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  • 51.
    Kifle, Mengistu
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Solomon, A.
    Okoli, C.
    Mbarika, V.
    Critical success factors for telemedicine in Ethiopia2004In: Innovations Through Information Technology, Vols 1 and 2 / [ed] KhosrowPour, M, HERSHEY: IDEA GROUP PUBLISHING , 2004, p. 426-429Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information and communication technology (ICT) has seen exceptional growth in the last decade in Ethiopia and Africa. Delivery of health care services is an issue for governments in most developing countries. However, service and quality depend on the availability of financial and human resources along with the organizational and management capability to transform the resources to meet national needs. This paper discusses three important enablers of telemedicine: government in the role of policy maker and facilitator; higher institutions as providers of resources and training; and foreign alliances for infusion of finances and expertise. This paper specifically discusses Ethiopia as a case study, describing the effect of these enablers in Ethiopian telemedicine.

  • 52.
    Kjellman, Arne
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Constructive Systems Science - the Only Remaining Alternative?2003Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The opposition between the realists and the anti-realists isas old as Western science. The question as to whether the“furniture of the world”we call the“things”is to be considered real or not hasconsistently been at the forefront in the debates about scienceand philosophy. This urgent interest is motivated by the closeconnection to another question–namely that of scientificobjectivity - an issue that seldom receives proper treatment.Objectivity has rather been taken for granted in thetraditional Newtonian paradigm with its well-known slogan: Thedetached observer is the objective one and the rational mind ofclarity.

    It was impossible to continue with this dictum, which isresponsible for the cleft between the natural and socialsciences and still presents a ban on human feelings inscientific endeavours, after the findings of quantum mechanicsat the beginning of the 20th century. However the penetratingpower of this important insight has been astonishingly weak andwith the emergence of computer science in the middle of thecentury, Newtonian science’s self-assumed status ofobjectivity has been apprehended as both very doubtful and asevere hindrance in other areas outside the quantum domain ofscientific activity. The efforts of computer modelling andsimulation analysis revealed a pronounced observer-dependencyregarding investigation.

    For these reasons this thesis will scrutinise the activityof science and the art of modelling–proposing the use ofa 2-step model of modelling (metamodel) to clarify andemphasize the involvement of the observer in the process ofobservation. This approach reveals that the object-orientedapproach (OOA), which has been the prevailing one since thedawn of Western science and is one of the basic tenets of theNewtonian paradigm, makes science unable to describe itsobjects of discourse in an observer-independent manner. Such ascience is at risk to be considered inconsistent, incompleteand non-objective and for that reason unfit for consensualscientific use.

    The main claim of this thesis is that the object-orientedapproach is responsible for the genesis of Cartesian dualismand other inconsistencies, which are met in present dayscience. Such a claim is not novel however, but I will arguethat when science is dressed up as the Subject-orientedApproach to Knowledge (SOA) a long row of embarrassing andbewildering situations encountered in classical humanconceptualisation will vanish–in a way that, as far as Iknow, has never been explicitly explained before. This approachalso promises a unification of the different disciplines ofsciences so that e.g. the social sciences can be treated on anequal footing with the natural sciences–and thus thisembarrassing gulf of human knowledge can be removed. This is aprofound shift of paradigm in science and the re-orientation ofhuman thinking required is both considerable andtime-consuming.

    For this reason this thesis is not a systematic presentationof the SOA, but rather tries, in Part 1, to pave the way for anunderstanding of this approach by an introductory discussionabout the means and scope of science and the essential role ofsymbolic modelling in this endeavour–and in particularthe way these activities will be influenced by the anticipatedchange of paradigm. Some historical aspects of this particularSOA are also given as a background and this section iscompleted by a brief survey of the modern trends in scientificmodelling.

    Part 2 is collection of papers dealing with the principlesof modelling and simulation, and, rather more importantly, asequence of papers reflecting how the ideas of the SOA havedeveloped throughout the years due to the inconsistencies metwith in these and adjacent areas. To my mind they prove -beyond the point of any consensual doubt–that therealist’s position in science cannot be defended anylonger and that the“things of the world”by thescientific community must be considered merely privateallusions.

