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  • 51.
    Engwall, Olov
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Dynamical Aspects of Coarticulation in Swedish Fricatives: A Combined EMA and EPG Study2000In: TMH Quarterly Status and Progress Report, p. 49-73Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An electromagnetic articulography (EMA) system and electropalatography (EPG)have been employed to study five Swedish fricatives in different vowel contexts.Articulatory measures at the onset of, the mean value during, and at the offset ofthe fricative were used to evidence the coarticulation throughout the fricative. Thecontextual influence on these three different measurements of the fricative arecompared and contrasted to evidence how the coarticulation changes. Measureswere made for the jaw motion, lip protrusion, tongue body with EMA and linguopalatalcontact with EPG. The data from the two sources were further combinedand assessed for complementary and conflicting results.

  • 52.
    Engwall, Olov
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Evaluation of a System for Concatenative Articulatory Visual Synthesis2002In: Proceedings of the ICSLP, 2002Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 53.
    Engwall, Olov
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    From real-time MRI to 3D tongue movements2004In: INTERSPEECH 2004: ICSLP 8th International Conference on Spoken Language Processing / [ed] Kim, S. H.; Young, D. H., 2004, p. 1109-1112Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Real-time Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) at 9 images/s of the midsagittal plane is used as input to a threedimensionaltongue model, previously generated based onsustained articulations imaged with static MRI. The aimis two-fold, firstly to use articulatory inversion to extrapolatethe midsagittal tongue movements to three-dimensionalmovements, secondly to determine the accuracy of thetongue model in replicating the real-time midsagittal tongueshapes. The evaluation of the inversion shows that the realtimemidsagittal contour is reproduced with acceptable accuracy.This means that the 3D model can be used to representreal-time articulations, eventhough the artificially sustainedarticulations on which it was based were hyperarticulated andhad a backward displacement of the tongue.

  • 54.
    Engwall, Olov
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Speaker adaptation of a three-dimensional tongue model2004In: INTERSPEECH 2004: ICSLP 8th International Conference on Spoken Language Processing / [ed] Kim, S. H.; Young, D. H., 2004, p. 465-468Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Magnetic Resonance Images of nine subjects have been collected to determine scaling factors that can adapt a 3D tongue model to new subjects. The aim is to define few and simple measures that will allow for an automatic, but accurate, scaling of the model. The scaling should be automatic in order to be useful in an application for articulation training, in which the model must replicate the user's articulators without involving the user in a complicated speaker adaptation. It should further be accurate enough to allow for correct acoustic-to-articulatory inversion. The evaluation shows that the defined scaling technique is able to estimate a tongue shape that was not included in the training with an accuracy of 1.5 mm in the midsagittal plane and 1.7 mm for the whole 3D tongue, based on four articulatory measures.

  • 55.
    Engwall, Olov
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Tongue Talking: Studies in Intraoral Speech Synthesis2002Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
  • 56.
    Engwall, Olov
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Vocal Tract Modeling i 3D1999In: TMH Quarterly Status and Progress Report, p. 31-38Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 57.
    Engwall, Olov
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Badin, P
    An MRI Study of Swedish Fricatives: Coarticulatory effects2000In: Proceedings of the 5th Speech Production Seminar, 2000, p. 297-300Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 58.
    Engwall, Olov
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Badin, P
    Collecting and Analysing Two- and Three-dimensional MRI data for Swedish1999In: TMH Quarterly Status and Progress Report, p. 11-38Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 59.
    Fant, Gunnar
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Speech research in a historical perspective2004In: From sound to sense: 50+ years of discoveries in speech communication / [ed] Janet Slifka, Sharon Manuel, Melanie Matthies, Research Laboratory of Electronics , 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 60.
    Fant, Gunnar
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Kruckenberg, Anita
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Analysis and synthesis of Swedish prosody with outlooks on production and perception2004In: Festschrift Wu Zongji. From traditional phonology to modern speech processing / [ed] Fant, G.; Fujisaki, H.; Chao, J.; Xu, Y., Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press , 2004, p. 73-95Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 61.
    Fant, Gunnar
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Kruckenberg, Anita
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Intonation analysis and synthesis with reference to Swedish2004In: Proc of International Symposium on Tonal Aspects of Language, TAL 2004, Beijing, 2004, p. 57-60Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present report reviews findings about FO patterns and in specific the realisation of the Swedish accent 1 and accent 2 tone patterns. We have developed a novel system for normalizing FO contours which allows the handling of male and female data in a common frame. It also facilitates the sorting out of individual patterns from a norm. For this purpose we have defined a semitone scale with a fixed reference. As in the Fujisaki model, we have employed a superposition scheme of adding local FO modulations to prosodic phrase contours, but with different shaping algorithms. The influence of the syntactic frame, and of word prominence and its relation to the single peak of accent 1 and the dual peak of accent 2 has been quantified. Some language universal traits, such as time constants and typical shapes of local FO patterns, are discussed. The perceptual smoothing of local FO contours has been illustrated in a simple experiment which relates to the concept of an auditory time constant. Our Swedish prosody modules have ensured a high quality in synthesis and a robustness in performance with respect to uncertainties in text parsing. Modifications for English and French prosody have provided promising results.

