation in industries is reported to be low. A need to bridge this gap is identified with studies that look on DfE practices as well as the use and potential of DfE tools.

    This thesis is part of a research project that investigates DfE practices and the use of tools during vehicle design and development. The aim is to investigate the ways that environmental constraints can be efficiently integrated into product development processes thus assist in improving the environmental performance of products from a life cycle perspective. The scope of the study includes four vehicle manufacturing companies in Sweden. The development and utilization of tools has been also investigated aiming to increase the opportunities for effective use within this product category. Case study methodology, research interviews and literature reviews constitute the research strategy followed in this work.

    The empirical results presented in this thesis indicated that vehicle manufacturing companies in Sweden are continually working to improve the environmental performance of their products and meet legal and costumer demands. Despite similarities regarding the type of environmental requirements considered, the companies studied have adopted different ways to identify and integrate environmental requirements into their product development process and use DfE tools to different extents. Such variations reflect differences in the success and maturity levels of the DfE practices adopted.

    A need for increased and more systematic use of tools is identified for all studied companies and especially for analytical tools. Results from the literature review showed that a variety of tools are available that have the potential to support vehicle design processes. However, only a few cover a broad set of aspects identified to be relevant from a vehicle design perspective. For DfE tools to become effective and be used during product development, they need to cover aspects that are relevant for the company and product designers. A need towards the development of tools that assist vehicle or product designers in general, to make informed and comprehensive choices based on a variety of requirements associated to the product, is identified.

  • 353.
    Poulikidou, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms). KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Overview of Design for Environment tools and investigation of their application potential within vehicle design and development processesArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides a compilation of 31 Design for Environment (DfE) tools that are available today and investigates the potential of those tools to be used during vehicle design processes. The assessment is based on a variety of parameters that cover methodological characteristics of the identified tools but also aspects that are relevant from a vehicle design perspective. The results show that product developers have a rich and diverse toolbox where suitable tools can be selected. When it comes to vehicle design, combinations of DfE tools have the potential to capture the parameters and requirements considered. The paper identifies a need for tools that manage to integrate a multi-criteria perspective related to vehicle design i.e. by incorporating environmental, functional, economic, stakeholder’s and regulation requirements but also for tools that provide possibilities for integration into engineering tools.

  • 354.
    Pourfathali Kasmaei, Leila
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630).
    Jansson, Per-Erik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630).
    Drip versus surface irrigation in long term environmental modelling of soil-water-plant exposed to saline water2012Inngår i: Sustainable Irrigation and Drainage IV: Management, Technologies and Policies, WIT Press, 2012, s. 87-99Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A physically based soil-water storage model with two surface and drip irrigation scenarios in response to saline water was used in the semi-arid Gordonia district in South Africa. The model (CoupModel) consists of several different modules that couples mass and energy flow models with dynamic biotic models of plant and its environment. The simulation period accounted for non-productive water losses, salt accumulation in root zone, and salt transport to below aquifer via deep percolation. The monitoring of biomass production with respect to water consumption and soil osmotic pressure indicted a decline in crop yield due to the water and salt stresses. The drip scenario had a better functionality in terms of the water wastage as the soil evaporation decreased by 40%. However, the productive water consumption decreased by 20% due to insufficient leaching fraction while salt accumulation increased drastically in the entire root zone. We found that salt could be flushed out from the root zone by more leaching but the water wastage increases as well as increasing the possibility of salinization beneath aquifer. The soil-water and plant ecosystem responds differently to salinity in different water management practices. Salt as a source of pollution can either stabilizes the soil by accumulation in the root zone causing anthropogenic soil desertification or can percolate it to beneath the aquifer resulting to long-term salinization. The findings of our study could sever to improve different management schemes in similar semi-arid regions.

  • 355.
    Ramirez, Javier
    et al.
    Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Campus Estado de México.
    Portilla, Margarita
    Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Unidad Azcapotzalco.
    Gonzalez, Maria del Carmen
    Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Unidad Azcapotzalco.
    Viveros, Brenda
    Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Campus Estado de México.
    Ramírez, Andrés
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Entreprenörskap och Innovation. Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Ramiez, Laura
    Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Campus Estado de México.
    Propuesta de un uso sustentable de residuos textiles2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 356.
    Ranhagen, Ulf
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Frostell, Björn
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Eco-cycle model 2.0. for Stockholm Royal Seaport City District: Feasibility study - final report2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Eco-Cycle Model 2.0. of Stockholm Royal Seaport

    Development of the Eco-Cycle Model 2.0. is one of a total of five sub-projects in the city of Stockholm which have been granted economic support from the Swedish Delegation of Sustainable Cities in order to contribute to making the Royal Seaport in Stockholm a world-class environmental profiling urban area. The purpose of this pre-study is to investigate the options for developing an eco-cycle model that grasps more dimensions than the Ham­marby Model, including overall and detailed descriptions of resource flows in different time perspectives. Important starting points for the pre-study are

    • Global and local challenges concerning our use of resources with specific relevance for urban development

    • Available models which visualise functions, resource flows and resource synergies in the eco-cycle in a qualitative way

    • Available accounts of material, energy and water which quantify functions and re­source flows

    In order to involve stakeholders in the development process, representatives from different organisations were invited to two workshops where ideas were developed and combined. These workshops are documented in two separate reports (in Swedish).

    The primary objective of the eco-cycle model is to contribute to drawing attention to and explaining important connections and synergies between resource flows. Secondary ob­jectives that can be fulfilled after supplementing the development work are: to be a tool for monitoring and follow-up of environmental objectives, to serve as a a dynamic tool for ana­lysis of resource flows and to be more comprehensive.

    The proposed eco-cycle model 2.0. is not only a general map of functions and flows re­lated to the eco-cycle which characterised the Hammarby Model, but also a line of argu­ments supported by illustrations on four different levels:

    • Level 0 Established theories and concepts for sustainable societal and urban deve­lopment constituting the basis of the eco-cycle model

    • Level 1 Anchoring of the eco-cycle model in a more comprehensive sustainability concept

    • Level 2 General Map of functions and flows related to the eco-cycle model inclu­ding optional systems solutions both within and outside the city district (outside the defined systems boundary). Conceptual future image for 2030 with a perspective towards 2050.

    • Level 3 Resource flow analysis related to accounting systems for energy, material and water eco-cycles. Conceptual future image for 2030 with a perspective towards 2050.

    This proposal for a conceptual eco-cycle model 2.0. should be considered as a basis for future R&D work and applications. The presented desirable situation for 2030 with a per­spective towards 2050, in line with the applied back-casting methodology, may be used as a basis for defining different stages in a short-term and mid-term perspective. A number of possible development projects which should be initiated as follow-up of the pre-study are defined. One example is the need for developing pedagogical descriptions and presenta­tions supported by visualisation and animation tools. The international perspective is also important, as there is an increasing interest in The Royal Seaport City District in a rapidly urbanising world where many cities are preparing for – or have already started –planning of city districts with high sustainability ambitions.

  • 357.
    Ranhagen, Ulf
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Frostell, Björn
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Kretsloppsmodell 2.0. för Norra Djurgårdsstaden: Förstudie - slutrapport2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Eco-Cycle Model 2.0. of Stockholm Royal Seaport

    Development of the Eco-Cycle Model 2.0. is one of a total of five sub-projects in the city of Stockholm which have been granted economic support from the Swedish Delegation of Sustainable Cities in order to contribute to making the Royal Seaport in Stockholm a world-class environmental profiling urban area. The purpose of this pre-study is to investigate the options for developing an eco-cycle model that grasps more dimensions than the Ham­marby Model, including overall and detailed descriptions of resource flows in different time perspectives. Important starting points for the pre-study are

    • Global and local challenges concerning our use of resources with specific relevance for urban development

    • Available models which visualise functions, resource flows and resource synergies in the eco-cycle in a qualitative way

    • Available accounts of material, energy and water which quantify functions and re­source flows

    In order to involve stakeholders in the development process, representatives from different organisations were invited to two workshops where ideas were developed and combined. These workshops are documented in two separate reports (in Swedish).

