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  • 51.
    Börjesson Rivera, Miriam
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630).
    Henriksson, Greger
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630).
    Åkerlund, Maria
    Getting there and back again: Commuting and ICT in six cities across the globe2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ericsson ConsumerLab performed a qualitative exploratory study of how people experience daily commuting in three different countries. This report aims to present the outcome of the study in such a way that the data can be useful for further analyses and studies of commuting in relation to ICT use and environmental sustainability. Based on the study’s findings this report will present analytical data on: i) how ICT can be linked to everyday travel in order to facilitate commuting from the user’s point of view; and ii) how ICT solutions can enable commuting in an environmentally more sustainable way.

    The study, which had an ethnographic approach, showed that in general, commuters would like their commuting time to be, or at least seem, as short as possible. The respondents spend hours commuting every week and often claim to consider it a waste of time. Regardless of means of transport, they would like to get the most out of their commuting time (working, socialising, relaxing etc.), which implies that there is a demand for further technological improvements in this area (voice recognition services in cars, privacy settings in public transport, connectivity in public transport, etc.). An aspect that adds to how people perceive their commuting time concerns the extent to which its duration is predictable – even if the time cannot be shortened, commuters at least want to know how much time they will spend on their daily commute, so that they can plan their day with more certainty.

    Irrespective of means of transport, two major frustrations for commuters are lack of flow and the presence and behaviour of other people. People seem to lack good real-time information enabling them to avoid interruptions in their commute and much of their frustration relates to poor infrastructure conditions and management. Frustration with other people derives from their conduct in traffic contributing to inconveniences, congestion or hazards, or from noise, smell or littering on public transport.

    The greatest motivators for commuting by car are a feeling of independence in relation to other people, schedule and choice of route, and the private space the car offers. This means that the car provides flexibility in terms of when and how people travel, while also providing a private space both mentally (“in the car you can do whatever you want”) and physically (“you don’t have to hustle with others on the bus or train”). The major frustration when commuting by car is the need to focus on driving, so drivers cannot utilise time as they would wish.

    People generally justify their choice of public transport by anti-car arguments, which include difficulty in finding a parking space at work, expensive parking, fear of driving, lack of driving licence etc., but can also motivate their choice as giving them ‘me-time’ without having to focus on driving. The major frustration with commuting by public transport is dependency on time schedules and the shortcomings of the public transport network. This is exacerbated by a lack of relevant information or available options. However, commuting can be improved in a variety of ways for car and public transport users with the help of ICT. From a sustainability perspective, it is important to exploit the potential of ICT solutions to facilitate more environmentally friendly practices.

    Many of the ICT (Information Communication Technology) solutions identified in this report require reliable access to the internet and/or mobile phone network. The mobile phone is currently the single most important internet device while commuting, thus perhaps being the point of departure for many of the solutions, such as travel planner, ticketing options, etc, but for car users mobile phone services need to be adapted through better in-car voice recognition technologies, since the focus needs to be on driving. Current information services could be more personalised and contextualised in order to better suit the individual driver and most of these ICT solutions and services are also applicable to public transport commuters, but an additional function for such commuters could be some kind of ‘emergency button’ on mobile phones to increase their sense of security in travel.

    Home office solutions are a way of avoiding the frustrations of commuting altogether. While working from home is regarded by some with ambivalence and is impossible for many, there are ways of refining these solutions.

  • 52.
    Cabrol, Philippe
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Suggestion of generic Product Category Rules (PCR) for newbuildings2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This Master Thesis project consists in suggesting generic Product Category Rules (PCR) for newbuildings which will be in line with the requirements of the PCR for building product issued inFebruary 2006 by the Swedish Environmental Management Council. The suggestion for a PCRfor new buildings is meant to provide a structured framework to the real estate professionals fora reliable, comprehensive and verifiable communication of the environmental performance oftheir buildings. Typical examples of possible use of an environmental declaration of a newbuilding would be communication towards authorities, marketing purposes or planningpurposes. This will also allow the authorities to be able to include the environmentalconsiderations inherent to the buildings themselves in the decision-making process for housingdevelopments (in addition to other environmental considerations inherent to the developmentproject such as EIA results for instance).

