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  • 451. Yu, Ze
    et al.
    Li, Fei
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi.
    Recent advances in dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cells for solar hydrogen production based on molecular components2015Inngår i: Energy & Environmental Science, ISSN 1754-5692, E-ISSN 1754-5706, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 760-775Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Conceptually new research on dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cells (DS-PECs), through which solar-driven water splitting to generate solar fuel in the form of hydrogen is realized, has attracted growing interest in the past few years. DS-PECs are based on the configurations of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs), but with an aim to drive the two half reactions of water splitting at physically separated two compartments (electrodes) rather than to generate electrical power. Herein, we review some of the recent advances in the design and construction of functional DS-PECs for visible light-driven water splitting together with some comments on the performance of these devices. Future challenges towards the development of more efficient dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical devices are addressed in the end.

  • 452.
    Yu, Ze
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Oorganisk kemi (stängd 20110630).
    Najafabadi, Hussein Moien
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Oorganisk kemi (stängd 20110630).
    Xu, Yunhua
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi.
    Nonomura, Kazuteru
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Oorganisk kemi (stängd 20110630).
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi.
    Kloo, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Oorganisk kemi (stängd 20110630).
    Ruthenium sensitizer with a thienylvinylbipyridyl ligand for dye-sensitized solar cells2011Inngår i: Dalton Transactions, ISSN 1477-9226, E-ISSN 1477-9234, Vol. 40, nr 33, s. 8361-8366Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A new ruthenium bipyridyl complex, coded as YX360, incorporating a conjugated thienylvinylbipyridyl ligand, cis-Ru(dtbpy)(dcbpy)(NCS)(2) [dtbpy = 4,4'-di(thienylvinyl)-2,2'-bipyridyl; dcbpy = 4,4'-dicarboxy-2,2'-bipyridyl], has been synthesized and studied as a dye in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The new dye is compared to its precursor N719, which is one of the best ruthenium-based sensitizers known so far. In the dye YX360 the lowest metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) band is red-shifted by 10 nm and the molar extinction coefficient is dramatically increased as compared to N719. The reason can largely be attributed to the introduction of the extended pi-conjugation unit to the ruthenium complex. Correspondingly, the incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) spectra of solar cells containing the dye YX360 show relatively higher values in the plateau region and a wider absorption spectrum relative to those of the dye N719. The effect is most pronounced for thinner TiO(2) films, for which comparable overall conversion efficiencies were obtained. However, as the TiO(2) film thickness is increased, DSCs containing N719 show superior conversion efficiencies. Although YX360 typically renders better short-circuit currents, the open-circuit voltage is suppressed because of larger electron recombination losses at the TiO(2)/dye/electrolyte interface. The results highlight that an extended aromatic ligand system in a sensitizing dye on the one hand improved light absorption, but on the other hand more efficiently loses photoelectrons through a recombination pathway via the dye to the electrolyte.

  • 453.
    Yu, Ze
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Institute of Artificial Photosynthesis, DUT-KTH Joint Education and Research Center on Molecular Devices, Dalian University of Technology (DUT), Dalian, 116024, China.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Organisk kemi. State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Institute of Artificial Photosynthesis, DUT-KTH Joint Education and Research Center on Molecular Devices, Dalian University of Technology (DUT), Dalian, 116024, China.
    Inorganic Hole-Transporting Materials for Perovskite Solar Cells2018Inngår i: Small Methods, ISSN 2366-9608, Vol. 2, nr 2, artikkel-id 1700280Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last few years, inorganic–organic metal halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have attracted a great deal of attention as a promising next-generation solar-cell technology because of their high efficiencies and low production cost. Hole-transporting materials (HTMs) play an essential role in effective charge extraction and thus in achieving high overall efficiency. Therefore, searching for an efficient, stable, and low-cost HTM in PSCs has been one of the hottest research topics in this field. Inorganic p-type semiconductors that possess several appealing characteristics, such as suitable energy levels, high hole mobility, and high chemical stability, as well as low production cost, etc., are promising HTM candidate materials in PSCs. Here, specific attention is paid to the recent progress in inorganic HTMs being explored for PSCs. A variety of methods developed for the fabrication of these inorganic HTMs are summarized in detail, together with their corresponding performance in PSCs. Finally, an outlook on further enhancements of highly efficient PSCs based on inorganic HTMs is presented.

  • 454. Yu, Ze
    et al.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi.
    Recent Progress on Hole-Transporting Materials for Emerging Organometal Halide Perovskite Solar Cells2015Inngår i: ADVANCED ENERGY MATERIALS, ISSN 1614-6832, Vol. 5, nr 12, artikkel-id 1500213Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In less than three years, the photovoltaic community has witnessed a rapid emergence of a new class of solid-state heterojunction solar cells based on solution-processable organometal halide perovskite absorbers. The energy conversion efficiency of solid-state perovskite solar cells (PSCs) has been quickly increased to a certified value of 20.1% by the end of 2014 because of their unique characteristics, such as a broad spectral absorption range, large absorption coefficient, high charge carrier mobility and diffusion length. Here, the focus is specifically on recent developments of hole-transporting materials (HTMs) in PSCs, which are essential components for achieving high solar cell efficiencies. Some fundamentals with regard to PSCs are first presented, including the history of PSCs, device architectures and general operational principles of PSCs as well as various techniques developed for the fabrications of uniform and dense perovskite complexes. A broad range of the state-of-the-art HTMs being used in PSCs are then discussed in detail. Finally, an outlook on the design of more efficient HTMs for highly efficient PSCs is addressed.

  • 455.
    Yu, Ze
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Oorganisk kemi (stängd 20110630).
    Tian, Haining
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi.
    Gabrielsson, Erik
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi.
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Gorlov, Mikhail
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi.
    Kloo, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Oorganisk kemi (stängd 20110630).
    Tetrathiafulvalene as a one-electron iodine-free organic redox mediator in electrolytes for dye-sensitized solar cells2012Inngår i: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 2, nr 3, s. 1083-1087Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) was investigated as an organic iodine-free redox mediator in electrolytes for dye-sensitized, nanocrystalline solar cells (DSCs) and was compared to the commonly used iodide/triiodide system. The TTF system studied was determined to be a one-electron transfer system, although potentially exhibiting three well-defined oxidation states. Despite the slightly positive redox potential of TTF, electrolytes with TTF displayed around 200 mV lower open-circuit voltage than the iodide/triiodide system. This can mainly be ascribed to a much shorter electron lifetime in the TiO2 film. Mass transport limitations for redox species in TTF-based electrolytes were found to be serious. Electrochemical impedance measurements (EIS) show that the charge-transfer resistance at the counter electrode in the electrolyte with TTF is considerably larger than for the iodide/triiodide system. In addition, the light absorption of the TTF-based electrolyte is stronger than that for the iodide/triiodide system. Thus, DSCs with TTF-based electrolytes show worse photovoltaic performance than those with iodide/triiodide-based electrolytes. The differences in IV characteristics and charge-recombination behavior have also been elucidated.

  • 456. Yu, Ze
    et al.
    Wang, Mei
    Li, Ping
    Dong, Weibing
    Wang, Fujun
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi.
    Diiron dithiolate complexes containing intra-ligand NH center dot center dot center dot S hydrogen bonds: FeFe hydrogenase active site models for the electrochemical proton reduction of HOAc with low overpotential2008Inngår i: Dalton Transactions, ISSN 1477-9226, E-ISSN 1477-9234, nr 18, s. 2400-2406Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Four diiron dithiolate complexes containing ortho- acylamino- functionalized arenethiolato ligands, [(mu-S-2-RCONHC6H4)(2)Fe-2(CO)(6)] (R=CH3, 1; CF3, 2; C6H5, 3; 4-FC6H4, 4), were synthesized and well characterized as biomimetic models of the Fe-Fe hydrogenase active site. The molecular structures of 3 and 4 were determined by X-ray crystallography. The intra-ligand NH center dot center dot center dot S hydrogen bonds were studied by the X-ray analysis and by the H-1 NMR spectroscopy. The contribution of the NH center dot center dot center dot S hydrogen bonds to the reduction potentials of complexes 1-4 was investigated by electrochemistry. The first reduction potentials of complexes 1-4 exhibit large positive shifts, that is, 220-320 mV in comparison to that of the analogous complex [(mu- SPh)(2)Fe-2(CO)(6)] and 370-470 mV to that of [(mu- pdt)(2)Fe-2(CO)(6)] (pdt = propane-1,3-dithiolato). Complex 4 is capable of electrocatalysing proton reduction of acetic acid at relatively low overpotential ( ca. 0.2 V) in acetonitrile.

  • 457. Yu, Ze
    et al.
    Zhang, Yuchen
    Jiang, Xiaoqing
    Li, Xiaoxin
    Lai, Jianbo
    Hu, Maowei
    Elawad, Mohammed
    Gurzadyan, Gagik G.
    Yang, Xichuan
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi. State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Institute of Artificial Photosynthesis, DUT-KTH Joint Education and Research Center on Molecular Devices, Dalian University of Technology (DUT), Dalian 116024, China .
    High-efficiency perovskite solar cells employing a conjugated donor-acceptor co-polymer as a hole-transporting material2017Inngår i: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 7, nr 44, s. 27189-27197Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we have successfully introduced 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4TCNQ) as an efficient p-type dopant for donor-acceptor (D-A) co-polymer poly[2,6-(4,4-bis-(2ethylhexyl)- 4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b; 3,4-b'] dithiophene)-alt-4,7(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)] (PCPDTBT) as an HTM in mesoscopic perovskite solar cells (PSCs). The bulk conductivity is significantly enhanced by 4 orders of magnitude when PCPDTBT is doped with F4TCNQ (6%, w/w). UV-vis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results indicate the occurrence of p-doping, which results in higher bulk conductivity. The high conductivity leads to an impressive overall efficiency of 15.1%, which is considerably higher than the pristine PCPDTBT based devices (9.2%). The superior performance obtained should be largely attributed to the significant enhancement of the photocurrent density strongly correlated with a more efficient charge collection. This is the highest efficiency reported so far for PCPDTBT-based PSCs. Thus, molecularly p-doping has been demonstrated to be an effective strategy for further improving the performance of a wide range of D-A and other types of polymeric HTMs in PSCs.

