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  • 501.
    Laurentz, Sara
    Svensk Kärnbränslehantering AB.
    Strategic Planning to Ensure Customer Satisfaction and Professional Fulfillment2007Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Poster: 13th NORD I&D 2007 ”The Human side of IT”, June 18-19 2007, Aula Magna, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden

  • 502.
    Laya, Andrés
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Lundberg, Stefan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Network-centric business models for health, social care and wellbeing solutions in the internet of things2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Management, ISSN 0956-5221, E-ISSN 1873-3387, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 103-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this multiple case study we analyze solutions based on connected devices in the context of health, social care and wellbeing. Based on the consideration that a solution is a combination of services and products, we build on the notion that business models can be studied at a firm-level and also at a network-level. The network-level analysis is used to motivate the reasons why solutions emerging at the intersection of the healthcare and the ICT industries benefit from collaboration among different actors. We conclude that the firm- and the network-level development of business models provide alignment in the business network and are useful to establish the relation that technological component have with overall solutions. Our findings suggest that some component bring novelty in the final offer without affecting the ongoing operation, while other component aim at improving the internal working processes, with minimal effects on the final offer to end users. We discuss the benefits of a network-level perspective for each case.

  • 503.
    Leffler, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Economics and Management (Div.).
    Dworsky Nylander, Adam
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Economics and Management (Div.).
    A liquidity study on the Nasdaq OMX Stockholm exchange2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the demand for liquidity risk management has increased, the importance of comprehensive liquidity assessments of exchanges has been highlighted. This thesis investigates the liquidity on the Nasdaq OMX Stockholm exchange by using daily end of day data. The transaction cost is evaluated using the Holden model and the price impact from trading is evaluated using the Illiq model. Considering the three segments; small cap, mid cap, and large cap, the results suggest that both the transaction cost and price impact is highest for small cap stocks and lowest for large cap stocks. It is also shown that the transaction cost has decreased between 2002-03-20 and 2012-01-06 for all three segments although the cost is increasing for the small cap segment again. No decrease in price impact over this time period could be found. The data behind the results has then been used to create a combined liquidity measure with the purpose of indicating the liquidity condition of a mutual fund. The combined measure can also be used to assess whether it is price impact or transaction cost that contributes most to the liquidity cost when liquidating stocks or reveal what stocks in a portfolio that are the most illiquid. It is hence suggested as a tool for assessing large portfolios.

  • 504.
    Levihn, Fabian
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Sustainability and Industrial Dynamics.
    CO2 emissions accounting: Whether, how, and when different allocation methods should be used2014In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 68, p. 811-818Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CO2 abatement and the transition to sustainable energy systems are of great concern, calling for investments in both old and new technologies. There are many perspectives on how to account for these emissions, not least when it comes to how the roles of different alternative energy production options should be emphasized. Confusion and conflicting interests regarding the appropriate accounting methods for allocating CO2 emissions interfere with effective energy policy and the efficient use of corporate and national resources. Possible investments in the Stockholm district heating network and how they interact with the electric power grid illustrate the influence of different accounting methods on alternative energy production options. The results indicate that, for several abatement options, performance in terms of reduced CO2 emissions might be either improved or degraded depending on whether or how alternative electricity production is accounted for. The results provide guidelines for whether, how, and when different allocation methods are appropriate, guidelines relevant to academia, industrial leaders, and policymakers in multiple areas related to power production and consumption.

  • 505.
    Levihn, Fabian
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Sustainability and Industrial Dynamics.
    Investments, system dynamics, energy management and policy: a solution to the metric problem of bottom-up supply curves2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, issues such as climate change and increased competition for scarce resources puts pressure on society and firms to transform. Change is not easily managed though, especially not when relating to production or consumption of energy carriers such as district heating or electric power. These systems do not only have strong dynamics internally, but dynamics between multiple technological systems must sometimes be considered to effectively manage response and strategies in relation to change.

    During the early 1980s, an optimisation model founded on an expert-based approach was developed based on the partial equilibrium model to enable the evaluation of different actions to reach a target. This model — often referred to as marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) or conservation supply curve (CSC) — is used by academia, industry and policymakers globally. The model is applied for causes such as energy conservation and waste management, but also within the climate change context for optimising CO2 reductions and governmental policy. In this context, the model is used by actors such as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), International Energy Agency (IEA) and World Bank, and by the consultancy firm McKinsey & Company, who use it extensively in different analysis.

    This model has many drawbacks in relation to managing interdependencies between different options, but more specifically the metric used for ranking options with a negative marginal cost has a design flaw leading to biased results. As a solution Pareto optimisation has been suggested, but is problematic given the dynamics within and between energy systems.

    The purpose of this compilation dissertation is to improve the ability for industry and policymakers to effectively manage change and reach set targets. In particular it develops our knowledge of how to account for option interdependency within and between technological systems. Furthermore, the ranking problem relating to expert-based least cost integrated planning is addressed.

    This dissertation also provides policy and managerial implications relating to the issues of energy conservation, CO2 abatement, and SOx and NOx reduction in relation to the district heating system in Stockholm. Implications are also provided for the interaction with other systems such as the Nordic electric power system.