  • 53.
    Carlsson, Annica
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Combinations of codes in the Combined Nomenclature for Swedish Material Flow Accounts: Method development2009Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 54.
    Carlsson, Annica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Palm, V.
    Wadeskog, A.
    IPP-indicators for private and public consumption based on environmental accounts and LCA2006Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 55.
    Carlsson, Annica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Brolinson, H.
    Material Flows for som products: LCD-monitors, tires, jackets and bridge foundations2011Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 56.
    Carlsson, Annica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Hemström, K.
    Edborg, P.
    Stenmarck, Ä.
    Sörne, L.
    Kartläggning av mängder och flöden av textilavfall2011Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 57.
    Carlsson, Annica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630). Environmental Accounts, Statistics Sweden, Sweden.
    Krook, Joakim
    Eklund, Mats
    Frändegård, Per
    Svensson, Niclas
    Urban mining: hibernating copper stocks in local power grids2011In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 19, no 9-10, p. 1052-1056Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large technical systems serving the everyday needs of people, such as water supply systems, power grids or communication networks, are rich in accumulated metals. Over time, parts of these systems have been taken out of use without the system infrastructure being removed from its original location. Such metal stocks in hibernation thus constitute potential resource reservoirs accessible for recovery. In this paper, obsolete stocks of copper situated in the local power grids of two Swedish cities are quantified. Emphasis is also on economic conditions for extracting such "hibernating" cables. The results show that on a per customer basis, the two power grids contain similar amounts of copper, i.e. 0.04-0.05 tonnes per subscriber. However, the share of the copper stock that is in hibernation differs between the grids. In the larger grid of Gothenburg, almost 20% of the copper accumulated in the grid is no longer in use, while the obsolete share does not exceed 5% in the city of Linkoping. For managers of local power grids, recovery of hibernating cables could be beneficial if integrated with other maintenance work on the grid. At the present price of copper, however, separate recovery of obsolete cables is not economically justified.

  • 58.
    Carlsson, Annica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Palm, V.
    Wadeskog, A.
    Energy use and CO2-emissions for consumed products and services: IPP-indicators for private and public consumption based on environmental accounts2005Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 59.
    Carlsson, Annica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Sörme, L.
    Palm, V.
    Material Flow Accounts  : Statistics and Development2009Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 60.
    Carlsson, Annica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Sörne, L.
    Palm, V.
    Domestic Inflow of Hazardous Substances2010Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 61.
    Carlsson, Annica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Wadeskog, A.
    Edborg, P.
    Accounting for Flows of Fruit and Vegetables in the Food chain: Method development based on MFA2010Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 62.
    Carlsson, Annica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Wadeskog, A.
    Palm, V.
    Kanlén, F.
    Flow Accounts and Policy: Data for Sweden 20042006Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 63. Dalemo, Magnus
    et al.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    Jönsson, Håkan
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Effects of including nitrogen emissions from soil in environmental systems analysis of waste management strategies1998In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 24, p. 363-381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental impacts of nitrogen emissions from soil resulting from the use of organic fertilizers, such as manure, are large compared with the corresponding impacts of mineral fertilizers. However, soil emissions are rarely included in systems analysis of waste management strategies. This study examines whether the inclusion of soil emissions can affect the environmental ranking of systems for managing solid biodegradable waste. Waste management scenarios based on incineration, anaerobic digestion and composting, respectively, were compared. The scenarios were analysed using the organic waste research (ORWARE) simulation model. A simplified model for calculating nitrogen availability and emissions was also constructed. Life-cycle analysis methodology was used for choosing system boundaries and evaluating the results. Global warming, acidification and eutrophication were the impact categories considered. The results indicate the vital importance of considering nitrogen emissions from soil when comparing biological waste management systems with other waste management methods, especially with regard to eutrophication effects. Soil emissions are also important when comparing the environmental impacts of anaerobic digestion and composting systems. However, the variation in nitrogen emissions from soil is large and depends on the spreading technique used, climate, drainage and soil texture

