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  • 51.
    Decrop, Deborah
    et al.
    KU Leuven, Belgium.
    Pardon, Gaspard
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Kokalj, Tadej
    KU Leuven, Belgium.
    Robert, Puers
    KU Leuven, Belgium.
    Haraldsson, Tommy
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Lammertyn, Jeroen
    KU Leuven, Belgium.
    van der Wijngaart, Wouter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Single-step manufacturing of femtoliter microwell arrays in a novel surface energy mimicking polymer2015In: 18th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems (IEEE TRANSDUCER 2015), IEEE , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report a novel polymer material formulation and stamp-molding technique that enable rapid single-step manufacturing of hydrophilic-in-hydrophobic microwell arrays. We developed a modified thiol-ene-epoxy polymer (mOSTE+) formulation that mimics the surface energy of its mold during polymerization. The polymer inherits the surface energy from the mold through molecular self-assembly, in which functional monomers self-assemble at the interface between the liquid prepolymer and the mold surface. Combining this novel mOSTE+ material with a stamp-molding process leads to simultaneous surface energy mimicking and micro-structuring. This method was used to manufacture microwells with hydrophilic bottom and hydrophobic sidewall, depressed in a surrounding hydrophobic surface. The microwell arrays were successfully tested for the self-assembly of 62’000 femtoliter-droplets. Such femtoliter droplet arrays are useful for, e.g., digital ELISA and single cell/molecule analysis applications.

  • 52.
    Dubois, Valentin J.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Design and fabrication of crack-junctions2017In: MICROSYSTEMS & NANOENGINEERING, ISSN 2055-7434, Vol. 3, article id UNSP 17042Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanogap electrodes consist of pairs of electrically conducting tips that exhibit nanoscale gaps. They are building blocks for a variety of applications in quantum electronics, nanophotonics, plasmonics, nanopore sequencing, molecular electronics, and molecular sensing. Crack-junctions (CJs) constitute a new class of nanogap electrodes that are formed by controlled fracture of suspended bridge structures fabricated in an electrically conducting thin film under residual tensile stress. Key advantages of the CJ methodology over alternative technologies are that CJs can be fabricated with wafer-scale processes, and that the width of each individual nanogap can be precisely controlled in a range from <2 to >100 nm. While the realization of CJs has been demonstrated in initial experiments, the impact of the different design parameters on the resulting CJs has not yet been studied. Here we investigate the influence of design parameters such as the dimensions and shape of the notches, the length of the electrode-bridge and the design of the anchors, on the formation and propagation of cracks and on the resulting features of the CJs. We verify that the design criteria yields accurate prediction of crack formation in electrode-bridges featuring a beam width of 280 nm and beam lengths ranging from 1 to 1.8 mu m. We further present design as well as experimental guidelines for the fabrication of CJs and propose an approach to initiate crack formation after release etching of the suspended electrode-bridge, thereby enabling the realization of CJs with pristine electrode surfaces.

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  • 53.
    Dubois, Valentin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Crack-defined electronic nanogaps2016In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 28, no 11, p. 2178-2182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Achieving near-atomic-scale electronic nanogaps in a reliable and scalable manner will facilitate fundamental advances in molecular detection, plasmonics, and nanoelectronics. Here, a method is shown for realizing crack-defined nanogaps separating TiN electrodes, allowing parallel and scalable fabrication of arrays of sub-10 nm electronic nanogaps featuring individually defined gap widths.

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    Preprint CJ - Crack-defined electronic nanogaps 2016
  • 54.
    Dubois, Valentin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Design optimization and characterization of nanogap crack-junctions2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A crack-junction (CJ) is a nanogap electrode pair featuring reliable and controlled nanoscale gap widths that can be produced in large numbers with high dimensional accuracy on a substrate. In this paper, we present a discussion on geometrical considerations of CJs made of titanium nitride (TiN) electrodes, which provides guidelines for reliable formation of TiN CJs with well-defined dimensions. We further provide complete electrical characterization of 40 TiN CJs designed as electron tunneling junctions.

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  • 55. Ebefors, Thorbjörn
    et al.
    Oberhammer, Joachim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Through-Silicon Vias and 3D Inductors for RF Applications2014In: Microwave journal (International ed.), ISSN 0192-6225, Vol. 57, no 2, p. 80-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To cope with an increasing number of frequency bands and advanced mobile phone standards supporting high data rates, current and future wireless communication systems must satisfy stringent performance expectations while simultaneously being more energy-efficient and having lower operating costs. One major limitation of today's mobile phones is poor impedance matching of the antenna to the RF front end section resulting in poor antenna efficiency. This is exacerbated by current trends toward higher miniaturization and integration, presenting ever increasing challenges in the design of complex RF systems and the management of RF interaction on signal lines. By introducing tunable RF elements, the overall system architecture can be simplified, leading to significant cost reductions and performance optimization.

  • 56.
    Ejserholm, Fredrik
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Vastesson, Alexander
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Haraldsson, Tommy
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    van der Wijngaart, Wouter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Schouenborg, Jens
    Lund University.
    Wallman, Lars
    Lund University.
    Bengtsson, Martin
    Lund University.
    A polymer neural probe with tunable flexibility2013In: 2013 6th International IEEE/EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering (NER), 2013, p. 691-694Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel polymeric material, off stoichiometry thiol-ene-epoxy (OSTE+), has been evaluated for the fabrication of neural implants. OSTE+ is easily photo-structurable and exhibits mechanical properties suitable for stable implantation of the probe into brain tissue, while being sufficiently soft at physiological temperatures to reduce living tissue damage. The facile processing of OSTE+ allows use in applications where SU-8 or polyimide currently are the materials of choice. Uniquely, OSTE+ has a Young’s modulus of 1.9 GPa at 10 °C decreasing almost two orders of magnitude to 30 MPa at 40 °C, which can be compared to the Young’s modulus of 2.1 GPa for SU-8. We show a probe, with nine gold electrode sites, implanted into 0.5% agar at 40 °C using active cooling during the implantation.

  • 57.
    Errando Herranz, Carlos
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Close proximity real-time photonic sensing of single-cell biomolecule secretion2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We develop a novel concept for photonic sensing of single-cell biomolecule secretion. The sensing technique is based on biomolecule detection with a waveguide-based photonic ring resonator biosensor.

    Biomolecule secretion plays an important role in cell communication. Defects lead to a wide range of diseases, and thus biomolecule secretion is commonly used as a marker for disease detection. However, there is no tool capable of detecting biomolecule secretion at the single cell level. Such a tool is of key importance for the development of several elds of medicine and biology, along with new industries such as bioproduction.

    We use photonic sensing to develop this tool. Photonic sensing allows sensor miniaturization reaching the cell size, low detection limits, and short detection times. Moreover, simple fabrication and scalability enable mass production in dense arrays at low cost.