  • 458.
    Yuan, Chunze
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Teoretisk kemi och biologi.
    Chen, Guanying
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Teoretisk kemi och biologi. University of Buffalo, United States; Harbin Institute of Technology, China .
    Li, Lin
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi.
    Damasco, Jossana A.
    Ning, Zhijun
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Teoretisk kemi och biologi.
    Xing, Hui
    Zhang, Tianmu
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi.
    Zeng, Hao
    Cartwright, Alexander N.
    Prasad, Paras N.
    Ågren, Hans
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Teoretisk kemi och biologi.
    Simultaneous Multiple Wavelength Upconversion in a Core-Shell Nanoparticle for Enhanced Near Infrared Light Harvesting in a Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell2014Inngår i: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 6, nr 20, s. 18018-18025Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The efficiency of most photovoltaic devices is severely limited by near-infrared (NIR) transmission losses. To alleviate this limitation, a new type of colloidal upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs), hexagonal core-shell-structured beta-NaYbF4:Er3+(2%)/NaYF4:Nd3+(30%), is developed and explored in this work as an NIR energy relay material for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). These UCNPs are able to harvest light energy in multiple NIR regions, and subsequently convert the absorbed energy into visible light where the DSSCs strongly absorb. The NIR-insensitive DSSCs show compelling photocurrent increases through binary upconversion under NIR light illumination either at 785 or 980 nm, substantiating efficient energy relay by these UCNPs. The overall conversion efficiency of the DSSCs was improved with the introduction of UCNPs under simulated AM 1.5 solar irradiation.

  • 459.
    Yuan, Chunze
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Teoretisk kemi och biologi.
    Chen, Guanying
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Teoretisk kemi och biologi.
    Li, Lin
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi.
    Damasco, Jossana
    Ning, Zhijun
    Xing, Hui
    Zhang, Tianmu
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi.
    Zeng, Hao
    Prasad, Paras N.
    Ågren, Hans
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Teoretisk kemi och biologi.
    Effective Dual-NIR-Wavelength Energy Relay of Colloidal Upconversion Nanocrystals for Dye-sensitized Solar CellsManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 460.
    Yuan, Chunze
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Teoretisk kemi och biologi.
    Chen, Guanying
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Teoretisk kemi och biologi.
    Prasad, Paras N.
    Ohulchanskyy, Tymish Y.
    Ning, Zhijun
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Teoretisk kemi och biologi.
    Tian, Haining
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi.
    Ågren, Hans
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Teoretisk kemi och biologi.
    Use of colloidal upconversion nanocrystals for energy relay solar cell light harvesting in the near-infrared region2012Inngår i: Journal of Materials Chemistry, ISSN 0959-9428, E-ISSN 1364-5501, Vol. 22, nr 33, s. 16709-16713Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Colloidal upconversion (UC) nanocrystals were explored as energy relay materials for dye-sensitized solar cells for the first time. The utilization of colloidal UC nanocrystals was found to significantly enhance the upconversion efficiency and improve the photocurrent of the cells for low infrared irradiation intensity. In addition, it was found that UC nanocrystals of small size favor infiltration into a TiO2 film and bring higher relay efficiency. Finally, we found that UC nanocrystals can serve as a scattering material to increase the light absorption capability of the cells and increase the overall photocurrent of the cells under simulated sunlight irradiation.

  • 461.
    Yuan, Chunze
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Teoretisk kemi och biologi.
    Li, Lin
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Teoretisk kemi och biologi.
    Huang, Jing
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Teoretisk kemi och biologi.
    Ning, Zhijun
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi.
    Ågren, Hans
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Teoretisk kemi och biologi.
    Improving the Photocurrent in Quantum-Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells by Employing Alloy PbxCd1-xS Quantum Dots as Photosensitizers2016Inngår i: NANOMATERIALS, ISSN 2079-4991, Vol. 6, nr 6, artikkel-id UNSP 97Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ternary alloy PbxCd1-xS quantum dots (QDs) were explored as photosensitizers for quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). Alloy PbxCd1-xS QDs (Pb0.54Cd0.46S, Pb0.31Cd0.69S, and Pb0.24Cd0.76S) were found to substantially improve the photocurrent of the solar cells compared to the single CdS or PbS QDs. Moreover, it was found that the photocurrent increases and the photovoltage decreases when the ratio of Pb in PbxCd1-xS is increased. Without surface protecting layer deposition, the highest short-circuit current density reaches 20 mA/cm(2) under simulated AM 1.5 illumination (100 mW/cm(2)). After an additional CdS coating layer was deposited onto the PbxCd1-xS electrode, the photovoltaic performance further improved, with a photocurrent of 22.6 mA/cm(2) and an efficiency of 3.2%.

  • 462.
    Yuan, Chunze
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Teoretisk kemi och biologi.
    Li, Lin
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi.
    Ning, Zhijun
    Huang, Jing
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Teoretisk kemi och biologi.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi.
    Ågren, Hans
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Teoretisk kemi och biologi.
    A Strategy to Improve Photocurrent in Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells by Employing Alloy PbxCd1-xS QDs as PhotosensitizersManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 463.
    Yuan, Chunze
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Teoretisk kemi och biologi.
    Li, Lin
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi.
    Ning, Zhijun
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Teoretisk kemi och biologi.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi.
    Fu, Ying
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Teoretisk kemi och biologi.
    Study of CdS quantum dot solar cells directly deposited on p-type NiO photoelectrodesManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 464. Zhang, B.
    et al.
    Wu, X.
    Li, F.
    Yu, F.
    Wang, Y.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi. Dalian University of Technology (DUT), China.
    In Situ Formation of Efficient Cobalt-Based Water Oxidation Catalysts from Co2+-Containing Tungstate and Molybdate Solutions2015Inngår i: Chemistry - An Asian Journal, ISSN 1861-4728, E-ISSN 1861-471X, Vol. 10, nr 10, s. 2228-2233Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Replacing rare and expensive noble-metal catalysts with inexpensive and earth-abundant ones is of great importance to split water either electrochemically or photoelectrochemically. In this study, two amorphous cobalt oxide catalysts (Co-W film and Co-Mo film) with high activity for electrocatalytic water oxidation were prepared by fast, simple electrodeposition from aqueous solutions of Na<inf>2</inf>WO<inf>4</inf> and Na<inf>2</inf>MoO<inf>4</inf> containing Co2+. In solutions of Na<inf>2</inf>WO<inf>4</inf> and Na<inf>2</inf>MoO<inf>4</inf>, sustained anodic current densities up to 1.45 and 0.95mA cm-2 were obtained for Co-W film at 1.87V versus a reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE) and Co-Mo film on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates at 1.85V versus RHE. For the Co-W film, a much higher current density of 4.5mA cm-2 was acquired by using a stainless-steel mesh as the electrode substrate. Significantly, in long-term electrolysis for 13h, the Co-W film exhibited improved stability in cobalt-free buffer solution in comparison with the previously reported Co-Pi film.

  • 465.
    Zhang, Biaobiao
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi.
    Chen, Hong
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi.
    Daniel, Quentin
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi.
    Philippe, Bertrand
    Yu, Fengshou
    Valvo, Mario
    Li, Yuanyuan
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Ambre, Ram B.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi.
    Zhang, Peili
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi.
    Li, Fei
    Rensmo, Håkan
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, Zhejiang-KTH Joint Research Center of Photonics, JORCEP.
    Defective and "c-Disordered" Hortensia-like Layered MnOx as an Efficient Electrocatalyst for Water Oxidation at Neutral pH2017Inngår i: ACS Catalysis, ISSN 2155-5435, E-ISSN 2155-5435, Vol. 7, nr 9, s. 6311-6322Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of a highly active manganese-based water oxidation catalyst in the design of an ideal artificial photosynthetic device operating under neutral pH conditions remains a great challenge, due to the instability of pivotal Mn3+ intermediates. We report here defective and "c-disordered" layered manganese oxides (MnOx-300) formed on a fluorine-doped tin oxide electrode by constant anodic potential deposition and subsequent annealing, with a catalytic onset (0.25 mA/cm(2)) at an overpotential (eta) of 280 mV and a benchmark catalytic current density of 1.0 mA/cm(2) at an overpotential (eta) of 330 mV under neutral pH (1 M potassium phosphate). Steady current density above 8.2 mA/cm(2) was obtained during the electrolysis at 1.4 V versus the normal hydrogen electrode for 20 h. Insightful studies showed that the main contributing factors for the observed high activity of MnOx-300 are (i) a defective and randomly stacked layered structure, (ii) an increased degree of Jahn-Teller distorted Mn3+ in the MnO6 octahedral sheets, (iii) effective stabilization of Mn3+, (iv) a high surface area, and (v) improved electrical conductivity. These results demonstrate that manganese oxides as structural and functional models of an oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) in photosystem II are promising catalysts for water oxidation in addition to Ni/Co-based oxides/hydroxides.