  • 64. Darnhofer, Ika
    et al.
    Bellon, Stéphane
    Dedieu, Benoît
    Milestad, Rebecka
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Adaptive farming systems – a position paper2008In: Proceedings of the 8th European IFSA Symposium: Empowerment of the rural actors, a renewal of farming systems perspectives, IFSA , 2008, p. 339-351Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last decades, there have been profound changes in the understanding of farming systems, in particular regarding their need for on-going adaptation to an ever-changing environment. Indeed, the rapid pace of change and its often unforeseeable direction requires farmers to keep their farms flexible and adaptive. We thus need to understand the attitudes, structures and activities that build and sustain the ability of farmers and of farming communities to cope with change and to use the opportunities offered by change. The approach we propose is based on an understanding of the workings of complex systems and entails another viewpoint on system properties, boundaries and dynamics. It focuses on ensuring sufficient room to manoeuvre, identifying transition capabilities and extending the degrees of freedom. It emphasises the need to ensure that farmers are prepared for turbulences by increasing their adaptive capacity. The concepts of flexibility, resilience and adaptive management may help in learning how to make constructive use of unforeseen change. Indeed, changes are the triggers for experimentation, for the reorganisation of resources, for the renewal of systems capable of learning and adapting. In particular, we will examine the factors that may support the capacity of farming systems to create, test and maintain an adaptive design.

  • 65.
    Edvardsson Björnberg, Karin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Sundqvist, Johan
    KTH.
    KTH-toppar attackerar miljömålarbetet – ”Långsamt och otillräckligt”2011In: Miljöaktuellts nätupplagaArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 66.
    Edvardsson Björnberg, Karin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Svenfelt, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Adapting cities to climate change: goal conflicts and methods of conflict resolution2009In: Fifth Urban Research Symposium 2009, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decision-making concerning adaptation to climate change ofteninvolves choosing between different options, each of which can have importantimplications for the achievability of other goals and policies. In this article,adaptation measures and goal conflicts are investigated using the City ofStockholm as an empirical basis. The investigation shows that goal conflicts inadaptation are common phenomena. This points to the need for assessing andpredicting the environmental, social and economic impacts of adaptation measures,strategies and policies at an early stage in the decision-making process. To ensurethe coherence with other policy goals, there is a need for tools to assess and predictoutcomes, but also to balance those outcomes in situations where they are noteasily reunited.

  • 67.
    Ekener, Elisabeth
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630). KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630). KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Potential hotspots identified by social LCA - Part 1: A case study of a laptop computer2013In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 127-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: A generic hotspot assessment of social impacts from a product was conducted, using a laptop computer as a case. The aims of the case study were to identify social hotspots of the laptop and to test and evaluate the methodology. Methods: The case study was based on the social LCA methodology described in the Guidelines for social LCA and included the product system from 'cradle to grave' as well as the impacts on all relevant stakeholders. We focused on a simplified list of materials and used mainly country-specific data. Results and discussion: A new method for impact assessment of hotspots was developed. The total activity in each phase was distributed among countries. The countries were divided into groups related to the extent of activity in the product system, as well as to their performance on a subcategory. High values in both groups were highlighted and hotspots were identified. The results revealed some hotspots, some hot countries and some hot issues, all indicating a risk of negative social impacts in the product system of a laptop. It also identified workers and the local community as the stakeholders most at risk of negative social impacts. Among the hotspots identified, the following subcategories were of importance: safe and healthy living conditions, social benefit/social security, access to material resources, involvement in areas with armed conflicts, community engagement (lack of), corruption, and access to immaterial resources. Conclusions: The study showed it is possible to conduct a social LCA on a generic complex product using the Guidelines, even though data collection was impaired by lack of data and low data quality. It identified methodological issues that need further attention, for example the indicator impact pathways. Still, it is clear that new insights can be gained by social LCA, where the life cycle perspective and the systematic approach help users identify potentially important aspects that could otherwise have been neglected.