    In this Master of Science Thesis, we focus our work on two main fronts: integration of microfluidics on photonics, and cell-handling.

    First, we present a novel method for the integration of polymer microfluidics with photonic silicon sensors, compatible with wafer scale production methods. The current polymeric solution (PDMS) presents drawbacks such as large wafer area consumption, and limited compatibility with bonding onto biofunctionalized surfaces. We fabricated a micro uidics layer in a single step in the recently introduced OSTE polymer, and dry-bonded it to a photonic silicon sensor. This integration method can match the microfluidics to the size scale of current photonic silicon sensors. To demonstrate the integration concept, we report refractive index measurements with a grating coupled Mach-Zehnder interferometer sensor chip. Moreover, we report refractive index measurements with a grating coupled photonic ring resonator sensor chip fabricated by these means. We report a Q-factor of 17000, and a sensitivity of 50 nm/RIU for this sensor.

    Second, after running biocompatibility experiments on cell growth on 5 formulations of OSTE polymers, we demonstrate cell trapping in molded OSTE polymer traps. Human Embryonic Kidney cell (HEK) trapping with microfluidic chips of OSTE, fabricated in a single step process and drybonded to glass chips, is reported.

  • 58.
    Errando-Herranz, Carlos
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Photonic MEMS for optical information technologies2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Photonic integrated circuits (PICs) combine hundreds of optical components on a chip, and can enable fast communications, high-performance computing, and improved sensing. PICs, made by miniaturized optical waveguides, require many reconfigurable elements to enable programmable functionalities and to compensate for fabrication variations and environmental factors. However, current reconfiguration methods consume large amounts of electrical power, which is a bottleneck for their scalability, and limits their applications. A promising technology to alleviate this bottleneck is photonic microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), which provides low-power reconfiguration of PICs using electromechanical actuation. This thesis reports on several photonic MEMS devices and technologies that enable low-power reconfiguration for PICs, and bring new functionalities towards efficient nonlinear optics, optical beam steering, and photonic Lab-on-chips (LoCs). A fundamental element of reconfigurable PICs is the phase shifter, and this thesis introduces novel photonic MEMS phase shifters with low power consumption, low optical losses, and linear actuation, and applies them to reconfigurable filtering. Moreover, photonic MEMS bring novel functionalities arising from the mechanical movement of waveguide components, and, in this thesis, a method to tune waveguide dispersion for efficient nonlinear optics in silicon, and two types of reconfigurable waveguide gratings for low-power optical beam steering are developed. The photonic MEMS platform introduced in this thesis can be combined with polarization diversity schemes by using a novel suspended polarization beam splitter. In addition, other technologies addressing challenges in integrated photonics are introduced, such as a lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) platform that combines grating couplers, high confinement waveguides, and Bragg gratings, for electro-optic modulation and efficient nonlinear optics; and a cost-efficient method to integrate photonic sensors into LoCs for healthcare applications. The technologies introduced in this thesis have potential to enable large-scale, power-efficient, and highly functional PICs, with prospects for more efficient and more functional optical information technologies.

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  • 59.
    Errando-Herranz, Carlos
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Colangelo, Marco
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Ahmed, Samy
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Björk, Joel
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Gylfason, Kristinn B.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    MEMS tunable silicon photonic grating coupler for post-assembly optimization of fiber-to-chip coupling2017In: Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), 2017 30th IEEE International Conference on / [ed] Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, p. 293-296Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We experimentally demonstrate the first MEMS tunable photonic fiber-to-waveguide grating coupler, and apply it to electrostatically optimize the light coupling between an optical fiber and an on-chip silicon photonic waveguide. Efficient and stable fiber-to-chip coupling is vital for combining the high optical quality of silica fibers with the integration density of silicon photonics. Our device has the potential to lower assembly cost and extend device lifetime, by enabling electrical post-assembly adjustments.

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    MEMS tunable silicon photonic grating coupler for post-assembly optimization of fiber-to-chip coupling
  • 60.
    Errando-Herranz, Carlos
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Das, Sandipan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Gylfason, Kristinn
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Suspended polarization beam splitter on silicon-on-insulator2018In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 2675-2681Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polarization handling in suspended silicon photonics has the potential to enable new applications in fields such as optomechanics, photonic microelectromechanical systems, and mid-infrared photonics. In this work, we experimentally demonstrate a suspended polarization beam splitter on a silicon-on-insulator waveguide platform, based on an asymmetric directional coupler. Our device presents polarization extinction ratios above 10 and 15 dB, and insertion losses below 5 and 1 dB, for TM and TE polarized input, respectively, across a 40 nm wavelength range at 1550 nm, with a device length below 8 µm. These results make our suspended polarization beam splitter a promising building block for future systems based on polarization diversity suspended photonics.

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  • 61.
    Errando-Herranz, Carlos
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Edinger, Pierre
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems. Grenoble Institute of Technology, France.
    Gylfason, Kristinn
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Dynamic dispersion tuning of silicon photonic waveguides by microelectromechanical actuation2017In: Optics InfoBase Conference Papers, Optical Society of America, 2017, Vol. Part F41Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficient nonlinear silicon photonics rely on phase-matching through fine waveguide dispersion engineering. We experimentally demonstrate dynamic dispersion tuning of 800 ps/nm/km in a silicon waveguide ring resonator, by using microelectromechanical actuation of an adjacent suspended waveguide rim.

  • 62.
    Errando-Herranz, Carlos
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Edinger, Pierre
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems. Grenoble Institute of Technology - INP Phelma.
    Gylfason, Kristinn B.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Dynamic dispersion tuning of silicon photonicwaveguides by microelectromechanical actuation2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficient nonlinear silicon photonics rely on phase-matching through finewaveguide dispersion engineering. We experimentally demonstrate dynamic dispersion tuningof 800 ps/nm/km in a silicon waveguide ring resonator, by using microelectromechanicalactuation of an adjacent suspended waveguide rim.

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  • 63.
    Errando-Herranz, Carlos
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Gylfason, Kristinn B.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Photonic ring resonators for biosensing2016In: Nanodevices for Photonics and Electronics: Advances and Applications, Pan Stanford Publishing, 2016, p. 385-424Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 64.
    Errando-Herranz, Carlos
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Le Thomas, Nicolas
    Gylfason, Kristinn B.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Low-power optical beam steering by microelectromechanical waveguide gratingsIn: Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Optical beam steering is key for optical communications, laser mapping (LIDAR), and medical imaging. For these applications, integrated photonicsis an enabling technology that can provide miniaturized, lighter, lower cost, and more power efficient systems. However, common integrated photonic devices are too power demanding. Here, we experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, beam steering by microelectromechanical (MEMS)actuation of a suspended silicon photonic waveguide grating. Our device shows up to 5.6° beamsteering with 20 V actuation and a power consumption below the μW level, i.e. more than 5 orders of magnitude lower power consumption than previous thermo-optic tuning methods. The novel combination of MEMS with integrated photonics presented in this work lays ground for the next generation of power-efficient optical beam steering systems.