    More important however is the insight that the Newtonianparadigm is unable to produce an observer-independentdescription of this world with its conceived things and theonly way out of this embarrassing dilemma seems to be theacceptance of the SOA–with its hitherto strictly bannedfeature of subjectivity. Using this approach, we claim, sciencecan be given a consensual and consistent foundation–andthe price to pay is the loss of scientific ontology. As alreadypointed out this thesis merely hints at the new path to take–instead concentrating on the reasons for the impendingdemise of scientific realism and need of a constructive systemsscience.

  • 53.
    Koistinen, Jari
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Contributions in distributed object systems engineering1998Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
  • 54.
    Lantz, Ann
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Cerratto Pargman, Teresa
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Walldius, Åke
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Can the genre perspective help designers envision how videoconference systems actually are used?2004In: Work with Computing Systems / [ed] H. M. Khalid, M. G. Helander and A. W. Yeo, 2004, p. 888-893Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 55.
    Li, Wei
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Jonsson, Martin
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Kilander, Fredrik
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Jansson, Carl Gustaf
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Building infrastructure support for ubiquitous context-aware systems2004In: PARALLEL AND DISTRIBUTED PROCESSING AND APPLICATIONS, PROCEEDINGS / [ed] Cao, J; Yang, LT; Guo, M; Lau, F, BERLIN: SPRINGER , 2004, Vol. 3358, p. 509-518Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many context-aware systems have been demonstrated in lab environments; however, due to some difficulties such as the scalability and privacy issues, they are not yet practical for deployment on a large scale. This paper addresses these two issues with particular interest in user's privacy protection and spontaneous system association. A person-centric service infrastructure is proposed together with a context-aware call forwarding system constructed as a proof-of-concept prototype based on the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP).

  • 56.
    Lindgren, Tony
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Methods for rule conflict resolution2004In: MACHINE LEARNING: ECML 2004, PROCEEDINGS / [ed] Boulicaut, JF; Esposito, F; Giannoti, F; Pedreschi, D, BERLIN: SPRINGER , 2004, Vol. 3201, p. 262-273Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When using unordered rule sets, conflicts can arise between the rules, i.e., two or more rules cover the same example but predict different classes. This paper gives a survey of methods used to solve this type of conflict and introduces a novel method called Recursive Induction. In total nine methods for resolving rule conflicts are scrutinised. The methods are explained in detail, compared and evaluated empirically on an number of domains. The results show that Recursive Induction outperforms all previously used methods.

  • 57.
    Lindgren, Tony
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Boström, H.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Resolving rule conflicts with double induction2004In: Intelligent Data Analysis, ISSN 1088-467X, E-ISSN 1571-4128, Vol. 8, no 5, p. 457-468Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When applying an unordered set of classification rules, the rules may assign more than one class to a particular example. Previous methods of resolving such conflicts between rules include using the most frequent class of the examples covered by the conflicting rules (as done in CN2) and using naïve Bayes to calculate the most probable class. An alternative way of solving this problem is presented in this paper: by generating new rules from the examples covered by the conflicting rules. These newly induced rules are then used for classification. Experiments on a number of domains show that this method significantly outperforms both the CN2 approach and naïve Bayes.

  • 58. Lybäck, D.
    et al.
    Boman, Magnus
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV. Swed. Institute of Computer Science, Sweden.
    Agent trade servers in financial exchange systems2004In: ACM Transactions on Internet Technology, ISSN 1533-5399, E-ISSN 1557-6051, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 329-339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New services based on the best-effort paradigm could complement the current deterministic services of an electronic financial exchange. Four crucial aspects of such systems would benefit from a hybrid stance: proper use of processing resources, bandwidth management, fault tolerance, and exception handling. We argue that a more refined view on Quality-of-Service control for exchange systems, in which the principal ambition of upholding a fair and orderly marketplace is left uncompromised, would benefit all interested parties.