    The primary objective of the eco-cycle model is to contribute to drawing attention to and explaining important connections and synergies between resource flows. Secondary ob­jectives that can be fulfilled after supplementing the development work are: to be a tool for monitoring and follow-up of environmental objectives, to serve as a a dynamic tool for ana­lysis of resource flows and to be more comprehensive.

    The proposed eco-cycle model 2.0. is not only a general map of functions and flows re­lated to the eco-cycle which characterised the Hammarby Model, but also a line of argu­ments supported by illustrations on four different levels:

    • Level 0 Established theories and concepts for sustainable societal and urban deve­lopment constituting the basis of the eco-cycle model

    • Level 1 Anchoring of the eco-cycle model in a more comprehensive sustainability concept

    • Level 2 General Map of functions and flows related to the eco-cycle model inclu­ding optional systems solutions both within and outside the city district (outside the defined systems boundary). Conceptual future image for 2030 with a perspective towards 2050.

    • Level 3 Resource flow analysis related to accounting systems for energy, material and water eco-cycles. Conceptual future image for 2030 with a perspective towards 2050.

    This proposal for a conceptual eco-cycle model 2.0. should be considered as a basis for future R&D work and applications. The presented desirable situation for 2030 with a per­spective towards 2050, in line with the applied back-casting methodology, may be used as a basis for defining different stages in a short-term and mid-term perspective. A number of possible development projects which should be initiated as follow-up of the pre-study are defined. One example is the need for developing pedagogical descriptions and presenta­tions supported by visualisation and animation tools. The international perspective is also important, as there is an increasing interest in The Royal Seaport City District in a rapidly urbanising world where many cities are preparing for – or have already started –planning of city districts with high sustainability ambitions.

  • 358.
    Ravan, Nazila
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    A Study on Life Cycle Assessment-based Tool for the Early Stage of Building Design2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The responsibility of the building sector to diminish the harmful environmental impacts, locally and globally, has been extensively considered. Thus, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) in building and construction practices has been widely implemented. Among several available EIA methods, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is the only standardized method which provides a holistic overview of environmental impacts to support the decision-making process. However, there are several barriers that hinder the process of implementing the LCA-based tools in the building sector. Specifically, the demand for a simplified LCA-based tool adapted to the early stage of the building design is rather high. Recently, the Construction Sector's Environmental Calculation Tool (Byggsektorns Miljöberäkningsverktyg BM v1.0) is developed to assist non-experts without knowledge of LCA. Architects, as one of the main target groups of the BM tool, have limited knowledge about the LCA approach due to its complexities; further, the architects have their own requirements for applying an LCA-based tool towards leveraging in the early design process. Hence, it leads to scepticism whether the BM tool has been so far successful to entice the architects' attention towards employing the BM tool in that process.

    This master thesis aimed to investigate if the newly-developed LCA-based tool, namely the BM tool, is a desirable choice for architects to evaluate the environmental impacts of their design at the early stage of building design. To be able to perceive more deeply the BM tool, as an environmental assessment and a decision support tool for architects, two main procedures, i.e., quantitatively and qualitatively, were employed to cover different technical and functional angles of the tool: (i) an LCA-based carbon footprint assessment for two reference buildings along with comparing the achieved results with the simplified Environmental Load Profile (ELP-s) tool, plus (ii) using a framework included various criteria for LCA- based tools in the early stage of building design.

    The findings from the quantitative analysis were consistent so that the concrete frame building produces a greater amount of carbon footprint during the stages A1 to A4 compared to the wooden frame building. The considerable deviation was related to the carbon footprint of aluminium profile in the material production stage. This could be due to the fact that in the BM database it is not specified whether aluminium profile was recycled or not. Regarding the carbon footprint in material transport stage, the inconsistent results were mostly linked to the default values in the BM database in which values for two of the main parameters (distance and mode of transport) differed. Particularly, the absence of boat as a transport mode and an error related to an unneeded distance value for concrete transport were identified in the BM database. The framework, used to evaluate the desirability of the BM tool for architects, suggests several criteria required for an LCA-based tool implementation in the early design. The outcome indicated that the majority of criteria, not satisfied by the BM tool, were related to the geometry parameter and associated 3D model. Thus, in order to make the decision-making process, desirable for architects in the early stage of building design, the two parameters, i.e., material and geometry, should be utilized in parallel.

    On the one hand, the LCA methodology in the BM tool is simplified in a way that makes the process comprehensible and easy to learn for non-LCA-experts. Since the tool is under the development, minor amendments would make the carbon footprint evaluation robust for the early stage of design. On the other hand, from the requirements of the architects' point of view, the fundamental modifications are needed in the structure of the tool. If architects intend to work with such an LCA-based tool, they have to make an extra effort to translate the resulted information from the environmental assessment tool to the inputs of the modelling tool and vice versa. This leads to an undesirable and inefficient design process for architects.

  • 359.
    Rehbinder, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Analytical solutions for groundwater flow with arbitrary dimensionality and a finite well radius in fractured rock2010Inngår i: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 46, s. W03531-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The generalized radial flow model describes mathematically nonsteady flow of arbitrary dimensionality from a source in a porous medium. Closed solutions of the corresponding equation have hitherto been considered as impractical except for one simple special case. Two closed solutions of the generalized radial flow equation, corresponding to given head in or given discharge from the source have been derived. The noninteger dimensionality is the only parameter in the problem. The solutions become not valid if the time tends to infinity, such as for 1-D and 2-D flows. The influence of a possible noninteger dimensionality has attracted interest in connection with the flow of groundwater in fractured rock, particularly around a repository for nuclear waste or in connection with grouting. In contrast to numerical solutions, the closed solutions offer simple means for evaluation of field tests.

  • 360. Remy, Christian
    et al.
    Huang, Elaine M.
    Addressing the Obsolescence of End-User Devices: Approaches from the Field of Sustainable HCI2014Inngår i: ict4s-14, 2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The progress of technological development and the resulting rapid replacement of end-user devices has brought increasing issues of electronics waste upon our society. Interaction designers and researchers within the field of Human-Computer Interaction have begun to tackle issues of environmental sustainability in recent years, including the problem of obsolescence. By considering the experiential aspects of obsolescence and the ways in which interaction design could have an impact on experience, the field presents promising approaches with potential to contribute to and complement current materials-focused solutions. In this chapter, we report on a survey of sustainable human-computer interaction research that investigates or addresses issues of obsolescence, presenting challenges as well as opportunities for interaction designers to contribute to solving these issues.

  • 361.
    Renman, Agnieszka
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    On-site wastewater treatment: Polonite and other filter materials for removal of metals, nitrogen and phosphorus2008Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Bed filters using reactive materials are an emerging technology for on-site wastewater treatment. Chemical reactions transfer contaminants from the aqueous to the solid phase. Phosphorus is removed from domestic wastewater by sorption to filter materials, which can then be recycled to agriculture as fertilisers and soil amendments. This thesis presents long-term column and field-scale studies of nine filter materials, particularly the novel product Polonite®. Phosphorus, nitro-gen and metals were removed by the mineral-based materials to varying degrees. Polonite and Nordkalk Filtra P demonstrated the largest phosphorus removal capacity, maintaining a PO4-P removal efficiency of >95%. Analysis of filter bed layers in columns with downward wastewater flow, showed that phosphorus, carbon and nitrogen content was vertically distributed, with de-creasing values from surface to base layer. Polonite and Filtra P accumulated 1.9-19 g P kg-1. Nitrogen in wastewater was scarcely removed by the alkaline filter materials, but transformation from NH4-N to NO3-N was >90%. Pot experiments with barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) revealed that after wastewater treatment, slags and Polonite could increase plant production. Batch experi-ments and ATR-FTIR investigations indicated that amorphous tricalcium phosphate (ATCP) was formed in the materials, so some of the accumulated PO4-P was readily available to plants. Low heavy metal contents occurred in the materials, showing that they can be applied as soil amend-ments in agriculture without contamination risks. A full-scale treatment system using Polonite as filter material showed an average PO4-P removal efficiency of 89% for a 92-week period, indicat-ing the robustness of the filter bed technology.