  • 62.
    Fant, Gunnar
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Kruckenberg, Anita
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Prosody by rule in Swedish with Language Universal Implications2004In: Proc of Intl Conference on Speech Prosody 2004 / [ed] Bel, B.; Marlin, I., Nara, Japan, 2004, p. 405-408Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The FK text-to-speech prosody rules for Swedish are outlined. They cover all levels including prosodic grouping from syntactical analysis. It is a superposition system with local accentuations superimposed on modular F0 patterns of specific rise and decay patterns in successive prosodic groups. F0 in semitones and segmental durations are calculated as a function of lexically determined prominence and position. Speaker normalisation in frequency and time allow the pooling of male and female data in the analysis stage. The main architecture has been successfully tested in French and English synthesis.

  • 63. Fober, D.
    et al.
    Letz, S.
    Orlarey, Y.
    Askenfelt, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Hansen, Kjetil Falkenberg
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Schoonderwaldt, Erwin
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    IMUTUS: an interactive music tuition system2004In: Proc. of the Sound and Music Computing Conference (SMC 04), October 20-22, 2004, IRCAM, Paris, France, 2004, p. 97-103Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 64.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    A Quantitative Rule System for Musical Performance1995Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A rule system is described that translates an input score file to a musical performance. The rules model different principles of interpretation used by real musicians, such as phrasing, punctuation, harmonic and melodic structure, micro timing, accents, intonation, and final ritard. These rules have been applied primarily to Western classical music but also to contemporary music, folk music and jazz. The rules consider mainly melodic aspects, i. e., they look primarily at pitch and duration relations, disregarding repetitive rhythmic patterns. A complete description and discussion of each rule is presented. The effect of each rule applied to a music example is demonstrated on the CD-ROM. A complete implementation is found in the program Director Musices, also included on the CD-ROM.

    The smallest deviations that can be perceived in a musical performance, i. e., the JND, was measured in three experiments. In one experiment the JND for displacement of a single tone in an isochronous sequence was found to be 6 ms for short tones and 2.5% for tones longer than 250 ms. In two other experiments the JND for rule-generated deviations was measured. Rather similar values were found despite different musical situations, provided that the deviations were expressed in terms of the maximum span, MS. This is a measure of a parameter's maximum deviation from a deadpan performance in a specific music excerpt. The JND values obtained were typically 3-4 times higher than the corresponding JNDs previously observed in psychophysical experiments.

    Evaluation, i. e. the testing of the generality of the rules and the principles they reflect, has been carried out using four different methods: (1) listening tests with fixed quantities, (2) preference tests where each subject adjusted the rule quantity, (3) tracing of the rules in measured performances, and (4) matching of rule quantities to measured performances. The results confirmed the validity of many rules and suggested later realized modifications of others.