  • 506.
    Levihn, Fabian
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Dynamics (Closed 20130101).
    Market reaction to economic climate change policy: The merit order effect and the limits of marginal abatement cost curves2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Governments around the world have introduced economic policies to combat global warming. In the form of taxes, emissions trading schemes and subsidies, these polices seek to influence market actors to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. One tool used to understand market reactions to such policy is marginal abatement cost curves. These curves optimise the two dimensions of cost per abatement and abatement. However; in reality corporations instead optimize for cost reductions, not the combined cost and abatement. Climate policy also affects the merit order in energy systems, which prohibits the robustness of engineered bottom-up MACCs. In this study, alternative models for understanding and optimizing the response to climate change policy is explored. Recommendations for future application on analyzing policy implications are given.

  • 507.
    Levihn, Fabian
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Sustainability and Industrial Dynamics.
    On the problem of optimizing through least cost per unit, when costs are negative: Implications for cost curves and the definition of economic efficiency2016In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 114, p. 1155-1163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For society and industry alike, efficient allocation of resources is crucial. Numerous tools are available that in different ways rank available options and actions under the aim to minimize costs or maximize profit. One common definition of economic efficiency is least cost per unit supplied. A definition that becomes problematic if cost take negative values. One model, where negative costs are not uncommon, is expert based/bottom up [marginal abatement] cost curves. This model is used in many contexts for understanding the impact of economic policy as well as optimizing amongst potential actions. Within this context attention has been turned towards the ranking problem when costs are negative.

    This article contributes by widening the discussion on the ranking problem from the MACC context to the general definition of least cost per unit supplied. Further it discuss why a proposed solution to the ranking problem, Pareto optimization, is not a good solution when available options are interdependent. This has particular consequences for the context of energy systems, where strong interdependencies between available options and actions are common. The third contribution is a proposed solution to solve the ranking problem and thus how to define economic efficient when costs are negative.

  • 508.
    Levihn, Fabian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Dynamics.
    Blomgren, Henrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Business Development and Entrepreneurship.
    Strategy matters, does the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme?2011In: IAMOT 2011, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For most nations, increased carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are the only way to reach economic development. At the same time awareness about future costs for handling climate change related problems show how the market has failed to reflect this cost on produced and consumed goods. To counter this externality problem the European Union introduced in year 2005 a system for trading allowances to emit CO2, the EU ETS (European Union Emissions Trading Scheme). More than 10’000 installations from energy, metal, mineral, pulp, paper and board industries are included thus covering about half of EUs CO2 emissions.The EU ETS has been criticized for being ineffective and not leading to enough emission reductions. At the same time the climate change issue is assumed to be on many corporate agendas, but do we know if that is the case? In year 2006 we saw the much famous Stern Review, in year 2007 Al Gore and IPCC were appointed laureates for the Nobel price, but did EU ETS play a part in putting the climate change issue under the eyes of corporate leaders?This study presents a content analysis of more than 1100 shareholder letters from 131 of the largest European corporations during year 2000 to 2009. The main target is to analyze to what extent (if or if not) climate change is on the corporate agenda. Does CEOs and corporate chairmen discus climate related topics?The result show that for the trading sector (but not other sectors) the climate change issue appeared in year 2005. This is comparable to other sectors such as finance and insurance, were the issue appeared one year later in 2006. However the result also show that the recent financial crises as such, swept away the climate change issue for industry heavily - but not as much in the trading sector as in other sectors. In total this mean: money matters if we expect industry to care about climate change. Concerning climate change action; political interfering in CEOs daily life is effective when a cost component is involved.

  • 509.
    Levihn, Fabian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Sustainability and Industrial Dynamics.
    Nuur, Cali
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Sustainability and Industrial Dynamics.
    Biomass and waste incineration CHP: co-benefits of primary energy savings, reduced emissions and costs2014In: Wit Transactions on Ecology and The Environment, ISSN 1746-448X, E-ISSN 1743-3541, Vol. 190, p. 127-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy utility companies face trade-offs in navigating through today’s environmental challenges. On the one hand they face intense political, social and environmental pressures to move towards adopting energy systems that incorporate the use of renewable energy resources. By making this transition they would contribute to carbon reduction and mitigate climate change. On the other hand, they need to coordinate their resources and become efficient when investing in new plants or upgrading existing production systems. This paper seeks to address the gains that utility companies can make when replacing older fossil fuel base- plants with efficient combined heat and power (CHP) plants. We discuss the system effects from the changes in production of other units when new plants are constructed. Using one of the largest energy utility companies in Sweden, Fortum, as empirical point of departure, we analyzed the company’s transition from using coal and hydrocarbons to an increased use of renewables and waste incineration CHP. Our analysis was based on comprehensive production data on CO2, SOx and NOx emissions. Our findings suggest that primary energy consumption drops when older, less efficient fossil plants are substituted for new efficient CHP plants; this drop includes the effect on remaining production. The benefits in terms of primary energy savings might even be greater than what is achieved in meeting the goal of climate change abatement through reduced CO2 emissions; NOx and SOx emissions are decreased with new biomass CHPs. Waste incineration CHP increase NOx and SOx emissions, when there is less fossil fuel to replace after the use of biomass is extended. In both cases, economic efficiency increase as costs are reduced.