  • 362.
    Renman, Agnieszka
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Hylander, Lars D.
    Renman, Gunno
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Teknisk geologi och geofysik.
    Transformation and removal of nitrogen in reactive bed filter materials designed for on-site wastewater treatment2008Inngår i: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, ISSN 0925-8574, E-ISSN 1872-6992, Vol. 34, nr 3, s. 207-214Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) should be removed and recycled from wastewater in order to reduce the nutrient load to recipient waters, avoid contamination of groundwater and conserve resources. Nitrogen removal and transformation were studied in domestic wastewater percolating in unsaturated conditions through 0.5 m long columns containing potential filter materials. Six materials (three types of slag, limestone, opoka, Polonite(R) and sand) were compared at a design loading rate of 85 L m(-2) d(-1) during 67 weeks. All materials transformed ammonium efficiently to nitrate (>98%). Apparent removal of inorganic N was shown only by the coarsest slag and by Polonite(R), possibly due to losses through volatilisation. All other filter materials leached nitrate at the column effluent. Total N content was highest in the surface layer of the column material, with decreasing values with depth. In contrast, carbon

  • 363.
    Renman, Agnieszka
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Renman, Gunno
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Long-term phosphate removal by the calcium-silicate material Polonite in wastewater filtration systems2010Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 79, nr 6, s. 659-664Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The mineral-based filter material Polonite was tested for its PO4 removal capacity in column and full-scale systems using synthetic and domestic wastewater. Three long-term experiments (67, 68 and 92 wk), operated under different hydrological conditions, were compared. The best PO4 removal capacity (97%) was observed in an intermittent saturated column fed with a synthetic solution (530 L m(-2) d(-1)) without organic matter during 68 wk. An unsaturated column system using municipal wastewater (76.7 L m(-2) d(-1)) showed no tendency for PO4 breakthrough and effluent PO4 concentration was still low (0.2 mg L-1) after 67 wk. For a compact bed filter containing 560 kg of Polonite and fed with 70 m(3) of wastewater from a single house, the average PO4 removal was 89% after 92 wk of operation. The column experiments revealed that a design volume of 1-2 kg of material of a particle size of 2-5 mm was required amount for treating 1 m(3) of wastewater in on-site systems operating at target 90% P mass removal. Poor pre-treatment of the wastewater was suggested to reduce the phosphate removal capacity of Polonite in the bed filter trial, where 8 kg were required per m(3). To measure pH of the treated effluent water proved not to be a simple tool for determining when the filter material is exhausted and should be replaced. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 364.
    Renman, Agnieszka
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Renman, Gunno
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Phosphorus removal by Polonite from wastewater: Column experiments and a compact bed filter trialManuskript (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 365.
    Renman, Agnieszka
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Renman, Gunno
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Teknisk geologi och geofysik.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Hylander, Lars D.
    Metal removal by bed filter materials used in domestic wastewater treatment2009Inngår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 166, nr 2-3, s. 734-739Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Bed filters using reactive materials are an emerging technology for on-site wastewater treatment. Used materials, which are enriched with phosphorus, can be used as a fertiliser or soil amendment. However the materials can also be enriched with metals from the wastewater. Six materials (opoka, sand, Polonite (R), limestone, two types of blast furnace slag) exposed to long-term wastewater loading in columns and in a compact filter well filled with Polonite were investigated for metal removal and accumulation. Wastewater applied to the columns had low heavy metal concentrations in the order Zn > Cu > Mn > Ni > Cr. All columns were able to remove 53%-83% of Zn except those filled with sand. Polonite demonstrated a high removal capacity of Mn (>98%), while only the slag materials were able to remove Ni. All materials showed increased Cu, Cr(III). Mn. Pb and Zn content after filtration. Speciation calculations showed that high concentrations of dissolved organic matter might have prevented efficient metal removal, particularly in the case of Cu. The low content of toxic heavy metals in the studied filter materials studied would probably not restrict their use as a fertiliser or soil amendment.

  • 366.
    Ringenson, Tina
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms). KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Eriksson, Elina
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms). KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Börjesson Rivera, Miriam
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms). KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Wangel, Josefin
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms). KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    The limits of the smart sustainable city2017Inngår i: LIMITS 2017 - Proceedings of the 2017 Workshop on Computing Within Limits, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2017, s. 3-9Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The ongoing and escalating urbanisation has resulted in a situation where a majority of people worldwide live in cities. Cities stand for a substantial part of the world GDP and are often lifted as possible drivers of sustainable development. However, the city has limitations and vulnerabilities. Cities depend on resources flowing into the city and increasing populations strain their land use. Climate change threatens cities with sea-level rise, heat waves and extreme weather events. Transforming cities into Smart Sustainable Cities by incorporation of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) is becoming a recurring proposed solution to these limitations and challenges. The two main areas where ICT are envisioned to function for this are i) as part of the city's infrastructure for monitoring, efficiency and automatization of processes, and ii) as an enabler for sharing of both information and goods among citizens, expectedly leading to more sustainable urban lifestyles. However, there are several limits to the realisation of the Smart Sustainable City. Manufacturing, implementation and maintenance of its digital infrastructure hold environmental risks and require human and natural resources. Furthermore, there are issues of increased vulnerability of the city due to increased complexity. Already now, the (global) flows that the city depends upon to thrive, are to a large and increasing extent possible due to -And dependent on - ICTs working without disturbances. Considering the fragility of these systems, both physical and virtual, is the Smart Sustainable City a desirable or even feasible path? We suggest that while ICT may be useful for making cities more sustainable, we need to be heedful so as not to make the city even more vulnerable in the process. We suggest that we should make sure that the ICT systems simply assist the cities, while maintaining analogue backup in case the ICT shuts down; that we should build more resilient ICT systems with higher backward compatibility; and that we should acknowledge increasing complexity as a problem and strive to counteract it.

  • 367.
    Ritzén, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Maskinkonstruktion.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Högskolan i Kalmar.
    Selection and implementation: key activities to successful use of EcoDesign tools2001Inngår i: Environmentally Conscious Design and Inverse Manufacturing, 2001. Proceedings EcoDesign 2001: Second International Symposium on Environmentally Conscious Design and Inverse Manufacturing, 2001, s. 174-179Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a discussion on the need for support tools for integrating environmental aspects into product development. There are several objections towards applying such a tool, however, the fact that product developers ask for support by tools must be taken into consideration. The authors advocate that tools could be an effective way forward, with the condition that tools are selected in conformity with a specific organisation's need and that it is implemented in a conscious and reflective way. Procedures guiding selection and implementation are presented, based on a "plan-do-check-act" cycle. In order to support selection, tool criteria are needed, which is briefly discussed. A development of context-bounded criteria is suggested

  • 368. Rosen, B
    et al.
    Morling, Stig
    A systematic approach to optimal upgrading of water and waste water treatment plants1998Inngår i: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 37, nr 9, s. 9-16Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Most of the future works in water and waste water treatment systems will involve the upgrading of existing facilities, for better performance and/or higher capacity. For the efficient implementation of any project, an upgrading strategy should be used, based on careful studies of the local conditions and the defined objectives to be reached. The paper presents a systematic approach to upgrading with emphasis on treatment plant extension, without investing in large volumes, by more efficient use of existing facilities, illustrated by some cases. The importance of real competition in obtaining a cost-effective implementation is stressed.

  • 369.
    Sadrizadeh, Sasan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Strömnings- och klimatteknik.
    Stensson, Sofia
    Walker, Iain
    Marashian, Shahrzad
    Holmberg, Sture
    Airborne bacteria inactivation in a hospital ward by ultraviolet irradiation2018Inngår i: In: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on building Energy & Environment (COBEE 2018). February 5-9 2018; Melbourne, Australia, 2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study considers numerical modelling based on the Computational Fluid Dynamics technique for a hospital ward with an upper-room ultraviolet germicidal irradiation fixture. A two-bed hospital ward equipped with a ceiling-level low-velocity ventilation diffuser was considered. The airflow field was considered steady state and ultraviolet distribution was treated as a scalar flux. Different particle sizes were simulated representing the pathogenic contaminants released from patients’ breathing zones. The results confirm the effectiveness of ultraviolet germicidal irradiation. However, an optimization study should be performed to enhance the disinfection efficiency of the system. Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation is an effective technique for airborne bacteria inactivation which potentially can be used to prevent the spread of certain infectious diseases.