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  • 65.
    Errando-Herranz, Carlos
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Gylfason, Kristinn B.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    A Low-power MEMS Tunable Photonic Ring Resonator for Reconfigurable Optical Networks2015In: Proceedings of The 28th IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) Estoril, Portugal. Jan 2015, IEEE conference proceedings, 2015, p. 53-56Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We experimentally demonstrate a low-power MEMS tunable photonic ring resonator with 10 selectable channels for wavelength selection in reconfigurable optical networks operating in the C band. The tuning is achieved by changing the geometry of the slot of a silicon slot-waveguide ring resonator, by means of vertical electrostatic parallel-plate actuation. Our device provides static power dissipation below 0.1 μW, a wavelength tuning range of 1 nm, and a narrow bandwidth of 0.1 nm, i.e. 10 nW static power dissipation per selectable channel for TE mode tuning.

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    Errando-Herranz15
  • 66.
    Errando-Herranz, Carlos
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Gylfason, Kristinn B.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    A MEMS tunable photonic ring resonator with small footprint and large free spectral range2015In: Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems (TRANSDUCERS), 2015 Transducers - 2015 18th International Conference on, IEEE conference proceedings, 2015, p. 1001-1004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate a MEMS tunable silicon photonic ringresonator with a 20 μm radius and a 5 nm free spectral range (FSR) for wavelength selection in reconfigurable optical networks. The device shows a loaded Q of 12000, and 300 pm tuning at a wavelength of 1544 nm.

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  • 67.
    Errando-Herranz, Carlos
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Gylfason, Kristinn B.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Low-power microelectromechanically tunable silicon photonic ring resonator add-drop filter2015In: Optics Letters, ISSN 0146-9592, E-ISSN 1539-4794, Vol. 40, no 15, p. 3556-3559Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We experimentally demonstrate a microelectromechanically (MEMS) tunable photonic ring resonator add-€“drop filter, fabricated in a simple silicon-on-insulator (SOI) based process. The device uses electrostatic parallel plate actuation to perturb the evanescent field of a silicon waveguide, and achieves a 530 pm resonance wavelength tuning, i.e., more than a fourfold improvement compared to previous MEMS tunable ring resonator add-€“drop filters. Moreover, our device has a static power consumption below 100 nW, and a tuning rate of -ˆ’62 €€‰pm/V, i.e., the highest reported rate for electrostatic tuning of ring resonator add-€“drop filters.

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  • 68.
    Errando-Herranz, Carlos
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems. UPV Polytechnic University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.
    Saharil, Farizah
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Mola Romero, Albert
    Sandström, Niklas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Shafagh, Reza Z.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    van der Wijngaart, Wouter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Haraldsson, Tommy
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Gylfason, Kristinn B.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Integration of polymer microfluidics with silicon photonic biosensors by one-step combined photopatterning and molding of OSTE2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate a method for the fast and simple packaging of silicon sensors into a microfluidic package consisting of the recently introduced {OSTE} polymer. The microfluidic layer is first microstructured and thereafter dry-bonded to a silicon photonic sensor, in a process compatible with wafer-level production, and with the entire packaging process lasting only 10 minutes. The fluidic layer combines molded microchannels and fluidic (Luer) connectors with photopatterned through-holes (vias) for optical fiber probing and fluid connections. All the features are fabricated in a single photocuring step. We report measurements with an integrated silicon photonic {Mach-Zehnder} interferometer refractive index sensor packaged by these means.

  • 69.
    Errando-Herranz, Carlos
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Saharil, Farizah
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Mola Romero, Albert
    Sandström, Niklas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Shafagh, Reza Z.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Wijngaart, Wouter van der
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Haraldsson, Tommy
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Gylfason, Kristinn B.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Integration Of Polymer Microfluidic Channels, Vias, And Connectors With Silicon Photonic Sensors By One-Step Combined Photopatterning And Molding Of OSTE2013In: Proceedings of the 2013 17th International Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Conference (Transducers), IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, p. 1613-1616Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate a method for the fast and simple packaging of silicon sensors into a microfluidic package consisting of the recently introduced {OSTE} polymer. The microfluidic layer is first microstructured and thereafter dry-bonded to a silicon photonic sensor, in a process compatible with wafer-level production, and with the entire packaging process lasting only 10 minutes. The fluidic layer combines molded microchannels and fluidic (Luer) connectors with photopatterned through-holes (vias) for optical fiber probing and fluid connections. All the features are fabricated in a single photocuring step. We report measurements with an integrated silicon photonic {Mach-Zehnder} interferometer refractive index sensor packaged by these means.

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  • 70.
    Errando-Herranz, Carlos
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Saharil, Farizah
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Romero, Albert Mola
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Sandström, Niklas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Shafagh, Reza Z.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Wijngaart, Wouter van der
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Haraldsson, Tommy
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Gylfason, Kristinn B.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Integration of microfluidics with grating coupled silicon photonic sensors by one-step combined photopatterning and molding of OSTE2013In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 21, no 18, p. 21293-21298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a novel integration method for packaging silicon photonic sensors with polymer microfluidics, designed to be suitable for wafer-level production methods. The method addresses the previously unmet manufacturing challenges of matching the microfluidic footprint area to that of the photonics, and of robust bonding of microfluidic layers to biofunctionalized surfaces. We demonstrate the fabrication, in a single step, of a microfluidic layer in the recently introduced OSTE polymer, and the subsequent unassisted dry bonding of the microfluidic layer to a grating coupled silicon photonic ring resonator sensor chip. The microfluidic layer features photopatterned through holes (vias) for optical fiber probing and fluid connections, as well as molded microchannels and tube connectors, and is manufactured and subsequently bonded to a silicon sensor chip in less than 10 minutes. Combining this new microfluidic packaging method with photonic waveguide surface gratings for light coupling allows matching the size scale of microfluidics to that of current silicon photonic biosensors. To demonstrate the new method, we performed successful refractive index measurements of liquid ethanol and methanol samples, using the fabricated device. The minimum required sample volume for refractive index measurement is below one nanoliter.

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  • 71.
    Errando-Herranz, Carlos
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Vastesson, Alexander
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Zelenina, Marina
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cell Physics.
    Pardon, Gaspard
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Wijngaart, Wouter van der
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Haraldsson, Tommy
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Brismar, Hjalmar
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cell Physics.
    Gylfason, Kristinn B.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Biocompatibility of OSTE polymers studied by cell growth experiments2013In: Proceedings of the 17th Int. Conf. on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry  and Life Sciences (microTAS), Freiburg, Germany, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recently introduced OSTE polymer technology has shown very useful features for microfluidics for lab-on-a-chip applications. However, no data has yet been published on cell viability on OSTE. In this work, we study the biocompatibility of three OSTE formulations by cell growth experiments. Moreover, we investigate the effect of varying thiol excess on cell viability on OSTE surfaces. The results show poor cell viability on one OSTE formulation, and viability comparable with polystyrene on a second formulation with thiol excess below 60%. In the third formulation, we observe cell proliferation. These results are promising for cell-based assays in OSTE microfluidic devices.