  • 59.
    Magnusson, Christer
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Yngström, Louise
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Method for insuring IT risks2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explains in detail the method behind the insurance database Estimated Maximum information technology Loss (EMitL). The database has been a crucial tool to make it possible to insure IT perils. It helps to insure IT-perils financially in the same professional way as consequences of traditional perils like fire, flood, and robbery are insured, and thereby secures shareholders' investments. EMitL estimates the security awareness in an existing IT-platform. Based on that information, existing security measures can be "priced" as they may reduce the estimated maximum loss figures - and thereby the costs for the insurance. In addition, a more cost-effective decision can be made on additional security measures. Furthermore, the costs for the loss exposure inherent in a business service/product can be estimated in a better way, and thereby be incorporated in the product's price. The IT insurances are based on the traditional industries' classes: Liability, Loss of Property, and Business Interruption. The insurance class Liability is divided into insurance policies for: Business Interruption, Fraud and Embezzlement, Robbery and Theft, Defamation, Infringement of Privacy, and Infringement of code, trademark etc. The insurance policies in the class Loss of Property are: Fraud and Embezzlement, and Robbery and Theft. The database EMitL layers insurance covers, which is a common method in the insurance industry. This means that the insurance policies are layered according to the amount of financial cover they provide. The insurance levels relate and are converted to security levels. These levels are built on the IT security properties Integrity, Availability and Confidentiality, and are utilized differently, depending on the insurance level and the type of insurance policy. The properties and the levels constitute the base of the Security Polices produced by EMitL; they are used for the estimation of security awareness and as terms of insurance.

  • 60.
    Mwakalinga, Jeffy
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Security management of global and integrated security system2002Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
  • 61. Norstedt, Sofia
    et al.
    Kolseth, Petter
    Enoksson, Emmi
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Using gray-balance control in press calibration for robust ICC color management in sheet-fed offset2004In: Proceedings of the Technical Association of the Graphic Arts, TAGA, 2004, p. 1-20Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of gray-balance control in press calibration for robust ICC color management in sheet-fed offset is discussed. Gray-balance control is a way to calibrate printing presses. It is found possible to print without a color cast, and still keep print contrast, density, dot gain and CIELAB values for the secondary colors at an acceptable level. It is shown that the ICC profile can give a similar print quality on different papers.

  • 62. Nylander, Stina
    et al.
    Bylund, Markus
    Boman, Magnus
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Mobile access to real-time information-the case of autonomous stock brokering2004In: Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, ISSN 1617-4909, E-ISSN 1617-4917, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 42-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When services providing real-time information are accessible from mobile devices, functionality is often restricted and no adaptation of the user interface to the mobile device is attempted. Mobile access to real-time information requires designs for multi-device access and automated facilities for the adaptation of user interfaces. We present TapBroker, a push update service that provides mobile and stationary access to information on autonomous agents trading stocks. TapBroker is developed for the Ubiquitous Interactor system and is accessible from Java Swing user interfaces and Web user interfaces on desktop computers, and from a Java Awt user interface on mobile phones. New user interfaces can easily be added without changes in the service logic.

  • 63. Odelstad, Jan
    et al.
    Boman, Magnus
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Algebras for Agent Norm-Regulation2004In: Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence, ISSN 1012-2443, E-ISSN 1573-7470, Vol. 42, no 1-3, p. 141-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An abstract architecture for idealized multi-agent systems whose behaviour is regulated by normative systems is developed and discussed. Agent choices are determined partially by the preference ordering of possible states and partially by normative considerations: The agent chooses that act which leads to the best outcome of all permissible actions. If an action is non-permissible depends on if the result of performing that action leads to a state satisfying a condition which is forbidden, according to the norms regulating the multi-agent system. This idea is formalized by defining set-theoretic predicates characterizing multi-agent systems. The definition of the predicate uses decision theory, the Kanger–Lindahl theory of normative positions, and an algebraic representation of normative systems.

  • 64. Rao, W.
    et al.
    Li, Wei
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Design of an open and secure ubiquitous computing system2004In: IEEE/WIC/ACM INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON WEB INTELLIGENCE (WI 2004), PROCEEDINGS, 2004, p. 656-659Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many difficulties such as scalability and security problems are addressed in this paper, and some concluded principles are given to guide the design and implementation of a large-scale open and secure ubiqu itous computing system. A service toolkit (aCAST) consisting of a set of software components and detector services have been developed, and a Context Aware Call Forwarding system has also been developed as a proof-of-concept test bed using aCAST. The off-the-shelf devices, such as Bluetooth mobile phones and PDAs, is used as user devices and the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is adopted as an open communication protocol.

