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  • 451. Dénes, E.
    et al.
    Fenyvesi, A.
    Hirn, A.
    Kerék, Andras
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Kiss, T.
    Molnár, J.
    Novák, D.
    Soós, C.
    Tölyhi, T.
    Vyvre, P. V.
    Radiation tolerant source interface unit for the ALICE experiment2005In: Proceedings - 11th Workshop on Electronics for LHC and Future Experiments, LECC 2005, CERN , 2005, p. 291-293Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ALICE Detector Data Link (DDL) is a high-speed optical link designed to interface the readout electronics of ALICE sub-detectors to the DAQ computers. The Source Interface Unit (SIU) of the DDL will operate in radiation environment. Tests showed that configuration loss of the Altera APEX II FPGA device used earlier on the DDL SIU card is only marginally acceptable. We developed a new version of the SIU card using Actel ProASIC+ device based on flash memory technology. The new SIU card has been extensively tested using neutron and proton irradiation. In this paper we present the SIU card and describe the results of irradiation measurements.

  • 452.
    Edlund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Computer and Electronic Engineering.
    Sarker, Saqib
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Computer and Electronic Engineering.
    Smart Kitchen: Automatisk inventering av föremål2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Internet of Things is growing fast and is predicted to become a part of everyday life. This can be used to create products which will make everyday life easier. Automated object detection combined with an automated inventory check can make it easier to manage what is in stock, this is something that can be used in smart refrigerators as an example, to make life more convenient through Internet of Things. This Bachelor thesis studies methods regarding object detection with the purpose to build a system which automatically identifies objects and manages the inventory status. A prototype was built and tested to see what the possibilities there is with such a system. The Prototype uses a Raspberry Pi as core unit, which uses Dlib libraries to identify predefined objects. The user will identify unknown objects via the mobile phone application, which makes it possible for the system to learn how to identify new objects. The same application is used to check the inventory status for the different objects that has been identified by the system. The prototype can identify objects and learn to identify new ones, according to the goals of the project.

  • 453. Edner, A
    et al.
    Ericson, Mats
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Milerad, J
    Katz-Salamon, M
    Abnormal heart rate response to hypercapnia in boys with an apparent life-threatening event.2002In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 91, no 12, p. 1318-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To determine instantaneous cardiac variability responses to increased carbon dioxide (CO2) during quiet sleep in infants who may be at risk for the Sudden Infant Death syndrome (SIDS).

    METHODS: The cardiac rate variability before, during and after a CO2 challenge was examined in 41 infants who had experienced an apparent life-threatening event (ALTE) and 41 gender- and age-matched control infants.

    RESULTS: The ALTE infants responded to CO2 breathing with a significant increase in R-R intervals, i.e. decreases in heart rate, compared to the controls (45.1% increase in R-R intervals vs. 41.4%; p = 0.005). The differences between ALTE infants and controls depended primarily on the boys' responses.

    CONCLUSION: ALTE infants, particularly ALTE boys, have an autonomic dysfunction-lower sympathetic stimulation and/or inhibited vagal withdrawal when stressed with CO2. The outcome might provide clues to the mechanisms underlying the cardiovascular processes contributing to the terminal event in SIDS.

  • 454. Edner, A
    et al.
    Katz-Salamon, M
    Lagercrantz, H
    Ericson, Mats
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Milerad, J
    Heart rate variability in infants with apparent life-threatening events.2000In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 89, no 11, p. 1326-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is often used as an index of sympatho-vagal balance. A decreased HRV has been observed in patients with central hypoventilation and in infants who have later succumbed to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether HRV is altered in infants with apparent life-threatening events (ALTE), a group with an increased risk of SIDS. Fifty infants with ALTE were compared with 50 age- and sex-matched controls. ECG was recorded overnight in all infants. Two sequences of RR intervals free of artefacts were selected from each sleep state and spectral analysis of RR variability was performed. The mean and SD of RR and the low (LFPow) and high (HFPow) frequency power were analysed. In active sleep (AS) the LF/HF ratio was lower in ALTE infants, but no differences were seen in either the LFPow or the HFPow. In quiet sleep (QS), however, ALTE infants had higher SD-RR (p = 0.006), greater HFPow (p = 0.02) and VLFPow (very low frequency power, p = 0.02) than the control infants. The same results were seen when the two sleep states were combined for analysis, ALTE infants had higher SD-RR (p = 0.004), HFPow (p = 0.006) and VLFPow (p = 0.04). Conclusion: The different HRV pattern in ALTE infants compared to healthy controls suggests an altered autonomic control.

  • 455.
    Eghbali, Ladan
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    The impact of defective ultrasound transducers on the evaluation results of ultrasound imaging of blood flow2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Following X-Ray, Ultrasound is now the most common of all the medical imaging technologies specifically in obstetrics and cardiology. Plus that the ultrasound hazards perceived to be insignificant compared with X-rays. Considering the fact that the study of cardiovascular diseases, blood flow patterns and the fetal development is essential for human life, the accuracy and proper functioning of ultrasonic systems is of great importance. Hence quality control of ultrasonic transducers is necessary.

