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  • 401.
    Schenk, Linda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Rudén, Christina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Wester, Misse
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Are occupational exposure limits still an effective tool for chemicals risk management at the work place?2010In: Toxicology Letters, ISSN 0378-4274, E-ISSN 1879-3169, Vol. 196, p. S101-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemicals in the occupational setting are well known to pose a variety of health risks to workers, and are accordingly subject to risk management measures. In Sweden, as well as many other countries, occupational exposure limits (OELs) are presented as an important tool for managing chemical risks. However, measurements to ensure compliance with OELs have decreased significantly and the question is to what extent the OELs still perform their function, and through which mechanisms. By performing interviews at a number of different workplaces in Sweden, that handle chemicals, we will try to identify regulatory, social and organizational factors that influence the risk perception and communication at workplaces and also investigate the role played by OELs in these processes. Previous research on risk management at the workplace has often been focused on physical risks or accident prevention. We believe that the management, communication and perception of chemical risks differ significantly in their nature from most physical risks, since exposures to harmful chemicals generally lead to delayed and unpredictable effects and individuals tend to estimate risks with delayed effects lower than if the consequences are immediate.

  • 402. Sjoberg, L.
    et al.
    Peterson, M.
    Fromm, J.
    Boholm, A.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy.
    Neglected and overemphasized risks: the opinions of risk professionals2005In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 8, no 08-jul, p. 599-616Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on risks has mainly been devoted to detailed analyses of such risks that are subject to public debate and policy decision making. However, many if not most of the risks that are now the subject of regulation were once neglected. Experts in conjunction with regulators have a crucial role in putting risks on the policy agenda. But what views do experts have on the matter of attention to risks? In order to answer this question risk assessment experts were asked to list the risks they considered to be over-emphasized, respectively neglected. Radiation risks constituted the largest category of risks reported to be over-emphasized. Other risks often reported to be over-emphasized included BSE, GMOs, amalgam, and air traffic. Lifestyle risks were the largest category of risks reported to be neglected. Other risks often listed as neglected included radon (as an exception within the radiation category), road traffic, socio-economic risks, energy production excluding nuclear power, and local accidents (including fires and workplace accidents). Risks mentioned about equally often as neglected and over-emphasized included chemicals and crime. There was a correlation between perceived risk and neglect: risks considered to be neglected were also judged as larger. For a comparison, the topics of articles in the journal Risk Analysis from 1991-2000 were categorized into the same risk categories that were used for the questionnaire. The risks most commonly treated in the journal (chemicals and cancer) coincided with the risks which experts in our survey considered to be overemphasized rather than neglected.

  • 403.
    Svensson, Sara
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Protectingpeople in research: a comparison between biomedical and traffic research2007In: Science and Engineering Ethics, ISSN 1353-3452, E-ISSN 1471-5546, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 99-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Trafficresearch shares a fundamental dilemma with other areas of empirical research inwhich humans are potentially put at risk. Research is justified because it canimprove safety in the long run. Nevertheless, people can be harmed in theresearch situation. Hence, we need to balance short-term risks againstlong-term safety improvements, much as in other areas of research with humansubjects. In this paper we focus on ethical issues that arise when human beingsare directly affected in the performance of research by examining how theethical requirements in biomedical research can inform traffic research. Afterintroducing the basic ethical requirements on biomedical research, each of themajor requirements is discussed in relation to traffic research. We identifythe main areas where biomedical research and traffic research differ, and wherethe ethical requirements from the former cannot easily be transferred to thelatter. We then point to some of the issues that need to be addressed for asystematic approach to the ethics of traffic research.

  • 404.
    Wandall, Birgitte
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Rudén, Christina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Bias in toxicology2007In: Archives of Toxicology, ISSN 0340-5761, E-ISSN 1432-0738, Vol. 81, no 9, p. 605-617Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential for bias, i.e., influences that cause results to deviate systematically from the truth is substantial both in toxicological research and in the performance of standardized toxicological testing. In this contribution, major potential sources of bias in toxicological research and testing are identified. Due to the lack of empirical studies of bias in toxicology, very little is known about its prevalence and impact. Areas to consider for such studies are pointed out, and it is suggested that such investigations should be given priority.

  • 405.
    Wikman-Svahn, Per
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Peterson, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Principles of protection: a formal approach for evaluating dose distribution2006In: Journal of Radiological Protection, ISSN 0952-4746, E-ISSN 1361-6498, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 69-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     One of the central issues in radiation protection consists in determining what weight should be given to individual doses in relation to collective or aggregated doses. A mathematical framework is introduced in which such assessments can be made precisely in terms of comparisons between alternative distributions of individual doses. In addition to evaluation principles that are well known from radiation protection, a series of principles that are derived from parallel discussions in moral philosophy and welfare economics is investigated. A battery of formal properties is then used to investigate the evaluative principles. The results indicate that one of the new principles, bilinear prioritarianism, may be preferable to current practices, since it satisfies efficiency-related properties better without sacrificing other desirable properties.

  • 406.
    Zhang, Li
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    How to make up one's mind2015In: Logic journal of the IGPL (Print), ISSN 1367-0751, E-ISSN 1368-9894, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 705-717Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The operation of making up one's mind about a sentence phi is a belief change operation that takes the agent to a belief state in which either phi or phi is believed. Apart from being practically important, this operation is technically interesting since the standard approach of intersecting a set of optimal outcomes is not workable. A construction based on descriptor revision is provided in which the operation can be modelled. This construction is axiomatically characterized with a set of plausible postulates, and additional postulates that correlate with properties of the construction are investigated.

  • 407.
    Ågerstrand, Marlene
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Rudén, Christina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Regulatory perspectives on pharmaceuticals in the environment2012In: Toxicology Letters, ISSN 0378-4274, E-ISSN 1879-3169, Vol. 211, p. S31-S31Article in journal (Other academic)
6789 401 - 407 of 407
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