    Music is often described by means of motion words. The origin of such analogies was pursued in three experiments. The force envelope of the foot while walking or dancing was transferred to sound level envelopes of tones. Sequences of such tones, repeated at different tempi were perceived by expert listeners as possessing motion character, particularly when presented at the original walking tempo. Also, some of the character of the original walking or dancing could be mediated to the listeners by means of these tone sequences. These results suggest that the musical expressivity might be increased in rule-generated performances if rules are implemented which reflect locomotion patterns.

  • 65.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Generative Rules for Music Performance: A Formal Description of a Rule System1991In: Computer music journal, ISSN 0148-9267, E-ISSN 1531-5169, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 56-71Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 66.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Matching the rule parameters of PHRASE ARCH to performances of "Träumerei": a preliminary study1995In: STL-QPSR, Vol. 36, no 2-3, p. 063-070Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In music performance a basic principle is the marking of phrases, which often seems to be achieved by means of tone durations. In our grammar for music performance the rule PHRASE ARCH, has been formulated to model this eflect. A technical description of the rule is presented. Also presented is an attempt to match the diflerent parameters of this rule to the duration data fiom 28 performances of the Jirst 9 bars of Robert Schumann 's Traumerei as measured by Bruno Repp (1992). The optimisation was based on relative duration measured in percent. On average 44% of the total variation was accounted for by PHRASE ARCH. The discrepancies were mostly at the note level and were mostly associated with small musical gestures.

  • 67.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Matching the rule parameters of Phrase arch to performances of “Träumerei”: A preliminary study1995In: Proceedings of the KTH symposium on Grammars for music performance May 27,1995, 1995, p. 37-44Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 68.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Battel, G. U.
    Structural communication2002In: The Science and Psychology of Music Performance: Creative Strategies for Teaching and Learning / [ed] Parncutt, R.; McPherson, G. E., New York: Oxford University Press , 2002, p. 199-218Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The communication of structure in musical expression has been studied scientifically by analyzing variations in timing and dynamics in expert performances, and by analysis by synthesis. The underlying principles have been extracted, and models of the relationship between expression and musical structure formulated. For example, a musical phrase tends to speed up and get louder at the start, and to slow down and get quieter at the end; mathematical models of these variations can enhance the quality of synthesized performances. We overview the dependence of timing and dynamics on tempo, phrasing, harmonic and melodic tension, repetitive patterns and grooves, articulation, accents, and ensemble timing. Principles of structural communication (expression) can be taught analytically, by explaining the underlying principles and techniques with computer-generated demonstrations; or in traditional classroom or lesson settings, by live demonstration. 

  • 69.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Bresin, R.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Frydén, L.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, J.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Musical punctuation on the microlevel: Automatic identification and performance of small melodic units1998In: Journal of New Music Research, ISSN 0929-8215, E-ISSN 1744-5027, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 271-292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this investigation we use the term musical punctuation for the marking of melodic structure by commas inserted at the boundaries that separate small structural units. Two models are presented that automatically try to locate the positions of such commas. They both use the score as the input and operate with a short context of maximally five notes. The first model is based on a set of subrules. One group of subrules mark possible comma positions, each provided with a weight value. Another group alters or removes these weight values according to different conditions. The second model is an artificial neural network using a similar input as that used by the rule system. The commas proposed by either model are realized in terms of micropauses and of small lengthenings of interonset durations. The models are evaluated by using a set of 52 musical excerpts, which were marked with punctuations according to the preference of an expert performer. * Sound examples are available in the JNMR Electronic Appendix (EA), which can be found on the WWW at http://www.swets.nl/jnmr/jnmr.html

  • 70.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Bresin, Roberto
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Automatic musical punctuation: A rule system and a neural network approach1997In: Proceedings of KANSEI - The Technology of Emotion, AIMI Intl Workshop, 1997, p. 159-163Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 71.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Bresin, Roberto
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Fryden, Lars
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Musical punctuation on the microlevel: Automatic identification and performance of small melodic units1998In: Journal of New Music Research, ISSN 0929-8215, E-ISSN 1744-5027, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 271-292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this investigation we use the term musical punctuation for the marking of melodic structure by commas inserted at the boundaries that separate small structural units. Two models are presented that automatically try to locate the positions of such commas. They both use the score as the input and operate with a short context of maximally five notes. The first model is based on a set of subrules. One group of subrules mark possible comma positions, each provided with a weight value. Another group alters or removes these weight values according to different conditions. The second model is an artificial neural network using a similar input as that used by the rule system. The commas proposed by either model are realized in terms of micropauses and of small lengthenings of interonset durations. The models are evaluated by using a set of 52 musical excerpts, which were marked with punctuations according to the preference of an expert performer.

