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  • 501.
    Wenner, Cenny
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Theoretical Computer Science, TCS.
    Parity is Positively Useless2014In: Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques: The 17th. International Workshop on Approximation Algorithms for Combinatorial Optimization Problems / [ed] Klaus Jansen, José Rolim, Nikhil Devanur, and Cristopher Moore, Dagstuhl, Germany: Schloss Dagstuhl , 2014, p. 433-448Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We give the first examples of non-trivially positively-useless predicates subject only to P != NP. In particular, for every constraint function Q : {-1,1}^4 -> R, we construct Contraint-Satisfaction-Problem (CSP) instances without negations which have value at least 1-eps when evaluted for the arity-four odd-parity predicate, yet it is NP-hard to find a solution with value significantly better than a random biased assignment when evaluated for Q. More generally, we show that all parities except one are positively useless. Although we are not able to exhibit a single protocol producing hard instances when evaluated for every Q, we show that two protocols do the trick. The first protocol is the classical one used by Håstad with a twist. We extend the protocol to multilayered Label Cover and employ a particular distribution over layers in order to limit moments of table biases. The second protocol is a modification of Chan's multi-question protocol where queried tuples of Label Cover vertices are randomized in such a way that the tables can be seen as being independently sampled from a common distribution and in effect having identical expected biases. We believe that our techniques may prove useful in further analyzing the approximability of CSPs without negations.

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    parity_useless.pdf
  • 502.
    Westling, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES).
    Brynielsson, Joel
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Theoretical Computer Science, TCS.
    Gustavi, Tove
    KTH.
    Mining the web for sympathy: The pussy riot case2014In: Proceedings - 2014 IEEE Joint Intelligence and Security Informatics Conference, JISIC 2014, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) , 2014, p. 123-128Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With social media services becoming more and more popular, there now exists a constant stream of opinions publicly available on the Internet. In crisis situations, analysis of social media data can improve situation awareness and help authorities to provide better assistance to the affected population. The large amount of activity on social media services makes manual analysis infeasible. Thus, an automatic system that can assess the situation is desirable. In this paper we present the results of training machine learning classifiers to being able to label tweets with one of the sentiment labels positive, neutral, and negative. The classifiers were evaluated on a set of Russian tweets that were collected immediately after the much debated verdict in the 2012 trial against members of the Russian punk rock collective Pussy Riot. The aim for the classification process was to label the tweets in the dataset according to the author's sentiment towards the defendants in the trial. The results show that the obtained classifiers do not accurately and reliably classify individual tweets with sufficient certainty. However, the classifiers do show promising results on an aggregate level, performing significantly better than a majority class baseline classifier would.

  • 503.
    Westman, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Nyberg, Mattias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Gustavsson, Joakim
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Gurov, Dilian
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Theoretical Computer Science, TCS.
    Formal Architecture Modeling of Sequential Non-Recursive C Programs2017In: Science of Computer Programming, ISSN 0167-6423, E-ISSN 1872-7964, Vol. 146, p. 2-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To manage the complexity of C programs, architecture models are used as high-level descriptions, allowing developers to understand, assess, and manage the C programs without having to understand the intricate complexity of the code implementations. However, for the architecture models to serve their purpose, they must be accurate representations of the C programs. In order to support creating accurate architecture models, the present paper presents a mapping from the domain of sequential non-recursive C programs to a domain of formal architecture models, each being a hierarchy of components with well-defined interfaces. The hierarchically organized components and their interfaces, which capture both data and function call dependencies, are shown to both enable high-level assessment and analysis of the C program and provide a foundation for organizing and expressing specifications for compositional verification.