  • 65.
    Rydberg Fåhraeus, Eva
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    A Triple Helix of Learning Processes - How to cultivate learning, communication and collaboration among distance-education learners2003Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    This work focuses on collaborative learning and how it canbe applied and supported in distance education. Previous workindi-cates that distance learners experience more loneliness,technical problems and lack of stimulation than face-to-facelearners do. Collaboration with peers may improve the feelingof connectedness and engagement. However, collaborativelearning is not the answer to all problems in distanceeducation--and it creates new problems. The present workexplores problems, opportunities and processes whencollaborative learning is introduced in distance education--andsuggests solutions.

    Related research on distance education andcomputer-supported collaborative learning is reviewed andrelated to own research. The different roles of information andcommunication technology in these areas are described.

    Six own research papers are reviewed and integrated. Threeof them explore university courses on computer use in society.Learners interacted mainly through a forum system, i.e. asystem for text-based, asynchronous electronic conferences anddiscussions. The special character offorum communication hadan impact on communication and collaboration processes. Onepaper summarizes these results and deduces a first list of tipsto teachers and systems designers, aiming to reduce problemsand take advantage of collabo-rative-learningopportunities.

    One paper, a report to the Swedish School Board, provides anoverview of research on distance education, withrecommendations for use in secondary schools.

    To get a broader picture of distance-education learners andtheir special situation and interests, a study was conducted inAustralia. Most of the learners were secondary-school students,living far away from towns. Communication was normallyrestricted to mail, radio and telephone. Opportunities forcollaboration between peers were rare, and correspondencetraditions and the lack of technological infrastructure weredelaying changes. However, a development towards morecollaborative learning had started.

    Empirical data were gathered ethnographically in naturalcourse settings. Results were analysed using 'activity theory'as a framework.

    The main contribution of this work is a description of howthree groups of learning processes develop and interact: (a) ofcontent, (b) of communication, and (c) of collaboration. Theyform the spiralling model of a"Triple Helix". Finally, detailed advice is given aschecklists to organisations, teachers, learners and systemdesigners.

    Keywords:Distance education, Collaborative learning,Computer-supported collaborative learning, Information andcommuni-cation technology, ICT, Forum system, Learningprocesses.

  • 66.
    Rydberg Fåhræus, Eva
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Growing knowledge: how to support collaborative learning e-discussions in systems2000Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
  • 67. Scheuermann, F.
    et al.
    Kearney, N.
    Larsson, Ken
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Fries, R.
    Toto, R.
    Designing collaborative activities in virtual environments for learning2004In: Proc. Fifth Int. Conf. Inf. Technol. Based High. Educ. Train. ITHET, 2004, p. 641-643Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper demonstrates the connection between organisation, collaboration and learning in virtual learning environments (VLEs). Our main focus is the investigation of the extent to which course developers and course instructors need to consider organisational measures and design in order to trigger (self-guided) learning and collaboration of participants within online learning environments. The design of these virtual learning environments involves an intricate balance between the following elements: the organisation of the content; how the instructional activities are sequenced; how the interactions between students, tasks, and materials are structured; and how the learning process is evaluated. Mentorship must be present throughout this process. Aspects of mentorship can manifest themselves in a variety of ways including: asking an expert, true mentoring, tutoring, and peer to peer support.

  • 68.
    Skoglund, Mats
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Practical use of encapsulation in object-oriented programming2003In: SERP'03: PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SOFTWARE ENGINEERING RESEARCH AND PRACTICE, VOLS 1 AND 2, ATHENS: C S R E A PRESS , 2003, p. 554-560Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though an OO program may have a high degree of encapsulation it is still sometimes possible to modify the inner representation of compound objects. In for example Java there is little to prevent references exported from a compound object to be used by its receivers. Thus it may be possible to change the states of inner objects of a compound object from the outside leading to invariants may be broken. This is often referred to as the representation exposure problem and many solutions to this problem have been proposed. There is, however, a lack of empirical evidence that this is actually a practical problem in the software industry. In this paper we report our findings from interviews conducted among software engineers on their view on encapsulation and information hiding issues, representation exposure, their we of OO programming languages, their way of working and their opinions on tools and techniques supporting encapsulation, information hiding and representation exposure.