  • 370. Sahle, A.
    et al.
    Potting, Josepha
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Environmental life cycle assessment of Ethiopian rose cultivation2013Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 443, s. 163-172Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted for Ethiopian rose cultivation. The LCA covered the cradle-to-gate production of all inputs to Ethiopian rose cultivation up to, and including transport to the Ethiopian airport. Primary data were collected about materials and resources used as inputs to, and about the product outputs from 21 farms in 4 geographical regions (i.e. Holleta, Sebeta, Debre Ziet, and Ziway). The primary data were imported in, and analyzed with the SimaPro7.3 software. Data for the production of used inputs were taken from the EcoInvent®2.0 database. Emissions from input use on the farms were quantified based on estimates and emission factors from various studies and guidelines. The resulting life cycle inventory (LCI) table was next evaluated with the CML 2 baseline 2000. V2/world, 1990/characterization method to quantify the contribution of the rose cultivation chain to 10 environmental impact categories. The set of collected primary data was comprehensive and of high quality. The data point to an intensive use of fertilizers, pesticides, and greenhouse plastic. Production and use of these inputs also represent the major contributors in all environmental impact categories. The largest contribution comes from the production of the used fertilizers, specifically nitrogen-based fertilizers. The use of calcium nitrate dominates Abiotic Depletion (AD), Global Warming (GW), Human Toxicity (HT) and Marine Aquatic Ecotoxicity (MAET). It also makes a large contribution to Ozone Depletion (OD), Acidification (AD) and Fresh water Aquatic Ecotoxicity (FAET). Acidification (AC) and Eutrophication (EU) are dominated by the emission of fertilizers. The emissions from the use of pesticides, especially insecticides dominate Terrestrial Ecotoxicity (TE) and make a considerable contribution to Freshwater Aquatic Ecotoxicity (FAET) and Photochemical Oxidation (PhO). There is no visible contribution from the use of pesticides to the other toxicity categories. Production and use of greenhouse plastic are another important contributors, and just a bit less than the contribution of calcium nitrate to Abiotic Depletion (AD). The results of this study clearly indicate nutrient management and emissions from pesticide use, especially insecticides, as a focus point for environmental optimization of the rose cultivation sector in Ethiopia.

  • 371.
    Sandhi, Arifin
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    ARSENIC REMOVAL BY PHYTOFILTRATION AND SILICON TREATMENT: A POTENTIAL SOLUTION FOR LOWERING ARSENIC CONCENTRATIONS IN FOOD CROPS2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Use of arsenic-rich groundwater for crop irrigation can increase the arsenic (As) content in food crops and act as a carcinogen, compromising human health. Using aquatic plant based phytofiltration is a potential eco-technique for removing arsenic from water. The aquatic moss species Warnstorfia fluitans grows naturally in mining areas in northern Sweden, where high concentrations of arsenic occur in lakes and rivers. This species was selected as a model for field, climate chamber and greenhouse studies on factors governing arsenic removal and arsenic phytofiltration of irrigation water. The arsenic and silicon (Si) concentrations in soil, water and plant samples were measured by AAS (atomic absorption spectrophotometry), while arsenite and arsenate species were determined using AAS combined with high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with an anion exchange column. The arsenic content in grains of hybrid and local aromatic rice (Oryza sativa) cultivars with differing arsenic accumulation factor (AF) values was investigated in an arsenic hotspot in Bangladesh. The results showed that arsenic AF was important in identifying arsenic-safer rice cultivars for growing in an arsenic hotspot. The study based on silicon effect on arsenic uptake in lettuce showed that arsenic accumulation in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) could be reduced by silicon addition. The aquatic moss had good phytofiltration capacity, with fast arsenic removal of up to 82% from a medium with low arsenic concentration (1 µM). Extraction analysis showed that inorganic arsenic species were firmly bound inside moss tissue. Absorption of arsenic was relatively higher than adsorption in the moss. Regarding effects of different abiotic factors, plants were stressed at low pH (pH 2.5) and arsenic removal rate was lower from the medium, while arsenic efflux occurred in arsenate-treated medium at low (12°C) and high (30°C) temperature regimes. Besides these factors, low oxygenation increased the efficiency of arsenic removal from the medium. Finally, combining W. fluitans as a phytofilter with a lettuce crop on a constructed wetland significantly reduced the arsenic content in edible parts (leaves) of lettuce. Thus W. fluitans has great potential for use as an arsenic phytofilter in temperate regions.

  • 372.
    Sandra, Gustafsson
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Key factors for introducing an improved climate adaptation for engineers and contractors working in multidisciplinary infrastructure projects2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change poses a critical threat to future development and is a reality that affects our society, our way of thinking and acting. The international body has taken common position against climate change in the expression of, inter alia, the Paris Agreement on climate change and the Sustainable Development Agenda. Likewise, the Swedish Government’s is aiming for climate neutrality by 2045. This in parallel to the fact that public awareness and knowledge of sustainability grow, the pressure to deliver environmentally friendly, ethical, and economically profitable products increases. The increased pressure on organizations within both public and private sectors leave no opportunity to escape as everyone is required to assist against the common goals. For organizational survival, it is thus important to find new ways of tying societal improvement with business, calling for new forms of knowledge and competence.

    Infrastructure investments play a fundamental function to achieve sustainable development and empower communities as they enhance economic growth, reduces inequality and improve the quality of life. Simultaneously, the climate impact from construction, operation, and maintenance of infrastructure is significant. Knowledge, practical advice and guidance to cope with increased requirements for reducing greenhouse gas emissions are available. In addition, awareness of the need for systematic climate work has increased in line with the introduction of new requirements and guidelines. Nevertheless, the climate perspective is still not a natural part of the mindset and process and the level of achievement of climate-related goals can be considered too low

    This study aims at investigating how climate mitigation practices can be updated to truly facilitate and enable integration of a climate perspective into the work of designers and contactors working in multidisciplinary infrastructure projects. The study was conducted in the context of a large infrastructure project concerning the construction and expansion of a significant railway segment in Sweden. Among other things, the project include construction of a tunnel in a highly demanding environment involving major climate challenges and a number of aggravating factors. By studying practices, collaborations, and use of external expertise in parallel with how projects proceed and actors operate the study contributes with deeper understanding of existing challenges and key factors for improved integration.

    The study's analyzed results indicate a number of contributing factors that complicate integration of a climate perspective, among others lack of ownership and risk-taking of the process, lack of knowledge, time and feedback, structural barriers, skepticism, inadequate communication, etc. The conclusion provides four recommendations for further addressing the matter: new contract and procurement models, development of educational packages, review and develop the toolbox of designers and engineers, and evaluate existing practices.  

  • 373.
    Segura Montoya, Isabel
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Circular resource management in a land clearance scenario: Sollihøgda Plussby case2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The construction of cities involves the use of land for new spaces and infrastructure. Construction on undeveloped land poses a dilemma on how to deal with the natural resources found on the construction site. Circular economy could provide guidelines on how to harness these resources, so they become products that circulate through as many cycles as possible, therefore decreasing resource consumption and waste. This research aims to explore alternatives to harness the natural materials extracted during the land clearance process of a new urban district: Sollihøgda plussby. Additionally, a new method to examine the circularity of the suggested products will be tested: the longevity indicator. The method of this thesis consists of three parts: (1) an inventory to define which natural materials are found in the construction site and their main characteristics, (2) interviews with industry experts to gain a technical insight on the possible uses for the materials, and (3) a longevity indicator to measure the circularity of the proposed uses.