  • 466.
    Zhang, Biaobiao
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi.
    Daniel, Quentin
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi.
    Cheng, Ming
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi.
    Fan, Lizhou
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi. Dalian University of Technology (DUT), China.
    Temperature dependence of electrocatalytic water oxidation: a triple device model with a photothermal collector and photovoltaic cell coupled to an electrolyzer2017Inngår i: Faraday discussions (Online), ISSN 1359-6640, E-ISSN 1364-5498, Vol. 198, s. 169-179Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A water oxidation electrocatalyst with high activity is essential for promoting the overall efficiency of an integrated water splitting device. Herein, by investigating the prominent temperature dependence of electrocatalytic water oxidation catalyzed by first row transition metal oxides, we present how to elevate the operating temperature of the electrolyzer as an effective and universal method to improve its electrocatalytic performance. Consequently, a triple device model combining a photothermal collector with a photovoltaic (PV) cell coupled to a water splitting device is proposed to realize the comprehensive and efficient utilization of solar energy: solar heat + PV + electrolyzer.

  • 467. Zhang, Biaobiao
    et al.
    Li, Fei
    Yu, Fengshou
    Cui, Honghua
    Zhou, Xu
    Li, Hua
    Wang, Yong
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Molekylär elektronik, CMD.
    Homogeneous Oxidation of Water by Iron Complexes with Macrocyclic Ligands2014Inngår i: Chemistry - An Asian Journal, ISSN 1861-4728, E-ISSN 1861-471X, Vol. 9, nr 6, s. 1515-1518Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The activity of eleven separated iron complexes and nine in situ-generated iron complexes towards catalytic water oxidation have been examined in aqueous solutions with Ce(NH4)(2)(NO3)(6) as the oxidant. Two iron complexes bearing tridentate and tetradentate macrocyclic ligands were found to be novel water oxidation catalysts. The one with tetradentate ligand exhibited a promising activity with a turnover number of 65 for oxygen evolution.

  • 468. Zhang, Biaobiao
    et al.
    Li, Fei
    Yu, Fengshou
    Wang, Xiaohong
    Zhou, Xu
    Li, Hua
    Jiang, Yi
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Molekylär elektronik, CMD.
    Electrochemical and Photoelectrochemical Water Oxidation by Supported Cobalt-Oxo Cubanes2014Inngår i: ACS Catalysis, ISSN 2155-5435, Vol. 4, nr 3, s. 804-809Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cobalt-oxo cubane clusters were immobilized on a Nafion film-coated fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) electrode and an alpha-Fe2O3 photoanode as surface catalysts for water oxidation. The performance of electrochemical water splitting indicated that these earth-abundant metal complexes retain their homogeneous reactivity on the electrode. Furthermore, efficient visible light-driven water oxidation was realized by coupling a molecular electrocatalyst with an inorganic semiconductor as a noble metal-free photoanode, showing a stability significantly improved with respect to that of the homogeneous system.

  • 469. Zhang, Biaobiao
    et al.
    Li, Fei
    Zhang, Rong
    Ma, Chengbing
    Chen, Lin
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi. Dalian University of Technology (DUT), China.
    Characterization of a trinuclear ruthenium species in catalytic water oxidation by Ru(bda)(pic)(2) in neutral media2016Inngår i: Chemical Communications, ISSN 1359-7345, E-ISSN 1364-548X, Vol. 52, nr 55, s. 8619-8622Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A Ru-III-O-Ru-IV-O-Ru-III type trinuclear species was crystallographically characterized in water oxidation by Ru(bda)(pic)(2) (H(2)bda = 2,2'-bipyridine- 6,60-dicarboxylic acid; pic = 4-picoline) under neutral conditions. The formation of a ruthenium trimer due to the reaction of Ru-IV QO with Ru-II-OH2 was fully confirmed by chemical, electrochemical and photochemical methods. Since the oxidation of the trimer was proposed to lead to catalyst decomposition, the photocatalytic water oxidation activity was rationally improved by the suppression of the formation of the trimer.

  • 470.
    Zhang, Biaobiao
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi.
    Li, Yuanyuan
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Valvo, M.
    Fan, Lizhou
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi.
    Daniel, Quentin
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi.
    Zhang, Peili
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi.
    Wang, Linqin
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi.
    Electrocatalytic Water Oxidation Promoted by 3 D Nanoarchitectured Turbostratic Δ-MnOx on Carbon Nanotubes2017Inngår i: ChemSusChem, ISSN 1864-5631, E-ISSN 1864-564X, Vol. 10, nr 22, s. 4472-4478Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of manganese-based water oxidation electrocatalysts is desirable for the production of solar fuels, as manganese is earth-abundant, inexpensive, non-toxic, and has been employed by the Photosystem II in nature for a billion years. Herein, we directly constructed a 3 D nanoarchitectured turbostratic δ-MnOx on carbon nanotube-modified nickel foam (MnOx/CNT/NF) by electrodeposition and a subsequent annealing process. The MnOx/CNT/NF electrode gives a benchmark catalytic current density (10 mA cm−2) at an overpotential (η) of 270 mV under alkaline conditions. A steady current density of 19 mA cm−2 is obtained during electrolysis at 1.53 V for 1.0 h. To the best of our knowledge, this work represents the most efficient manganese-oxide-based water oxidation electrode and demonstrates that manganese oxides, as a structural and functional model of oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) in Photosystem II, can also become comparable to those of most Ni- and Co-based catalysts.

  • 471.
    Zhang, Biaobiao
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Molekylär elektronik, CMD. KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Organisk kemi. Dalian Univ Technol.
    Across the Board: Licheng Sun on the Mechanism of O-O Bond Formation in Photosystem II2019Inngår i: ChemSusChem, ISSN 1864-5631, E-ISSN 1864-564X, Vol. 12, nr 14, s. 3401-3404Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this series of articles, the board members of ChemSusChem discuss recent research articles that they consider of exceptional quality and importance for sustainability. This entry features Prof. L. Sun, who proposes a special mechanism for O-O bond formation in photosystem II with involvement of an Mn-VII-oxo species induced by charge- and structural rearrangements. In this viewpoint, Proton transfer is involved in changes of the first coordination spheres around the Mn-VII-oxo site on the dangling Mn4 with de- and re-coordination of carboxylates (Glu333 and Asp170).

  • 472.
    Zhang, Biaobiao
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi.
    Artificial photosynthesis: opportunities and challenges of molecular catalysts2019Inngår i: Chemical Society Reviews, ISSN 0306-0012, E-ISSN 1460-4744, Vol. 48, nr 7, s. 2216-2264Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Molecular catalysis plays an essential role in both natural and artificial photosynthesis (AP). However, the field of molecular catalysis for AP has gradually declined in recent years because of doubt about the long-term stability of molecular-catalyst-based devices. This review summarizes the development history of molecular-catalyst-based AP, including the fundamentals of AP, molecular catalysts for water oxidation, proton reduction and CO2 reduction, and molecular-catalyst-based AP devices, and it provides an analysis of the advantages, challenges, and stability of molecular catalysts. With this review, we aim to highlight the following points: (i) an investigation on molecular catalysis is one of the most promising ways to obtain atom-efficient catalysts with outstanding intrinsic activities; (ii) effective heterogenization of molecular catalysts is currently the primary challenge for the application of molecular catalysis in AP devices; (iii) development of molecular catalysts is a promising way to solve the problems of catalysis involved in practical solar fuel production. In molecular-catalysis-based AP, much has been attained, but more challenges remain with regard to long-term stability and heterogenization techniques.

  • 473.
    Zhang, Biaobiao
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi.
    Ru-bda: Unique Molecular Water-Oxidation Catalysts with Distortion Induced Open Site and Negatively Charged Ligands2019Inngår i: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 141, nr 14, s. 5565-5580Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A water-oxidation catalyst with high intrinsic activity is the foundation for developing any type of water-splitting device. To celebrate its 10 years anniversary, in this Perspective we focus on the state-of-the-art molecular water-oxidation catalysts (MWOCs), the Ru-bda series (bda = 2,2'-bipyridine-6,6'-dicarboxylate), to offer strategies for the design and synthesis of more advanced MWOCs. The O-O bond formation mechanisms, derivatives, applications, and reasons behind the outstanding catalytic activities of Ru-bda catalysts are summarized and discussed. The excellent performance of the Ru-bda catalyst is owing to its unique structural features: the distortion induced 7-coordination and the carboxylate ligands with coordination flexibility, proton transfer function as well as small steric hindrance. Inspired by the Ru-bda catalysts, we emphasize that the introduction of negatively charged groups, such as the carboxylate group, into ligands is an effective strategy to lower the onset potential of MWOCs. Moreover, distortion of the regular configuration of a transition metal complex by ligand design to generate a wide open site as the catalytic site for binding the substrate as an extra-coordination is proposed as a new concept for the design of efficient molecular catalysts. These inspirations can be expected to play a great role in not only water oxidation catalysis but also other small molecule activation and conversion reactions involving artificial photosynthesis, such as CO2 reduction and N-2 fixation reactions.