  • 69.
    Skoglund, Mats
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Wrigstad, Tobias
    Alias control with read-only references2002In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 6TH JOINT CONFERENCE ON INFORMATION SCIENCES, DURHAM: ASSOC INTELLIGENT MACHINERY , 2002, p. 387-391Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In object-oriented programs, the possibility of having an alias to an object's mutable state is a known source of bugs making programs difficult to test and maintain. We propose an access mode system for limiting the effects of aliasing by associating, with each reference, an access right to the object to which the reference refer. Mutator methods may not be invoked on read references, and only read references to the state can be obtained via any method invoked on a read reference. This enables exporting read references to objects without risking the objects being modified. The system realises access modes by annotations on variables, methods, method returns and parameters to methods. It is completely statically checkable without any need for run-time representation of modes and does not impose any run-time overhead.

  • 70.
    Smedberg, Åsa
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Learning through online communities - A study of health care sites in Europe2004In: Eadoption And The Knowledge Economy: Issues, Applications, Case Studies, Pts 1 And 2 / [ed] Cunningham, P; Cunningham, M, 2004, Vol. 1, p. 1333-1339Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Online communities have become common in most industries. In the health care sector there are many online communities for people to communicate, share information and learn about different diseases and bad habits. Although studies have been made to better understand the use of these communities, it remains unclear to what extent the communities manage to encourage people to change a bad habit. This paper presents results from a study of NetDoctor sites in Sweden, United Kingdom and Denmark. Online communities on overweight, smoking and alcohol habits were targeted. The results give examples of empathetic discussions, but they also present a conflict between learning a new behaviour, which involves questioning each other's behaviour, and the need to hold the community together.

  • 71.
    Sneiders, Eriks
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Automated question answering: template-based approach2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid growth in the development of Internet-basedinformation systems increases the demand for natural langu-ageinterfaces that are easy to set up and maintain. Unfortunately,the problem of understanding natural language queries is farfrom being solved. Therefore this research proposes a simplertask of matching a one-sentence-long user question to a numberof question templates, which cover the knowledge domain of theinformation system, without in-depth understanding of the userquestion itself.The research started with development of an FAQ(Frequently Asked Question) answering system that providespre-stored answers to user questions asked in ordinary English.The language processing technique developed for FAQ retrievaldoes not analyze user questions. Instead, analysis is appliedto FAQs in the database long before any user questions aresubmitted. Thus, the work of FAQ retrieval is reduced tokeyword matching without understanding the questions, and thesystem still creates an illusion of intelligence.Further, the research adapted the FAQ answering techniqueto a question-answering interface for a structured database,e.g., relational database. The entity-relationship model of thedatabase is covered with an exhaustive collection of questiontemplates - dynamic, parameterized "frequently asked questions"- that describe the entities, their attributes, and therelationships in form of natural language questions. Unlike astatic FAQ, a question template contains entity slots - freespace for data instances that represent the main concepts inthe question. In order to answer a user question, the systemfinds matching question templates and data instances that fillthe entity slots. The associated answer templates create theanswer.Finally, the thesis introduces a generic model oftemplate-based question answering which is a summary andgene-ralization of the features common for the above systems:they (i) split the application-specific knowledge domain into anumber of question-specific knowledge domains, (ii) attach aquestion template, whose answer is known in advance, to eachknowledge domain, and (iii) match the submitted user questionto each question template within the context of its ownknowledge domain.