  • 68.
    Ekener, Elisabeth
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630). KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630). KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Potential hotspots identified by social LCA-Part 2: Reflections on a study of a complex product2013In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 144-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: We present experiences and reflections from social life cycle assessment (S-LCA) case study, the aim of which was to identify social hotspots, test and evaluate the methodology and propose improvements. This paper discusses the usability and applicability of the methodology used based on our experiences from the study. The main issues considered are whether the gathering of data and other information is feasible and straightforward to perform, whether the method provides added value and relevant results and how these can be presented. Method: We have conducted a generic hotspot assessment on a laptop computer according to the Guidelines for Social Life Cycle Assessment of Products (Benoît and Mazijn 2009). The experiences presented were gathered throughout the case study. The supply chain of the laptop was simplified, and we focused on a limited number of materials. The impacts were assessed in relation to the area of protection on human well-being and to affected stakeholders. Social impacts from the actual use of the product were not included. Methodological sheets were used for guidance on inventory indicators and data sources for data collection. Country-specific data were collected and entered into a spreadsheet. The process has been guided by regular meetings in a reference group, composed of representatives of all stakeholder groups. Results and discussion: The data collection process was impaired by a lack of data and low data quality. In order to relate the data collected to the product assessed, each country's share of the activity performed in each phase was determined, and the activity percentage was calculated. In order to consider and relate all the phases in the product system, we used an estimated activity variable due to the lack of data. We developed a new approach to impact assessment. By determining the combination of the most extensive activity, as well as the most negative in the range of possible values for involved countries, we identified the hotspots. The results were not further aggregated in order to promote transparency. Conclusions: We found the S-LCA methodology to be feasible and useful. By handling all relevant issues within one study using a systems perspective on the product life cycle, knowledge can be gained. However, there are still some major challenges. The definition of relevant indicators, data availability, impact pathways, activity variables, results presentation and possible aggregation, the handling of stakeholder context and the restricted assessment of the use phase were identified as major issues to deal with in further studies. Communication, and hence use of the results, is a crucial issue to enable the outcome of a study to result in actions that actually improve human well-being.

  • 69.
    Ekvall, Tomas
    et al.
    IVL.
    Åkeson, Lynn
    Lunds Universitet.
    Eriksson, Ola
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Ljunggren Söderman, M
    IVL.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Sundqvist, Jan-Olov
    IVL.
    von Borgstede, Chris
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Bridging the gap between the sustainability pillars2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A thorough assessment of the sustainability performance of a product, a system, or a decision requires expertise on environmental, economic, and social aspects. In an assessment that involves researchers from different disciplines, communication is challenging because of different background knowledge, terminology, research traditions, etc.In the research program Towards Sustainable Waste Management, a new approach to interdisciplinary interaction was tested. The program included a group of researchers on life cycle assessment (LCA) and systems analysis of waste management. To this group, specialists in national economy, environmental psychology, and ethnology were linked in various projects. In each specific research project at least 20% of the budget was allocated to a waste LCA expert, who, through participating actively in the project, would be an interpreter, a two-way bridge between the disciplines. The first purpose of this LCA expert was to interpret the sustainability questions and to help make the research relevant for the overall purpose of the research program. The second purpose was to interpret the results of the specialists’ research and to help making the results useful for the overall program.Our experience demonstrates that this set-up forces the specialists and their interpreters/bridges to face the challenge of understanding each other. Establishing such an interdisciplinary interaction requires that the researchers share a mutual interest in trying to reach understanding. However, despite this interest and despite the significant resources made available for the participation, our collaboration was restricted by the fact that it can be difficult for the specialists to find suitable tasks in their projects for the LCA expert. The chance of the interaction being successful increases if the background knowledge of the researchers in the project overlaps, if they have similar research cultures, if they share a common interest in the research questions, and/or if the disciplinary scientists are accustomed to interdisciplinary collaboration.