    This research found that the forest in Avtjerna consists of Norway spruce, Scots pine and birch. The sediments are mostly humus with a turf sheet cover, while most of Avtjerna’s bedrock is categorized as rhomb porphyry lava. Norway spruce and rhomb porphyry lava have the required quality to become high-quality products for the construction industry, and they could be used directly in the project. High-quality products have longer lifetimes and more possibilities of recycling and reuse, therefore they scored higher when calculating the longevity indicator, which means a higher material retention. The other materials (Scots pine, birch, other sediments and rocks) have also possibilities of becoming products that could be used in Sollihøgda Plussby, but the longevity indicator for these materials was lower than those of Norway spruce and rhomb porphyry.

    Despite the usefulness of the longevity indicator to provide a preliminary assessment, this method needs to be upgraded so it incorporates other CE parameters. There should be a distinction on how many times the material is recycled, the lifetime of the recycled products, and the quality of the products obtained from the recycling process.

    Inventorying the natural resources on a construction site is a practice that should become common, since it allows to determine how materials can be harnessed, but also which areas should be preserved due to their ecological value. Additionally, the longevity indicator should not be used in isolation, but the environmental impacts of each suggested product should be assessed too.

  • 374.
    Shahrokni, Hossein
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Smart Urban Metabolism: Toward a New Understanding of Causalities in Cities2015Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    For half a century, urban metabolism has been used to provide insights to support transitions to sustainable urban development (SUD). Internet and Communication Technology (ICT) has recently been recognized as a potential technology enabler to advance this transition. This thesis explored the potential for an ICT-enabled urban metabolism framework aimed at improving resource efficiency in urban areas by supporting decision-making processes. Three research objectives were identified: i) investigation of how the urban metabolism framework, aided by ICT, could be utilized to support decision-making processes; ii) development of an ICT platform that manages real-time, high spatial and temporal resolution urban metabolism data and evaluation of its implementation; and iii) identification of the potential for efficiency improvements through the use of resulting high spatial and temporal resolution urban metabolism data. The work to achieve these objectives was based on literature reviews, single-case study research in Stockholm, software engineering research, and big data analytics of resulting data. The evolved framework, Smart Urban Metabolism (SUM), enabled by the emerging context of smart cities, operates at higher temporal (up to real-time), and spatial (up to household/individual) data resolution. A key finding was that the new framework overcomes some of the barriers identified for the conventional urban metabolism framework. The results confirm that there are hidden urban patterns that may be uncovered by analyzing structured big urban data. Some of those patterns may lead to the identification of appropriate intervention measures for SUD.

  • 375.
    Shahrokni, Hossein
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    van der Heijde, Bram
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Lazarevic, David
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Big Data GIS Analytics Towards Efficient Waste Management in Stockholm2014Inngår i: Proceedings of the 2014 conference ICT for Sustainability / [ed] Höjer, Lago, Wangel, Stockholm, 2014, s. 140-147Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents preliminary findings from a big data analysis and GIS to identify the efficiency of waste management and transportation in the City of Stockholm. The aim of this paper is to identify inefficiencies in waste collection routes in the city of Stockholm, and to suggest potential improvements. Based on a large data set consisting of roughly half a million entries of waste fractions, weights, and locations, a series of new waste generation maps was developed. This was the outcome of an extensive data curation process, followed by batch geocoding of the curated entries. Thereafter, the maps were generated that describe what waste fraction comes from where and how it is collected. Finally, a preliminary analysis of the route efficiency was conducted. Maps of selected vehicle routes were constructed in detail and the efficiencies of the routes for the first half of July 2013 were assessed using the efficiency index (kg waste/km). It is concluded that substantial inefficiencies were revealed, and a number of intervention measures are discussed to increase the efficiency of waste management, including a shared waste collection vehicle fleet.

  • 376. Singh, Rajesh
    et al.
    Kumar, Anil
    Kirrolia, Anita
    Kumar, Rajender
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE).
    Yadav, Neeru
    Bishnoi, Narsi R.
    Lohchab, Rajesh K.
    Removal of sulphate, COD and Cr(VI) in simulated and real wastewater by sulphate reducing bacteria enrichment in small bioreactor and FTIR study2011Inngår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 102, nr 2, s. 677-682Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study was conducted to investigate the chromium(VI), COD and sulphate removal efficiency from aqueous solution and treatment of real effluent (CETP) in a small scale bioreactor using sulphate reducing bacteria consortium. Effect of different hydraulic retention times (HRTs), initial metal concentrations, various carbon sources and temperatures were studied on removal of chromium(VI), COD and sulphate. Maximum chromium(VI) and sulphate removal was found to be 96.0% and 82.0%, respectively, at initial concentration of 50 mg l(-1) using lactate as carbon source. However, highest COD removal was 36.2% in medium containing fructose as the carbon source and electron donor. NADH dependent chromate reductase activity was not observed which indicated the anaerobic consortium. Initially consortium medium with a strong negative oxidation reduction potential indicated the reducing activity. The FTIR spectrum of the sulphate reducing bacteria consortium clearly shows the existence of the sulphate ions and signifies that sulfate reducing bacteria have used sulfate during the growth phase.

  • 377.
    Song, Xingqiang
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Ravesteijn, Wim
    Dilemmas in water systems development in China2011Inngår i: What is Sustainable Technology?: Perceptions, Paradoxes and Possibilities / [ed] Karel Mulder, Didac Ferrer and Harro van Lente, Sheffield: Greenleaf Publishing , 2011, s. 213-234Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    China has an urgent need to resolve its dilemmas on water systems development due to the damage being done to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, and the need to maintain socio-economic development. This chapter summarises historical water systems development in China as regards the changing priorities of water management, and discusses in detail pernicious problems in the YRB (Yellow River Basin), which is under severe water stress. The aims are to explore the role played by articulations of sustainable development in shifts in China’s water management regime in recent decades, and to identify challenges in the compromises needed to resolve the various water systems dilemmas in China. One crucial dilemma for current quantitative water management is to balance the ‘control regime’ and the ‘adaptive regime’ in order to prevent natural disasters. In China’s specific ecological and socio-economic context, two aspects are crucial in resolving the various water systems dilemmas that exist there: facilitating integrated water resources management approaches in river basins; and stimulating technological development to alleviate water allocation conflicts and prevent water pollution.

  • 378.
    Srzic, Veljko
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Significance of transport dynamics on concentration statistics and expected mass fraction based risk assessment in the subsurface2013Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis relies on a Langrangian framework used for conservative tracer transport simulations through 2-D heterogeneous porous media. Conducted numerical simulations enable large sets of concentration values in both spatial and temporal domains. In addition to the advection, which acts on all scales, an additional mechanism considered is local scale dispersion (LSD), accounting for both mechanical dispersion and molecular diffusion. The ratio between these two mechanisms is quantified by the Peclet (Pe) number. In its base, the thesis gives answers to contaminant concentration features when influenced by: i) different log-conductivity variance; ii) log-conductivity structures defined by the same global variogram but with different log conductivity patterns cor-related; and iii) for a wide range of Peclet values. Results conducted by Monte Carlo (MC) analysis show a complex interplay between the aforementioned pa-rameters, indicating the influence of aquifer properties to temporal LSD evolu-tion. A stochastic characterization of the concentration scalar is done through moment analysis: mean, coefficient of variation (CVC), skewness and kurtosis as well as through the concentration probability density function (PDF). A re-markable collapse of higher order to second-order concentration moments leads to the conclusion that only two concentration moments are required for an accurate description of concentration fluctuations. This explicitly holds for the pure advection case, while in the case of LSD presence the Moment Deriv-ing Function (MDF) is involved to ensure the moment collapse validity. Fur-thermore, the expected mass fraction (EMF) concept is applied in groundwater transport. In its origin, EMF is function of the concentration but with lower number of realizations needed for its determination, compared to the one point PDF. From practical point of view, EMF excludes meandering effect and incorporates information about exposure time for each non-zero concentration value present. Also, it is shown that EMF is able to clearly reflect the effects of aquifer heterogeneity and structure as well as the Pe value. To demonstrate the uniqueness of the moment collapse feature and ability of the Beta distribution to account for the concentration frequencies even in real cases, Macrodisper-sion Experiment (MADE1) data sets are used.