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  • 72.
    Ettori, Maxime Philippe
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    A new electrostatic precipitator for breath-borne aerosol: preliminary study and tests2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this master thesis was to preliminary study, design and test a new electrostatic precipitator (ESP) for the capture of human breath-borne aerosol. This system needs to collect aerosolized bacteria/viruses in exhaled droplets, while being compatible with an open interface micro-fluidic system, in which an integrated bio-sensor will detect their presence. The final system may constitute an efficient point-of-care test for lower respiratory tract infection diagnoses. The number of exhaled droplets and the amount of pathogenic material being extremely low, the system needs to provide a high collection efficiency, while being compatible with the technologies used in a point-of-care test.In this work, a thorough study of the state-of-the-art in particle collection systems is presented, as well as theories needed for the conception of an ESP. Based on this knowledge, the main features and solutions were chosen and integrated in a conceptual design of a novel ESP. COMSOL simulations were performed to guide the design of the collection system. A specific simulation code was written to simulate the droplets motion inside a highly simplified ESPmodel. Thereafter, an experimental setup was build, and several configurations of ESP were tested. The efficiency of each configuration was assessed by quantifying the amount of dye, initially dissolved in the dispensed liquid, collected by the ESP. An impinger, placed at the setup outlet, is used to quantify the losses inside the system.Three configurations of ESP were tested, and their collection efficiency analyzed. The best experiment has shown a very promising net collection efficiency of 45%. Conclusions were drawn from the three systems. Even though the ESP system has not met all the specifications, this preliminary study was successful.Finally, guidelines for the creation of a more efficient ESP, and for tests with pathogenic material, could be proposed.

  • 73.
    Fan, Xuge
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Elgammal, Karim
    KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Smith, Anderson D.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits.
    Delin, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory Division, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lemme, Max C.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits. Department of Electronic Devices, RWTH Aachen University, 52074 Aachen, Germany.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Humidity and CO2 gas sensing properties of double-layer graphene2018In: Carbon, ISSN 0008-6223, E-ISSN 1873-3891, Vol. 127, p. 576-587Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Graphene has interesting gas sensing properties with strong responses of the graphene resistance when exposed to gases. However, the resistance response of double-layer graphene when exposed to humidity and gasses has not yet been characterized and understood. In this paper we study the resistance response of double-layer graphene when exposed to humidity and CO2, respectively. The measured response and recovery times of the graphene resistance to humidity are on the order of several hundred milliseconds. For relative humidity levels of less than ~ 3% RH, the resistance of double-layer graphene is not significantly influenced by the humidity variation. We use such a low humidity atmosphere to investigate the resistance response of double-layer graphene that is exposed to pure CO2 gas, showing a consistent response and recovery behaviour. The resistance of the double-layer graphene decreases linearly with increase of the concentration of pure CO2 gas. Density functional theory simulations indicate that double-layer graphene has a weaker gas response compared to single-layer graphene, which is in agreement with our experimental data. Our investigations contribute to improved understanding of the humidity and CO2 gas sensing properties of double-layer graphene which is important for realizing viable graphene-based gas sensors in the future.

  • 74.
    Fischer, Andreas C.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Integration and Fabrication Techniques for 3D Micro- and Nanodevices2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of micro and nano-electromechanical systems (MEMS and NEMS) with entirely new or improved functionalities is typically based on novel or improved designs, materials and fabrication methods. However, today’s micro- and nano-fabrication is restrained by manufacturing paradigms that have been established by the integrated circuit (IC) industry over the past few decades. The exclusive use of IC manufacturing technologies leads to limited material choices, limited design flexibility and consequently to sub-optimal MEMS and NEMS devices. The work presented in this thesis breaks new ground with a multitude of novel approaches for the integration of non-standard materials that enable the fabrication of 3D micro and nanoelectromechanical systems. The objective of this thesis is to highlight methods that make use of non-standard materials with superior characteristics or methods that use standard materials and fabrication techniques in a novel context. The overall goal is to propose suitable and cost-efficient fabrication and integration methods, which can easily be made available to the industry.

    The first part of the thesis deals with the integration of bulk wire materials. A novel approach for the integration of at least partly ferromagnetic bulk wire materials has been implemented for the fabrication of high aspect ratio through silicon vias. Standard wire bonding technology, a very mature back-end technology, has been adapted for yet another through silicon via fabrication method and applications including liquid and vacuum packaging as well as microactuators based on shape memory alloy wires. As this thesis reveals, wire bonding, as a versatile and highly efficient technology, can be utilized for applications far beyond traditional interconnections in electronics packaging.

    The second part presents two approaches for the 3D heterogeneous integration based on layer transfer. Highly efficient monocrystalline silicon/ germanium is integrated on wafer-level for the fabrication of uncooled thermal image sensors and monolayer-graphene is integrated on chip-level for the use in diaphragm-based pressure sensors.

    The last part introduces a novel additive fabrication method for layer-bylayer printing of 3D silicon micro- and nano-structures. This method combines existing technologies, including focused ion beam implantation and chemical vapor deposition of silicon, in order to establish a high-resolution fabrication process that is related to popular 3D printing techniques.

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  • 75.
    Fischer, Andreas C.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Forsberg, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES).
    Lapisa, Martin
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Bleiker, Simon J.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Integrating MEMS and ICs2015In: Microsystems & Nanoengineering, ISSN 2055-7434, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 1-16, article id 15005Article, book review (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The majority of microelectromechanical system (MEMS) devices must be combined with integrated circuits (ICs) for operation in larger electronic systems. While MEMS transducers sense or control physical, optical or chemical quantities, ICs typically provide functionalities related to the signals of these transducers, such as analog-to-digital conversion, amplification, filtering and information processing as well as communication between the MEMS transducer and the outside world. Thus, the vast majority of commercial MEMS products, such as accelerometers, gyroscopes and micro-mirror arrays, are integrated and packaged together with ICs. There are a variety of possible methods of integrating and packaging MEMS and IC components, and the technology of choice strongly depends on the device, the field of application and the commercial requirements. In this review paper, traditional as well as innovative and emerging approaches to MEMS and IC integration are reviewed. These include approaches based on the hybrid integration of multiple chips (multi-chip solutions) as well as system-on-chip solutions based on wafer-level monolithic integration and heterogeneous integration techniques. These are important technological building blocks for the ‘More-Than-Moore’ paradigm described in the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors. In this paper, the various approaches are categorized in a coherent manner, their merits are discussed, and suitable application areas and implementations are critically investigated. The implications of the different MEMS and IC integration approaches for packaging, testing and final system costs are reviewed.