  • 474.
    Zhang, Biaobiao
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Molekylär elektronik, CMD. KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi.
    Why nature chose the Mn4CaO5 cluster as water-splitting catalyst in photosystem II: a new hypothesis for the mechanism of O-O bond formation2018Inngår i: Dalton Transactions, ISSN 1477-9226, E-ISSN 1477-9234, Vol. 47, nr 41, s. 14381-14387Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Resolving the questions, namely, the selection of Mn by nature to build the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) and the presence of a cubic Mn3CaO4 structure in OEC coupled with an additional dangling Mn (Mn4) via mu-O atom are not only important to uncover the secret of water oxidation in nature, but also essential to achieve a blueprint for developing advanced water-oxidation catalysts for artificial photosynthesis. Based on the important experimental results reported so far in the literature and on our own findings, we propose a new hypothesis for the water oxidation mechanism in OEC. In this new hypothesis, we propose for the first time, a complete catalytic cycle involving a charge-rearrangement-induced Mn-VII-dioxo species on the dangling Mn4 during the S-3 -> S-4 transition. Moreover, the O-O bond is formed within this Mn-VII-dioxo site, which is totally different from that discussed in other existing proposals.

  • 475.
    Zhang, Bo
    et al.
    Dalian Univ Technol, Inst Energy Sci & Technol, DUT KTH Joint Educ & Res Ctr Mol Devices, State Key Lab Fine Chem, Dalian 116024, Peoples R China..
    Hou, Jungang
    Dalian Univ Technol, Inst Energy Sci & Technol, DUT KTH Joint Educ & Res Ctr Mol Devices, State Key Lab Fine Chem, Dalian 116024, Peoples R China..
    Wu, Yunzhen
    Dalian Univ Technol, Inst Energy Sci & Technol, DUT KTH Joint Educ & Res Ctr Mol Devices, State Key Lab Fine Chem, Dalian 116024, Peoples R China..
    Cao, Shuyan
    Dalian Univ Technol, Inst Energy Sci & Technol, DUT KTH Joint Educ & Res Ctr Mol Devices, State Key Lab Fine Chem, Dalian 116024, Peoples R China..
    Li, Zhuwei
    Dalian Univ Technol, Inst Energy Sci & Technol, DUT KTH Joint Educ & Res Ctr Mol Devices, State Key Lab Fine Chem, Dalian 116024, Peoples R China..
    Nie, Xiaowa
    Dalian Univ Technol, Inst Energy Sci & Technol, DUT KTH Joint Educ & Res Ctr Mol Devices, State Key Lab Fine Chem, Dalian 116024, Peoples R China..
    Gao, Zhanming
    Dalian Univ Technol, Inst Energy Sci & Technol, DUT KTH Joint Educ & Res Ctr Mol Devices, State Key Lab Fine Chem, Dalian 116024, Peoples R China..
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi. Dalian Univ Technol, Inst Energy Sci & Technol, DUT .
    Tailoring Active Sites in Mesoporous Defect-Rich NC/V-o-WON Heterostructure Array for Superior Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution2019Inngår i: ADVANCED ENERGY MATERIALS, ISSN 1614-6832, Vol. 9, nr 12, artikkel-id 1803693Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Tailoring active sites in earth-abundant non-noble metal electrocatalysts are required toward widespread applications in sustainable energy fields. Herein, an integrated mesoporous heterostructure array is reported by a hydrogenation/nitridation-induced in situ growth strategy. Highly conductive oxygen-vacancies-rich tungsten oxynitride (V-o-WON) nanorod array acts as the backbone encapsulated by ultrathin nitrogen-doped carbon (NC) nanolayers, forming high-quality shell/core NC/V-o-WON heterostructures. Density functional theory calculations reveal that defect-rich heterostructure arrays not only enhance the conductivity and modulate electronic structure but also promote the adsorption and dissociation of reactants and offer substantial potential sites. As expected, porous NC/V-o-WON array exhibits a small overpotential of 16 mV at the current density of 10 mA cm(-2) and a low Tafel slope of 33 mV per decade in alkaline media, accompanied by negligible loss upon a large current density over 100 h. Benefiting from outstanding electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction performance and stability, this defective heterostructure could serve as a prominent alternative electrocatalyst for renewable energy applications.

  • 476. Zhang, F.
    et al.
    Yang, X.
    Cheng, Ming
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi.
    Wang, W.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi. Dalian University of Technology (DUT), China.
    Boosting the efficiency and the stability of low cost perovskite solar cells by using CuPc nanorods as hole transport material and carbon as counter electrode2016Inngår i: Nano Energy, ISSN 2211-2855, Vol. 20, s. 108-116Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Low temperature printable carbon cathode based perovskite solar cell was for the first time interfacial engineered with dopant free, nanorod-liked copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) to facilitate charge transportation. Both the CuPc and low temperature processed carbon are potentially noble metal-free and highly stable. By incorporating CuPc nanorods as hole-selective contact material, together with the printable low temperature processed carbon as cathode material, considerably high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 16.1% was successfully obtained, which is comparable to or even a little higher than the device with state-of-the-art doped spiro-OMeTAD as HTM and noble metal Au as back electrode. Moreover, dramatically enhanced durability relative to doped-spiro-OMeTAD/Au based device was demonstrated by this newly developed device. Detailed excellent capability in accelerating charge extraction and suppressing charge recombination can be disclosed with steady state and time-resolved photoluminescence analysis and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. To the best our knowledge, this is the highest efficiency that has been reported for PSCs based carbon counter electrode. The work presented here demonstrates an important step forwards to practical applications for PSCs, as it paves the way for developments of cost-effective, stable but still highly efficient PSCs, and offers the promise for a low-cost, mass-manufacturable technology that is compatible with current large-scale printing infrastructure.

  • 477.
    Zhang, Fuguo
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Organisk kemi.
    Cong, Jiayan
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Tillämpad fysikalisk kemi.
    Li, Yuanyuan
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Bergstrand, Jan
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Teoretisk kemi och biologi.
    Liu, Haichun
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik.
    Cai, Bin
    State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology (DUT).
    Hajian, Alireza
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Yao, Zhaoyang
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Organisk kemi.
    Wang, Linqin
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Organisk kemi.
    Hao, Yan
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Tillämpad fysikalisk kemi.
    Yang, Xichuan
    State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology (DUT).
    Gardner, James M.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Tillämpad fysikalisk kemi.
    Ågren, Hans
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Teoretisk kemi och biologi.
    Widengren, Jerker
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Teoretisk kemi och biologi. KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Kloo, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Tillämpad fysikalisk kemi.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi. State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology (DUT).
    A facile route to grain morphology controllable perovskite thin films towards highly efficient perovskite solar cells2018Inngår i: Nano Energy, ISSN 2211-2855, E-ISSN 2211-3282, Vol. 53, s. 405-414Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Perovskite photovoltaics have recently attracted extensive attention due to their unprecedented high power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) in combination with primitive manufacturing conditions. However, the inherent polycrystalline nature of perovskite films renders an exceptional density of structural defects, especially at the grain boundaries (GBs) and film surfaces, representing a key challenge that impedes the further performance improvement of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) and large solar module ambitions towards commercialization. Here, a novel strategy is presented utilizing a simple ethylammonium chloride (EACl) additive in combination with a facile solvent bathing approach to achieve high quality methyammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) films. Well-oriented, micron-sized grains were observed, which contribute to an extended carrier lifetime and reduced trap density. Further investigations unraveled the distinctively prominent effects of EACl in modulating the perovskite film quality. The EACl was found to promote the perovskite grain growing without undergoing the formation of intermediate phases. Moreover, the EACl was also revealed to deplete at relative low temperature to enhance the film quality without compromising the beneficial bandgap for solar cell applications. This new strategy boosts the power conversion efficiency (PCE) to 20.9% and 19.0% for devices with effective areas of 0.126 cm2 and 1.020 cm2, respectively, with negligible current hysteresis and enhanced stability. Besides, perovskite films with a size of 10 × 10 cm2, and an assembled 16 cm2(5 × 5 cm2 module) perovskite solar module with a PCE of over 11% were constructed.

  • 478. Zhang, Fuguo
    et al.
    Yang, Xichuan
    Cheng, Ming
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Molekylär elektronik, CMD.
    Li, Jiajia
    Wang, Weihan
    Wang, Haoxin
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Molekylär elektronik, CMD. Dalian Univ Technol, China.
    Engineering of hole-selective contact for low temperature-processed carbon counter electrodebased perovskite solar cells2015Inngår i: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 3, nr 48, s. 24272-24280Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A cost-effective and solution processable hole transport material (HTM), TPDI (5,10,15-triphenyl-5H-diindolo[3,2-a:3',2'-c]carbazole), was synthesized and explored as a hole selective contact material in low temperature (100 degrees C) and printable processed carbon counter electrode based perovskite solar cells (PSCs) for the first time. This material demonstrated excellent thermal stability, high hole mobility and appropriate energy level alignment with CH3NH3PbI3 and carbon, which make it a potentially excellent alternative interfacial material for PSCs. By interfacial engineering with doped TPDI, the energy barrier at the CH3NH3PbI3/carbon interface was efficiently eliminated. Dramatically enhanced power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15.5% was afforded, which is comparable to or even better than that of the reference device with 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis(N,N'-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)-9,9'-spirobifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD) as HTM under equivalent conditions. Besides, TPDI can also function well in its pristine form although the efficiency (13.6%) obtained is slightly lower than that with the device containing doped TPDI as the HTM. Moreover, these newly integrated noble metal-free, vacuum-free and cost effective PSCs exhibited excellent durability during the long term stability measurements for 30 days. The remarkable performance as well as dramatically reduced fabrication cost demonstrated by integrating TPDI as the HTM and cost effective commercial carbon as the cathode revealed their great potential in the scalable and practical application of PSCs.