  • 510.
    Levihn, Fabian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Dynamics (Closed 20130101).
    Nuur, Cali
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Dynamics (Closed 20130101).
    Blomgren, Henrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    Corporate response to climate change mitigation: What can we learn from annual reports of European industries?2011In: International Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management, ISSN 2217-2661, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 77-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change and how best to mitigate its impact has in recent decades prefigured in the industrialdevelopment debate. Awareness about future costs related to increased atmospheric temperaturesprovides an incentive for lowering greenhouse gas emissions such as CO2. At the same time,measures to mitigate climate change do not only induce corporate uncertainty and pressure, but it isalso provides opportunities for new businesses domains and models. The coverage of climate changeissues from mass media broke with earlier trends and increased in the middle of the last decade. Howabout corporate focus? Was climate change issue on the corporate agenda by then?This study presents a content analysis of more than 1100 shareholder letters from 131 of the largestEuropean public liability companies between 2000 to 2009. The main purpose of this paper is toanalyze climate change from a corporate perspective. Was climate change discussed by ChiefExecutive Officers (CEO) and board chairmen during this time? If so, to what extent and are thereindustrial differences?This study shows that climate change appeared on the corporate strategic agenda in year 2005, frompreviously occupying a marginal place. In 2008, corporate climate change discussions were largelypushed aside by the financial crisis. It also show a trend where a shift has occurred from a generalinterest, towards one more divided between different industries.

  • 511.
    Levihn, Fabian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Tongur, Stefan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Blomgren, Henrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Business Development and Entrepreneurship.
    A New wave for Diesel2011In: Technology and the Global Challenges: Security, Energy Water and the Environment, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapidly increasing demand from emerging economies, depletion of existing crude oil resources, the discovery rate of new resources, climate change issues and more will affect future oil prices. Will this mean an end to the usage of internal combustion engines (ICE) in heavy-duty vehicle configurations or will these engines see new improvements along their trajectory? This report is an analysis of lessons from the development of ICE efficiency during past oil crises. Based on the analysis conclusions are drawn on the possible development of ICEs assuming a future scenario of higher oil prices. More specific the new policy scenario from IEAs world energy outlook 2010 is used. By analyzing the braked specific fuel consumption (BSFC) contra the oil price over time, important findings indicates the span for future possible development regarding energy efficiency. History shows that manufacturer continuously have improved energy efficiency of heavy-duty vehicles. As such the main finding from this study raises the question: Will we see a new wave of development in the future scenario?

  • 512.
    Levihn, Ulrika
    et al.
    Combitech.
    Levihn, Fabian
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Sustainability and Industrial Dynamics.
    The Transition from Product to Solution Selling: The Role and Organization of Employees Engaged in Current Business2016In: Journal of Business-to-Business Marketing, ISSN 1051-712X, E-ISSN 1547-0628, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 207-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This research investigates how to manage and organize existing employees when launching a solution sales strategy, specifically addressing whether it is possible to migrate existing sales representatives active in product sales to solution sales, and whether it is possible to combine the roles.

    Methodology/approach: A case-based approach was applied to a multinational firm, engaged in business-to-business sales that simultaneously launched a solution sales strategy in 17 countries. In-depth interviews with 29 managers and sales representatives were performed to inductively identify why some countries succeeded in the launch, while others did not.

    Findings: Because of fundamental differences in approach between solution and product sales, those countries where the solutions and product businesses were separated performed better. The difference in required capabilities and mindset meant that migrating sales representatives from product to solution sales is problematic.

    Research implications: This research offers evidence of differences in mindset and approach between different marketing and sales strategies, extending the conclusions to how these differences affect the possibility of migrating existing sales representatives when launching a new selling strategy. Whether to separate service and product sales has been debated. The present results indicate that separating the current product business from the new solution business facilitates the successful implementation of the new strategy. In the case company, the solutions represent a mixture of product and services, suggesting that the problem is not the difference between products and services, but rather different selling strategies and approaches that require different capabilities.

    Practical implications: When launching a solution sales strategy, the solution business should be separated from the current product business at both the organizational and personnel levels. Solution sales necessitates a particular approach and capabilities, making it unadvisable to transfer sales representatives and managers to the new solution business based solely on previous product sales success. Instead, a new skill profile must be developed taking account of the requirements of a demand-driven solution strategy.

    Originality/value/contribution: Consensus is lacking as to whether to separate product and service businesses. This article extends the debate to the field of solution sales, demonstrating that separation is needed to succeed in launching a solution sales strategy. Furthermore, this research extends our knowledge of the difference in approaches between different selling strategies, covering the possibility of successfully migrating existing sales representatives to a different selling strategy.

  • 513.
    Lilliesköld, Joakim
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Electrical Systems.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Electrical Systems.
    Managing Complex IT-Projects: A Need for a Tool Addressing Technical and Organizational Complexity2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 514.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Vertical integration in the real estate sector: three Swedish case studies2017In: Journal of European Real Estate Research, ISSN 1753-9269, E-ISSN 1753-9277, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 195-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explain why some real estate companies choose to have a vertically integrated structure, instead of specializing in only stage of the production chain. Design/methodology/approach: The first stage of the research was an extensive literature review to generate hypotheses. A case study method was then chosen, as more detailed knowledge about the companies were judged to be needed to evaluate the different hypothesis. Documents about the companies were studied and interviews carried out. Findings: In the studies cases, there is no support for theories related to vertical integration as a way to monopolize a market and only marginal support for theories that focus on contracting problems related to the so called hold up problem. The most important factors for the companies were that vertical integration gives information and more options that are important in small number bargaining situations. The companies bargaining power increases when they are better informed about, e.g. costs and profits in nearby activities, and when they can use in-house units, if there are problems to find reasonable conditions on the outside market. Research limitations/implications: The main limitation is that only three cases were studied. Practical/implications: The study can be helpful both to companies that choose to integrate vertically and those that chose not to. There are similar problems related to information and bargaining power that needs to be handled. Originality/value: This is the first study that test theories about vertical integration in the real estate sector.