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  • 76.
    Fischer, Andreas C.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Korvink, Jan G.
    University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany .
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Wallrabe, Ulrike
    University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany .
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Unconventional applications of wire bonding create opportunities for microsystem integration2013In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 23, no 8, p. 083001-Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automatic wire bonding is a highly mature, cost-efficient and broadly available back-endprocess, intended to create electrical interconnections in semiconductor chip packaging. Modern production wire-bonding tools can bond wires with speeds of up to 30 bonds per second with placement accuracies of better than 2 mu m, and the ability to form each wire individually into a desired shape. These features render wire bonding a versatile tool also for integrating wires in applications other than electrical interconnections. Wire bonding has been adapted and used to implement a variety of innovative microstructures. This paper reviews unconventional uses and applications of wire bonding that have been reported in the literature. The used wire-bonding techniques and materials are discussed, and the implemented applications are presented. They include the realization and integration of coils, transformers, inductors, antennas, electrodes, through silicon vias, plugs, liquid and vacuum seals, plastic fibers, shape memory alloy actuators, energy harvesters and sensors.

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  • 77.
    Fischer, Andreas C.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Mäntysalo, M.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Inkjet Printing, Laser-Based Micromachining and Micro 3D Printing Technologies for MEMS2015In: Handbook of Silicon Based MEMS Materials and Technologies: Second Edition, Elsevier Inc. , 2015, p. 550-564Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of unconventional micro-fabrication technologies are emerging that are suitable for micromachining of MEMS devices. These micromachining approaches typically are sequential processes in which devices on a substrate are formed one at a time, as opposed to conventional parallel and high-throughput semiconductor manufacturing processes. Nevertheless, many of the serial micromachining processes, including inkjet printing technologies and laser-based processes can be highly efficient and cost competitive, especially for low and medium sized manufacturing volumes as well as for prototyping purposes. The technologies presented in this chapter can be categorized as additive micromachining approaches (e.g., inkjet printing) and subtractive micromachining approaches (e.g., laser ablation). This chapter discusses the more mature technologies that are already being developed in a commercial context and a number of new and emerging micromachining approaches that are still in the early research and development stage. 

  • 78.
    Fischer, Andreas C.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Gylfason, Kristinn Björgvin
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    3D printing of silicon micro and nano structures by ion implantation, silicon deposition, and selective silicon etching2013In: Technical Paper - Society of Manufacturing Engineers, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method for additive layer-by-layer fabrication of arbitrarily shaped 3D silicon micro and nano structures is reported. The fabrication is based on alternating steps of chemical vapor deposition of silicon and local implantation of gallium ions by focused ion beam (FIB) writing. In a final step, the defined 3D structures are formed by etching the silicon in potassium hydroxide (KOH), in which the local ion implantation provides the etching selectivity. The proposed technology could change and greatly simplify the fabrication of many MEMS, NEMS, and silicon photonic devices without requiring a fully equipped semiconductor cleanroom. This layer-by-layer fabrication method is in principle also viable for the implementation of 3D structures in semiconductors other than silicon.

  • 79.
    Fischer, Andreas C.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Toral, T. R.
    Lindberg, K. B.
    Wille-Haussmann, B.
    Madani, Hatef
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Investigation of Thermal Storage Operation Strategies with Heat Pumps in German Multi Family Houses2014In: Energy Procedia, Elsevier, 2014, p. 137-144Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of air source heat pumps is an efficient method to provide heat for space heating and domestic hot water in residential buildings, which cover roughly one third of the German domestic energy use. Capacity controlled heat pumps are gaining increased market share and provide high flexibility in operation. The possibility to use thermal storage to decouple thermal production and electric load from the heat pump can be used for operation strategies, hereby increasing the possibility to integrate electricity production from renewable energy sources. In the work presented, a range of operational strategies for capacity controlled heat pumps connected to a thermal storage in German multifamily houses are introduced and evaluated. The use cases include maximization of energy performance, cost minimization and utilization of on-site photovoltaic production. For optimal storage operation a model predictive control (MPC) approach using quadratic programming is presented together with simplified models of the multi-family house, a thermal storage and a capacity controlled air-to-water heat pump, the MPC creates a control signal to the heat pump. The resulting control signal is then applied to a detailed heat pump model to investigate the impact on the efficiency of the heat pump unit and thereby its electric energy consumption with different storage options.Results show that the MPC strategy is able to adapt to different objectives. One of the most important findings is that changing the objective towards a variable day-ahead-price-based operation leads to decreased heat pump efficiency but increases revenue. The sensitivity analysis towards storage size shows little influence in the range of sizes investigated.

  • 80.
    Forsberg, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Heterogeneous material integration for MEMS2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes heterogeneous integration methods for the fabrication of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Most MEMS devices reuse the fabrication techniques that are found in the microelectronics integrated circuit industry. This limits the selection of materials and processes that are feasible for the realization of MEMS devices. Heterogeneous integration methods, on the other hand, consist of the separate pre-fabrication of sub-components followed by an assembly step. The pre-fabrication of subcomponents opens up for a wider selection of fabrication technologies and thus potentially better performing and more optimized devices. The first part of the thesis is focused upon an adhesive wafer-level layer transfer method to fabricate resistive microbolometer-based long-wavelength infrared focal plane arrays. This is realized by a CMOS-compatible transfer of monocrystalline silicon with epitaxially grown silicon-germanium quantum wells. Heterogeneous transfer methods are also used for the realization of filtering devices, integration of distributed small dies onto larger wafer formats and to fabricate a graphene-based pressure sensor. The filtering devices consist of very fragile nano-porous membranes that with the presented dry adhesive methods can be transferred without clogging or breaking. Pick-and-place methods for the massive transfer of small dies between different wafer formats are limited by time and die size-considerations. Our presented solution solves these problems by expanding a die array on a flexible tape, followed by adhesive wafer bonding to a target wafer. Furthermore, a gauge pressure sensor is realized by transferring a graphene monolayer grown on a copper foil to a micromachined target wafer with a silicon oxide interface layer. This device is used to extract the gauge factor of graphene. Adhesive bonding is an enabling technology for the presented heterogeneous integration techniques. A blister test method together with an experimental setup to characterize the bond energies between adhesives and bonded substrates is also presented.