  • 479.
    Zhang, Fuguo
    et al.
    DUT-KTH Joint Education and Research Center on Molecular Devices, China.
    Yang, Xichuan
    DUT-KTH Joint Education and Research Center on Molecular Devices, China.
    Wang, Haoxin
    DUT-KTH Joint Education and Research Center on Molecular Devices, China.
    Cheng, Ming
    DUT-KTH Joint Education and Research Center on Molecular Devices, China.
    Zhao, Jianghua
    DUT-KTH Joint Education and Research Center on Molecular Devices, China.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Molekylär elektronik, CMD.
    Structure Engineering of Hole-Conductor Free Perovskite-Based Solar Cells with Low-Temperature-Processed Commercial Carbon Paste As Cathode2014Inngår i: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 6, nr 18, s. 16140-16146Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Low-temperature-processed (100 degrees C) carbon paste was developed as counter electrode material in hole conductor free perovskite/TiO2 heterojunction solar cells to substitute noble metallic materials. Under optimized conditions, an impressive PCE value of 8.31% has been achieved with this carbon counter electrode fabricated by doctor-blading technique. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy demonstrates good charge transport characteristics of low-temperature-processed carbon counter electrode. Moreover, this carbon counter electrode-based perovskite solar cell exhibits good stability over 800 h.

  • 480.
    Zhang, Fuguo
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi. KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Ytbehandlingsteknik.
    Yao, Zhaoyang
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Organisk kemi.
    Guo, Yaxiao
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Organisk kemi.
    Li, Yuanyuan
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Bergstrand, Jan
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Kvant- och biofotonik.
    Brett, Calvin
    Cai, Bin
    State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Institute of Artificial Photosynthesis, DUT−KTH Joint Education and Research Centre on Molecular Devices, Dalian University of Technology (DUT), 116024 Dalian, China.
    Hajian, Alireza
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Yang, X.
    Gardner, James M.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Molekylär elektronik, CMD. KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Tillämpad fysikalisk kemi.
    Widengren, Jerker
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Kvant- och biofotonik.
    Roth, Stephan V.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Biokompositer.
    Kloo, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Molekylär elektronik, CMD. KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Tillämpad fysikalisk kemi.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Molekylär elektronik, CMD. KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Kemi. KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Organisk kemi.
    Polymeric, Cost-Effective, Dopant-Free Hole Transport Materials for Efficient and Stable Perovskite Solar Cells2019Inngår i: Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 141, nr 50, s. 19700-19707Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) has skyrocketed in the past decade to an unprecedented level due to their outstanding photoelectric properties and facile processability. However, the utilization of expensive hole transport materials (HTMs) and the inevitable instability instigated by the deliquescent dopants represent major concerns hindering further commercialization. Here, a series of low-cost, conjugated polymers are designed and applied as dopant-free HTMs in PSCs, featuring tuned energy levels, good temperature and humidity resistivity, and excellent photoelectric properties. Further studies highlight the critical and multifaceted roles of the polymers with respect to facilitating charge separation, passivating the surface trap sites of perovskite materials, and guaranteeing long-term stability of the devices. A stabilized power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 20.3% and remarkably enhanced device longevity are achieved using the dopant-free polymer P3 with a low concentration of 5 mg/mL, qualifying the device as one of the best PSC systems constructed on the basis of dopant-free HTMs so far. In addition, the flexible PSCs based on P3 also exhibit a PCE of 16.2%. This work demonstrates a promising route toward commercially viable, stable, and efficient PSCs.

  • 481. Zhang, J.
    et al.
    Hua, Yong
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Molekylär elektronik, CMD.
    Xu, Bo
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Molekylär elektronik, CMD.
    Yang, L.
    Liu, Peng
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Tillämpad fysikalisk kemi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Molekylär elektronik, CMD.
    Johansson, M. B.
    Vlachopoulos, N.
    Kloo, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Tillämpad fysikalisk kemi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Molekylär elektronik, CMD.
    Boschloo, G.
    Johansson, E. M. J.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Molekylär elektronik, CMD.
    Hagfeldt, A.
    The Role of 3D Molecular Structural Control in New Hole Transport Materials Outperforming Spiro-OMeTAD in Perovskite Solar Cells2016Inngår i: Advanced Energy Materials, ISSN 1614-6832, Vol. 6, nr 19, artikkel-id 1601062Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 482.
    Zhang, Jinbao
    et al.
    Monash Univ, Dept Mat Sci & Engn, Clayton, Vic 3800, Australia..
    Daniel, Quentin
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Molekylär elektronik, CMD. KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Organisk kemi.
    Zhang, Tian
    Monash Univ, Dept Mat Sci & Engn, Clayton, Vic 3800, Australia..
    Wen, Xiaoming
    Swinburne Univ Technol, Ctr Microphoton, Melbourne, Vic 3122, Australia..
    Xu, Bo
    Uppsala Univ, Phys Chem, Dept Chem, Angstrom Lab, Box 523, S-75120 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Molekylär elektronik, CMD. KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Organisk kemi. Dalian Univ Technol, State Key Lab Fine Chem, DUT KTH Joint Educ & Res Ctr Mol Devices, Dalian 116012, Peoples R China..
    Bach, Udo
    Monash Univ, Dept Chem Engn, Clayton, Vic 3800, Australia.;CSIRO Mfg, Clayton, Vic 3168, Australia.;Melbourne Ctr Nanofabricat, Clayton, Vic 3800, Australia..
    Cheng, Yi-Bing
    Monash Univ, Dept Mat Sci & Engn, Clayton, Vic 3800, Australia.;Wuhan Univ Technol, State Key Lab Silicate Mat Architectures, Wuhan 430070, Hubei, Peoples R China..
    Chemical Dopant Engineering in Hole Transport Layers for Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells: Insight into the Interfacial Recombination2018Inngår i: ACS Nano, ISSN 1936-0851, E-ISSN 1936-086X, Vol. 12, nr 10, s. 10452-10462Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical doping of organic semiconductors has been recognized as an effective way to enhance the electrical conductivity. In perovskite solar cells (PSCs), various types of dopants have been developed for organic hole transport materials (HTMs); however, the knowledge of the basic requirements for being efficient dopants as well as the comprehensive roles of the dopants in PSCs has not been clearly revealed. Here, three copper-based complexes with controlled redox activities are applied as dopants in PSCs, and it is found that the oxidative reactivity of dopants presents substantial impacts on conductivity, charge dynamics, and solar cell performance. A significant improvement of open- circuit voltage (V-oc) by more than 100 mV and an increase of power conversion efficiency from 13.2 to 19.3% have been achieved by tuning the doping level of the HTM. The observed large variation of V-oc for three dopants reveals their different recombination kinetics at the perovskite/HTM interfaces and suggests a model of an interfacial recombination mechanism. We also suggest that the dopants in HTMs can also affect the charge recombination kinetics as well as the solar cell performance. Based on these findings, a strategy is proposed to physically passivate the electron- hole recombination by inserting an ultrathin Al2O3 insulating layer between the perovskite and the HTM. This strategy contributes a significant enhancement of the power conversion efficiency and environmental stability, indicating that dopant engineering is one crucial way to further improve the performance of PSCs.

  • 483.
    Zhang, Jinbao
    et al.
    Uppsala Univ, Angstrom Lab, Dept Chem, Box 523, SE-75120 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Hao, Yan
    Uppsala Univ, Angstrom Lab, Dept Chem, Box 523, SE-75120 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Yang, Li
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Engn Sci, Nanotechnol & Funct Mat, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Mohammadi, Hajar
    Univ Isfahan, Dept Chem, Esfahan 8174673441, Iran..
    Vlachopoulos, Nick
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Lab Photomol Sci, CH G1 523, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Molekylär elektronik, CMD.
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Lab Photomol Sci, CH G1 523, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Sheibani, Esmaeil
    Univ Isfahan, Dept Chem, Esfahan 8174673441, Iran..
    Electrochemically polymerized poly (3, 4-phenylenedioxythiophene) as efficient and transparent counter electrode for dye sensitized solar cells2019Inngår i: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 300, s. 482-488Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A new conducting polymer poly (3, 4-phenylenedioxythiophene) is synthesized by the electrochemical polymerization technique with different solvents. We find that solvents used in electrochemical polymerization play important roles for the catalytic activity and morphology of the formed conducting polymers. The obtained poly (3, 4-phenylenedioxythiophene) is for the first time employed as counter electrode electrocatalyst in dye sensitized solar cells with cobalt-based electrolytes. We demonstrate that a polymer prepared from a mixed acetonitrile-dichloromethane solvent exhibit higher catalytic activity for redox reactions, as compared to that from a single solvent, dichloromethane. The devices based on this mixed solvent-based polymer from a mixed solvents show a high power conversion efficiency of 5.97%. An additional advantageous feature of the electrochemically polymerized poly (3, 4-phenylenedioxythiophene) for solar cell applications is the high transparency in the visible and nearinfrared region. We also investigate the beneficial effect of the poly (3, 4-phenylenedioxythiophene) layer thickness on device performance, and concluded that the series resistance and charge transfer resistance are greatly influenced by the thickness of polymer, as evidenced by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. The optimal thickness for poly (3, 4-phenylenedioxythiophene) is about 100 nm. Furthermore, the high catalytic activity and transparency of the new conducting polymer as counter electrode shows great promise for other optoelectronic applications.