  • 504.
    Wiener, Lucas
    et al.
    EVRY AB, Sweden.
    Ekholm, Tomas
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Mathematics (Div.).
    Haller, Philipp
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Theoretical Computer Science, TCS.
    Modular responsive web design: An experience report2017In: Companion to the first International Conference on the Art, Science and Engineering of Programming, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2017, Vol. F129681, article id a22Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Responsive Web Design (RWD) enables web applications to adapt to the characteristics of different devices such as screen size which is important for mobile browsing. Today, the only W3C standard to support this adaptability is CSS media queries. However, using media queries it is impossible to create applications in a modular way, because responsive elements then always depend on the global context. Hence, responsive elements can only be reused if the global context is exactly the same. This makes it extremely challenging to develop large responsive applications, because the lack of true modularity makes certain requirement changes either impossible or expensive to realize. In this paper we extend RWD to also include responsive modules, i.e., modules that adapt their design based on their local context, independently of the global context. We present the ELQ project that includes an approach to enabling modular responsivity, and a novel implementation of resize detection of DOM elements. ELQ provides an implementation of element queries which generalize CSS media queries. Importantly, our design conforms to existing web specifications, enabling adoption on a large scale. ELQ is designed to be heavily extensible using plugins. Experimental results show speed-ups of the core algorithms of up to 37x compared to previous approaches. CCS Concepts • Software and its engineering → Domain specific languages; Reusability; Hypertext languages;.

  • 505.
    Wikström, Douglas
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Theoretical Computer Science, TCS.
    A Commitment-Consistent Proof of a Shuffle2009In: INFORMATION SECURITY AND PRIVACY, PROCEEDINGS / [ed] Boyd C, Nieto JG, Berlin: SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN , 2009, Vol. 5594, p. 407-421Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce a pre-computation technique that drastically reduces the online computational complexity of mix-nets based on homomorphic cryptosystems. More precisely, we show that there is a permutation commitment scheme that allows a mix-server to: (1) commit to a permutation and efficiently prove knowledge of doing so correctly in the offline phase, and (2) shuffle its input and give an extremely efficient commitment-consistent proof of a shuffle in the online phase. We prove our result for a general class of shuffle maps that generalize a known types of shuffles, and even allows shuffling ciphertexts of different cryptosystems in parallel.

  • 506.
    Wikström, Douglas
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Theoretical Computer Science, TCS.
    A sender verifiable mix-net and a new proof of a shuffle2005In: ADVANCES IN CRYPTOLOGY ASIACRYPT 200 / [ed] Roy, B, BERLIN: SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN , 2005, Vol. 3788, p. 273-292Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce the first El Carnal based mix-net in which each mix-server partially decrypts and permutes its input, i.e., no reencryption is necessary. An interesting property of the construction is that a sender can verify non-interactively that its message is processed correctly. We call this sender verifiability. The mix-net is provably UC-secure against static adversaries corrupting any minority of the mix-servers. The result holds under the decision Diffie-Hellman assumption, and assuming an ideal bulletin board and an ideal zero-knowledge proof of knowledge of a correct shuffle. Then we construct the first proof of a decryption-permutation shuffle, and show how this can be transformed into a zero-knowledge proof of knowledge in the UC-framework. The protocol is sound under the strong RSA-assumption and the discrete logarithm assumption. Our proof of a shuffle is not a variation of existing methods. It is based on a novel idea of independent interest, and we argue that it is at least as efficient as previous constructions.

  • 507.
    Wikström, Douglas
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Theoretical Computer Science, TCS.
    A universally composable mix-net2004In: THEORY OF CRYTOGRAPHY, PROCEEDINGS  Book Series: LECTURE NOTES IN COMPUTER SCIENCE / [ed] Naor, M, BERLIN: SPRINGER , 2004, Vol. 2951, p. 317-335Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A mix-net is a cryptographic protocol executed by a set of mix-servers that provides anonymity for a group of senders. The main application is electronic voting. Numerous mix-net constructions and stand-alone definitions of security are proposed in the literature, but only partial proofs of security are given for most constructions and no construction has been proved secure with regards to any kind of composition. We define an ideal mix-net in the universally composable security framework of Canetti [6]. Then we describe a mix-net based on Feldman [13] and using similar ideas as Desmedt and Kurosawa [10], and prove that it securely realizes the ideal mix-net with respect to static adversaries that corrupt a minority of the mix-servers and arbitrarily many senders. The mix-net executes in a hybrid model with access to ideal distributed key generation, but apart from that our only assumption is the existence of a group in which the Decision Diffie-Hellman Problem is hard. If there are relatively few mix-servers or a strong majority of honest mix-servers our construction is practical.