  • 72.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Frydén, Lars
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Bodin, L. G.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Performance Rules for Computer-Controlled Contemporary Keyboard Music1991In: Computer music journal, ISSN 0148-9267, E-ISSN 1531-5169, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 49-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A computer program for synthesis of music performance, originally developed for traditional tonal music by means of an analysis-by-synthesis strategy, is applied to contemporary piano music as well as to various computer-generated random music. The program consists of rules that manipulate the durations and sound levels of the tones in a contextdependent way. When applying the rules to this music, the concept harmonic charge, which has been found useful for generating crescendi and diminuendi in performance of traditional tonal music for example, is replaced by chromatic charge. The music is performed on a Casio sampler controlled by a Macintosh II microcomputer. A listening panel of five experts on contemporary piano music or electroacoustic music clearly preferred performances processed by the performance program to "deadpan" performances mechanically replicating the durations and sound levels nominally written in the music score. 

  • 73.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Frydén, Lars
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Bodin, L-G
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Performance rules for computer controlled performance of contemporary keyboard music1987In: STL-QPSR, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 079-085Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 74.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Frydén, Lars
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    A rule for automatic musical punctuation of melodies1997In: Proc of 3rd Triennial ESCOM Conference, 1997, p. 719-723Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 75.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Iwarsson, JennyKTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.Jansson, ErikKTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.Sundberg, JohanKTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Proceedings of the Stockholm Music Acoustics Conference 19931994Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 76.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Schoonderwaldt, E.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Juslin, P. N.
    Uppsala University.
    Bresin, R.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Automatic real-time extraction of musical expression2002In: Proceedings of the International Computer Music Conference, ICMC 2002, 2002, p. 365-367Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has identified a set of acoustical cues that are important in communicating different emotions in music performance. We have applied these findings in the development of a system that automatically predicts the expressive intention of the player. First, low-level cues of music performances are extracted from audio. Important cues include average and variability values of sound level, tempo, articulation, attack velocity, and spectral content. Second, linear regression models obtained from listening experiments are used to predict the intended emotion. Third, the prediction data can be visually displayed using, for example, color mappings in accordance with synesthesia research. Preliminary test results indicate that the system accurately predicts the intended emotion and is robust to minor errors in the cue extraction.

  • 77.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, J.
    Frydén, L.
    Motion in music: Sound level envelopes of tones expressing human locomotion2000In: TMH-QPSR, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 073-082Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 78.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    A Lisp Environment for Creating and Applying Rules for Musical Performance1986In: Proceedings of the International Computer Music Conference 1986, 1986, p. 1-3Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 79.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Comparing runners« decelerations and final ritards1997In: Proc of 3rd Triennial ESCOM Conference, 1997, p. 582-586Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 80.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Does music performance allude to locomotion?: A model of final ritardandi derived from measurements of stopping runners1999In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 105, no 3, p. 1469-1484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This investigation explores the common assumption that music and motion are closely related by comparing the stopping of running and the termination of a piece of music. Video recordings were made of professional dancers’ stopping from running under different deceleration conditions, and instant values of body velocity, step frequency, and step length were estimated. In decelerations that were highly rated for aesthetic quality by a panel of choreographers, the mean body velocity could be approximated by a square-root function of time, which is equivalent to a cubic-root function of position. This implies a linear relationship between kinetic energy and time, i.e., a constant braking power. The mean body velocity showed a striking similarity with the mean tempo pattern of final ritardandi in music performances. The constant braking power was used as the basis for a model describing both the changes of tempo in final ritardandi and the changes of velocity in runners’ decelerations. The translation of physical motion to musical tempo was realized by assuming that velocity and musical tempo are equivalent. Two parameters were added to the model to account for the variation observed in individual ritardandi and in individual decelerations: ~1! the parameter q controlling the curvature, q53 corresponding to the runners’ deceleration, and ~2! the parameter vend for the final velocity and tempo value, respectively. A listening experiment was carried out presenting music examples with final ritardandi according to the model with different q values or to an alternative function. Highest ratings were obtained for the model with q52 and q53. Out of three functions, the model produced the best fit to individual measured ritardandi as well as to individual decelerations. A function previously used for modeling phrase-related tempo variations ~interonset duration as a quadratic function of score position! produced the lowest ratings and the poorest fits to individual ritardandi. The results thus seem to substantiate the commonly assumed analogies between motion and music.