  • 484. Zhang, Jinbao
    et al.
    Xu, Bo
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Molekylär elektronik, CMD.
    Johansson, Malin B.
    Hadadian, Mahboubeh
    Baena, Juan Pablo Correa
    Liu, Peng
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Tillämpad fysikalisk kemi.
    Hua, Yong
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Molekylär elektronik, CMD.
    Vlachopoulos, Nick
    Johansson, Erik M. J.
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Molekylär elektronik, CMD.
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    Constructive Effects of Alkyl Chains: A Strategy to Design Simple and Non-Spiro Hole Transporting Materials for High-Efficiency Mixed-Ion Perovskite Solar Cells2016Inngår i: ADVANCED ENERGY MATERIALS, ISSN 1614-6832, Vol. 6, nr 13, artikkel-id 1502536Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 485. Zhang, Jinbao
    et al.
    Xu, Bo
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Molekylär elektronik, CMD.
    Johansson, Malin B.
    Vlachopoulos, Nick
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Molekylär elektronik, CMD.
    Johansson, Erik M. J.
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    Strategy to Boost the Efficiency of Mixed-Ion Perovskite Solar Cells: Changing Geometry of the Hole Transporting Material2016Inngår i: ACS Nano, ISSN 1936-0851, E-ISSN 1936-086X, Vol. 10, nr 7, s. 6816-6825Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The hole transporting material (HTM) is an essential component in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) for efficient extraction and collection of the photoinduced charges. Triphenylamine- and carbazole-based derivatives have extensively been explored as alternative and economical HTMs for PSCs. However, the improvement of their power conversion efficiency (PCE), as well as further investigation of the relationship between the chemical structure of the HTMs and the photovoltaic performance, is imperatively needed. In this respect, a simple carbazole-based HTM X25 was designed on the basis of a reference HTM, triphenylamine-based X2, by simply linking two neighboring phenyl groups in a triphenylamine unit through a carbon-carbon single bond. It was found that a lowered highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy level was obtained for X25 compared to that of X2. Besides, the carbazole moiety in X25 improved the molecular planarity as well as conductivity property in comparison with the triphenylamine unit in X2. Utilizing the HTM X25 in a solar cell with mixed-ion perovskite [HC(NH2)(2)](0.85)(CH3NH3)(0.15)Pb(I0.85Br0.15)(3), a highest reported PCE of 17.4% at 1 sun (18.9% under 0.46 sun) for carbazole-based HTM in PSCs was achieved, in comparison of a PCE of 14.7% for triphenylamine-based HTM X2. From the steady-state photoluminescence and transient photocurrent/photovoltage measurements, we conclude that (1) the lowered HOMO level for X25 compared to X2 favored a higher open-circuit voltage (V-oc) in PSCs; (2) a more uniform formation of X25 capping layer than X2 on the surface of perovskite resulted in more efficient hole transport and charge extraction in the devices. In addition, the long-term stability of PSCs with X25 is significantly enhanced compared to X2 due to its good uniformity of HTM layer and thus complete coverage on the perovskite. The results provide important information to further develop simple and efficient small molecular HTMs applied in solar cells.

  • 486. Zhang, Jinbao
    et al.
    Xu, Bo
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektroteknisk teori och konstruktion.
    Yang, Li
    Mingorance, Alba
    Ruan, Changqing
    Hua, Yong
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi.
    Wang, Linqin
    Vlachopoulos, Nick
    Lira-Cantu, Monica
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi.
    Johansson, Erik M. J.
    Incorporation of Counter Ions in Organic Molecules: New Strategy in Developing Dopant-Free Hole Transport Materials for Efficient Mixed-Ion Perovskite Solar Cells2017Inngår i: ADVANCED ENERGY MATERIALS, ISSN 1614-6832, Vol. 7, nr 14, artikkel-id 1602736Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Hole transport matertial (HTM) as charge selective layer in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) plays an important role in achieving high power conversion efficiency (PCE). It is known that the dopants and additives are necessary in the HTM in order to improve the hole conductivity of the HTM as well as to obtain high efficiency in PSCs, but the additives can potentially induce device instability and poor device reproducibility. In this work a new strategy to design dopant-free HTMs has been presented by modifying the HTM to include charged moieties which are accompanied with counter ions. The device based on this ionic HTM X44 dos not need any additional doping and the device shows an impressive PCE of 16.2%. Detailed characterization suggests that the incorporated counter ions in X44 can significantly affect the hole conductivity and the homogeneity of the formed HTM thin film. The superior photovoltaic performance for X44 is attributed to both efficient hole transport and effective interfacial hole transfer in the solar cell device. This work provides important insights as regards the future design of new and efficient dopant free HTMs for photovotaics or other optoelectronic applications.

  • 487. Zhang, Jinbao
    et al.
    Xu, Bo
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
    Yang, Li
    Ruan, Changqing
    Wang, Linqin
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi.
    Liu, Peng
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Tillämpad fysikalisk kemi.
    Zhang, Wei
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Tillämpad fysikalisk kemi.
    Vlachopoulos, Nick
    Kloo, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Tillämpad fysikalisk kemi.
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi. State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, DUT-KTH Joint Education and Research Center on Molecular Devices, Dalian University of Technology (DUT), Dalian, China.
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    Johansson, Erik M. J.
    The Importance of Pendant Groups on Triphenylamine-Based Hole Transport Materials for Obtaining Perovskite Solar Cells with over 20% Efficiency2018Inngår i: ADVANCED ENERGY MATERIALS, ISSN 1614-6832, Vol. 8, nr 2, artikkel-id 1701209Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Tremendous progress has recently been achieved in the field of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) as evidenced by impressive power conversion efficiencies (PCEs); but the high PCEs of >20% in PSCs has so far been mostly achieved by using the hole transport material (HTM) spiro-OMeTAD; however, the relatively low conductivity and high cost of spiro-OMeTAD significantly limit its potential use in large-scale applications. In this work, two new organic molecules with spiro[fluorene-9,9-xanthene] (SFX)-based pendant groups, X26 and X36, have been developed as HTMs. Both X26 and X36 present facile syntheses with high yields. It is found that the introduced SFX pendant groups in triphenylamine-based molecules show significant influence on the conductivity, energy levels, and thin-film surface morphology. The use of X26 as HTM in PSCs yields a remarkable PCE of 20.2%. In addition, the X26-based devices show impressive stability maintaining a high PCE of 18.8% after 5 months of aging in controlled (20%) humidity in the dark. We believe that X26 with high device PCEs of >20% and simple synthesis show a great promise for future application in PSCs, and that it represents a useful design platform for designing new charge transport materials for optoelectronic applications.

  • 488. Zhang, Jinbao
    et al.
    Yang, Lei
    Shen, Yang
    Park, Byung-Wook
    Hao, Yan
    Johansson, Erik M. J.
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Kloo, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Tillämpad fysikalisk kemi.
    Gabrielsson, Erik
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi.
    Jarboui, Adel
    Perruchot, Christian
    Jouini, Mohamed
    Vlachopoulos, Nick
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) Hole-Transporting Material Generated by Photoelectrochemical Polymerization in Aqueous and Organic Medium for All-Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells2014Inngår i: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 118, nr 30, s. 16591-16601Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We applied organic donor-pi-acceptor (D-pi-A) sensitizers for photoelectrochemical polymerization (PEP) because of their appropriate energy levels and high light absorption. The polymerized conducting polymer PEDOT was used as hole conductor in all-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSCs). By combination of the D-pi-A sensitizers and the generated PEDOT from PEP of bis-EDOT in acetonitrile, the resulting device showed an average power conversion efficiency of 5.6%. Furthermore, the PEP in aqueous micellar electrolytic medium was also employed because of the ability to decrease oxidation potential of the precursor, thereby making the polymerization process easier. The latter method is a cost-effective and environmentally friendly approach. Using as hole conductor the so-obtained PEDOT from PEP of bis-EDOT in aqueous electrolyte, the devices exhibited impressive power conversion efficiency of 5.2%. To compare the properties of the generated polymer from bis-EDOT in these two PEP methods, electron lifetime, photoinduced absorption (PIA) spectra, and UV-vis-NIR spectra were measured. The results showed that PEDOT from organic PEP exhibits a delocalized conformation with high conductivity and a smooth and compact morphology; a rough morphology with high porosity and polymer structure of relatively shorter chains was assumed to be obtained from aqueous PEP. Therefore, better dye regeneration but faster charge recombination was observed in the device based on PEDOT from aqueous PEP of bis-EDOT. Subsequently, to extend the aqueous PEP approach in consideration of the ability to decrease the oxidation potential of the precursor, the easily available precursor EDOT was for the first time used for PEP in aqueous medium in a variant of the aforementioned procedure, and the device based on the so-obtained PEDOT shows a more than 70-fold increase in efficiency, 3.0%, over that based on the polymer generated from EDOT by PEP in organic media. It was demonstrated that aqueous micellar PEP with EDOT as monomer is an efficient strategy for generation of conducting polymer hole-transporting materials.