  • 508.
    Wikström, Douglas
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Theoretical Computer Science, TCS.
    Simplified Submission of Inputs to Protocols2008In: Security And Cryptography For Networks, Proceedings / [ed] Ostrovsky, R; DePrisco, R; Visconti, I, 2008, Vol. 5229, p. 293-308Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Consider an electronic election scheme implemented using a mix-net; a large number of voters submit their votes and then a smaller number of servers compute the result. The mix-net accepts an encrypted vote from each voter and outputs the set of votes in sorted order without revealing the permutation used. To ensure a fair election, the votes of corrupt voters should be independent of the votes of honest voters, i.e., some type of non-malleability or plaintext awareness is needed. However, for efficiency reasons the servers typically expect inputs from some homomorphic cryptosystem, which is inherently malleable. In this paper we consider the problem of how non-malleability can be guaranteed in the submission phase and still allow the servers to start their computation with ciphertexts of the homomorphic cryptosystem. This can clearly be achieved using general techniques, but we would like a solution which is: (i) provably secure under standard assumptions, (ii) non-interactive for submittors (iii) very efficient for all parties in terms of computation and communication. We give the first solution to this problem which has all these properties. Our solution is surprisingly simple and can be based on various Cramer-Shoup cryptosystems. To capture its security properties we introduce a variation of CCA2-security.

  • 509.
    Wikström, Douglas
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Theoretical Computer Science, TCS.
    Simplified universal composability framework2016In: 13th International Conference on Theory of Cryptography, TCC 2016, Springer, 2016, p. 566-595Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce a simplified universally composable (UC) security framework in our thesis (2005). In this paper we present an updated more comprehensive and illustrated version. The introduction of our simplified model is motivated by the difficulty to describe and analyze concrete protocols in the full UC framework due to its generality and complexity. The main differences between our formalization and the general UC security framework are that we consider: a fixed number of parties, static corruption, and simple ways to bound the running times of the adversary and environment. However, the model is easy to extend to adaptive adversaries. Authenticated channels become a trivial ideal functionality. We generalize the framework to allow protocols to securely realize other protocols. This allows a natural and modular description and analysis of protocols. We introduce invertible transforms of models that allow us to reduce the proof of the composition theorem to a simple special case and transform any hybrid protocol into a hybrid protocol with at most one ideal functionality. This factors out almost all of the technical details of our framework to be considered when relating our framework to any other security framework, e.g., the UC framework, and makes this easy.

  • 510.
    Wikström, Douglas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Theoretical Computer Science, TCS.
    Barrat, J.
    Heiberg, S.
    Krimmer, R.
    Schürmann, C.
    How could Snowden attack an election?2017In: 2nd International Joint Conference on Electronic Voting, E-Vote-ID 2017, Springer, 2017, Vol. 10615, p. 280-291Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We discuss a new type of attack on voting systems that in contrast to attacks described in the literature does not disrupt the expected behavior of the voting system itself. Instead the attack abuses the normal functionality to link the tallying of the election to disclosing sensitive information assumed to be held by the adversary. Thus the attack forces election officials to choose between two undesirable options: Not to publish the election result or to play into the adversary’s hand and to publicize sensitive information. We stress that the attack is different from extortion and not restricted to electronic voting systems.

  • 511.
    Wikström, Douglas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Theoretical Computer Science, TCS.
    Groth, Jens
    An adaptively secure mix-net without erasures2006In: AUTOMATA, LANGAGES AND PROGRAMMING, PT 2, BERLIN: SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN , 2006, p. 276-287Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We construct the first mix-net that is secure against adaptive adversaries corrupting any minority of the mix-servers and any set of senders. The mix-net is based on the Paillier cryptosystem and analyzed in the universal composability model without erasures under the decisional composite residuosity assumption, the strong RSA-assumption, and the discrete logarithm assumption. We assume the existence of ideal functionalities for a bulletin board, key generation, and coin-flipping.