    In this thesis, a system to standardize the acceptance criteria for quality control of ultrasonic transducers is described. On this ground a study on ultrasound images conducted to compare and evaluate the quality resulted from different types of transducers in different conditions, i.e. defective or functional.

    A clinical study was also carried out to evaluate our hypothesis in real cases at department of Cardiology and department of genecology. Results from this study show that the perception of quality is somewhat subjective and clinical studies are time-consuming. But quality factors such as the ability to accurately identify anatomical structure and functional capabilities are of great importance and help.

  • 456.
    Eghbali, Ladan
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    The impact of defective ultrasound transducers on the evaluation results of ultrasound imaging of blood flow2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Following X-Ray, Ultrasound is now the most common of all the medical imaging technologies specifically in obstetrics and cardiology. Plus that the ultrasound hazards perceived to be insignificant compared with X-rays. Considering the fact that the study of cardiovascular diseases, blood flow patterns and the fetal development is essential for human life, the accuracy and proper functioning of ultrasonic systems is of great importance. Hence quality control of ultrasonic transducers is necessary.

    In this thesis, a system to standardize the acceptance criteria for quality control of ultrasonic transducers is described. On this ground a study on ultrasound images conducted to compare and evaluate the quality resulted from different types of transducers in different conditions, i.e. defective or functional.

    A clinical study was also carried out to evaluate our hypothesis in real cases at department of Cardiology and department of genecology. Results from this study show that the perception of quality is somewhat subjective and clinical studies are time-consuming. But quality factors such as the ability to accurately identify anatomical structure and functional capabilities are of great importance and help.

  • 457.
    Egnell, Liv
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics. KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Transient State Monitoring and Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy of Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many human diseases including cancer have been associated with altered cellular metabolism and a changed oxygen consumption in cells. Fluorophores are sensitive to their local environment due to their long life times in transient dark states. A recent study successfully utilized this sensitivity to image differences in oxygen concentrations in cells using transient state (TRAST) microscopy together with fluorescent labels [1]. A natural continuation of this study is to investigate the possibilities of using this method with natural fluorophores already present in cells and thereby avoid articial labeling.

    Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is an auto fluorescent coenzyme that is naturally present in cells and involved in cellular metabolism. This project is an exploratory pilot study for cellular measurements with the aim to investigate if FAD can be used to probe oxygen concentrations in aqueous solution using transient state monitoring and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). This thesis includes the results from FCS and TRAST experiments on FAD in aqueous solutions with different oxygen concentrations as well as different ascorbic acid concentrations. The performed experiments showed that FAD monitored with TRAST is sensitive to differences in oxygen concentrations for the aqueous solutions used in this study.

  • 458.
    Eiken, Ola
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology.
    Militär verksamhet på höga höjder2011Report (Other academic)
  • 459.
    Eiken, Ola
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology.
    Bergsten, Eddie
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology.
    Grönkvist, Mikael
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology.
    G-protection mechanisms afforded by the anti-G suit abdominal bladder with and without pressure breathing.2011In: Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 0095-6562, E-ISSN 1943-4448, Vol. 82, no 10, p. 972-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: G protection afforded by the abdominal bladder of a pneumatic anti-G suit is usually attributed to counteraction of G-induced caudad displacement of the heart and pooling of blood in the abdominal veins. The study examined whether the abdominal bladder might provide G protection also via other mechanisms.

    METHODS: Each subject was exposed to +Gz loads while sitting relaxed, wearing a full-coverage anti-G suit modified to permit separate pressurization of the abdominal and leg bladders. In two experimental series (N = 8, N = 14), subjects were breathing at positive airway pressure (PPB); in a third series, five subjects were breathing at atmospheric airway pressure. Intrathoracic pressures were estimated by use of esophageal catheters.

    RESULTS: During PPB at high G loads, intrathoracic pressure was higher with than without the pressurized abdominal bladder. In 7 of the 14 subjects, basilar intrathoracic pressure exceeded airway pressure during PPB when the abdominal bladder was pressurized. The mean arterial pressure response at high G loads was higher in this subset of subjects (55 +/- 23 mmHg) than in the subjects in whom airway pressure exceeded intrathoracic pressure (41 +/- 27 mmHg). Without PPB at increased G load, the intrathoracic pressure gradient was higher with than without the pressurized abdominal bladder.

    DISCUSSION: During PPB, the abdominal bladder acts as an airway counterpressure, thereby facilitating pressure transmission from the airways to the thorax and hence improving G protection. It also appears that in several individuals, pressure may be transmitted from the abdominal bladder to the thorax and heart.