  • 489.
    Zhang, Li
    et al.
    Dalian Univ Technol, DUT KTH Joint Educ & Res Ctr Mol Devices, Inst Artificial Photosynth, State Key Lab Fine Chem, 2 Linggong Rd, Dalian 116024, Peoples R China..
    Yang, Xichuan
    Dalian Univ Technol, DUT KTH Joint Educ & Res Ctr Mol Devices, Inst Artificial Photosynth, State Key Lab Fine Chem, 2 Linggong Rd, Dalian 116024, Peoples R China..
    Wang, Weihan
    Dalian Univ Technol, DUT KTH Joint Educ & Res Ctr Mol Devices, Inst Artificial Photosynth, State Key Lab Fine Chem, 2 Linggong Rd, Dalian 116024, Peoples R China..
    Gurzadyan, Gagik G.
    Dalian Univ Technol, DUT KTH Joint Educ & Res Ctr Mol Devices, Inst Artificial Photosynth, State Key Lab Fine Chem, 2 Linggong Rd, Dalian 116024, Peoples R China..
    Li, Jiajia
    Dalian Univ Technol, DUT KTH Joint Educ & Res Ctr Mol Devices, Inst Artificial Photosynth, State Key Lab Fine Chem, 2 Linggong Rd, Dalian 116024, Peoples R China..
    Li, Xiaoxin
    Dalian Univ Technol, DUT KTH Joint Educ & Res Ctr Mol Devices, Inst Artificial Photosynth, State Key Lab Fine Chem, 2 Linggong Rd, Dalian 116024, Peoples R China..
    An, Jincheng
    Dalian Univ Technol, DUT KTH Joint Educ & Res Ctr Mol Devices, Inst Artificial Photosynth, State Key Lab Fine Chem, 2 Linggong Rd, Dalian 116024, Peoples R China..
    Yu, Ze
    Dalian Univ Technol, DUT KTH Joint Educ & Res Ctr Mol Devices, Inst Artificial Photosynth, State Key Lab Fine Chem, 2 Linggong Rd, Dalian 116024, Peoples R China..
    Wang, Haoxin
    Dalian Univ Technol, DUT KTH Joint Educ & Res Ctr Mol Devices, Inst Artificial Photosynth, State Key Lab Fine Chem, 2 Linggong Rd, Dalian 116024, Peoples R China..
    Cai, Bin
    Dalian Univ Technol, DUT KTH Joint Educ & Res Ctr Mol Devices, Inst Artificial Photosynth, State Key Lab Fine Chem, 2 Linggong Rd, Dalian 116024, Peoples R China..
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Lab Photomol Sci, Inst Chem Sci & Engn, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Organisk kemi. Dalian Univ Technol, DUT KTH Joint Educ & Res Ctr Mol Devices, Inst Artificial Photosynth, State Key Lab Fine Chem, 2 Linggong Rd, Dalian 116024, Peoples R China.
    13.6% Efficient Organic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells by Minimizing Energy Losses of the Excited State2019Inngår i: ACS ENERGY LETTERS, ISSN 2380-8195, Vol. 4, nr 4, s. 943-951Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The electron-injection energy losses of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are among the fundamental problems hindering their successful breakthrough application. Two triazatruxene (TAT)-based sensitizers, with one containing a flexible Z-type double bond and another a rigid single bond, coded as ZL001 and ZL003, respectively, have been synthesized and applied in DSSCs to probe the energy losses in the process of electron injection. Using time-resolved laser spectroscopic techniques in the kinetic study, ZL003 with the rigid single bond promotes much faster electron injection into the conductive band of TiO2 especially in the locally excited state (hot injection), which leads to higher electron density in TiO2 and a higher V-oc. The devices based on ZL003 exhibited a champion power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 13.6% with V-oc = 956 mV, J(sc) = 20.73 mA cm(-2), and FF = 68.5%, which are among the highest recorded results to date on single dye-sensitized DSSCs. An independent certified PCE of 12.4% has been obtained for devices based on ZL003.

  • 490.
    Zhang, Linlin
    et al.
    Dalian University of Technology, China.
    Gao, Y.
    Dalian University of Technology, China.
    Liu, Z.
    Dalian University of Technology, China.
    Ding, X.
    Dalian University of Technology, China.
    Yu, Z.
    Dalian University of Technology, China.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi. Dalian University of Technology, China.
    A trinuclear ruthenium complex as a highly efficient molecular catalyst for water oxidation2016Inngår i: Dalton Transactions, ISSN 1477-9226, E-ISSN 1477-9234, Vol. 45, nr 9, s. 3814-3819Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A trinuclear ruthenium complex, 3, was designed and synthesized with the ligand 2,2'-bipyridine-6,6'-dicarboxylic acid (bda) and we found that this complex could function as a highly efficient molecular catalyst for water oxidation in homogeneous systems. This trinuclear molecular water oxidation catalyst, 3, displayed much higher efficiencies in terms of turnover numbers and initial oxygen evolution rate than its counterparts, a binuclear catalyst, 2, and a mononuclear catalyst, 1, in both chemically driven and photochemically driven water oxidation based on either the whole catalytic molecules or just the active Ru centers. The reasons for the superior performance of catalyst 3 were discussed and we believe that multiple Ru centers in a single molecule are indeed beneficial for increasing the probability of the formation of O-O bonds through an intramolecular radical coupling pathway.

  • 491. Zhang, Linlin
    et al.
    Gao, Yan
    Ding, Xin
    Yu, Ze
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Teoretisk kemi och biologi. State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Institute of Artificial Photosynthesis, DUT-KTH Joint Education and Research Center on Molecular Devices, Dalian University of Technology (DUT), China.
    High-Performance Photoelectrochemical Cells Based on a Binuclear Ruthenium Catalyst for Visible-Light-Driven Water Oxidation2014Inngår i: ChemSusChem, ISSN 1864-5631, E-ISSN 1864-564X, Vol. 7, nr 10, s. 2801-2804Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Two photoanodes based on a binuclear (2) and a mononuclear ruthenium (3) water oxidation catalysts were assembled in combination with a molecular photosensitizer (1) by using a co-adsorption method. The anodes were used in dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cells (DS-PECs) for visible-light-driven water splitting. A DS-PEC device using TiO2(1+2) as working electrode (WE) exhibits better performance than TiO2(1+3) as WE in light-driven water splitting. Detailed photoelectrochemical studies on these DS-PEC devices are discussed.

  • 492. Zhang, P.
    et al.
    Wang, M.
    Chen, Hong
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi.
    Liang, Y.
    Sun, J.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi. Dalian University of Technology (DUT), China.
    A Cu-Based Nanoparticulate Film as Super-Active and Robust Catalyst Surpasses Pt for Electrochemical H2 Production from Neutral and Weak Acidic Aqueous Solutions2016Inngår i: Advanced Energy Materials, ISSN 1614-6832, Vol. 6, nr 8, artikkel-id 1502319Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrocatalysts that are stable and highly active at low overpotential (η) under mild conditions as well as cost-effective and scalable are eagerly desired for potential use in photo- and electro-driven hydrogen evolution devices. Here the fabrication and characterization of a super-active and robust Cu-CuxO-Pt nanoparticulate electrocatalyst is reported, which displays a small Tafel slope (44 mV dec-1) and a large exchange current density (1.601 mA cm-2) in neutral buffer solution. The catalytic current density of this catalyst film reaches 500 mA cm-2 at η = -390 ± 12 mV and 20 mA cm-2 at η = -45 ± 3 mV, which are significantly higher than the values displayed by Pt foil and Pt/C electrodes in neutral buffer solution and even comparable with the activity of Pt electrode in 0.5 m H2SO4 solution.

  • 493. Zhang, P.
    et al.
    Wang, M.
    Yang, Y.
    Yao, T.
    Han, H.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi. Dalian University of Technology (DUT), China.
    Electroless plated Ni-Bx films as highly active electrocatalysts for hydrogen production from water over a wide pH range2016Inngår i: Nano Energy, ISSN 2211-2855, Vol. 19, s. 98-107Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of electroless plated Ni-Bx films was studied in a wide pH range for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). The atomic ratio of B to Ni has great influence on the particle size and the morphology of Ni-Bx materials, and more importantly on the catalytic H2-evolution property of Ni-Bx films. The film with a B:Ni atomic ratio of 0.54, denoted as Ni-B0.54, displayed the best performance with a current density of 10mAcm-2 at very low overpotentials (η) of 45mV in 0.5M H2SO4, 54mV in 1.0M pH 7 phosphate buffer solution (PBS), and 135mV in 1.0M KOH, and the catalytic activity maintained over 20-h electrolysis at η=100mV in all tested media of different pH values. The Tafel slopes of the Ni-B0.54 film are 43, 77, and 88 mV dec-1 in 0.5 M H2SO4, 1.0 M neutral PBS, and 1.0 M KOH, respectively. These results show that the combination of earth-abundant nickel and boron elements in an optimal B-to-Ni atomic ratio can provide highly active and stable electrocatalysts for the HER over a wide pH range.

  • 494. Zhang, Pan
    et al.
    Jacques, Pierre-Andre
    Chavarot-Keridou, Murielle
    Wang, Mei
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi.
    Fontecave, Marc
    Artero, Vincent
    Phosphine Coordination to a Cobalt Diimine-Dioxime Catalyst Increases Stability during Light-Driven H-2 Production2012Inngår i: Inorganic Chemistry, ISSN 0020-1669, E-ISSN 1520-510X, Vol. 51, nr 4, s. 2115-2120Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The combination of cobalt diimine-dioxime complexes with a cyclometalated iridium photosensitizer gives efficient systems for hydrogen generation under visible-light irradiation using triethylamine as a sacrificial electron donor. Interestingly, the addition of triphenylphosphine (PPh3) to the medium results in a significant improvement of the stability of the system, with up to similar to 700 turnovers achieved within 10 h. UV-visible spectroscopic monitoring of the reaction allows identification of a PPh3-coordinated Co-I intermediate as the active species. Mechanistic issues regarding (i) the photogeneration of the Co-I species, (ii) the nature of the active species, and (iii) the influence of PPh3 on the H-2-evolution mechanism are discussed.