  • 70.
    Elfors, Susanna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Built Environment Analysis.
    Svane, Örjan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Action Research for Environmentally Sustainable Housing: Using research as a tool for change2008In: Journal of Transdisciplinary Environmental Studies, ISSN 1602-2297, E-ISSN 1602-2297, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Critics claim that neither results from sustainable housing demonstration projects nortools for the environmental impact assessment of buildings are used in mainstream housing practice.Th is raises the question of how research-based knowledge for energy effi ciency and environmentalsustainability in the built environment could be transferred to practice in a better way. In this articlewe propose a model to address this problem by combining refl ective research and “green engineering”.Th e model was developed through applying action research theory on generalized fi ndings ofempirical studies by diff erent researchers. Th e model is called Action Research for EnvironmentallySustainable Housing (ARESH). In this kind of research it is permissible to be openly normativeand to strive for change, but not to neglect critical refl ection. To achieve this, the researcher has toco-operate closely with co-researchers such as residents and housing managers, and, furthermore, tobalance between taking the roles of researcher, team member and teacher/preacher. On the positiveside, the model permits dissemination of information targeted at researchers as well as practitioners,and also “leaves behind” practical knowledge with the co-researchers after the project properhas ended.

  • 71.
    Engström, Rebecka
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Food, energy and the environment from a Swedish perspective2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    National sector responsibility legislation places specific obligations on Swedish sector authorities to handle environmental issues within their sector. Because of this responsibility, there is a need to map environmental impacts from sectors and to identify key problems and strategies to reduce impacts in each sector. Agriculture and energy are two sectors causing severe environmental impacts, and these are therefore interesting as case studies.

    Employing a systems perspective when exploring impacts and options for their reduction ensures that problems are not simply shifted in time or space or between problems, but are considered in a holistic manner. Using this perspective, indirect effects such as changes upstream or downstream of the production chain, as well as among consumers, can be considered when seeking strategies to reduce environmental impacts in a sector.

    A method to investigate environmental impacts from a sector was developed and tested in the cases of agriculture and energy (Papers I and II). The method was based on environmentally extended Input-Output Analysis (IOA) and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). IOA-data from Swedish Environmental Accounts were used as the starting point for the inventory. Such data provide information on direct and indirect impacts from the sector. To capture those aspects not included in the Environmental Accounts, the Swedish Environmental Quality Objectives were subsequently used as a checklist, and information on the missing aspects was obtained from literature. For further processing of the data, characterisation and weighting methods from LCA methodology were used to identify hotspots, i.e. the most important problems.

    The results showed that biodiversity, greenhouse effect, eutrophication, use of non-renewable resources and toxicity were potential hotspots in the agriculture sector. In the energy sector, the hotspots were air quality, greenhouse effect, use of non-renewable resources and toxicity.

    Analysis of sector policies (Paper III) showed that both sectors are focusing on some of the hotspots identified, but other important problems are not receiving sufficient attention. In the agriculture sector, the focus is principally on biodiversity and toxicity, while the energy sector mainly focuses on issues of climate change and non-renewable resources.

    A second hybrid IOA-LCA method (Energy Analysis Programme, EAP) was employed to study direct and indirect use of energy carriers in households (Papers IV and V). Through a combination of IOA and process data, the energy intensity (energy per monetary unit, e.g. MJ/SEK) of a large number of goods and services was calculated. When combined with information on household expenditure, these data provided information on total household use of fuels and electricity and provided insights into spending patterns that could result in lower energy intensity. A final study investigated the significance of reducing food losses as a strategy to reduce environmental impacts from the food sector (Paper VI). The results from the studies with a consumer perspective were used to identify how consumers can contribute to reducing environmental impacts in the two sectors investigated. For agriculture, consumers can help reduce impacts through reduced consumption of animal products, while for energy, reduced energy use in households is important, as is further substitution of fossil fuels.