  • 460.
    Eiken, Ola
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology.
    Danielsson, Ulf
    Hallberg, M.
    Mekjavic, I.
    Kounalakis, S.N.
    Energiomsättning vid simulerad patrullering i mörker2010Report (Other academic)
  • 461.
    Eiken, Ola
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology.
    Danielsson, Ulf
    Hallberg, M
    Mekjavic, IB
    Babic, J
    Kounalakis, S
    Energy expenditure during simulated patrol in darkness2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 462.
    Eiken, Ola
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology (Closed 20130701).
    Grönkvist, Mikael
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology (Closed 20130701).
    Signs and symptoms during supra-tolerance +Gz exposures, with reference to G-garment failure.2013In: Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 0095-6562, E-ISSN 1943-4448, Vol. 84, no 3, p. 196-205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: +Gz exposure above the tolerance threshold typically induces a sequence of symptoms/signs, with loss of: peripheral vision, central vision (black out), and consciousness (G-LOC). The aims of this study were to investigate: 1) whether G history influences latent time to, or sequence of, symptoms/signs upon G exposures exceeding the tolerance threshold; and 2) how pilots respond to a sudden loss of pressure in the anti-G garment (AGG) in flight-like scenarios. Methods: There were 14 subjects who were exposed to rapid onset rate +Gz-time profiles, with plateaus 1 and 2 G above the relaxed tolerance level, without initial pressurization of the AGG (NoAGG) and when losing AGG pressure after 10 (AGG_10) and 120 (AGG_120) s at the plateau. Simulated target-chase flights during which AGG pressure was released were performed by seven pilots; the pilot was instructed to behave as during real flight. Results: Latent time to symptoms was shorter at +2 G than at +1 G, and shorter in AGG_10 and AGG_120 than in NoAGG. In AGG_120, 43 and 64% of the subjects experienced serious symptoms (black out, Almost LOC, G-LOC) at +1 and +2 G, respectively, compared to 21 and 54% in AGG_10 and 7 and 29% in NoAGG. The incidence of A-LOC/G-LOC was higher in AGG_10 and especially in AGG_120 than in NoAGG. During the target chase, one pilot did not notice the pressure loss, one experienced G-LOC, and two A-LOC. Discussion: The risk of serious consequences of G exposure exceeding the tolerance level appears to be greater when G-garment failure occurs after a prolonged than after a brief exposure.

  • 463.
    Eiken, Ola
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology.
    Grönkvist, Mikael
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology.
    Gennser, Mikael
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology.
    Kabintryck och risk för barotrauma vid explosiv decompression I fpl 392015Report (Other academic)
  • 464.
    Eiken, Ola
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology.
    Grönkvist, Mikael
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology.
    Kölegård, Roger
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology.
    Danielsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology.
    Zavec, D.
    Kounalakis, S.N.
    Mekjavic, I.
    Termisk belastning hos soldater som bär svensk stridsutrustning2010Report (Other academic)
  • 465.
    Eiken, Ola
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology.
    Grönkvist, Mikael
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology.
    Kölegård, Roger
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology.
    Zavec, D.
    Ciuha, U.
    Mekjavic, I.
    Termisk belastning hos markstridssoldater vid patrullering i ökenklimat: effekter av två olika ballistiska kroppsskydd samt av två olika strategier för nedkylning2011Report (Other academic)
  • 466.
    Eiken, Ola
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology.
    Keramidas, Michail E.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology.
    Taylor, Nigel A S
    Grönkvist, Mikael
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology.
    Intraocular pressure and cerebral oxygenation during prolonged headward acceleration2017In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 117, no 1, p. 61-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Supra-tolerance head-to-foot directed gravitoinertial load (+Gz) typically induces a sequence of symptoms/signs, including loss of: peripheral vision-central vision-consciousness. The risk of unconsciousness is greater when anti-G-garment failure occurs after prolonged rather than brief exposures, presumably because, in the former condition, mental signs are not consistently preceded by impaired vision. The aims were to investigate if prolonged exposure to moderately elevated +Gz reduces intraocular pressure (IOP; i.e., improves provisions for retinal perfusion), or the cerebral anoxia reserve. Subjects were exposed to 4-min +Gz plateaux either at 2 and 3 G (n = 10), or at 4 and 5 G (n = 12). Measurements included eye-level mean arterial pressure (MAP), oxygenation of the cerebral frontal cortex, and at 2 and 3 G, IOP. IOP was similar at 1 (14.1 +/- 1.6 mmHg), 2 (14.0 +/- 1.6 mmHg), and 3 G (14.0 +/- 1.6 mmHg). During the G exposures, MAP exhibited an initial prompt drop followed by a partial recovery, end-exposure values being reduced by ae<currency>30 mmHg. Cerebral oxygenation showed a similar initial drop, but without recovery, and was followed by either a plateau or a further slight decrement to a minimum of about -14 mu M. Gz loading did not affect IOP. That cerebral oxygenation remained suppressed throughout these G exposures, despite a concomitant partial recovery of MAP, suggests that the increased risk of unconsciousness upon G-garment failure after prolonged +Gz exposure is due to reduced cerebral anoxia reserve.