    Keywords:automated question answering, FAQ answering,question-answering system, template-based question answering,question template, natural language based interface

  • 72.
    Sneiders, Eriks
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Tool support for legal enquiry focus on spatial-planning law2004In: ICEIS Proc. Sixth Int. Conf. Enterp. Inf. Syst., 2004, p. 289-294Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An ideal "law machine" comprises a number of tools and technologies for data processing, storing, exchange, and retrieval. The paper identifies blasses of tools and sample tools that support legal enquiry where spatial-planning and environmental law has been taken as the exemplar. Not only the traditional means of text processing and retrieval (e.g., search, taxonomy building, text mark-up, etc.) but also geographic information systems (GIS) and related standards are examined. Furthermore, a number of accompanying tools help to better utilize and make sense of the retrieved legal information. Except GIS, which is particularly convenient for spatial-planning legislation, the identified classes of tools are not specific to any particular area of law.

  • 73.
    Stirna, Janis
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    The Influence of Intentional and Situational factors on Enterprise Modelling Tool Acquisition in Organisations2001Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Enterprise Modelling (EM) tools are an important part ofevery EM application project. Continuous evolution of modellingmethods therefore requires efficient EM tool support. Extensiveefforts have been devoted to developing new EM tools andmodelling techniques. Considerably less attention has been paidto the aspects of acquiring and introducing EM tools inorganisations. Our grounded theory study shows that thisprocess is far from simple. It is determined by theorganisation's intentions regarding EM and by the situation inthe EM user organisation. As a contribution to this, we presentan EM tool acquisition process, which focuses on selecting anappropriate EM tool acquisition scenario for an organisation.This process has the following stages - assessing theorganisation, choosing an EM tool acquisition strategy, andfollowing the EM tool acquisition strategy. We support theprocess of evaluating the situation at hand by providingguidelines for assessing intentional and situational factorsthat influence the use of EM tools.

    We also outline EM itself, along with its applicationprocess, and describe possible sources for gathering therequirements for an EM tool-set. Major requirements categoriesare discussed and analysed with respect to the goals andproblems regarding EM tools. Each category of requirements canbe satisfied to a certain degree, depending on theorganisational needs and various situational factors.

    This grounded theory study provides two main contributions.Firstly, it proposes a systematic approach for EM toolacquisition supported by a set of guidelines.The approachenables an organisation to assess its needs of EM tools and itsown appropriateness for EM tool usage. As a result, an EM userorganisation is able to choose an EM tool acquisition strategythat meets the situation it faces. This is a contribution tothe overall success of practical use of EM methods and tools.Secondly, it provides an important baseline for future researchand theory building within the area of EM tool adoption andapplication. It also gives valuable information andrequirements for development of new EM tools and relatedservices.

  • 74.
    Sundholm, Hillevi
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Ramberg, Robert
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Artman, Henrik
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Learning Conceptual Design: Collaborative Activities with Electronic Whiteboards2004In: CADE2004 Web Proceedings of Computers in Art and Design Education Conference / [ed] M. Agger Eriksen., L. Malmborg, J. Nielsen, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This case study reports on collaborative design of an interactive artifact. The team works in the iLounge, which is designed and built with the purpose of supporting co-located collaborative work. iLounge is equipped with several horizontal large screens, called Smart boards, where the team members can make their contributions available to all others. We have studied how the students learn to use the electronic whiteboards in order to express their ideas, how the electronic whiteboards support them when making their conceptual design, and how they express themselves when using them. The results presents how whiteboards serve as a collective memory of earlier discussions and negotiations, it also gives the users opportunities for re-negotiation and re-representation of design proposals.

  • 75.
    Svensson, Harald
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Work conducted on and with the personal software process2001Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
  • 76.
    Verhagen, Henricus
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Autonomy and reasoning for natural and artificial agents2004In: Agents And Computational Autonomy: Potential, Risks, And Solutions / [ed] Nickles, M; Rovatsos, M; Weiss, G, 2004, Vol. 2969, p. 83-94Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, I will present recent thoughts and theories on autonomy for natural and artificial agents. Even though the recent work on autonomy for artificial agents has interesting aspects, it excels in being unsystematic and a lack of references to theories outside of agent research supporting one or the other. Embedding these discussions in a broader framework of discussions in philosophy and sociology will enable us to sketch a broader yet more detailed picture. It will also enable us to discuss the reasoning of artificial agents.