  • 72.
    Engström, Rebecka
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630).
    Land use in the future - needs and limitations2005In: Ecosystems and Sustainable Development V / [ed] Tiezzi, E; Brebbia, CA; Jorgensen, SE; Gomar, DA, ASHURST: WIT PRESS , 2005, Vol. 81, p. 365-374Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Suitable cropland is needed for production of food, forest products, bioenergy and other crops, and in all areas future projections have been made on the need for land. Projections of future contribution from biomass to the global energy system often take food production into consideration. But there is not only a conflict between different kinds of production: land has to be set aside also for protection of biological diversity. Saving species is important for reasons such as current and future commercial benefits, but also because of functional values of the ecosystems, to maintain productivity. In this study projections of future land use for different purposes are compared with total suitable land on a global scale. It discusses possibilities for realisation of the projections and potential strategies for making the fulfilment of the different needs compatible. Strategies for reducing land use are for example changed food consumption and energy saving measures. A main finding is that the available land can suffice for the needs according to the studied projections, but we might have to consider alterations for example in diet.

  • 73.
    Engström, Rebecka
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Dreborg, Karl-Henrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Höjer, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Svenfelt, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Åkerman, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Åtgärdspaket och omvärldsscenarier för de svenska miljömålen2007Report (Other academic)
  • 74.
    Engström, Rebecka
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Höjer, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Dreborg, Karl-Henrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Omvärldsscenarier till miljömålsarbetet2007Report (Other academic)
  • 75.
    Engström, Rebecka
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Nilsson, Måns
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Which environmental problems get policy attention? Examining energy and agricultural sector policies in Sweden2008In: Environmental impact assessment review, ISSN 0195-9255, E-ISSN 1873-6432, Vol. 8, no 4-5, p. 241-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Not all environmental problems get the same level of policy attention. An interesting question is thus why certain aspects receive attention and others do not. This paper studies the level of policy attention given to different environmental aspects in agriculture and energy policy in Sweden and explores empirically some factors that can explain the level of attention. The first step was to explore the link between environmental issue characteristics and the level of policy attention. The level of policy attention was measured through a content analysis of Swedish government bills. The results from the content analysis are clear and stable over the studied time period. In the agriculture sector biodiversity and toxicity are in focus whereas in the energy sector climate change and resources are given the attention. Besides these aspects, the attention is limited. These results were compared with the results from sector-wide environmental assessments of the same sectors. These assessments were based on hybrid input-output analysis and life cycle assessment methodologies. A main finding from the study is that issue importance is a necessary but not a sufficient condition for policy attention. Other explanations are needed to understand which environmental issues get attention in sectoral policy. Our assessment showed that while the level of knowledge does not provide an explanation, the presence of strong and well-organised stakeholders within the sector, with an interest in having a certain issue on the agenda, might be decisive for issue attention. Path dependency and limited attention capacity are other important factors.

  • 76.
    Engström, Rebecka
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Wadeskog, Anders
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Environmental assessment of Swedish agriculture2007In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 60, no 3, p. 550-563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes an environmental assessment of Swedish agriculture, including upstream and downstream effects. The analysis is based on environmentally extended input-output analysis, but it is also supplemented with data from other sources. The analysis shows that direct effects by the Swedish agriculture are the most important, while indirect effects from other sources including mobile and impacts abroad are also considerable. The most important impacts from Swedish agriculture according to the analysis are eutrophication, global warming and resource use. The agricultural sector produces a large share of the Swedish emissions causing both global warming and eutrophication. In addition, current agricultural practice causes problems with loss of biodiversity. The most important actors in the sector are agriculture itself, but also all actors using fossil fuels: primarily the transport sector and the energy sector. In addition, consumers are important since they can influence the composition of agricultural production. The analysis shows the importance of including upstream and downstream effects when analysing the environmental impacts from a sector.