  • 467.
    Eiken, Ola
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology.
    Kölegård, Roger
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology.
    Repeated exposures to moderately increased intravascular pressure increases stiffness in human arteries and arterioles2011In: Journal of Hypertension, ISSN 0263-6352, E-ISSN 1473-5598, Vol. 29, no 10, p. 1963-1971Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to investigate whether repeated exposures to moderate pressure elevations in the blood vessels of the arms (pressure training; PT) affect pressure distension in arteries/arterioles of healthy subjects (n=11). PT and vascular pressure-distension determinations were conducted with the subject seated in a pressure chamber with one arm slipped through a hole in the chamber door. Increased intravascular pressure was accomplished by increasing chamber pressure. Before PT, one arm was investigated (control arm) during stepwise increases in chamber pressure to 180 mmHg. Artery diameter and flow were measured in the brachial artery using ultrasonography/Doppler techniques. Thereafter, the contralateral arm underwent a PT regimen consisting of three 40 min sessions/ week during 5 weeks. Chamber pressure was increased during PT from 65 mmHg during the first week to 105 mmHg during the last week. After PT, pressure-distension relationships were examined in both the trained arm and the control arm. Prior to and following PT, endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent dilatations of the brachial artery were studied. PT reduced (p<0.01) arterial pressure distension by 46 ± 18%. Likewise, the pressure-induced increase in arterial flow was less pronounced after (350 ± 249%) compared with before (685 ± 216 %) PT. The PT-induced reductions in arterial/arteriolar pressure distension were reversed 5 weeks post-PT. Neither endothelium-dependent nor endothelium-independent arterial dilatation were affected by PT. It thus appears that the in vivo wall stiffness in arteries and arterioles increases markedly in response to intermittent, moderate increments of transmural pressure during 5 weeks. The increases in arterial/arteriolar stiffness are reversible and do not reflect a reduced capacity to dilate the vessels. The findings are compatible with the notion that local load serves as “ a prime mover” in the development of vascular changes in hypertension.

  • 468.
    Eiken, Ola
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology. KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Swedish Aerospace Physiology Centre, SAPC.
    Kölegård, Roger
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology. KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Swedish Aerospace Physiology Centre, SAPC.
    Mekjavic, Igor, B
    Keramidas, Michail E
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology. KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Swedish Aerospace Physiology Centre, SAPC.
    PlanHab: Normobaric hypoxia may exaggerate bedrest-induced reductions in peak oxygen uptake2015In: International Society for Gravitational Physiology, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 469.
    Eiken, Ola
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology.
    McDonnell, Adam C.
    Keramidas, Michail E.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology.
    Kölegård, Roger
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology.
    Lind, Britta
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical Imaging.
    Mekjavic, Igor B.
    Lunar habitat simulation2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 470.
    Eiken, Ola
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology (Closed 20130701).
    Mekjavic, I.
    Sundblad, Patrik
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology (Closed 20130701).
    Kölegård, Roger
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology (Closed 20130701).
    G tolerance vis-à-vis pressure-distension and pressure-flow relationships of leg arteries2012In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 112, no 10, p. 3619-3627Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During increased gravitoinertial (G) load in the head-to-foot direction, pressures in dependent vascular beds are commonly raised to levels capable of distending precapillary vessels, which, in turn, may reduce arterial pressure, and hence compromise the capacity to withstand G load (G tolerance). We hypothesized that distensibility in precapillary leg vessels would be lower in a group of subjects possessing high G tolerance (H; n = 7; relaxed G tolerance = 6.6 ± 0.8 G) than in a group with low G tolerance (L; n = 8; G tolerance = 3.9 ± 0.3 G). The groups were matched with regard to gender, age, weight, height, and resting arterial pressure. Arterial pressure-distension and pressure-flow experiments were performed with the subject supine in a pressure chamber with a lower leg protruding to the outside. Increased intravascular pressure in the blood vessels of the outside leg was accomplished by stepwise increasing chamber pressure to 240 mmHg. Diameter and flow in the posterior tibial artery were measured by ultrasonographic/Doppler techniques. Pressure-induced increments in arterial diameter and flow were more pronounced (p < 0.03) in the L (14.1 ± 4.2% and 32 ± 21 ml/min respectively) than in the H (1.7 ± 5.0% and 1.6 ± 25 ml/min) group, and the pressure thresholds at which these increments commenced were lower (by 52 and 48 mmHg, respectively) in the L than in the H group (p < 0.04). Negative correlations were observed between G tolerance and the increments in diameter and flow (p < 0.02). Thus, the wall stiffness of precapillary leg vessels is greater in individuals with high relaxed G tolerance; whether a causal relationship exists remains to be established.