  • 77.
    von Schéele, Fabian
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Controlling time and communication in service economy2001Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
  • 78.
    Wohed, Rolf
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    A language for enterprise and information system modelling1997Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to ensure that an information system gives the bestpossible support to a business, it is necessary to analyse thebusiness. This is required, not primarily for understanding thebusiness as such, but in order to enable stakeholders tofortnulate precise requirements which, with reasonablecertainty, wIll result in a supportive information system. Inorder to facilitate acquisition of requirements, knowledgeabout the business as well as about the requirements needs tobe represented in a precise and understandable way. This allowsstakeholders and analysts to communicate effectively.

    In this thesis a set of languages that support modelling ofbusinesses as well as of requirements of information systems isdefined. The languages are each specialised on one type ofknowledge of the business, e.g., knowledge about goals,concepts, behaviour, and rules. The graphical representation ofthe languages is intended to be easy to understand at theexpense of expressive power. Still, the languages need to bepi~cisely defined in order to reduce risk for unintentionalambiguities. It is assumed that the development process can bedivided Into three phases (or worlds) Subject World Modelling(SWM), Information System World Modelling (ISWM) andImpementation World Modelling (IWM).

    Therefore, each language is defined by a mets model thatdefines its syntactical properties. Several formal meta rulesare presented for these languages and their inter languagerelationships. This makes It possible to represent new kinds ofknowledge in the specification that will reduce the number ofpermissible interpretations of a specification. In this way thesemantic quality of specifications can be increased as well.Finally, this thesis also discusses a number of methodologicalaspects of the languages presented.

  • 79. Wäyrynen, Jaana
    et al.
    Bodén, Marine
    Boström, Gustav
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Security engineering and eXtreme programming: An impossible marriage?2004In: EXTREME PROGRAMMING AND AGILE METHODS - XP/ AGILE UNIVERSE 2004, PROCEEDINGS / [ed] Zannier C, Erdogmus H, Lindstrom L, Berlin: Springer , 2004, p. 117-128Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agile methods, such as eXtreme Programming (XP), have been criticised for being inadequate for the development of secure software. In this paper, we analyse XP from a security engineering standpoint, to assess to what extent the method can be used for development of security critical software. This is done by analysing XP in the light of two security engineering standards; the Systems Security Engineering-Capability Maturity Model (SSE-CMM) and the Common Criteria (CC). The result is that XP is more aligned with security engineering than one might think at first. However, XP also needs to be tailored to better support and to more explicitly deal with security engineering issues. Tailoring XP for secure software development, without removing the agility that is the trademark of agile methods, may be a solution that would make XP more compatible with current security engineering practices.

  • 80. Wærn, Y.
    et al.
    Ramberg, Robert
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Distributed knowledge by explanation networks2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A knowledge based system may be considered as knowledge, distributed between one or several experts and the system users. Explanations in such a system provide for a more intensive interaction between the system and the user. We construct an explanation network by defining relationships between various knowledge fragments. Knowledge fragments on varying levels are formulated using the Qualitative Process Theory. The relationships are defined by links, compatible with Rhetorical Structure Theory. Different knowledge elements are combined into an explanation path by using Toulmin's argumentation theory. The feasibility of this approach is investigated. We show the following: By representing relations in a concept hierarchy as well as representing the relationships between elements in a rule of a knowledge base, both problem solving inferences and explanations can be generated. At the moment, the derivation of explanations cannot be performed automatically, but ready-made explanations may be stored and presented in a useful way. The explanation network idea has great knowledge acquisition power. An empirical study with users showed that different paths within the explanation net are useful for users with different prior knowledge. To conclude, the idea of distributing knowledge by support from an explanation network is fruitful and feasible.

  • 81.
    Yngström, Louise
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV. Stockholm University, Sweden.
    An holistic approach to an international doctoral program2004In: Information security management, education and privacy: IFIP 18th World Computer Congress : TC11 19th International Information Security Workshops, 22-27 August 2004, Toulouse, France, Springer-Verlag New York, 2004, p. 117-132Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper discusses forms and structures for an international doctoral program with specialization in information security and information assurance based on an analysis of international educational efforts in the area 1995-2003. The presentation underlines the need for holistic approaches to the IT security area and presents, as an example, the Systemic-Holistic Approach, SHA.