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  • 81.
    Forsberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Fischer, Andreas C.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Samel, Björn
    Acreo AB.
    Eriksson, Per
    Acreo AB.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Heterogeneous 3D integration of 17 mu m pitch Si/SiGe quantum well bolometer arrays for infrared imaging systems2013In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 045017-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on the realization of 17 mu m x 17 mu m pitch bolometer arrays for uncooled infrared imagers. Microbolometer arrays have been available in primarily defense applications since the mid-1980s and are typically based on deposited thin films on top of CMOS wafers that are surface-machined into sensor pixels. This paper instead focuses on the heterogeneous integration of monocrystalline Si/SiGe quantum-well-based thermistor material in a CMOS-compliant process using adhesive wafer bonding. The high-quality monocrystalline thermistor material opens up for potentially lower noise compared to commercially available uncooled microbolometer arrays together with a competitive temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR). Characterized bolometers had a TCR of -2.9% K-1 in vacuum, measured thermal conductances around 5 x 10(-8) WK-1 and thermal time constants between 4.9 and 8.5 ms, depending on the design. Complications in the fabrication of stress-free bolometer legs and low-noise contacts are discussed and analyzed.

  • 82.
    Forsberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Lapadatu, Adriana
    Kittilsland, Gjermund
    Martinsen, Stian
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Fischer, Andreas C.
    Stemme, Goran
    Samel, Bjorn
    Ericsson, Per
    Hoivik, Nils
    Bakke, Thor
    Bring, Martin
    Kvisteroy, Terje
    Ror, Audun
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    CMOS-Integrated Si/SiGe Quantum-Well Infrared Microbolometer Focal Plane Arrays Manufactured With Very Large-Scale Heterogeneous 3-D Integration2015In: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, ISSN 1077-260X, E-ISSN 1558-4542, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate infrared focal plane arrays utilizing monocrystalline silicon/silicon-germanium (Si/SiGe) quantum-well microbolometers that are heterogeneously integrated on top of CMOS-based electronic read-out integrated circuit substrates. The microbolometers are designed to detect light in the long wavelength infrared (LWIR) range from 8 to 14 mu m and are arranged in focal plane arrays consisting of 384 x 288 microbolometer pixels with a pixel pitch of 25 mu m x 25 mu m. Focal plane arrays with two different microbolometer designs have been implemented. The first is a conventional single-layer microbolometer design and the second is an umbrella design in which the microbolometer legs are placed underneath the microbolometer membrane to achieve an improved pixel fill-factor. The infrared focal plane arrays are vacuum packaged using a CMOS compatible wafer bonding and sealing process. The demonstrated heterogeneous 3-D integration and packaging processes are implemented atwafer-level and enable independent optimization of the CMOS-based integrated circuits and the microbolometer materials. All manufacturing is done using standard semiconductor and MEMS processes, thus offering a generic approach for integrating CMOS-electronics with complex miniaturized transducer elements.

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  • 83.
    Forsberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Colinge, C.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Integration of distributed Ge islands onto Si wafers by adhesive wafer bonding and low-temperature Ge exfoliation2015In: 2015 28th IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS 2015), IEEE , 2015, p. 280-283Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a novel and highly efficient wafer-level batch transfer process for populating silicon (Si) wafers with distributed islands of thin single-crystalline germanium (Ge) layers. This is achieved by transferring Ge from a Si wafer containing thick Ge dies to a Si target wafer by adhesive wafer-bonding and subsequent low-temperature Ge exfoliation.

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  • 84.
    Forsberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Fischer, Andreas C.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Samel, Björn
    Acreo AB.
    Ericsson, Per
    Acreo AB.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Very Large Scale Heterogeneous Integration (VLSHI) and Wafer-Level Vacuum Packaging for Infrared Bolometer Focal Plane Arrays2013In: Infrared physics & technology, ISSN 1350-4495, E-ISSN 1879-0275, Vol. 60, p. 251-259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Imaging in the long wavelength infrared (LWIR) range from 8 to 14 μm is an extremely useful tool for non-contact measurement and imaging of temperature in many industrial, automotive and security applications. However, the cost of the infrared (IR) imaging components has to be significantly reduced to make IR imaging a viable technology for many cost-sensitive applications. This paper demonstrates new and improved fabrication and packaging technologies for next-generation IR imaging detectors based on uncooled IR bolometer focal plane arrays. The proposed technologies include very large scale heterogeneous integration for combining high-performance, SiGe quantum-well bolometers with electronic integrated read-out circuits and CMOS compatible wafer-level vacuum packing. The fabrication and characterization of bolometers with a pitch of 25 μm × 25 μm that are arranged on read-out-wafers in arrays with 320 × 240 pixels are presented. The bolometers contain a multi-layer quantum well SiGe thermistor with a temperature coefficient of resistance of −3.0%/K. The proposed CMOS compatible wafer-level vacuum packaging technology uses Cu–Sn solid–liquid interdiffusion (SLID) bonding. The presented technologies are suitable for implementation in cost-efficient fabless business models with the potential to bring about the cost reduction needed to enable low-cost IR imaging products for industrial, security and automotive applications.

  • 85.
    Forsberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Saharil, Farizah
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Haraldsson, Tommy
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    van der Wijngaart, Wouter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    A Comparative study of the bonding energy in adhesive wafer bonding2013In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 23, no 8, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adhesion energies are determined for three different polymers currently used in adhesive wafer bonding of silicon wafers. The adhesion energies of the polymer off-stoichiometry thiol-ene-epoxy OSTE+ and the nano-imprint resist mr-I 9150XP are determined. The results are compared to the adhesion energies of wafers bonded with benzocyclobutene, both with and without adhesion promoter. The adhesion energies of the bonds are studied by blister tests, consisting of delaminating silicon lids bonded to silicon dies with etched circular cavities, using compressed nitrogen gas. The critical pressure needed for delamination is converted into an estimate of the bond adhesion energy. The fabrication of test dies and the evaluation method are described in detail. The mean bond energies of OSTE+ were determined to be 2.1 and 20 J m(-2) depending on the choice of the epoxy used. A mean bond energy of 1.5 J m(-2) was measured for mr-I 9150XP.

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  • 86.
    Forsberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Saharil, Farizah
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    van der Wijngaart, Wouter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Haraldsson, Tommy
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Low temperature adhesive wafer bonding using OSTE(+) for heterogeneous 3D MEMS integration2013In: Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), 2013 IEEE 26th International Conference on, IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, p. 342-346Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate, for the first time, the use of off stoichiometry thiolene-epoxy, OSTE(+) for adhesive wafer bonding. The dual cure system, with an initial UV-curing step followed by a second thermal cure, allows for high bond strength and potentially high quality material interfaces. We show that cured OSTE(+) is easily removed in oxygen plasma and that the characteristics of OSTE(+) make it a potential candidate for use in heterogeneous 3D MEMS integration. Furthermore, we show how the bond energies of wafers bonded with OSTE(+) adhesive compares with the bond energies of wafers bonded with Cyclotene 3022-46 (BCB) and mr-I 9150XP nanoimprint resist.