  • 379. Stigson, Peter
    et al.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES).
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik.
    Climate And Energy Policy Evaluation In Terms Of Relative Industrial Performance And Competitiveness2009Inngår i: International Journal of Green Energy, ISSN 1543-5075, E-ISSN 1543-5083, Vol. 6, nr 5, s. 450-465Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to differences in greenhouse-gas abatement costs within the industrial sectors, there is an ongoing discussion on potential negative competitive effects of climate and energy policies. This article argues that policymakers must acknowledge the relative performance of industrial operations parallel to the competitors, the compulsoriness of policies, and the harmonization of policies accordingly. To this end, the authors suggest a tool aimed for robust participatory policy evaluations at decision-maker levels. The tool promotes policy learning, transparency, and consensus building, hence contributing to more effective and efficient policy design and management process. The tool is exemplified in a Swedish context.

  • 380.
    Sui, Xin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE).
    Ji, Guodong
    Impact of ultrasonic power density on elution of super heavy oil and its biomarkers from aging soils using Triton X-100 micellar solution2010Inngår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 176, nr 1-3, s. 473-480Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An ultrasound-enhanced elution system employing Triton X-100 solutions was used for remedying aging soils contaminated with super heavy oil. The effect of varying the ultrasonic power density on the elution of the oil and three characteristic biomarkers was analyzed using GC/MS and FTRS. The oil and biomarkers remaining in treated soils decreased as a similar first-order function of increasing ultrasonic power density. Elution of the three biomarkers in the absence of ultrasound was closely related to carbon numbers in the marker: smaller molecules were more readily eluted. This trend was reversed upon application of ultrasound at higher power densities, with improved elution of molecules containing a greater carbon numbers. The two ratios, both 22S/(22S + 22R) of C26-34 17 alpha 25-norhopanes and 20S/(20S + 20R) of C26-28 triaromatic steroids, in treated soils decreased with increasing power density from 20 to 100 W L-1. The results of SEM, FTRS, XRD, and energy spectroscopy experiments indicated that the mineral and chemical compositions of soils eluted at power densities greater than 60 W L-1 closely resembled clean soils.

  • 381.
    Sultana, Razia
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Plaza, Elzbieta
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Persson, Fran
    Wilén, Britt-Marie
    Partial nitritation/anammox with moderate to low nitrogen concentrations at 13°CManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 382.
    Sultana, Razia
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Yang, Jingjing
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Trela, Jozef
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Plaza, Elzbieta
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Wilén, Britt-Marie
    Persson, Fran
    Deammonification process performance and efficiency at moderate to low temperaturesManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 383.
    Sun, Qie
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Understanding the Clean Development Mechanism and its dual aims: the case of China's projects2011Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Having been running for over 10 years, the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is considered an innovative and successful mitigation initiative. CDM has the dual aims of helping industrialised countries achieve compliance with their emission limitation and reduction commitments in a cost-effective way, while simultaneously assisting developing countries in sustainable development. This thesis does a comprehensive analysis of the dual aims of CDM and is intended to assist in discussions about the post-2012 regime regarding CDM.

    To analyse the aim of assisting mitigation in a cost-effective way, the prices of certified emission reductions (CERs) on the international carbon market was studied and the provision of CDM was tested by comparing the amount of CERs with the mitigation commitments of the Annex I countries. It was found that CDM plays an important role in maintaining the international carbon price at a low level and that the total amount of CERs alone had already reached up to 52.70% of the entire mitigation commitments of industrialized countries by the end of 2010 and was continuing to grow before 2012.

    A theoretical analysis of the impacts of CDM showed that CDM has a double mitigation effect in both developing countries and industrialised countries, without double counting at present. A quantitative evaluation of the effects of China’s CDM projects on China’s total emissions showed that the contribution of CDM projects to limiting total emissions is small due to the dominance of fossil fuels, but CDM’s role in stimulating renewable energy is significant, e.g. about 11% of hydropower and 93% of wind power was generated by CDM projects in 2010. The results provide strong evidence in support of CDM’s contribution under the current Kyoto Protocol mitigation regime.

    To analyse the aim of promoting sustainable development in developing countries, popular methods such as checklist, Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA) and Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) were reviewed, a CBA of co-benefits of China’s CDM projects was carried out, and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method was applied in an experimental study. The results showed that every method has its own advantages and problems. In other words, neither the CBA of co-benefits nor the AHP method alone is able to assess sustainable development in a completely satisfactory way. Currently, a bottom-up approach through engaging local stakeholders in CDM design and approval, combining a mandatory monitoring and evaluation of co-benefits, could be more effective for safeguarding local sustainable development than any consolidated standards.

    The future of the CDM is still unclear mainly due to uncertainties about the post-2012 regime. This thesis shows that there is more than sufficient reason for CDM to continue after 2012. Industrialised countries in general should make more substantial efforts to reduce their domestic emissions rather than blaming developing countries. For developing countries, learning from the CDM projects and further applying the knowledge, technology and experiences to their domestic development agenda could be more valuable than the present CER revenues. CDM can be an important starting point for developing countries to gradually make incremental greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction and limitation efforts.

  • 384.
    Sundberg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Franke-Whittle, I. H.
    Kauppi, S.
    Yu, D.
    Romantschuk, M.
    Insam, H.
    Jönsson, Håkan
    Characterisation of source-separated household waste intended for composting2011Inngår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 102, nr 3, s. 2859-2867Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Large-scale composting of source-separated household waste has expanded in recent years in the Nordic countries. One problem can be low pH at the start of the process. Incoming biowaste at four composting plants was characterised chemically, physically and microbiologically. The pH of food waste ranged from 4.7 to 6.1 and organic acid concentration from 24 to 81mmolkg -1. The bacterial diversity in the waste samples was high, with all samples dominated by Gammaproteobacteria, particularly Pseudomonas and Enterobacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Enterobacter). Lactic acid bacteria were also numerically important and are known to negatively affect the composting process because the lactic acid they produce lowers the pH, inhibiting other bacteria. The bacterial groups needed for efficient composting, i.e. Bacillales and Actinobacteria, were present in appreciable amounts. The results indicated that start-up problems in the composting process can be prevented by recycling bulk material and compost.

  • 385.
    Sundberg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Håkan
    Higher pH and faster decomposition in biowaste composting by increased aeration2008Inngår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 28, nr 3, s. 518-526Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Composting of source separated municipal biowaste has at several plants in Scandinavia been hampered by low pH. In this study the hypothesis that increased aeration would improve the process was tested in full-scale experiments at two large composting plants. The O2 concentrations were high (>15%) even at the low aeration rates, so the prevailing low pH was not due to an anaerobic process environment. In spite of this, increased aeration rates at the start of the process resulted in higher microbial activity, increased pH and a more stable compost product. At one plant the decomposition rate varied in proportion to the aeration rate, to the extent that the temperatures and O2 concentrations were similar during the early processes even though aeration rates varied between 10 and 50 m3/(h, m3 compost). However, increased aeration caused severe drying of the compost, but at one plant the addition of water was adequate to prevent drying. In conclusion, by increasing the aeration rates and adding water to compensate for drying, it was possible to shorten the time needed to produce a stable compost product and thus to increase the efficiency of the composting plants.

  • 386.
    Sundberg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Håkan
    Process inhibition due to organic acids in fed-batch composting of food waste - Influence of starting culture2005Inngår i: Biodegradation, ISSN 0923-9820, Vol. 16, nr 3, s. 205-213Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Inhibition of the degradation during low pH conditions has been observed in fed-batch composting systems. To analyse this phenomenon, fed-batch composting of food waste with different amounts of starting culture was examined in laboratory reactor experiments. Changes in temperature, carbon dioxide evolution, pH, solids, ash and short chain organic acids were measured. In reactors with a daily feed rate of 24% or less of the starting culture, thermophilic temperatures occurred and the pH and carbon dioxide evolution were high and stable after a starting period of 4-5 days. In reactors with a daily feed rate of 48% or more of the starting culture the composting process failed, as the pH dropped below 6 and remained there and the temperature and carbon dioxide evolution were low. It was concluded that the use of adequate amounts of starting culture consisting of active compost can efficiently prevent low pH conditions and process inhibition in fed-batch composting of food waste.