  • 77. Ewert, Susanne
    et al.
    Greger, Henriksson
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Åkesson, Lynn
    Osäker eller nöjd: Kulturella aspekter på vardagens avfallspraktik2008Report (Other academic)
  • 78.
    Eyong, Michael
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Environmental Assessment Tools as a Framework for Decision-making: A Comparative Study between EIA Theory and Practice in Cameroon and Sweden2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is now a global interest in the use of environmental assessment tools such as Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) and Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), for which a considerable amount of research has been undertaken into their theoretical development. In addition, there is a growing need to adopt the Life Cycle perspective in order to get a broader understanding of the upstream and downstream consequences of decision-making. Unfortunately, however, implementation aspects of these tools have not sufficiently matched with issues that have been developed in the theory. This thesis attempts to highlight this issue by comparing practices in Cameroon with Sweden in order to pinpoint main constraints in Environmental Assessment Practices (EA). EIA constitutes special focus, with SEA and the concept of LC thinking being included as necessary complement. The method employed is essentially document-based, involving the collection of theoretical information and evidence from three areas of institutional framework for supporting the practice of EIA in both countries, notably, the existing regulatory and administrative setting; process and procedural aspects of the tool; and approach to decision-making including public perception and participation in environmental issues. The results show that although the Swedish system is not completely in line with the theoretical demands, it serves important lesson for its Cameroonian counterpart. Essentially, progress in Cameroon is still hampered by ineffective institutional capacity for good governance and lack of genuine political will brought about by misperception surrounding the link between environmental protection and economic growth in private sector investment toward poverty alleviation. Also undermining the process is inadequate public engagement in a highly centralized decision-making approach. Lack of trust in public institutions in Cameroon is also the main reason why people don’t get involved. As a suggestion to bridging the dichotomy between theory and practice in Cameroon based on lessons from Sweden, this thesis concludes with a few recommendations for improvement.

  • 79.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    A world with CO2-caps: Electricity production in consequential assessments2008In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 365-367Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 80.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630).
    Analytical Tools for Environmental Design and Management in a Systems Perspective: N. Wrisberg and H.A. Udo de Haes (Eds.)2005In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 13, no 8, p. 867-868Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 81.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Exergy Analysis for Characterizing Use of Natural resources in Life Cycle Assessment and Other Environmental Systems Analysis Tools2011In: Proceedings of 2nd Internationals Exergy, Life Cycle Assessment and Sustainability Workshop and Symposium / [ed] Koroneos, C.J., Rovas, D.C., and Dompros, A.T, 2011, p. 31-31Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 82.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Exergy as a measure ofresource use in LCA and other sustainability assessment methods2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased waste valorization should lead to savings of natural resources. But different types of valorization  can  lead  to  different  types  of  savings and  there  may  therefore  be  a  need  for comparing different types of resources uses. Exergy use has been suggested as a measure for resource use in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and other sustainability assessment methods. It is an interesting approach since it can describe both energetic resources as well as metal ores and other materials that have a chemical exergy in the same units. The aim of this paper is to contribute to the discussion on different approaches to measure the use of resources in  LCA and other environmental systems analysis tools by  illustrating the use of the thermodynamic approach  in case  studies  and  comparing  the  results  with  other  approaches.  We  will  also discuss  advantages  and  disadvantages  of  different  approaches.  The  results  show  that  the different methods  produce  strikingly  different  results  when  applied  to  case  studies.  This indicates  the  need  to further  discuss methods  for describing  resource  use.  The  study  also demonstrates the feasibility of the thermodynamic approach. It is suggested that the results are reasonable  and  that  the  thermodynamic  approach  is  developed  from  a  solid  scientific  basis. When  compared  to  other  methods  it  is  interesting  to  note  that  the  exergy  approach  captures most resources that are considered important by other methods. When analysing the results it becomes apparent that the composition of the ores can have  an influence  of the results.  It is thus  of  interest  to develop  more  ore-specific  data. It  would  also  be  of  interest  to  further develop exergy use as a method for assessing a broader range of resources including land and water.