  • 81.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Just Noticable Difference in duration, pitch and sound level in a musical context1994In: Proceedings of 3rd International Conference for Music Perception and Cognition, Liège 1994, 1994, p. 339-340Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 82.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Perception of just noticeable time displacement of a tone presented in a1992In: STL-QPSR, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 097-108Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The JND for a perturbation of the timin<g of a tone appearing in a metrical sequencewas examined in an experiment where 30 listeners of varied musical backgroundwere asked to adjust the timing of thefourth tone in a sequence of six suchthat they heard the sequence as perfectly regular. The tones were presented at aconstant inter-onset time that was varied between 100 ms and 1000 ms. The averageJND was found to be about 10 ms for tones shorter than about 240 ms durationand about 5% ofthe duration for longer tones. Subjects' musical training didnot appear to affect these values.

  • 83.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Perception of just noticeable time displacement of a tone presented in a metrical sequence at different tempos1994In: Proc. of SMAC ’93, Stockholm Music Acoustics Conference, 1994, p. 39-43Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 84.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, Johan
    Stopping in running and in music performance Part I. Runners’ decelerations and final ritards1997In: TMH-QPSR, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 067-073Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Music and motion are generally assumed to be closely related. In an attempt to analyse such relations with regard to the stopping of running and the termination of a piece of music, we made video recordings of four professional dancers while they were stopping after running. Interstep durations were determined from contact microphones on the floor and step lengths from the video recordings. Two different initial step frequencies were used at three different deceleration conditions. Instant values of body velocity and step frequency were estimated. Six choreographers rated the aesthetic quality of the deceleration from the video recordings. The data curves from highly rated decelerations seemed more regular and smooth as compared to the decelerations rated lower. In highly rated decelerations the change of step frequency could be approximated by a linear function of step number and the mean body velocity as a square root function of time. This implies a linear relationship between kinetic energy and time, i.e., the braking power remained constant throughout these decelerations. The mean body velocity showed a striking similarity with the mean tempo of final ritards in music performances.

  • 85.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Stopping in running and in music performance. Part II. A model of the final ritardando based on runners’ deceleration1997In: TMH-QPSR, Vol. 38, no 2-3, p. 033-046Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A model for describing the change of tempo in final ritardandi is presented. The model was based on the previous finding that runners’ average deceleration can be characterised by a constant brake power. This implies that velocity is as a squareroot function of time or alternatively, a cubic-root function of position. The translation of physical motion to musical tempo is realised by assuming that velocity and musical tempo are equivalent. To account for the variation observed in individual measured ritardandi and in individual decelerations, two parameters were introduced; (1) the parameter q controlling the curvature with q=3 corresponding to the runners’ deceleration, and (2) the parameter v(end) corresponding to the final tempo. A listening experiment gave highest ratings for q=2 and q=3 and lower ratings for higher and lower q values. Out of three tempo functions, the model produced the best fit to individual measured ritardandi and individual decelerations. A commonly used function for modelling tempo variations in phrases (duration is a quadratic function of score position) produced the lowest ratings in the listening experiment and the least good fit to the measured individual ritardandi. The fact that the same model can be used for describing velocity curves in decelerations as well as tempo curves in music provides a striking example of analogies between motion and music.