  • 471.
    Eiken, Ola
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology.
    Mekjavic, I.B.
    The hypoxic bedrest research programme2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 472.
    Eiken, Ola
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology.
    Mekjavic, IB
    Kounalakis, S
    Kölegård, Roger
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology.
    Stiffness in leg arteries/arterioles is reduced by prolonged bedrest.2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 473.
    Eiken, Ola
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology.
    Mekjavic, IB
    Kounalakis, SN
    Kölegård, Roger
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology.
    Pressure distension in leg vessels as influenced by prolonged bed rest and a pressure habituation regimen2016In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 120, no 12, p. 1458-1465Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bed rest increases pressure distension in arteries, arterioles, and veins of the leg. We hypothesized that bed-rest-induced deconditioning of leg vessels is governed by the removal of the local increments in transmural pressure induced by assuming erect posture and, therefore, can be counteracted by intermittently increasing local transmural pressure during the bed rest. Ten men underwent 5 wk of horizontal bed rest. A subatmospheric pressure (-90 mmHg) was intermittently applied to one lower leg [pressure habituation (PH) leg]. Vascular pressure distension was investigated before and after the bed rest, both in the PH and control (CN) leg by increasing local distending pressure, stepwise up to +200 mmHg. Vessel diameter and blood flow were measured in the posterior tibial artery and vessel diameter in the posterior tibial vein. In the CN leg, bed rest led to 5-fold and 2.7-fold increments (P < 0.01) in tibial artery pressure-distension and flow responses, respectively, and to a 2-fold increase in tibial vein pressure distension. In the PH leg, arterial pressure-distension and flow responses were unaffected by bed rest, whereas bed rest led to a 1.5-fold increase in venous pressure distension. It thus appears that bed-rest-induced deconditioning of leg arteries, arterioles, and veins is caused by removal of gravity-dependent local pressure loads and may be abolished or alleviated by a local pressure-habituation regimen.

  • 474.
    Eiken, Ola
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology.
    Mekjavic, Igor B.
    Kolegard, Roger
    Local Intravascular Pressure Habituation in Relation to G-Induced Arm Pain2012In: Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 0095-6562, E-ISSN 1943-4448, Vol. 83, no 7, p. 667-672Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    EIKEN O, MEKJAVIC IB, KOLEGARD R. Local intravascular pressure habituation in relation to G-induced arm pain. Aviat Space Environ Med 2012; 83:667-72. Background: During high +G(z) loads, pilots may experience arm pain. It is commonly assumed that such pain is caused by distension of blood vessels and that vascular distensibility adapts to the prevailing transmural pressure. The aim was to investigate whether vascular pressure habituation (PH) is as efficient in alleviating G-induced arm pain as using counterpressure/support garments. Methods: In Series I, 7 subjects underwent a 5-wk PH regimen, consisting of 15 40-min sessions, during which intravascular pressures in one arm were elevated by 65-105 mmHg. Before and after PH, arm pain was determined during incremental +G(z)-exposures in a centrifuge. In Series II, the effect on G-induced arm pain of wearing protective garments around the lower part of the upper arm was investigated in 10 subjects in 4 conditions: 1) counterpressure; 2) rigid support; 3) sham support; and 4) no support (control). Pain was rated using a 10-point graded scale. Results: PH reduced arm pain at 7.5 G from [median (range)] 4 (2-9) to 2 (0-5) in the pressure-habituated arm. The sham support did not affect pain compared to in the control condition (5.2; 3.0-10.0), whereas pain was reduced by both the rigid support (3.7; 1.0-8.0) and the counterpressure (2.5; 0.0-5.5). PH was as efficient in alleviating pain as the counterpressure and more efficient than the rigid support. Discussion: The results support the notion that G-induced arm pain is caused by vascular overdistension. Repeated moderate elevations of local intravascular pressure reduce G-induced arm pain, presumably because such PH reduces vascular distensibility.

  • 475.
    Eiken, Ola
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology. KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Swedish Aerospace Physiology Centre, SAPC.
    Mekjavic, Igor B.
    Kölegård, Roger
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology. KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Swedish Aerospace Physiology Centre, SAPC.
    Blood pressure regulation V: in vivo mechanical properties of precapillary vessels as affected by long-term pressure loading and unloading2014In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 114, no 3, p. 499-509Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies are reviewed, concerning the in vivo wall stiffness of arteries and arterioles in healthy humans, and how these properties adapt to iterative increments or sustained reductions in local intravascular pressure. A novel technique was used, by which arterial and arteriolar stiffness were determined as changes in arterial diameter and flow, respectively, during graded increments in distending pressure in the blood vessels of an arm or a leg. Pressure-induced increases in diameter and flow were smaller in the lower leg than in the arm, indicating greater stiffness in the arteries/arterioles of the leg. A 5-wk period of intermittent intravascular pressure elevations in one arm reduced pressure distension and pressure-induced flow in the brachial artery by about 50%. Conversely, prolonged reduction of arterial/arteriolar pressure in the lower body by 5 wks of sustained horizontal bedrest, induced three-fold increases of the pressure-distension and pressure-flow responses in a tibial artery. Thus, the wall stiffness of arteries and arterioles are plastic properties that readily adapt to changes in the prevailing local intravascular pressure. The discussion concerns mechanisms underlying changes in local arterial/arteriolar stiffness as well as whether stiffness is altered by changes in myogenic tone and/or wall structure. As regards implications, regulation of local arterial/arteriolar stiffness may facilitate control of arterial pressure in erect posture and conditions of exaggerated intravascular pressure gradients. That increased intravascular pressure leads to increased arteriolar wall stiffness also supports the notion that local pressure loading may constitute a prime mover in the development of vascular changes in hypertension.