  • 387.
    Sundberg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Navia, Rodrigo
    Is there still a role for composting?2014Inngår i: Waste Management & Research, ISSN 0734-242X, E-ISSN 1096-3669, Vol. 32, nr 6, s. 459-460Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 388.
    Sundberg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Smårs, Sven
    Jönsson, Håkan
    Low pH as an inhibiting factor in the transition from mesophilic to thermophilic phase in composting2004Inngår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 95, nr 2, s. 145-150Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    During composting of household waste, the acidity of the material affects the process during the initial phase of rising temperature. In this study, the effects of temperature (36-46°C) and pH (4.6-9.2) on the respiration rate during the early phase of composting were investigated in two different composts. A respiration method where small compost samples were incubated at constant temperature was used. The respiration rate was strongly reduced at 46°C and pH below 6, compared to composts with a higher pH or lower temperature. The combination of high temperature and low pH is a possible adverse factor in large-scale composting of food waste.

  • 389.
    Sundberg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Yu, D.
    Franke-Whittle, I.
    Kauppi, S.
    Smårs, S.
    Insam, H.
    Romantschuk, M.
    Jönsson, H.
    Effects of pH and microbial composition on odour in food waste composting2013Inngår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 33, nr 1, s. 204-211Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A major problem for composting plants is odour emission. Slow decomposition during prolonged low-pH conditions is a frequent process problem in food waste composting. The aim was to investigate correlations between low pH, odour and microbial composition during food waste composting. Samples from laboratory composting experiments and two large scale composting plants were analysed for odour by olfactometry, as well as physico-chemical and microbial composition. There was large variation in odour, and samples clustered in two groups, one with low odour and high pH (above 6.5), the other with high odour and low pH (below 6.0). The low-odour samples were significantly drier, had lower nitrate and TVOC concentrations and no detectable organic acids. Samples of both groups were dominated by Bacillales or Actinobacteria, organisms which are often indicative of well-functioning composting processes, but the high-odour group DNA sequences were similar to those of anaerobic or facultatively anaerobic species, not to typical thermophilic composting species. High-odour samples also contained Lactobacteria and Clostridia, known to produce odorous substances. A proposed odour reduction strategy is to rapidly overcome the low pH phase, through high initial aeration rates and the use of additives such as recycled compost.

  • 390.
    Svane, Örjan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys (flyttat 20130630). Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Energy Efficiency in Hammarby Sjöstad, Stockholm through ICT and smarter infrastructure: survey and potentials2013Inngår i: ICT4S 2013: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies for Sustainability, ETH Zurich, February 14-16, 2013 / [ed] Lorenz M. Hilty, Bernard Aebischer, Göran Andersson, Wolfgang Lohmann, Zürich, 2013, s. 190-196Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Internationally, Stockholm’s brownfield development Hammarby Sjöstad is seen as one of the world’s highest profile examples of Sustainable City Development. Is its energy efficiency already optimal, or is there an untapped potential for "Renewing a New City", for example through the innovative implementation of ICT? This is the main issue of the study reported in this paper. In the mid 1990s, after some five years of comprehensive planning, the City's politicians and leading officials agreed that Hammarby Sjöstad should be the Olympic Village when applying for the 2004 Olympic Games. To strengthen the application, an environmental programme was passed in the city parliament, a project team comprising representatives of the main city administrations was established, and the team was given the task of injecting the novel features of the programme into an ongoing, ordinary planning process [1, 2]. In 1997, the Olympic committee gave the Games to Athens. Nonetheless, the environmental programme and the project team were retained, and for more than a decade of construction the area has been marketed as a spearhead of urban sustainable development [3, 4]. However, evaluations indicate that its energy efficiency is average if benchmarked towards other developments of the same period [5]. Dispersion is wide, a factor three. As part of development, the national government subsidized a number of projects to support the environmental profile, some of them being targeted towards ICT and "smart homes" technology [6, 7, 8, 9]. This is interesting, since it is often argued that the innovative application of ICT should markedly increase energy efficiency [10]. In research at KTH, Stockholm, we therefore explore this as applied to Hammarby Sjöstad: To what extent do systems rely on smart infrastructure to control energy use and its impacts – in the electric system, in the district heating? Does ICT integrate citywide and local energy system components through automation, does ICT interact with operators, managers or residents, informing or persuading them to be energy efficient? For the purpose of this study, smart infrastructure is defined as systems that make it easy for users and managers to keep energy use and its impacts low, without compromising utility or comfort Data is collected from documents and interviews. Eight real estate units with elements of smart infrastructure were identified. Thus, about 5 per cent of the flats have this feature, mainly to automatically integrate novel components such as photovoltaics or geothermal energy into the large-scale ordinary energy systems. There is also a single example of a passive house. This is the only Sjöstad real estate unit to comply with the original energy objectives of using no more than 60 kWh/m2yr. The addition of local energy sources to a large-scale energy system influences the routines of operators and managers, introducing an element of smartness. It was also found that in a few cases, buildings were provided with “smart homes technology”, i.e. ICT that actively interacts with the residents. However, findings indicate that some of the technology does not function properly or has already become obsolete. In three cases, managers and owners are ignorant whether an element of smart infrastructure is operational or not. On the other hand, already from 2000 on, the district was provided with a comprehensive fibre network, which is still up to date. From this follows that on district level the potential for smart infrastructure is there, but as mentioned it is only in part utilised in the individual buildings.

  • 391.
    Svane, Örjan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys. Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Gustafsson, Stina
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Tillämpad termodynamik och kylteknik.
    Wangel, Josefin
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö.
    Höjer, Mattias
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys. Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Lundqvist, Per
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Tillämpad termodynamik och kylteknik.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, Dept. Technology and Social Change.
    Weingaertner, Carina
    University of Birmingham, Centre of Urban and Regional Studies.
    Situations of Opportunity in City Transformation: – enriching evaluative case study methodology with scenarios and backcasting, exploring the sustainable development of three Stockholm city districts2009Inngår i: Proceedings of the ENHR Conference 2009, Prague, 2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To keep global warming at 2°C, society faces challenges of a totally new magnitude. In Swedenlike any high-income country, it becomes a powerful driving force in city transformation. Tackling this challenge of urban sustainable development poses problems for planners and researchers alike: What planning processes, what urban structures enable transformation, how can planners and other actors combine forces to deliberate themselves from path dependency,extending their freedom of action? In this paper, we explore how evaluative case study methodology merged with techniques from Futures Studies provide a cross-disciplinary research approach that defines the challenge in scope and time while retaining its complexity. Case studies are in-depth analyses of a small number of units, enabling studies of complex phenomena; for us, complexity means integrating the issues of What to change and change by Whom in order to explore How change can come about and evaluate How much it could contributeto urban sustainable development. How can this approach be developed to explore the future? Futures Studies can indicate the probable or supply visions of the desirable, it can be normative or descriptive. For our purpose, it is normative, focusing on the long-term necessityof mitigating global warming. Through it, we develop scenarios that explore the path of transformation of three Stockholm City Districts, from today’s climate changing society towardsa 2060s vision of a low carbon, low energy society. From historical studies we learned that there are shorter periods – Situations of Opportunity – when inertia against change is low. This concept we now apply to future Situations, making these our cases proper. For each Situation in every district we develop three representations of their realisation in the upcomingdecades: the Final Scenario is a narrative of the whole, seen from the future; the computerisedEnergy Usage Model quantifies outcomes in terms of reduced energy use; the Transformative Governance Network illustrates the process of change, its agents and their forms of co-operation. Elements of the approach could contribute to the practice of planning.