  • 86.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Time discrimination in a monotonic, isochronous sequence1995In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 5, no 98, p. 2524-2531Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In acoustic communication timing seems to be an exceedingly important aspect. The just noticeable difference ~jnd! for small perturbations of an isochronous sequence of sounds is particularly important in music, in which such sequences frequently occur. This article reviews the literature in the area and presents an experiment designed to resolve some conflicting results in the literature regarding the tempo dependence for quick tempi and relevance of music experience. The jnd for a perturbation of the timing of a tone appearing in an isochronous sequence was examined by the method of adjustment. Thirty listeners of varied musical background were asked to adjust the position of the fourth tone in a sequence of six, such that they heard the sequence as perfectly isochronous. The tones were presented at a constant interonset time that was varied between 100 and 1000 ms. The absolute jnd was found to be approximately constant at 6 ms for tone interonset intervals shorter than about 240 ms and the relative jnd constant at 2.5% of the tone interonsets above 240 ms. Subjects’ musical training did not affect these values. Comparison with previous work showed that a constant absolute jnd below 250 ms and constant relative jnd above 250 ms tend to appear regardless of the perturbation type, at least if the sequence is relatively short.

  • 87.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, Johan
    Using Rules to Control the Musical Performance1987In: Actes du Symposium Systèmes Personnels et Informatique Musicale, IRCAM, 1986, 1987Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 88.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, Johan
    Frydén, Lars
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    How to terminate a phrase. An analysis-by-synthesis experiment on the perceptual aspect of music performance1987In: Action and Perception of rhythm and music / [ed] Gabrielsson, A., 1987, p. 49-55Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 89.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Frydén, Lars
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Preferred quantities of expressive variation in music performance1989In: STL-QPSR, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 053-062Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 90.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Frydén, Lars
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Recent musical performance research at KTH1994In: Proceedings of the Aarhus symposium on Generative grammars for music performance 1994, 1994, p. 7-12Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 91.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Frydén, Lars
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Rules for musical performance1994Other (Other academic)
  • 92.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Frydén, Lars
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    The KTH rules for musical performance: Overview and recent additions1995In: Proc of 15th Intl Congress on Acoustics (ICA«95), 1995, Vol. 3, p. 431-434Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 93.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundström, Andreas
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Preferred swing ratio in jazz as a function of tempo1997In: TMH-QPSR, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 019-027Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In jazz music it is common to perform consecutive eighth notes with an alternating duration pattern of long-short. The exact duration ratio (the swing ratio) of the long-short pattern has been largely unknown. The first experiment describes measurements of the swing ratio in the ride cymbal from well-known jazz recordings. The second experiment was a production task where subjects adjusted the swing ratio of a computer generated performance to a preferred value. Both these experiments show that the swing ratio varies approximately linearly with tempo. The swing ratio can be as high as 3.5:1 at comparatively slow tempi around 120 bpm. When the tempo is fast the swing ratio reaches 1:1, that is, the eighth notes are performed evenly. The duration of the short note in the long-short pattern is approximately constant (≅ 100 ms) for medium to fast tempi.

  • 94.
    Gleiser, Julieta E.
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Granqvist, Svante
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    A method for extracting vibrato parameters applied to violin performance1998In: TMH-QPSR, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 039-044Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A method is presented which semi-automatically extracts the fundamental frequency and displays as continuous signals vibrato rate, vibrato extent and sound level. The method is tested on specially made recordings of violin music with piano accompaniment, using a small microphone mounted directly on the violin. The fundamental frequency was successfully extracted by means of a waveform correlation program. Likewise, vibrato rate and extent were extracted separately for each tone from the fundamental frequency signal after elimination of its DC component. The results seem promising, offering the opportunity of visual examination and measurement of changes in vibrato characteristics during performances of entire pieces of music. 