  • 476.
    Ekberg, K
    et al.
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Gustavsson, M
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Lundqvist, D
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Reineholm, C
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Fagerlind, A-C
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Karlsson, N
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Leading and organising for health and productivity2012In: Book of Proceedings: Zürich 2012 10th Conference, European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 477. Ekblom, M. M.
    et al.
    Eriksson, Martin
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical sensors, signals and systems (MSSS).
    Concurrent EMG feedback acutely improves strength and muscle activation2012In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 112, no 5, p. 1899-1905Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of electromyographic (EMG) feedback on muscle activation and strength during maximal voluntary concentric and eccentric muscle actions. 15 females performed two sets of three lengthening and three shortening maximal voluntary isokinetic knee extensions at 20A degrees A s(-1) over 60A degrees range of motion. After the first set, subjects were randomized to either a control group (n = 8) or a feedback group (n = 7). In the second set, the control group performed tasks identical to those in the first set, whereas the feedback group additionally received concurrent visual feedback of the EMGrms from Vastus Medialis (VM). Knee extensor strength and EMG activation of VM, Vastus lateralis (VL) and hamstrings (HAM) were measured during the MVCs. Analyses were performed separately in a 1 s preactivation phase, a 1 s initial movement phase and a 1 s late movement phase. EMG feedback was associated with significantly higher knee extensor strength in all phases (20.5% p < 0.05, 18.2% p < 0.001 and 19% p < 0.001, respectively) for the eccentric MVCs and in the preactivation phase (16.3%, p < 0.001) and initial movement phases (7.2%, p < 0.05) for concentric MVCs. EMG feedback from VM further improved activation in VM and HAM but not VL. These findings suggested that concurrent visual EMG feedback from VM could acutely enhance muscle strength and activation. Before recommending implementation of EMG feedback in resistance training paradigms, the feedback parameters needs to be optimized and its long-term effects needs to be scrutinized.

  • 478.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Arbetsmiljö och lärande i Lean och kvalitetsutveckling2014In: Lärande i arbetslivet möjligheter och utmaningar: en vänbok till Per-Erik Ellström / [ed] Henrik Kock, Linköping: Linköpings universitet , 2014Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Frågan om vilka konsekvenser lean och kvalitetsutveckling får för arbetsmiljö och lärande är avgörande för de anställdas acceptans av dessa koncept, men också avgörande för konceptens systemeffektivitet. Hur dessa samband ser ut har behandlats i ett flertal artiklar (Landsbergis, 1999; Westgaard och Winkel, 2007; Hasle et al., 2012; Adler and Borys, 1994; Adler and Cole, 1995; Appelbaum, 1996). Inriktningen på förändringarna och den kultur som finns i organisationerna synes spela avgörande roll för utfallet. Samtidigt finns det anledning att mera i detalj studera dessa samband. Det finns också studier som har kopplat ihop arbetsförhållanden och lärande. Utifrån definitioner på vad som karaktäriserar det goda arbetet har lärande och möjligheter att utvecklas lyfts fram som viktiga faktorer (Thorsrud, 1969). Detta kapitel syftar till att beskriva olika konsekvenser som kan uppstå för lärande och arbetsmiljö i samband med att organisationer inför lean eller initierar kvalitetsutveckling i sin verksamhet. Ett andra syfte är att koppla dessa konsekvenser till de förändringsansatser som genomförs.

  • 479.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics. Helix, Linköping University.
    Arbetsplatsnära FoU från olika synvinklar2016In: Book of Abstracts, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 480.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Belysning, buller och klimat2008In: Återvinningscentralen: Sorteringsplats, arbetsplats, mötesplats / [ed] Engkvist I-L, Linköping: LiU Tryck , 2008, p. 59-67Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 481.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Besökarna och deras syn på återvinningscentralen2008In: Återvinningscentralen: Sorteringsplats, arbetsplats, mötesplats / [ed] Engkvist I-L, Linköping: LiU Tryck , 2008, p. 107-118Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 482.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Future of ergonomics: A personal view2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 483.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Hur påverkar arbetsmiljön kvalitet och produktivitet?2009In: God arbetsmiljö: en framgångsfaktor?, Stockholm: Fritzes, 2009, p. 31-47Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 484.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Improvements, innovation and Lean2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Lean has become a dominating change concept in Sweden and in other countries. It has been discussed whether Lean is a support or an obstacle for improvement and innovation. The aim of this paper is to identify examples, opportunities and obstacles for improvement and innovation within the framework of Lean. Cases from 30 organizations have been analyzed. The empirical examples and also literature show that it is possible to work with Lean or Lean principles in a way that arenas of innovation and improvement are created, but that in other organizations this does not happen.