  • 512. Wong, Peter Y. H.
    et al.
    Bubel, Richard
    de Boer, Frank S.
    Gómez-Zamalloa, Miguel
    de Gouw, Stijn
    Hähnle, Reiner
    Meinke, Karl
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Theoretical Computer Science, TCS.
    Sindhu, Mudassar A.
    Testing abstract behavioral specifications2014In: International Journal on Software Tools for Technology Transfer, ISSN 1433-2779, E-ISSN 1433-2787, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 107-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a range of testing techniques for the Abstract Behavioral Specification (ABS) language and apply them to an industrial case study. ABS is a formal modeling language for highly variable, concurrent, component-based systems. The nature of these systems makes them susceptible to the introduction of subtle bugs that are hard to detect in the presence of steady adaptation. While static analysis techniques are available for an abstract language such as ABS, testing is still indispensable and complements analytic methods. We focus on fully automated testing techniques including black-box and glass-box test generation as well as runtime assertion checking, which are shown to be effective in an industrial setting.

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    fulltext
  • 513.
    Wuhib, Fetahi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks.
    Dam, Mads
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Theoretical Computer Science, TCS.
    Stadler, Rolf
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks.
    A Gossiping Protocol for Detecting Global Threshold Crossings2010In: IEEE Transactions on Network and Service Management, ISSN 1932-4537, E-ISSN 1932-4537, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 42-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the use of gossip protocols for the detection of network-wide threshold crossings. Our design goals are low protocol overhead, small detection delay, low probability of false positives and negatives, scalability, robustness to node failures and controllability of the trade-off between overhead and detection delay. Based on push-synopses, a gossip protocol introduced by Kempe et al., we present a protocol that indicates whether a global aggregate of static local values is above or below a given threshold. For this protocol, we prove correctness and show that it converges to a state with no overhead when the aggregate is sufficiently far from the threshold. Then, we introduce an extension we call TG-GAP, a protocol that (1) executes in a dynamic network environment where local values change and (2) implements hysteresis behavior with upper and lower thresholds. Key elements of its design are the construction of snapshots of the global aggregate for threshold detection and a mechanism for synchronizing local states, both of which are realized through the underlying gossip protocol. Simulation studies suggest that TG-GAP is efficient in that the protocol overhead is minimal when the aggregate is sufficiently far from the threshold, that its overhead and the detection delay are largely independent on the system size, and that the tradeoff between overhead and detection quality can be effectively controlled. Lastly, we perform a comparative evaluation of TG-GAP against a tree-based protocol. We conclude that, for detecting global threshold crossings in the type of scenarios investigated, the tree-based protocol incurs a significantly lower overhead and a smaller detection delay than a gossip protocol such as TG-GAP.

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    fulltext
  • 514.
    Wuhib, Fetahi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks.
    Stadler, Rolf
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks.
    Dam, Mads
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Theoretical Computer Science, TCS.
    Gossiping for Threshold Detection2009In: 2009 IFIP/IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON INTEGRATED NETWORK MANAGEMENT (IM 2009) VOLS 1 AND 2, NEW YORK: IEEE , 2009, p. 259-266Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the use of gossip protocols to detect threshold crossings of network-wide aggregates. Aggregates are computed from local device variables using functions such as SUM, AVERAGE, COUNT, MAX and MIN. The process of aggregation and detection is performed using a standard gossiping scheme. A key design element is to let nodes dynamically adjust their neighbor interaction rates according to the distance between the nodes' local estimate of the global aggregate and the threshold itself. We show that this allows considerable savings in communication overhead. In particular, the overhead becomes negligible when the aggregate is sufficiently far above or far below the threshold. We present evaluation results from simulation studies regarding protocol efficiency, quality of threshold detection, scalability, and controllability.

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    fulltext
  • 515.
    Wuhib, Fetahi Zebenigus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks.
    Dam, Mads
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Theoretical Computer Science, TCS.
    Stadler, Rolf
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks.
    Clemm, Alexander
    Decentralized computation of threshold crossing alerts2005In: IFIP/IEEE International Workshop on Distributed Systems: Operations and Management, Berlin: Springer-Verlag , 2005, Vol. LNCS 3775, p. 220-232Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Threshold crossing alerts (TCAs) indicate to a management system that a management variable, associated with the state, performance or health of the network, has crossed a certain threshold. The timely detection of TCAs is essential to proactive management. This paper focuses on detecting TCAs for network-level variables, which are computed from device-level variables using aggregation functions, such as SUM, MAX, or AVERAGE. It introduces TCA-GAP, a novel protocol for producing network-wide TCAs in a scalable and robust manner. The protocol maintains a spanning tree and uses local thresholds, which adapt to changes in network state and topology, by allowing nodes to trade unused “threshold space”. Scalability is achieved through computing the thresholds locally and through distributing the aggregation process across all nodes. Faulttolerance is achieved by a mechanism that reconstructs the spanning tree after node addition, removal or failure. Simulation results on an ISP topology show that the protocol successfully concentrates traffic overhead to periods where the aggregate is close to the given threshold.