  • 392.
    Svenfelt, Åsa
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Two strategies for dealing with uncertainty in social-ecological systems2010Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The scale of environmental problems is increasing. Globalisation and trade haveweakened the links between the ecosystems in which goods are produced and thecommunities in which they are consumed. This, combined with variability anddynamics in ecological and social systems, means that there are great uncertaintiesabout production conditions and about the impact on humans and theenvironment of decisions made at different levels in society. In order to achievesustainable management of ecosystems, more knowledge is needed when possible.In other cases, strategies for dealing with the uncertainties are needed. This thesis,in which ecological and social systems are regarded as integrated, analyses twostrategies for dealing with uncertainties in such social-ecological systems andthereby improving the potential for sustainable management of these systems.The strategies are i) Using futures studies as a method and ii) creating a tighterfeedback loop between society and ecosystems.Of the five studies included in this thesis, Papers I and II explore possibilities toreduce uncertainties through better feedback between ecosystems and society in aglobalised food system. A tighter feedback loop between society and ecosystemscould increase the potential of society to detect negative environmental impacts ofdifferent activities, respond to such signals (feedback) and make changes thatreduce the negative consequences. Papers III, IV and V develop methods andanalyse the use of futures studies as a tool for managing uncertainty inenvironmental policy processes, specifically the Swedish environmental qualityobjectives. It is difficult and sometimes impossible to predict future developmentsand there are also uncertainties because social-ecological systems are constantlychanging, sometimes in unexpected ways. In addition, the apparently most likelydevelopments may not be the most desirable. Futures studies are used in PapersIII-V to deal with these types of uncertainties. Within the context of these futuresstudies, methods for working together with stakeholders to identify actions andchanges needed to achieve environmental goals are also developed and tested.The results show that the potential exists to reduce certain types of uncertainty byreducing the distance between production and consumption (through localisedfood systems and institutions which transmit feedback). Another conclusion isthat a local food market (farmers’ market), which represents a direct link betweenproduction and consumption, could reduce a sense of uncertainty aboutproduction conditions for individual consumers, through the establishment oftrust in their relationship with the producer. However, only a few examples ofincreased ecological knowledge or increased knowledge about productionconditions were found among these consumers. The results also show that futuresstudies were able to serve as a framework for analysing environmental policyprocesses (the environmental quality objectives), as they provide a long-termperspective and help manage uncertainty by increased knowledge of alternativeactions in relation to several possible developments. Futures studies as ananalytical tool can also help identify partnerships and stakeholders that arenecessary to promote change in order to achieve environmental goals.

  • 393. Syberfeldt, Anna
    et al.
    Holm, Magnus
    Danielsson, Oscar
    Wang, Lihui
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Hållbarhet och industriell dynamik.
    Brewster, Rodney Lindgren
    Support systems on the industrial shop-floors of the future - operators' perspective on augmented reality2016Inngår i: 6TH CIRP CONFERENCE ON ASSEMBLY TECHNOLOGIES AND SYSTEMS (CATS), Elsevier, 2016, s. 108-113Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    With augmented reality, virtual information can be overlaid on the real world in order to enhance a human's perception of reality. In this study, we aim to deepen the knowledge of augmented reality in the shop-floor context and analyze its role within smart factories of the future. The study evaluates a number of approaches for realizing augmented reality and discusses advantages and disadvantages of different solutions from a shop-floor operator's perspective. The evaluation is done in collaboration with industrial companies, including Volvo Cars and Volvo GTO amongst others. The study also identifies important future research directions for utilizing the full potential of the technology and successfully implement it on industrial shop-floors.

  • 394.
    Szatkowska, Beata
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Performance and control of biofilm systems with partial nitritation and Anammox for supernatant treatment2007Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Separate treatment of supernatant with dewatering of digested sludge with application of partial nitritation/Anammox process is assessed to be a cost-effective way to remove about 10-15% of influent nitrogen and, thereby, facilitate possibilities to reach required effluent requirements from the plant. The combined partial nitritation/Anammox process can be performed in two separate reactors or in one-stage. Both process options have been investigated in technical- and laboratory-scale pilot plants with moving-bed biofilm reactors (MBBR) filled with Kaldnes rings.

    Use of the two-stage process resulted in a very stable partial nitritation with a suitable nitrite to ammonium ratio (NAR) for the following Anammox step. Dissolved oxygen (DO) and pH value were identified as key factors for the partial nitritation process. The Anammox process could also be operated in a stable way. A high nitrite concentration, however, inhibited the process and the time for recovering the process at low nitrite concentration was about four months. Seeding of the partial nitritation reactor with Anammox bacteria (the recirculation of Anammox effluent to the nitritation reactor) turned out to be a simple and easy method to enable creation of an oxic-anoxic biofilm in one reactor. Studies have shown that such a one-stage system would be the best choice for full-scale implementation due to significantly higher nitrogen removal rates and easier operation. The partial nitritation process was found to be the rate-limiting reaction to perform the overall nitrogen removal.

    Measurements of conductivity and pH were suitable parameters for monitoring of the nitrogen reactions. A control and monitoring system was developed both for two-stage and one-stage technology. The system was mainly based on relationships between conductivity and inorganic nitrogen components, while in the one-stage technology measurements are used of both conductivity and pH and their relationships with inorganic nitrogen compounds. Alkalinity was an additional measured parameter suitable for process control and monitoring. Theoretically calculated values of conductivity were in good agreement with experimentally obtained results.

  • 395.
    Szatkowska, Beata
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Treatment of ammoniuim-rich wastewater by partial nitritation/anammox in a biofilm system2004Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 396.
    Szatkowska, Beata
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Hultman, Bengt
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Płaza, Elzbieta
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Trela, Jozef
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Conductivity, alkalinity and pH: important tools for monitoring the nitrogen removal in one- and two-stage partial nitritation/Anammox processManuskript (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 397.
    Szatkowska, Beata
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Płaza, Elzbieta
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Temperature as a factor influencing the Anammox process performance2006Inngår i: Young Researchers 2006, London: IWA Pub. , 2006, nr 12, s. 51-58Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 398.
    Szatkowska, Beata
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Płaza, Elzbieta
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Trela, Jozef
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Bosander, Jan
    Hultman, Bengt
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Application of conductivity measurements for monitoring of nitrogen removal in the partial nitritation/Anammox process2005Inngår i: Proceedings of the IWA Specialized Conference: Nutrient Management in Wastewater Treatment, Processes and Recycle Streams, 2005, s. 717-724Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 399.
    Szatkowska, Beata
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630).
    Płaza, Elzbieta
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630).
    Trela, Jozef
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630).
    Hultman, Bengt
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630).
    Bosander, Jan
    SYVAB, Grödinge.
    Combined partial nitritation and Anammox biofilm system as a sustainable solution for supernatant treatment2007Inngår i: Water Practice and Technology, ISSN 1751-231X, Vol. 2, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, as the effluent water regulations become more stringent, there is a need to treat wastewater in the most efficient manner and according to sustainability principles. One of the possibilities to meet this challenge is treatment of side streams, which are usually returned to the main influent of Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTP) increasing the total load. Following processes occurring in natural ecosystems a new biological technology - combination of partial nitritation and Anammox processes - for treatment of nitrogen-rich supernatant coming from digested sludge dewatering has been developed. The first stage of the process is an oxidation of half of the ammonium to nitrite (partial nitritation process). The following stage - Anammox process - is an anaerobic oxidation of ammonium and nitrite nitrogen to dinitrogen gas. The process has been successfully tested in a technical-scale pilot plant with a continuous supply of supernatant at Himmerfjärden WWTP. Kaldnes rings were provided for biofilm growth. Almost two-year experiences in operation of the two-stage process have been presented in this paper. The results showed that a proper adjustment of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in the bulk liquid and a pH value drop in the partial nitritation reactor is essential to obtain the ammonium-to-nitrite ratio (NAR) in the effluent close to 1.3 as required for the Anammox process. It took four months to recover the Anammox bacteria activity after NO2-N inhibition.

  • 400.
    Söder, Lennart
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektriska energisystem.
    The Value of Wind Power2005Inngår i: Wind Power in Power Systems, John Wiley & Sons, 2005, s. 169-195Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
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