  • 515.
    Lind, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Brunes, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Explaining cost overruns in infrastructure projects: a new framework with applications to Sweden2015In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 33, no 7, p. 554-568Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim is to both develop a new theory-based framework for analysing cost overruns, and to use this for an empirical study of cost overruns in infrastructure projects in Sweden. The conceptual part is based on a literature review and the empirical part is primarily based on a questionnaire to project managers. The framework has a descriptive part comprising two dimensions: when, during the process, the cost overrun arose and what part of the cost function was responsible: change in the product, change in quantities of the inputs and change in price of inputs. The explanatory part is a development of Flyvbjerg’s theories and identifies four possible explanations: political/strategic aspects, psychological aspects, competence-related aspects and bad luck. The result from the empirical study is that most cost overruns occur in the initiation and planning stages up to the final design and are related to design changes and increases in the amount of inputs needed because of technical and administrative problems. Of the explanatory factors, there is most support for lack of competence and optimism bias.

  • 516.
    Lind, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Brunes, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Äga eller hyra verksamhetslokaler?: Strategier för konsekvensbedömning och beslut2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    I denna rapport beskrivs de viktigaste för- och nackdelarna vid bedömningar av fortsätt ägande och att sälja för att sedan hyra tillbaka verksamhetslokaler. Vilka konsekvenser får en försäljning? Hur avgörs om det är rationellt att sälja en fastighet? Rapporten innehåller en enkel kalkylmodell för att beräkna de ekonomiska effekterna och en checklista för att bedöma förutsättningarna inför en eventuell transaktion.

  • 517.
    Lind, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Hellström, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Komponentavskrivning i kommuner och landsting2011Report (Other academic)
  • 518.
    Lind, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Hellström, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Vart tog eleverna vägen?: metoder att hantera svängningar i elevantal2005Book (Other academic)
  • 519.
    Lind, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Lundström, Stellan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Fastighetsföretagande i offentlig sektor: Strategiska frågor och den samlade kunskapen2010Book (Other academic)
  • 520.
    Lind, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Lundström, Stellan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Hur ett affärsmässigt bostadsföretag agerar2011Report (Other academic)
  • 521.
    Lind, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Lundström, Stellan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Bonde, Magnus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Hur värderas energieffektiva och miljöanpassade kommersiella fastigheter?2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    På uppdrag av Energimyndigheten påbörjade vi i januari 2009 en förstudie med frågeställningen ”Hur värderas energieffektiva och miljöanpassade kommersiella lokaler” .Syftet med denna studie var att:- Analysera och beskriva de miljöklassningssystem som används för att bedöma en byggnads energi- och miljöprestanda.- Undersöka hur olika aktörer på fastighetsmarknaden tar hänsyn till en byggnads miljöprestanda.- Undersöka vilka värdepåverkande faktorer som eventuellt kan påverkas av byggnadens miljöprestanda.Metoden innebar främst en internationell litteraturöversikt. För att erhålla information om svenska förhållanden har examensarbeten med intervjuer använts och dessutom har en enkätundersökning till fastighetsvärderare genomförts.Gällande miljöklassningssystemen upptäckte vi att det fanns ett stort antal och därför valde vi att fokusera på de tre större, internationella, system (LEED, BREEAM och Green Star) samt det svenska systemet ”Miljöklassad byggnad”, vilket arbetats fram inom initiativet Bygga Bo-Dialogen. Vi valde även att beskriva EU GreenBuilding, trots att detta system endast beaktaren byggnads energiförbrukning, då det har fått stort genomslag på den svenska marknaden.Ett resultat var att många fastighetsföretag vill ha ett internationellt gångbart systemeftersom många utländska företag är verksamma på den svenska marknaden. "Doublebranding" är också en trolig utveckling med både en svensk och en internationellklassificering.När det gäller marknadens syn på "gröna byggnader" har vissa fastighetsägare och fastighetsutvecklare blivit allt mer intresserade av ”gröna” byggnader. Många menar dockatt efterfrågan idag är liten, men att det i framtiden kan bli ett krav från hyresgäster. Att dåinte kunna erbjuda ett ”grönt” alternativ kan innebära stort inkomstbortfall i form av ökadevakanser. Vår uppfattning är också att det skett en mycket snabb förändring under desenaste halvåret med ett klart ökat intresse, trots en lågkonjunktur som förväntades leda tillett minskat intresse för gröna byggnader.Våra resultat visar på att det finns ett antal teorier om hur byggnadens miljöprestanda kanpåverka en byggnads värde, både via intäktssida, kostnadssida och via avkastningskravet påfastigheterna. Vissa empiriska studier, utförda på den amerikanska marknaden, gerindikationer på en värdeökning. I dessa studier har dock märkningen av byggnaden varit inriktad på byggnadens energiprestanda, vilket bara utgör en liten del av miljöpåverkan. Vid fastighetsvärdering i Sverige fokuseras i dagsläget främst på lägre drift- och underhållskostnader. Många tillfrågade värderade menar dock att större hänsynstaganden, exempelvis lägre riskpremie, skulle tas vid värderingar om 5 – 10 år. I dag görs bara justeringar i avkastningskrav om investeraren särskilt efterfrågar en ”grön” byggnad.

  • 522.
    Lind, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Muyingo, Henry
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Building maintenance strategies: planning under uncertainty2012In: Property Management, ISSN 0263-7472, E-ISSN 1758-731X, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose:

    The article critically evaluates maintenance strategies and analyses the extent to which models

    from other sectors can be applied to building maintenance.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The paper is of a theoretical nature and is based on a number of Swedish case studies and

    questionnaires from which a number of stylized facts have been identified. These have then been

    used to explain and draw conclusions on maintenance strategies.