  • 485.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Inbrott, hot och våld samt konflikthantering2008In: Återvinningscentralen: Sorteringsplats, arbetsplats, mötesplats / [ed] Engkvist I-L, Linköping: LiU Tryck , 2008, p. 95-98Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 486.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Interactive research: a strategy for ergonomics interventions2015In: Proceedings 19th Triennial Congress of the IEA, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need for more ergonomics intervention studies. Reasons are that the knowledge about applications as well as methodology need to be developed (Karsh et al., 2001) It is difficult for ergonomics researchers to get access to organizations that perform interventions. One reason is that extensive resources are needed from the organizations. In order to ollaborate with the researchers, they need to see this collaboration as useful and that they get useful advice or knowledge that can be applied in their operations. Interactive research is a form of participatory research (Aagaard Nielsen and Svensson, 2006), that may offer a solution to the difficulties to perform ergonomics intervention research. Interactive research has been developed from Action research in order to avoid the weaknesses of Action research, such as: - the strong involvement of the researcher in the practical change process makes the change vulnerable in the long-term, - a focus rather on local understanding than in general knowledge creation, - high time and resource demands, - limited output in terms of theory development. Interactive research focuses more on the research and knowledge creation than on the development processes. The research is conducted in a partnership with the practitioners so that the researchers and practitioners together have defined research questions of high priority. Further, the planning of the study as well as the knowledge creation process takes place jointly together with the practitioners (Svensson et al., 2007). There is a clear division of responsibilities, where the interactive researcher is only responsible for the research, and the practitioners only responsible for the implementation of the operational changes and actions taken in the organization. One model for the principles of interactive research was proposed by Ellström et al. (1999), which clarifies the different roles of the practitioners and the researchers. The aim of this paper is to summarize experiences from the use of interactive research in five ergonomics intervention programs.

  • 487.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Intervention ergonomique et recherché interactive: Les journees de Bordeaux sur la pratique de lérgonomie2009In: Diversite des domains díntervention, nouvelles pratiques de lérgonomie: Quávons-nous encore en commun?, Bordeaux: Université Victor Segalen , 2009, p. 97-101Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 488.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics. Helix, LiU.
    Keynote: The hidden relationship between ergonomics and quality2017In: 48th Annual Conference of the Association of Canadian Ergonomists, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    SUMMATIVE STATEMENT 

    There is strong evidence that insufficient ergonomics cause quality deficiencies in production. Despite this, it has not yet been accepted that ergonomics is an important production factor. Reasons for this situation and possible actions are discussed.

     

    PROBLEM STATEMENT 

    The scientific literature reports many examples of relationships between ergonomics and quality. However, this knowledge has not been sufficiently systematized for ergonomics to become generally accepted as a production factor.

     

    RESEARCH OBJECTIVE

    The objective of this paper is to summarize different perspectives on the relationship between ergonomics and quality, and to discuss the formation of this knowledge on a generalized level.

     

    RESULTS

    There is a large number of studies and reviews that have identified strong relationships between the quality performance of individuals and different ergonomics aspects such as light, noise, vibration, ventilation, climate, cognition and physical ergonomics. Further, there are also a large number of studies that have identified a relationship between ergonomics and quality output for the organization in different production settings. There are also examples when causality has been shown. All together, this evidence point to that good ergonomics is a precondition for quality performance, in other words an important production factor.

     

    DISCUSSION

    The strong relationship between ergonomics and quality might be accepted within the ergonomics discipline, but not as a production factor and not in working life. TQM and Lean address quality and some aspects of work design as important production factors. There are many reasons why it is not generally recognized that ergonomics is an important production factor. Some of them might be that the research literature is not explicit on this point, the ergonomics knowledge is not spread to the production discipline, and that ergonomics is seen an additional luxury for the employees, provided when the economy of the organization is sufficiently strong. Still another reason might be that there are also examples of how ergonomics improvements can be shown to be unprofitable for the organization.

     

    CONCLUSIONS  

    A large number of research studies show strong evidence that insufficient ergonomics cause quality deficiencies in production, both on an individual and on an organizational level, confirming that ergonomics is a production factor. It is a problem that this knowledge is not formed, disseminated and accepted by production engineers and managers.

     

  • 489.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics. Helix, LiU.
    Lean in retail – implementation in stores2017In: / [ed] Anna-Lisa Osvalder, Mikael Blomé, Hajnalka Bodnar, Lund, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and purpose

    Lean has been implemented to varying degrees in different organizations and in different branches. Mass-producing manufacturing industries were early in this respect, and later followed by e.g. healthcare, authorities and municipalities. Presently, some stores are implementing Lean-inspired working methods. The purpose of this paper is to identify different ways of working with and implementing Lean in stores.

     

    Methods

    The methods used were case studies in 9 stores. The stores were visited and data were collected through observation of working methods and artefacts in the stores, interviews were conducted with employees and managers, and a questionnaire was answered by a sample of those working in the stores. Finally, documents were collected and photographs were taken.

     

    Results

    A few stores worked according to some the principles of Lean, and other stores had implemented some of the Lean tools. Other stores had statements of the values for the organization on display. Continuous improvement and 5S were two commonly used tools. Visualisation by using whiteboards and KPIs were also applied in several stores, and daily meetings between the store manager and the employees were also taking place in a few stores. Waste reduction has been used for a long time in stores handling fresh food, as well as substantial work in order to improve the logistics. These are aspects that Lean include, but were present in the stores before Lean was introduced.

     

    Discussion with practical implications

    Few examples of a long-term Lean tradition exist. Disseminating good examples that are also good for the work environment of the employees could support a more holistic way of working with Lean and improve working conditions in the future.

     

    Conclusions

    The use of Lean in stores is under development, and several stores have started to introduce Lean-inspired working methods, such as Continuous improvement, 5S, customer orientation, visualization, daily whiteboard meetings and waste reduction.