  • 83.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Finanskris och klimatkris – paralleller och kopplingar2010Report (Other academic)
  • 84.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630).
    Gör en ny översiktsplan för Stockholm2011In: Dagens nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, no 2011-08-22Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 85.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630).
    KTH-professor: Minska inte miljökraven, Miljödepartementet!2012In: Miljöaktuellt, ISSN 0345-763X, no 2012-07-01Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 86.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Life Cycle Assessment and Waste management: Lessons for Industry and Policy Makers2010In: 3rd International Conference on Engineering for waste and biomass valorization, 2010, p. 144-144Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 87.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Några reflektioner på rapporten "Underlag till utvärdering av producentansvaret för förpackningar"2007Report (Other academic)
  • 88.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Paradoxerna som gör att vi inte kan hantera klimatfrågan2010Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 89.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Regeringen glömmer miljökonsekvenserna2006In: MiljöaktuelltArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 90.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Särskilt yttrande2005In: En bra skatt?: beskattning av avfall som förbränns, Stockholm: Fritzes, 2005, p. 363-365Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 91.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630).
    Vi måste agera nu – risken är oacceptabel2010In: Ny teknik, ISSN 0550-8754, no 13-10-2010Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 92.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Weighting in LCA Based on Ecotaxes: Development of a Method and Experiences for Case Studies2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 93.
    Finnveden, Göran
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Alverbro, Karin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Hochschorner, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Hägvall, J
    A Life Cycle Assessment of Destruction of Ammunition2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 94.
    Finnveden, Göran
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Alverbro, Karin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Hochschorner, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Hägvall, J
    Environmental Aspects of Disposal of Ammunition2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 95.
    Finnveden, Göran
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630).
    Berggren, C
    Brunsson, N
    Cerin, P
    Corvellec, H
    Eckerman, I
    Eldh, C
    Falkemark, G
    Frändberg, L
    Gössling, S
    Hahn, T
    Jakobsson, S
    Jansson, J.O
    Kaijser, A
    Laestadius, S
    Lundqvist, P
    Murray, R
    Mähler, K.-G
    Nilsson, J.H
    Odhnoff, J
    Ohlsson, E
    Ribbing, P
    Rodhe, H
    Strandberg, L.-G
    Söderbaum, P
    Trygger, C
    Vilhelmsson, B
    Övermark, I
    Därför säger vi nej till ”Förbifart Stockholm”2008In: Aftonbladet, ISSN 1103-9000Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 96.
    Finnveden, Göran
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630).
    Berggren, C
    Falkenmark, G
    Jansson, JO
    Murray, R
    Hellre nytt avstamp för järnväg2008In: Svenska dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412, no 31 maj 2008Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 97.
    Finnveden, Göran
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Bisaillon, M.
    Noring, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Stenmarck, A.
    Sundberg, J.
    Sundqvist, J. -O
    Tyskeng, Sara
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Developing and evaluating new policy instruments for sustainable waste management2012In: International Journal of Environment and Sustainable Development (IJESD), ISSN 1474-6778, E-ISSN 1478-7466, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 19-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to suggest a number of interesting policy instruments that can make the Swedish waste management system more sustainable. Approximately 60 suggestions for policy instruments were gathered through a number of workshops with stakeholders. These were further prioritised in a workshop with stakeholders and by the research team resulting in a list of 15 instruments: information to citizens and companies; tax on raw materials; weight-based waste collection fee; environmentally differentiated waste collection fee; waste minimisation in enterprises; 'Advertising brochures - yes, please!'; recycling certificates; developed collection systems; tax on incineration of waste from fossil fuels; tax on incineration of waste; including waste in green certificates for electricity production; tax on hazardous substances; labelling of goods with hazardous substances; improved control by authorities; differentiated VAT and ban on incineration of recyclable materials. Several policy instruments are needed that can complement each other.

  • 98.
    Finnveden, Göran
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Bisaillon, M
    Noring, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Stenmarck, Å
    Sundberg, J
    Sundqvist, J.-O
    Tyskeng, Sara
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Developing and Evaluating New Policy Instruments for Sustainable Waste management2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 99.
    Finnveden, Göran
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Bisaillon, M
    Noring, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Stenmarck, Å
    Sundberg, J
    Sundqvist, J-O
    Tyskeng, Sara
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    New policy instruments for a sustainable waste management?2010In: Proceedings of Global Waste management Symposium, 3-6 October 2010, San Antonio, Texas, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 100.
    Finnveden, Göran
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Bisaillon, M
    Noring, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Stenmarck, Å
    Sundberg, J
    Sundqvist, J-O
    Tyskeng, Sara
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Nya styrmedel inom avfallsområdet?2009Report (Other academic)
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