    Findings

    The main finding is that there are a number of specific uncertainties that affect building

    maintenance planning, which makes detailed long term plans less meaningful. The paper proposes

    a new structure for maintenance that focuses on long term goals for various buildings/components

    and then short run adjustments when new information is acquired.

    Research limitations/implications:

    The case for the new model needs to be strengthened by further studies including some from other

    countries.

    Practical and social implications

    Maintenance activities will become more important as the need to renovate or demolish the large

    building stock from the 50s and 60s increases. A rational structure and realistic expectations

    concerning maintenance planning are therefore important.

    Originality/value

    The most important contribution of the article is to underline the importance of different types of

    uncertainty for the structure of building maintenance planning.

  • 523.
    Lind, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Muyingo, Henry
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Critical reflections on the concept of maintenance2012In: International Journal of Strategic Property Management, ISSN 1648-715X, E-ISSN 1648-9179, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 105-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the paper is to critically evaluate the conceptual distinction between investment and maintenance. The study starts from a number of definitions in the literature and discusses these from the perspective of standard investment theory. The article argues that the standard concept of investment covers all relevant decisions and also puts the focus on the future consequences of decision and not whether it restores an earlier standard or not. The research implications are that investment and maintenance planning need to be analysed together and that the distinction between investment and maintenance is uninteresting from a decision theoretic and resource allocation perspective. The practical implications of the article are that what usually is called investment planning and maintenance planning need to be integrated. The originality in the paper lies primarily in the questioning of the usefulness of the concept of maintenance in a dynamic age where the relation to earlier characteristics and functions becomes less and less interesting. The role of the maintenance concept is now primarily related to various administrative systems (accounting, taxation) but is not so relevant from a forward looking resource allocation perspective.

  • 524.
    Lind, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Nordlund, Bo
    Karlstads Univ, Karlstad, Sweden..
    The concept of market value in thin markets and its implications for international accounting rules (IFRS)2019In: Journal of Property Investment & Finance, ISSN 1463-578X, E-ISSN 1470-2002, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 301-310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to discuss how the concepts market value (MV) and exit price should be interpreted in thin markets and how accounting rules may need to change to take this into account. Design/methodology/approach This is a conceptual paper using hypothetical examples as a base for the conclusions. Findings In a thin market, actors can have rather different reservation prices. The price will then be set through bargaining and the agreed price could be considerable above the reservation price of the actor with the second highest reservation price. The exit price should then be below what the MV was before the transaction and below the entry price, and according to the current accounting rules, the value in the balance sheet should then be below the price paid. The authors' experience is, however, that this rarely happens in practice. Originality/value As far as the authors know, this is the first paper that looks at problems in the current value concepts related to differences in reservation prices in thin markets.

  • 525.
    Lindberg, Malin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Lindgren, Monica
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Bridging the gender gap in entrepreneurship: A study of a Quadruple helix innovation system project in the Baltic Sea region2011In: 1st International Conference on Entrepreneurship, Innovation and SMEs, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 526.
    Lindberg, Malin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Lindgren, Monica
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Bridging the gender gap in entrepreneurship through NGO’s: A study of a Quadruple Helix innovation system project in the Baltic Sea region2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A gender gap in entrepreneurship and innovation can be discerned across Europe – often portrayed as a statistical pattern showing differences in prevalence of entrepreneurial and innovative activities between the categories of men and women. The gender gap can be traced back to the general perceptions of gender in society, where entrepreneurial venturing and innovation work are culturally defined as masculine activities. A situation in which dominating policy models for regional entrepreneurship and innovation – such as the Triple Helix model – sustain the gender gap by being blind to gender issues imply both practical and theoretical challenges for critical management research. In this paper, we intend to analyse the gendered norms and consequences of dominating innovation models, such as the Triple Helix, and to identify roles and challenges of NGO’s in the alternative conceptualization of Quadruple Helix.

    Based on an exploratory case study of an EU-financed project intentionally set up as a Quadruple Helix innovation system, we find that NGOs may fill four roles in bridging the gender gap: (1) collaborative platforms for women-led SMEs, (2) legitimating and linking women-led SMEs to governmental and academic actors, (3) developing competences and process innovations related to entrepreneurial venturing outside traditional Triple Helix constellations, and (4) carrying individual and societal aspects of entrepreneuring

  • 527.
    Lindberg, Malin
    et al.
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Lindgren, Monica
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Organization and management.
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Organization and management.
    Quadruple Helix as a way to bridge the gender gap in entrepreneurship: A case study of an innovation system project in the Baltic Sea region2014In: Journal of the Knowledge Economy, ISSN 1868-7865, E-ISSN 1868-7873, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 94-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In most developed economies there exist a clear gap between men and women in terms of prevalence of entrepreneurial activity. The gender gap can be traced back to the general perceptions of gender in society, where entrepreneurial venturing is culturally defined as a masculine activity. In this paper, we analyse how such gendered norms are brought into Triple Helix innovation system models, and identify roles and challenges of NGOs in the alternative conceptualization of Quadruple Helix. Based on an exploratory case study of a Quadruple Helix innovation system project in the tourism industry, we find that NGOs may fill four roles in bridging the gender gap: (1) collaborative platforms for women-led SMEs, (2) legitimating and linking women-led SMEs to governmental and academic actors, (3) developing competences and process innovations related to entrepreneurial venturing outside traditional Triple Helix constellations and (4) carrying individual and societal aspects of entrepreneuring.