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  • 87.
    Frid, Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Closed-Form Relation between the Scan Angle and Feed Position for Extended Hemispherical Lenses based on Ray-Tracing2016In: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, ISSN 1536-1225, E-ISSN 1548-5757, Vol. 15, p. 1963-1966Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This letter presents a closed-form relation between the scan angle and feed position for extended hemispherical lenses. This relation is derived using ray tracing, and it is valid for both large and small scan angles, in excellent agreement with full-wave simulations. It is demonstrated that the relation is linear in the small-angle limit, and the effective focal length determining the scan angle is presented. It is also demonstrated that the scan angle only depends on the geometrical configuration, and that it is independent of the lens material. To demonstrate the applicability of this scan angle relation to the design of focal plane arrays (FPAs), we demonstrate that it can be used to determine the FPA spacing that results in -3-dB overlap between switched beams. A comparison with full-wave simulations of lenses with varying materials and FPA elements demonstrates a root-mean-square (rms) accuracy of 0.27 degrees for the scan angle estimation, and rms accuracy of 0.26 dB for the -3-dB overlap criterion between the central and adjacent beams. Finally, we present scaling rules, which show that the scan resolution is inversely proportional to the lens diameter, whereas the FPA spacing is independent of the total lens size.

  • 88.
    Frid, Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Holter, Henrik
    Jonsson, B. Lars G.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    An Approximate Method for Calculating the Near-Field Mutual Coupling Between Line-of-Sight Antennas on Vehicles2015In: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, ISSN 0018-926X, E-ISSN 1558-2221, Vol. 63, no 9, p. 4132-4138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Calculating the mutual coupling between antennas on vehicles using full-wave simulations requires a vast amount of computer resources due to the electrical size of the structures. We therefore propose an alternative and approximate method to determine mutual coupling between antennas on vehicles for the case where there is line-of-sight (LOS) between the antennas. The proposed method is based on approximating the mutual coupling between LOS antennas on vehicles as near-field transmission between antennas in free space. We begin the analysis with a brief review of four methods for calculating the near-field free-space transmission. Of the investigated methods, we demonstrate that a nonsingular form of the near-field transmission integral originally proposed by Yaghjian (1982) is the most suitable for LOS antennas on vehicles. We introduce a modification to this method, in order to only use the antenna far-fields and geometrical separation to determine the mutual coupling. The comparison with full-wave simulations indicates that the proposed method has a good accuracy for LOS antennas. This paper ends with a full-scale mutual coupling calculation for two monopoles on an aircraft under LOS conditions, demonstrating a root mean square (rms) accuracy of 6 dB for frequencies up to 5 GHz, as compared with full-wave simulations.

  • 89.
    Frid, Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Töpfer, Fritzi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Bhowmik, Shreyasi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Dudorov, Sergey
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Oberhammer, Joachim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Optimization of Micromachined Millimeter-Wave Planar Silicon Lens Antennas with Concentricand Shifted Matching Regions2017In: Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, ISSN 1937-8718, E-ISSN 1937-8718, Vol. 79, p. 17-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study of planar silicon lens antennas with up to three stepped-impedance matching regions. The effective permittivity of the matching regions is tailor-made byetching periodic holes in the silicon substrate. The optimal thickness and permittivity of the matchingregions were determined by numerical optimization to obtain the maximum wideband aperture efficiencyand smallest side-lobes. We introduce a new geometry for the matching regions, referred to as shiftedmatching regions. The simulation results indicate that using three shifted matching regions results intwice as large aperture efficiency as compared to using three conventional concentric matching regions.By increasing the number of matching regions from one to three, the band-averaged gain is increasedby 0.3 dB when using concentric matching regions, and by 3.7 dB when using shifted matching regions,which illustrates the advantage of the proposed shifted matching region design.

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  • 90.
    Frössander, Pontus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    An automated test system for error simulation in anaesthesia devices2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Anaesthesia devices are a critical part of the medical equipment in any hospital. Safe operation of these devices is of the highest importance to the lives of the patients. To ensure this, the device has to detect when a component is malfunctioning. During development, the device is tested to insure that possible errors are detected, reported and that the device reacts properly. This thesis was performed at Dräger Medical, in Lübeck, Germany, to analyze and attempt to improve the development of anaesthesia devices.

    In the anaesthesia device, the gas mixer unit consists of several valves and pressure sensors whose function is to deliver the correct gas mixture to the patient. To verify that any malfunctions in the components are detected correctly, errors are simulated in a laboratory setting. This simulation of malfunctioning valves and pressure sensors is currently done manually at Dräger Medical. This manual procedure is very time-intensive, and limited in terms of complexity and the accuracy. To reliably and cost-effectively test for errors, an automated test procedure would be preferred. Such a procedure is able to perform complex test during extended periods of time. The repeatability and the accuracy can also be higher.

    A new approach using a computer that controls the simulation hardware was developed. The hardware needs to be able to manipulate the valves and pressure sensors in the mixer and accept commands from a computer to facilitate complex automatic testing. For this purpose, a 32-bit microcontroller with appropriate connectivity was chosen. For sensor manipulation, several modules controlled by the microcontroller were designed and assembled. For communicating with the microcontroller, a graphical user interface was designed in LabVIEW. This offers the operator full manual control over the simulation hardware as well as the possibility to automate the testing procedure through the use of scripts. These scripts are executed by an internal script engine and the results are automatically compiled into a report for documentation purposes. The new system has significantly improved the ability to test anaesthesia devices. Automatic testing can now be done from a normal desktop computer. Compared to the old method of manually testing one signal at a time, the operator is now able to simultaneously manipulate several signals. If no automatic control is necessary, the combination of a computer and microcontroller still offers superior accuracy and flexibility compared to the old method.

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  • 91.
    Gao, Jiajia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Fischer, Andreas C.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Svensson, Per H.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Kloo, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Crystallography as Forensic Tool for Understanding Electrolyte Degradation in Dye-sensitized Solar Cells2017In: CHEMISTRYSELECT, ISSN 2365-6549, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 1675-1680Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The precipitation of solid compounds from model electrolytes for liquid dye-sensitized solar cells has a story to tell regarding decomposition processes to be expected in such systems. Of course, the crystal lattice energy for a specific crystalline compounds plays a role in what compound that will eventually precipitate, but the compounds nevertheless serve as indicators for what type of processes that take place in the solar cell electrolytes upon ageing. From the compounds isolated in this study we learn that both ligand exchange processes, double-salt precipitation and oxidation are degradation processes that should not be overlooked when formulating efficient and stable electrolytes for this type of electrochemical system.

  • 92.
    Gatty, Hithesh K
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    MEMS-based electrochemical gas sensors and wafer-level methods2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes novel microel ectromechanical system (MEMS) based electrochemical gas sensors and methods of fabrication.