  • 82.
    Zdravkovic, Jelena
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Concepts of Flexibility for Efficient Integration of B2B Processes2004In: ON THE MOVE TO MEANINGFUL INTERNET SYSTEMS 2004: OTM 2004 WORKSHOPS, PROCEEDINGS, 2004, p. 431-443Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Business-to-Business (B2B) e-commerce is emerging as trading parties are attempting to integrate electronically, to automate exchange of their services. To be able to collaborate, enterprise processes must expose compatible public behavior. It is a common need for a company to collaborate a business with many partners. A problem is that, even agreeing on information to be exchanged, the partners usually expose different requirements for protocol and logic of interactions. Therefore, it becomes necessary for companies to redesign process models to accommodate to a new partner. As the result, the company must engage considerable resources for designing and verifying new process specifications, as well as for maintaining them. In this paper, we propose a framework for flexible modeling of enterprise processes, to support a larger scale of B2B integrations. The proposal is based on a set of concepts of flexibility that enable partial process specifications, depicting thus a wider scope of business scenarios that a company is willing to conform in a B2B context. The complete process specification is made after B2B parties agree on a strict public protocol and enforced by runtime transformations. The proposed framework for flexible process modeling is aimed to speed up integration of partner processes as it increases ability for process matching without requiring changes in their design.

  • 83.
    Zdravkovic, Jelena
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Johannesson, Paul
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Cooperation of Processes through Message Level Agreement2004In: ADVANCED INFORMATION SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, PROCEEDINGS, 2004, p. 564-579Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    E-Business is constantly growing as organizations are trying to integrate electronically in order to automate exchange of information and services. To construct inter-organizational processes, the involved enterprises must agree on ways how to invoke process services on the business partner's system. A problem is that existing processes are so diverse in protocols, activity and message forms that it is impossible to start collaboration without comprehensive adaptations. In this paper, we propose a framework for interoperation of processes, which is based on requirements for equivalence of document exchanges. We argue that this level of equivalence is sufficient to enable existing enterprise processes to collaborate without internal redesign. The proposed framework is aimed to facilitate process collaboration by using a mediator layer to perform necessary adaptations, while minimizing requirements for process similarity.

  • 84.
    Zemke, Stefan
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Data mining for prediction - financial series case2003Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Hard problems force innovative approaches and attention todetail, their exploration often contributing beyond the areainitially attempted. This thesis investigates the data miningprocess resulting in a predictor for numerical series.Theseries experimented with come from financial data - usuallyhard to forecast.

    One approach to prediction is to spot patterns in the past,when we already know what followed them, and to test on morerecent data. If a pattern is followed by the same outcomefrequently enough, we can gain confidence that it is a genuinerelationship.

    Because this approach does not assume any special knowledgeor form of the regularities, the method is quite general -applicable to other time series, not just financial. However,the generality puts strong demands on the patterndetection - asto notice regularities in any of the many possible forms.

    The thesis' quest for an automated pattern-spotting involvesnumerous data mining and optimization techniques: neuralnetworks, decision trees, nearest neighbors, regression,genetic algorithms and other. Comparison of their performanceon a stock exchange index data is one of the contributions.

    As no single technique performed sufficiently well, a numberof predictors have been put together, forming a votingensemble. The vote is diversified not only by differenttraining data - as usually done - but also by a learning methodand its parameters. An approach is also proposed how tospeed-up a predictor fine-tuning.

    The algorithm development goes still further: A predictioncan only be as good as the training data, therefore the needfor good data preprocessing. In particular, new multivariatediscretization and attribute selection algorithms arepresented.

    The thesis also includes overviews of prediction pitfallsand possible solutions, as well as of ensemble-building forseries data with financial characteristics, such as noise andmany attributes.

    The Ph.D. thesis consists of an extended background onfinancial prediction, 7 papers, and 2 appendices.

  • 85.
    Zhang, Ying
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Multi-temporal database management with a visual query interface1997Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
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