  • 528.
    Lindberg, Malin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Lindgren, Monica
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    The role of NGOs in supporting women’s entrepreneurship: a study of a Quadruple Helix project in the Baltic sea region2010Report (Other academic)
  • 529.
    Lindberg, Malin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Lindgren, Monica
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    The role of NGO’s in supporting women’s entrepreneurship: A study of Quadruple Helix innovation systems in the Baltic sea region2011In: 7th International Critical Management Studies Conference, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A gender gap in entrepreneurship and innovation can be discerned across Europe – often portrayed as a statistical pattern showing differences in prevalence of entrepreneurial and innovative activities between the categories of men and women. The gender gap can be traced back to the general perceptions of gender in society, where entrepreneurial venturing and innovation work are culturally defined as masculine activities. A situation in which dominating policy models for regional entrepreneurship and innovation – such as the Triple Helix model – sustain the gender gap by being blind to gender issues imply both practical and theoretical challenges for critical management research. In this paper, we intend to analyse the gendered norms and consequences of dominating innovation models, such as the Triple Helix, and to identify roles and challenges of NGO’s in the alternative conceptualization of Quadruple Helix.

    Based on an exploratory case study of an EU--‐financed project intentionally set up as a Quadruple Helixinnovation system, we find that NGOs may fill four roles in bridging the gender gap: (1) collaborative platforms for women--‐led SMEs, (2) legitimating and linking women--‐led SMEs to governmental and academic actors, (3) developing competences and process innovations related to entrepreneurial venturing outside traditional Triple Helix constellations, and (4) carrying individual and societal aspects of entrepreneuring.

  • 530.
    Lindbergh, Jessica
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance.
    Do firms change the distances between countries, or are the firms' distances changed?: A discussion of the conceptual differences between distance concepts and the role of experience in influencing psychic distanceManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 531.
    Lindbergh, Jessica
    Uppsala University.
    Overcoming Cultural Ignorance: Institutional Knowledge Development in the Internationalizing Firm2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis studies how experiences influence the development of institutional knowledge within business relationships. It contributes to international business research by clarifying how experience develops the institutional knowledge of firms and what outcome such knowledge development has on firms’ internationalizations. The thesis identifies a need to distinguish between different types of experiences when investigating institutional knowledge development. In addition, the thesis compares different types of knowledge with institutional knowledge as to understand how firms learn to overcome cultural ignorance. The empirical setting consists of quantitative research of small- and medium sized firms. The findings show that market-specific experiences increases a firm’s institutional knowledge whereas experiences of multiple markets contribute to the firm’s perception of a greater need of institutional knowledge when conducting business with their specific partner. However, these experience effects are influenced by firms’ mode of operation (export vs. subsidiaries) in the international markets and mediated by cultural distance. Furthermore, the results show that despite the increased complexity that experiences of multiple markets lead to, such experiences increase a firm’s competence in foreign institutional environments. In addition, the findings show that firms lacking in ability to adapt their business also perceives a lack of knowledge about a country’s institutions and the customer.

  • 532.
    Lindbergh, Jessica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Lindstrand, Angelika
    Stockholm School of Economics, Department of Marketing and Strategy.
    Hur kan banken utveckla små och medelstora företagskunders internationella affärer2009In: Finanssektorns roll i samhällsbyggandet / [ed] Eriksson, Kent,Söderberg, Inga-Lill, Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2009, p. 40-43Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 533.
    Lindgren, Monica
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Gränsöverskridande entreprenörskapsforskning: Entreprenörskap som projekt, process och emancipation2009In: Entreprenörskap på riktigt: Teoretiska och praktiska perspektiv / [ed] Carin Holmquist, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2009, p. 215-232Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 534.
    Lindgren, Monica
    Umeå School of Business.
    Kvinnliga entreprenörer i friskolan: Om entreprenörskap och profession i skapandet av identitet2001In: Nordiske organisasjonsstudier, ISSN 1501-8237, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 32-64Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 535.
    Lindgren, Monica
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Maskulint, feminint, entreprenöriellt: Könsstämpling av branscher och professioner2008In: Sesam, öppna dig!: Forskarperpektiv på kvinnors företagande / [ed] P. Larsson, U. Göranson & M. Lagerholm, Stockholm: Vinnova , 2008, p. 53-65Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 536.
    Lindgren, Monica
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Projektbaserat arbete ur ett livsformsperspektiv2011In: Bonniers ledarskapshandböcker: Projektledning / [ed] Johnny Tedenfors, Stockholm: Bonnier , 2011, p. 5: 1-5: 38Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 537.
    Lindgren, Monica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    A framework for the integration of a gender perspective in cross-borderentrepreneurship and cluster promotion programmes2010Report (Other academic)
  • 538.
    Lindgren, Monica
    et al.
    Umeå School of Business & Economics, Dept of Business Administration, Umeå University, SE-901 87 UMEÅ, SWEDEN.
    Packendorff, Johann
    Umeå School of Business & Economics, Dept of Business Administration, Umeå University, SE-901 87 UMEÅ, SWEDEN.
    A Project-based View of Entrepreneurship: Serial Entrepreneurs and Collective Action2001Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One important concern of the ongoing debates within entrepreneurship research is the tendency of operationalising entrepreneurship as enterprise start-ups. However, some researchers have noted that entrepreneurship and enterprise start-up are not always connected - entrepreneurial acts do not always result in a formal enterprise and not all enterprises are the result of an innovative entrepreneurial act. Moreover, the individual entrepreneur is usually identified from a single start-up, which means that serial entrepreneurship and/or other entrepreneurial acts in their life paths are neglected. If an enterprise start-up is an entrepreneurial act or not should be regarded as context-dependent; to start a traditional enterprise in an established and legitimate industry should not be regarded as ”entrepreneurial” as starting an innovative one in a context characterised by scepticism and hostility.