    This thesis presents the research in two parts. In the first part, a method to handle a thin silicon wafer using an electrochemically active adhesive is described. Handling of a thin silicon wafer is an important issue in 3D-IC manufacturing where through silicon vias (TSVs) is an enabling technology. Thin silicon wafers are flexible and fragile, therefore difficult to handle. In addressing the need for a reliable solution, a method based on an electrochemically active adhesive was developed. In this method, an electrochemically active adhesive was diluted and spin coated on a 100 mm diameter silicon wafer (carrier wafer) on which another silicon wafer (device wafer) was bonded. Device wafer was subjected to post processing fabrication technique such as wafer thinning. Successful debonding of the device wafer was achieved by applying a voltage between the two wafers. In another part of the research, a fabrication process for developing a functional nanoporous material using atomic layer deposition is presented. In order to realize a nanoporous electrode, a nanoporous anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) substrate was used, which was functionalized with very thin layers (~ 10 nm) of platinum (Pt) and aluminum oxide (Al2O3) using atomic layer deposition. Nanoporous material when used as an electrode delivers high sensitivity due to the inherent high surface area and is potentially applicable in fuel cells and in electrochemical sensing.

    The second part of the thesis addresses the need for a high performance gas sensor that is applicable for asthma monitoring. Asthma is a disease related to the inflammation in the airways of the lungs and is characterized by the presence of nitric oxide gas in the exhaled breath. The gas concentration of above approximately 50 parts-per-billion indicates a likely presence of asthma. A MEMS based electrochemical gas sensor was successfully designed and developed to meet the stringent requirements needed for asthma detection. Furthermore, to enable a hand held asthma measuring instrument, a miniaturized sensor with integrated electrodes and liquid electrolyte was developed. The electrodes were assembled at a wafer-level to demonstrate the feasibility towards a high volume fabrication of the gas sensors. In addition, the designed amperometric gas sensor was successfully tested for hydrogen sulphide concentration, which is a bio marker for bad breath.

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    Thesis_Hithesh K Gatty
  • 93.
    Gatty, Hithesh K
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Leijonmarck, Simon
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Antelius, Mikael
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Niclas, Roxhed
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    A ppb-level miniaturized amperometric nitric oxide sensor2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 94.
    Gatty, Hithesh K.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Leijonmarck, Simon
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Antelius, Mikael
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    An amperometric nitric oxide sensor with fast response and ppb-level concentration detection relevant to asthma monitoring2015In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 209, p. 639-644Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A MEMS-based amperometric nitric oxide (NO) gas sensor is reported in this paper. The sensor is designed to detect NO gas for the purpose of asthma monitoring. The unique property of this sensor lies in the combination of a microporous high-surface area electrode that is coated with Nafion (TM), together with a liquid electrolyte. The sensor is able to detect gas concentrations of the order of parts-per-billion (ppb) and has a measured NO sensitivity of 0.045 nA/ppb and an operating range between 25 and 65% relative humidity. The settling time of the sensor is measured to 8s. The selectivity to interfering gases such as ammonia (NH3) and carbon monoxide (CO) was high when placing an activated carbon fiber filter above the sensor. The ppb-level detection capability of this sensor combined with its relatively fast response, high selectivity to CO and NH3 makes the sensor potentially applicable in gas monitoring for asthma detection.

  • 95.
    Gatty, Hithesh K.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Niclas, Roxhed
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Temporary wafer bonding and debonding by an electrochemically active polymer adhesive for 3D integration2013In: Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), 2013 IEEE 26th International Conference on, New York: IEEE , 2013, p. 381-384Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thin wafer handling is an important issue in 3D integration technologies. This paper reports on an efficient method for bonding a thin wafer and debonding it at room temperature from a carrier wafer. This method addresses the major problem of fragility and flexibility in handling of thin wafers used in TSV fabrication. In the presented method the carrier wafer is spin coated with an electrochemically active polymer adhesive. It is then bonded to a device wafer. The wafer stack is thinned and finally released from the carrier wafer by applying a voltage.

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  • 96.
    Gatty, Hithesh K
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Niclas, Roxhed
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Temporary wafer bonding of thin wafers by electrochemically active polymer2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 97.
    Gatty, Hithesh K.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Schröder, Stephan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Temporary Wafer Bonding and Debonding for 3D Integration Using an Electrochemically Active Polymer Adhesive2014In: ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology, ISSN 2162-8769, Vol. 3, no 5, p. P115-P121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of thin silicon wafers is an enabling technology for 3D integration in the semiconductor industry. However, thin silicon wafers are fragile to handle and reliable solutions are required for thin wafer handling. This paper reports a novel method of bonding and debonding a thin wafer (< 50 mu m) using an electrochemically active polymer adhesive. In the presented method the carrier wafer is first spin coated with the adhesive and then bonded to the device wafer by applying force and temperature. Debonding of the wafer is realized at room temperature by applying a voltage between the carrier and the device wafer, which substantially reduces the bond strength. The bonding and debonding properties of the adhesive show that temporary wafer bonding using electrochemically active adhesives has the potential to be an attractive approach for temporary wafer bonding for thin wafer handling in 3D integration processes.

  • 98.
    Gatty, Hithesh K
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Niclas, Roxhed
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    A wafer level liquid cavity integrated amperometric gas sensor with ppb leve nitric oxide gas sensitivityArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A miniaturized amperometric nitric oxide (NO) gas sensor based on wafer-level fabrication of electrodes and a liquid electrolyte chamber is reported in this paper. The sensor is able to detect NO gas concentrations of the order of parts per billion (ppb) levels and has a measured sensitivity of 0.04 nA ppb−1 with a response time of approximately 12 s. A sufficiently high selectivity of the sensor to interfering gases such as carbon monoxide (CO) and to ammonia (NH3) makes it potentially relevant for monitoring of asthma. In addition, the sensor was characterized for electrolyte evaporation which indicated a sensor operation lifetime allowing approximately 200 measurements.

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  • 99.
    Gatty, Hithesh K
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Niclas, Roxhed
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    An amperometric hydrogen sulphide sensor applicable for bad breath monitoringManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 100.
    Gatty, Hithesh Kumar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Leijonmarck, Simon
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Antelius, Mikael
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    A ppb level, miniaturized fast response amperometric nitric oxide sensor for asthma diagnostics2013In: Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), 2013 IEEE 26th International Conference on, New York: IEEE , 2013, p. 1001-1004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on a novel miniaturized MEMS-based amperometric nitric oxide sensor that is suitable for a point of care testing device for asthma. The novelty lies in the combination of a high surface area microporous structured electrode, nano-structured Nafion that is coated on the side walls of the micropores, and liquid electrolyte. This combination allows detection of very low concentration (parts-per-billion) gas, has a high sensitivity of 4 mu A/ppm/cm(2) and has both a response and a recovery time of 6 s. The sensor is integrated with a PCB potentiostat to form a complete measuring module. The limit of detection of this sensor was estimated to be 0.3 ppb.

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