     

  • 490.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Ledning genom styrning och genom delaktighet2016In: Mot ett förändrat ledarskap: Om chefers arbete och ledarskap i ett organisationsperspektiv / [ed] P-E Ellström, A. Fogelberg Eriksson, H. Kock, A. Wallo, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2016Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 491.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Ledning genom styrning och genom delaktighet2009In: Mot ett förändrat ledarskap?: Om chefers arbete i team och processorienterad verksamhet / [ed] Per-Erik och Kock, Henrik, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2009, 1, p. 127-138Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 492.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Antonsson, Ann-Beth
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Arbetsmiljöförbättringar, kvalitet och produktivitet2011In: Framgångsrik företagshälsovård: Möjligheter och metoder, Stockholm: Elanders Sverige AB , 2011, p. 57-67Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 493.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Brännmark, Mikael
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Sustainable development for ergonomics improvement projects2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 494.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Brännmark, Mikael
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Dellve, Lotta
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Elg, M
    Eriksson, A
    Halling, Bengt
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Halvarsson, A
    Kock, H
    Williamsson, Anna
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Andersson, K
    Håkansson, Malin
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Langstrand, J
    Poksinska, Bozena
    Renström, Jonas
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Svensson, L
    Vänje, Annika
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Lean and working conditions: a current position2013In: HELIX Conference, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 495.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    Linköpings universitet.
    Utformning av tre nybyggda återvinningscentraler2008In: Återvinningscentralen: Sorteringsplats, arbetsplats, mötesplats / [ed] Engkvist, I-L, Linköping: LiU Tryck , 2008Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 496.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Karltun, Johan
    Jönköpings tekniska högskola.
    Vogel, Kjerstin
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Styckarnas arbetssituation: Ett interaktivt forskningprogram för branschstöd och utveckling av åtgärder (Star). dnr 0800142012Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 497.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics. Helix Vinn Excellence Centre, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Halvarsson, A
    Kock, Henrik
    Lindskog, Pernilla
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics. Helix Vinn Excellence Centre, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Svensson, Lennart
    Sustainability and development of Lean implementations2014In: Human Factors in Organizational design and management - XI, 2014, p. 165-169Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lean production has become a major change strategy in Swedish public organizations. The aim of this paper was to identify factors that support or counteract sustainability and development of Lean implementations in public organizations. In an interactive research project including interviews and questionnaires, seven public organizations were followed during a three year period. Some factors supported and other factors counteracted sustainability and development of Lean. In conclusion, lack of sustained change was to a  large extent due to replacement of the top managers in five of the organizations and introduction of another change philosophy, low political and managerial ownership and financial problems.

  • 498.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Halvarsson, A.
    Lindskog, Pernilla
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Lean implementation, work environment and sustainability2015In: Sustainable Development in Organizations: Studies on Innovative Practices / [ed] Elg, M., Ellström, P-E., Klofsten, M., and Tillmar, M, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, p. 29-41Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lean is introduced in industry as well as in the public sector. Previous research has criticized Lean for creating bad working conditions. Also sustainability of organizational changes is claimed to be low. The aim of this chapter is to describe consequences for working conditions and sustainability as a result of implementations of Lean in manufacturing industry and in the public sector. A second aim is to give examples of the type of knowledge produced in an interactive research approach and to discuss the use of interactive research when implementing Lean. Two programs for implementing Lean were assessed through interactive research. The research showed that there is a huge variation between organizations regarding how Lean is interpreted, how it is implemented, and also regarding the outcomes. The majority of the employees in the manufacturing companies experienced that Lean meant improved working conditions, e.g. more participation, learning and development. However they also experienced more stress and repetitive work. For the public organizations, the employees experienced on average that the working conditions had deteriorated. Sustainability of the changes was also substantially lower than for the manufacturing companies. The interactive research approach enabled deep access to a broad sample of organizations and contributed to better relevance and validity of the research results.

  • 499.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Halvarsson, Agneta
    Kock, Henrik
    Lindskog, Pernilla
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Svensson, Lennart
    Work environment in Swedish Lean implementations2014In: Human Factors in Organizational Design and Management - XI, 2014, p. -660Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lean Production has spread from industry to the public sector and administration, and is now the dominating change concept in Sweden. The influence of Lean on the work environment has been debated. However, both positive and negative work environment consequences have been reported in different studies and in different contexts. The aim of this presentation is to describe consequences for the work environment following Lean implementations and to further knowledge about conditions that influence the work environment.

  • 500.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Karltun, Johan
    Ten years of experience from interactive ergonomics projects2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 4862-4865Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper highlights experiences from ergonomics projects, applying an interactive research approach. The aim of this paper is to summarise experiences from seven interactive ergonomics projects with the aim to improve ergonomics and organizational performance jointly. Results from these seven projects were analysed with a model for assessing sustainable change, including the factors active ownership, professional management, competent project leadership, and involved participants. All factors were found giving support to impact and sustainability of the change projects. However, the role of the researcher is difficult and demanding.

78910111213 451 - 500 of 2377
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