  • 495.
    Zhang, Pan
    et al.
    Dalian Univ Technol, State Key Lab Fine Chem, DUT KTH Joint Educ & Res Ctr Mol Devices.
    Wang, Mei
    Dalian Univ Technol, State Key Lab Fine Chem, DUT KTH Joint Educ & Res Ctr Mol Devices.
    Dong, Jingfeng
    Dalian Univ Technol, State Key Lab Fine Chem, DUT KTH Joint Educ & Res Ctr Mol Devices.
    Li, Xueqiang
    Dalian Univ Technol, State Key Lab Fine Chem, DUT KTH Joint Educ & Res Ctr Mol Devices.
    Wang, Feng
    Tech Inst Phys & Chem, Key Lab Photochem Convers & Optoelect Mat, Beijing.
    Wu, Lizhu
    Tech Inst Phys & Chem, Key Lab Photochem Convers & Optoelect Mat, Beijing.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Molekylär elektronik, CMD.
    Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production from Water by Noble-Metal-Free Molecular Catalyst Systems Containing Rose Bengal and the Cobaloximes of BFx-Bridged Oxime Ligands2010Inngår i: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 114, nr 37, s. 15868-15874Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrogen evolution was observed from the noble-metal-free catalyst systems, comprising Rose Bengal, BFx-bridged cobaloximes, and triethylamine, in an aqueous solution under irradiation of visible light. Two types of BFx-bridged cobaloximes namely, the annulated cobaloximes [Co(dmgBF(2))(2)(H2O)(2)] (1, dmgBF(2) = (difluoroboryl)dimethylglyoximate anion) and [Co(dpgBF(2))(2)(H2O)(2)] (2, dpgBF(2) =(difluoroboryl)diphenylglyoximate anion), and the clathrochelated cobaloximes [Co(dmg(BF)(2/3))(3)](BF4) (3) and [Co(dpg(BF)(2/3))(3)](BF4) (4)-were used as catalysts. Among the four cobalt complexes, complex 1 displayed the highest hydrogen-evolving efficiency, with turnovers up to 327. Complexes 2 and 4 that bear the diphenylglyoximate ligands exhibited much lower efficiencies as compared with their analogues 1 and 3 that have the dimethylglyoximate ligands. The hydrogen-evolving efficiency of the annulated cobalt(II) complex 1 that contains two labile axial ligands is more than three times as high as that of the encapsulated cobalt(III) complex 3 that has a single macrobicyclic ligand. The different pathways for formation of the cobalt(I) species from these two types of cobaloximes are discussed on the basis of the results obtained from fluorescence and laser flash photolysis spectroscopic studies.

  • 496. Zhang, Pan
    et al.
    Wang, Mei
    Li, Caixia
    Li, Xueqiang
    Dong, Jingfeng
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi.
    Photochemical H-2 production with noble-metal-free molecular devices comprising a porphyrin photosensitizer and a cobaloxime catalyst2010Inngår i: Chemical Communications, ISSN 1359-7345, E-ISSN 1364-548X, Vol. 46, nr 46, s. 8806-8808Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Among three noble-metal-free molecular devices (1-3) containing a porphyrin photosensitizer and a cobaloxime catalyst, the one with a zinc porphyrin unit displayed apparently higher efficiency for photoinduced H-2 production than complex 2 with a magnesium porphyrin and 3 with a free-base porphyrin, possibly due to the formation of a TEA center dot center dot center dot ZnPor-Co triad in solution.

  • 497. Zhang, Pan
    et al.
    Wang, Mei
    Li, XueQiang
    Cui, HongGuang
    Dong, JingFeng
    Sun, LiCheng
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi.
    Photochemical hydrogen production with molecular devices comprising a zinc porphyrin and a cobaloxime catalyst2012Inngår i: Science China Chemistry, ISSN 1674-7291, Vol. 55, nr 7, s. 1274-1282Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Two new noble-metal-free molecular devices, [{Co(dmgH)(2)Cl}{Zn(PyTPP)}] (1, dmgH = dimethyloxime, PyTPP = 5-(4-pyridyl)-10,15,20-triphenylporphyrin) and [{Co(dmgH)(2)Cl}{Zn(apPyTPP)}] (2, apPyTPP = 5-[4-(isonicotinamidyl)phenyl]-10,15,20-triphenylporphyrin), for light-driven hydrogen generation were prepared and spectroscopically characterized. The zinc porphyrin photosensitizer and the Co-III-based catalyst unit are linked by axial coordination of a pyridyl group in the periphery of zinc-porphyrin to the cobalt centre of catalyst with different lengths of bridges. The apparent fluorescence quenching and lifetime decays of 1 and 2 were observed in comparison with their reference chromophores, Zn(PyTPP) (3) and Zn(apPyTPP) (4), suggesting a possibility for an intramolecular electron transfer from the singlet excited state of zinc porphyrin unit to the cobalt centre in the molecular devices. Photochemical H-2-evolving studies show that complexes 1 and 2 are efficient molecular photocatalysts for visible light-driven H-2 generation from water with triethylamine as a sacrificial electron donor in THF/H2O, with turnover numbers up to 46 and 35 for 1 and 2, respectively. In contrast to these molecular devices, the multicomponent catalyst of zinc porphyrin and [Co(dmgH)(2)PyCl] did not show any fluorescence quenching and as a consequence, no H-2 gas was detected by GC analysis in the presence of triethylamine with irradiation of visible light. The plausible mechanism for the photochemical H-2 generation with these molecular devices is discussed.

  • 498. Zhang, Pan
    et al.
    Wang, Mei
    Na, Yong
    Li, Xueqiang
    Jiang, Yi
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi.
    Homogeneous photocatalytic production of hydrogen from water by a bioinspired Fe2S2 catalyst with high turnover numbers2010Inngår i: Dalton Transactions, ISSN 1477-9226, E-ISSN 1477-9234, Vol. 39, nr 5, s. 1204-1206Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A three-component homogeneous catalyst system, composed of a cyclometalated iridium(III) photosensitizer, a bioinspired diiron complex, and TEA in aqueous acetone, proved to be catalytically active for photoinduced H-2 production, with up to 660 turnovers over 8 h of irradiation.

  • 499.
    Zhang, Peili
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi.
    Chen, Hong
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi.
    Wang, Mei
    Yang, Yong
    Jiang, Jian
    Zhang, Biaobiao
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi.
    Duan, Lele
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi.
    Daniel, Quentin
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi.
    Li, Fusheng
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi. State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, DUT-KTH Joint Education and Research Centre on Molecular Devices, Dalian University of Technology, 116023 Dalian, China .
    Gas-templating of hierarchically structured Ni-Co-P for efficient electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution2017Inngår i: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 5, nr 16, s. 7564-7570Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the grand challenges for developing scalable and sustainable hydrogen producing systems is the lack of efficient and robust earth-abundant element based catalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Herein, a hierarchically structured Ni-Co-P film was fabricated via a gas templating electro-deposition method. This film exhibits remarkably high catalytic performance for the HER in 1 M KOH with respective current densities of -10 and -500 mA cm(-2) at the overpotentials of -30 and -185 mV with a Tafel slope of 41 mV dec(-1). A controlled potential electrolysis experiment demonstrates that the as-prepared Ni-Co-P film is an efficient and robust catalyst with a faradaic efficiency close to 100%. Systematic characterization suggests that the unique hierarchical structure and the mutual participation of nano-sized Ni/Co based components are responsible for the high HER catalytic activity.

  • 500.
    Zhang, Peili
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi.
    Li, L.
    Nordlund, D.
    Chen, Hong
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi.
    Fan, Lizhou
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi.
    Zhang, Biaobiao
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi.
    Sheng, Xia
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Organisk kemi.
    Daniel, Quentin
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Organisk kemi.
    Dendritic core-shell nickel-iron-copper metal/metal oxide electrode for efficient electrocatalytic water oxidation2018Inngår i: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 9, nr 1, artikkel-id 381Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrochemical water splitting requires efficient water oxidation catalysts to accelerate the sluggish kinetics of water oxidation reaction. Here, we report a promisingly dendritic core-shell nickel-iron-copper metal/metal oxide electrode, prepared via dealloying with an electrodeposited nickel-iron-copper alloy as a precursor, as the catalyst for water oxidation. The as-prepared core-shell nickel-iron-copper electrode is characterized with porous oxide shells and metallic cores. This tri-metal-based core-shell nickel-iron-copper electrode exhibits a remarkable activity toward water oxidation in alkaline medium with an overpotential of only 180 mV at a current density of 10 mA cm-2. The core-shell NiFeCu electrode exhibits pH-dependent oxygen evolution reaction activity on the reversible hydrogen electrode scale, suggesting that non-concerted proton-electron transfers participate in catalyzing the oxygen evolution reaction. To the best of our knowledge, the as-fabricated core-shell nickel-iron-copper is one of the most promising oxygen evolution catalysts.

7891011 451 - 500 of 538
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