     

    In addition, there is also a tendency in society to organise innovative processes in terms of projects rather than as enterprises, and there are also research results indicating that some individuals handle enterprise start-ups as a sequence of projects in which the entrepreneur goes on to new start-ups when the enterprise has been established on the market. To summarise, there are several reasons for analysing both entrepreneurs and entrepreneurial acts in terms of project-based work. The aim of the paper is thus to discuss and argue for a project-based view of entrepreneurship, which means that the ongoing entrepreneurial acts of the individual is studied in terms of time-limited courses of action.

     

    Our analysis of a number of narratives from individuals working in creative projects (theatres and musicals, regional development and independent schools) shows that their entrepreneurship is most evident both in terms of idea generation and project organising, and that a lot of non-standardised project work is in fact entrepreneurial acts according to most definitions. These individuals also tended towards serial entrepreneurship, where projects, endeavours in private life, community work and also enterprise start-ups were mixed over time. In order to further our understanding of entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship, it seems most important to study series of entrepreneurial acts in the life path of an individual rather than each act as a single event. An additional conclusion from these empirical data is that these entrepreneurial acts cannot always be ascribed single individuals only. To realise innovative ideas, it is often necessary that several individuals are involved in terms of teams or social networks. To put forward an creative and/or innovative idea should in itself be regarded as an entrepreneurial act (speaking is also an act), but to transform it into successful action teamwork is required where issues concerning practical implementation, organising, marketing etc must also be subject to entrepreneurial thinking and action.

     

    From this, we conclude that entrepreneurship should be studied in terms of serial projects in the life course of individuals. In order to understand this process we argue that qualitative studies, of narrative character, are necessary. By such an approach, the concept of entrepreneurship is extended from enterprise start-up as an empirical phenomenon to the individual and collective creative and innovative acts that individuals and groups of individuals perform during their lives in different dimensions, forms and societal sectors.

  • 539.
    Lindgren, Monica
    et al.
    Stockholm School of Economics.
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Industrial Economics and Management.
    A project-based view of entrepreneurship: Towards action-orientation, seriality and collectivity2003In: New movements of entrepreneurship / [ed] C. Steyaert & D. Hjorth, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2003, 1, p. 86-102Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional entrepreneurship research often tends to view entrepreneurship in terms of individual actors starting enterprises, an approach which might limit further development of entrepreneurship theory. The project-based view of entrepreneurship proposed here instead focuses on the organising of entrepreneurial acts (action-orientation). Such entrepreneurial acts can be, but are not limited to, enterprise start-ups – entrepreneurship also happens in many other forms. Moreover, those acts are temporary by nature, which means that they can be analysed in terms of projects. Saying that entrepreneurial acts are temporary projects means that people can perform several entrepreneurial acts during a lifetime – in different ways and with different results (seriality). Entrepreneurial acts are also viewed as collective ones, organised by several actors in actor networks temporarily coupled together by a somewhat common mission (collectivity). From this reasoning, it also follows that empirical investigation of project-based entrepreneurship should be made with a narrative approach, understanding the entrepreneurial act as a part of the various actors’ construction of identity. With respect to every actor’s - socially constructed - view of reality we therefore can understand the social construction of the entrepreneurial act. By stressing a project-based view with a social constructionist perspective we hope to encourage pluralism and diversity in theory, practice and methodology.

  • 540.
    Lindgren, Monica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Caught in the act?: On co-construction of project work and professional identities in theatres2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Earlier studies point at that the notion of working in a project brings with it expectations on several aspects of the work situation, expectations that are institutionally given by project theory and practice and re-constructed by the project workers in interaction. At the same time, working by projects and re-constructing organisational and institutional norms on how projects should be, they also successively constructed an image of themselves in relation to these norms. This points at that not only are individuals reinforcing established notions on project work while working by projects – they also at the same time construct their own identities, reinforcing notions about themselves as professional, committed and structured enough to endure the hardships of project work. In other words, a project is here seen as a process of co-construction of the project form and of project worker professional identity. In this paper, we will thus analyse how people in project-based operations socially construct projects and individual identities – i.e. what happens when something is labelled a project and/or a project-based firm.

    The analysis of the interviews from two theatres indicates that projects and project-based operations are co-constructed with individual identities in several ways simultaneously,  hrough discourses that may look internally consistent but not always easy to combine with each other. Even though most producers, directors and stage managers at the two theatres are most familiar with Gantt charts, project goal structures etc, they are not actively promoting Project Management as a distinct competence of neither themselves nor the organization. What they do promote is still a modernist notion of professionalism that is closely linked to the project form of work organization. What is co-constructed is a system of inter-subjectively held beliefs linking organizational poverty, legitimacy and success to individual identification with what are highstandard artistry, organizational loyalty and self-fulfilment. The single projects become arenas and critical incidents for such co-construction, for yet another confirmation of the current development or for experimenting with other forms for theatre production project work.