  • 516.
    Yanggratoke, Rerngvit
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Kreitz, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Theoretical Computer Science, TCS. Spotify AB.
    Goldmann, Mikael
    Spotify AB.
    Stadler, Rolf
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Fodor, Viktoria
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks.
    On the performance of the Spotify backend2013In: Journal of Network and Systems Management, ISSN 1064-7570, E-ISSN 1573-7705Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We model and evaluate the performance of a distributed key-value storage system that is part of the Spotify backend. Spotify is an on-demand music streaming service, offering low-latency access to a library of over 20 million tracks and serving over 20 million users currently. We first present a simplified model of the Spotify storage architecture, in order to make its analysis feasible. We then introduce an analytical model for the distribution of the response time, a key metric in the Spotify service. We parameterize and validate the model using measurements from two different testbed configurations and from the operational Spotify infrastructure. We find that the model is accurate---measurements are within 11% of predictions---within the range of normal load patterns.In addition, we model the capacity of the Spotify storage system under different object allocation policies and find that measurements on our testbed are within 9% of the model predictions. The model helps us justify the object allocation policy adopted for Spotify storage system.

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    spotify_journal
  • 517.
    Yusuf Isse, Jamila
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Theoretical Computer Science, TCS.
    El Ghouch, Chaimae
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Theoretical Computer Science, TCS.
    Information Theoretic Similarity Measures for Robust Image Matching: Multimodal Imaging - Infrared and Visible light2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    This study aimed to investigate the applicability of three different information theoretic similarity measures in image matching, mutual information (MI), cross-cumulative residual entropy (CCRE) and sum of conditional variances (SCV). An experiment was conducted to assess the impact on the performances of the similarity measures when dealing with multimodality, in this case in the context of infrared and visible light. This was achieved by running simulations of four different scenarios using images taken in infrared and visible light, and additionally with variations in amount of details to create different experimental setups. Namely experimental setup A: unimodal data sets with more and less details and experimental setup B: multimodal datasets with more and less details.

    The result showed that the concept of multimodality gives a statistically significant effect on the performances of all similarity measures. Observations were made that the similarity measures performances also, when trying to match images with different amount of details, differed from each other. This provided a basis for judgement on what measure to use as to give as clear and sound results as possible depending on the variation of detail amount in the data. With this study, it was concluded that the similarity measure CCRE gave the most clear and sound results in the context of multimodality concerning infrared and visible light for both cases of more or less details. Even though the other similarity measures performed well in some cases, CCRE would be to recommend as observed by this study.

    Keywords : Image matching, image registration, information theoretic similarity measures, multimodal imaging, similarity measures, MI, CCRE, SCV, infrared, visible light.

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    fulltext
  • 518. Zhang, B.
    et al.
    Kreitz, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Theoretical Computer Science, TCS.
    Isaksson, Marcus
    Ubillos, Javier
    Urdaneta, G.
    Pouwelse, J. A.
    Epema, D.
    Understanding user behavior in Spotify2013In: 2013 Proceedings - IEEE INFOCOM, 2013, p. 220-224Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spotify is a peer-assisted music streaming service that has gained worldwide popularity in the past few years. Until now, little has been published about user behavior in such services. In this paper, we study the user behavior in Spotify by analyzing a massive dataset collected between 2010 and 2011. Firstly, we investigate the system dynamics including session arrival patterns, playback arrival patterns, and daily variation of session length. Secondly, we analyze individual user behavior on both multiple and single devices. Our analysis reveals the favorite times of day for Spotify users. We also show the correlations between both the length and the downtime of successive user sessions on single devices. In particular, we conduct the first analysis of the device-switching behavior of a massive user base.

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