  • 541.
    Lindgren, Monica
    et al.
    Stockholm School of Economics.
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Industrial Economics and Management.
    Deconstructing project prisons: Towards critical perspectives on project theory and projecticised society2003Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 542.
    Lindgren, Monica
    et al.
    Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Industrial Economics and Management.
    Deconstructing Projects: Towards Critical Perspectives on Project Theory and Projecticised Society2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 543.
    Lindgren, Monica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Entrepreneurship and power: Applying power perspectives in the analysis of collective entrepreneurial processes2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 544.
    Lindgren, Monica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Entrepreneurship as a way to unlock hierarchical organizing?: On the construction of power in collective entrepreneurial processes2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 545.
    Lindgren, Monica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Entrepreneurship as boundary work: Deviating from and belonging to community2006In: Entrepreneurship as social change: a third movements in entrepreneurship book / [ed] C. Steyaert & D. Hjorth, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar , 2006, 1, p. 210-230Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 546.
    Lindgren, Monica
    et al.
    Stockholm School of Economics, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Business Creation, Box 6501, 113 83 STOCKHOLM, SWEDEN.
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Organization and management.
    Entrepreneurship inside and outside community: On the promises and problems of deviating2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to contribute to a developed understanding of the phenomenon of entrepreneurship as deviating from its local cultural context. This is done through the analysis of an in-depth case study made from a social constructionist perspective. Entrepreneurial individuals and collectives define themselves - and are defined by others - in relation to general expectations on what an entrepreneur is and how he or she should behave, and we therefore claim that the entrepreneurial process is about identifying, challenging and breaking institutionalized patterns, to temporarily de-socialize from society rather than socialize into it.

    In this paper, we present an in-depth study of the Hultsfred rock festival in Sweden and how the actors behind the festival has initiated a number of entrepreneurial processes over the years. The study is based on recurrent interviews, participant observation and documentation. In the interviews with the (inter)actors in the Hultsfred organisation, a number of narrative themes on the relation between the entrepreneurial processes and the context emerged. One such theme was the image of rock music and rock culture as rebellious and different as compared to the local culture of sports. Another theme was the massive lack of local understanding for the special characteristics of the music industry, this due to the traditional industrial structure of the region. The relation between the RockCity people and their context has also been characterised by an ongoing debate on the relation between culture and commercial business (cf also Mort et al, 2003), which has also led to severe internal conflicts. It appeared that when met by scepticism on the local arena, RockCity instead focused on networking and collaboration on other arenas; regionally, nationally and internationally. Still, they all share a basic desire to make Hultsfred a better and more prosperous place to live, which represents an aim to contribute and be respected, to be seen as an important and relevant part of community development.

  • 547.
    Lindgren, Monica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Från projektarbete till projektintensivt arbete: Människan och projektarbetets institutionalisering2008In: Projektliv: Villkor för uthållig projektverksamhet / [ed] T. Stjernberg, J. Söderlund & E. Wikström, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2008, 1. uppl., p. 33-58Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 548.
    Lindgren, Monica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Hultsfredsfestivalen: Så osannolik att den inte borde finnas2005In: Social ekonomi, ISSN 1404-3459, no 4, p. 12-16Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 549. Lindgren, Monica
    et al.
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Industrial Economics and Management.
    Interactive entrepreneurship: Entrepreneurial processes from a social constructionist perspective2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper views entrepreneurship from a social constructionist perspective. The basic standpoint is thus that entrepreneurship is an inter-subjective construct produced and re-produced in everyday social interaction. To understand this interaction in practice, the entire entrepreneurial process should be inquired into – how/why entrepreneurial ideas emerge, how/why ideas are developed as legitimate, how/why interaction between actors unfold, how/why different roles develop, etc. In order to develop a theoretical understanding of entrepreneurial processes in general from this perspective, we need to (1) make in-depth studies of a limited number of processes, (2), choose processes that is intended to imply construction of newness, and (3) follow these processes and involved co-actors over time. The aim of the paper is thus to suggest concepts and theories through which an enhanced understanding of entrepreneurship in terms of interactive processes can be achieved.

     

    The empirical data of the paper is based on three in-depth case studies in Swedish independent schools and one entertainment industry organisation, the Söderbaum school, the Viktor Rydberg Gymnasium and the Hultsfred rock festival. All involved co-actors have been repeatedly interviewed, and we have also been participant observers in their daily interaction. These data have been subject to a narrative analysis where the stories – i.e. the narratives of the participants – are re-written by the researcher in order to cover relevant events, conflicts etc that convey a straightforward understanding of the entrepreneurial process.

     

    From these two cases, a number of implications for theory development can be drawn and discussed. The entrepreneurial process per se is often perceived as limited in time, whereafter continuous management of what has been created follows. Most of the decision-making throughout the process happens in informal interaction, and the interactors assume different roles in the process (i.e. the idea generator, the organizer, the public face, the diplomat, the practical guy etc), implying specialization but also learning from each other. Since many of the co-actors often work together again in different constellations on new related entrepreneurial processes, they change these roles over time. Also, social networks are used consciously in order to create long-term benefits. Money and culture are not seen as opposites – money is a tool to create freedom to do what is important and fun, i.e. create new entrepreneurial processes. Finally, there appears to exist a notion of entrepreneurial careers; by increasing age, personal interests, rebellionship and groupthink are gradually substituted by a sense of responsibility for employees, family and society, by professionalism as ideal, and by activities such as networking and mentorship.

  • 550.
    Lindgren, Monica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Interactive Entrepreneurship: On the Study of Innovative Social Processes2002Conference paper (Refereed)
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