  • 95.
    Granqvist, Svante
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Computer methods for perceptual, acoustic and laryngoscopic voice analysis2000Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
  • 96.
    Granqvist, Svante
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Computer methods for voice analysis2003Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of five articles and a summary. Thethesis deals with methods for measuring properties of thevoice. The methods are all computer-based, but utilisedifferent approaches for measuring different aspects of thevoice.

    Paper I introduces the Visual Sort and Rate (VSR) method forperceptual rating of voice quality. The method is based on theVisual Analogue Scale (VAS), but simultaneously shows allstimuli as icons along the VAS on the computer screen. As thelistener places similar-sounding stimuli close to each otherduring the rating process, comparing stimuli becomeseasier.

    Paper II introduces the correlogram. Fundamental frequencyF0 sometimes cannot be strictly defined, particularly forperturbed voice signals. The method displays multipleconsecutive correlation functions in a grey scale image. Thus,the correlogram avoids selecting a single F0 value. Rather itpresents an unbiased image of periodicity, allowing theinvestigator to select among several candidates, ifappropriate.

    PaperIII introduces a method for detection of phonation tobe utilised in voice accumulators. The method uses twomicrophones attached near the subject’s ears. Phase andamplitude relations of the microphone signals are used to forma phonation detector. The output of the method can be used tomeasure phonation time, speaking time and fundamental frequencyof the subject, as well as sound pressure level of both thesubject’s voicing and the ambient sounds.

    Paper IV introduces a method for Fourier analysis ofhigh-speed laryngoscopic imaging. The data from the consecutiveimages are re-arranged to form time-series that reflect thetime-variation of light intensity in each pixel. Each of thesetime series is then analysed by means of Fouriertransformation, such that a spectrum for each pixel isobtained. Several ways of displaying these spectra aredemonstrated.

    Paper V examines a test set-up for simultaneous recording ofairflow, intra-oral pressure, electro-glottography, audio andhigh-speed imaging. Data are analysed with particular focus onsynchronisation between glottal area and inverse filteredairflow. Several methodological aspects are also examined, suchas the difficulties in synchronising high-speed imaging datawith the other signals.

  • 97.
    Granqvist, Svante
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    The self-to-other ratio applied as a phonation detector for voice accumulation2003In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 71-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new method for phonation detection is presented. The method utilises two microphones attached near the subject's ears. Simplified, phonation is assumed to occur when the signals appear mainly in-phase and at equal amplitude. Several signal processing steps are added in order to improve the phonation detection, and finally the original signal is sorted in separate channels corresponding to the phonated and non-phonated instances. The method is tested in a laboratory setting to demonstrate the need for some of the stages of the signal processing and to examine the processing speed. The resulting sound file allows for measurement of phonation time, speaking time and fundamental frequency of the subject and sound pressure level of the subject's voice and the environmental sounds separately. The present implementation gives great freedom for adjustment of analysis parameters, since the microphone signals are recorded on DAT tape and the processing is performed off-line on a PC. In future versions, a voice accumulator based on this principle could be designed in order to shorten analysis time and thus make the method more appropriate for clinical use.

  • 98.
    Granqvist, Svante
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    The visual sort and rate method for perceptual evaluation in listening tests2003In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 109-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces the Visual Sort and Rate (VSR) method which can be utilized for perceptual rating of sound stimuli. The method facilitates comparing similar stimuli, thus making the rank ordering of the stimuli easier. To examine the potential benefits of the method, it was compared with two other methods for perceptual rating of audio stimuli. The first method was a straightforward computer-based implementation of a visual analogue scale (VAS) allowing multiple playbacks and re-play of previously heard stimuli (C-VAS). The second method utilized a VAS where the responses were given on paper (P-VAS). The three methods were compared by using two sets of stimuli. The first set was a synthetically generated series of stimuli mimicking the vowel /a/ with different spectral tilts. In this test, a single parameter was rated. The second set of stimuli was a naturally spoken voice. For this set of stimuli three parameters were rated. Results show that the VSR method gave better reliability of the subjects' ratings in the single-parameter tests: Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients were significantly higher for the VSR method than for the other methods. For the multi-parameter, intra-subject test, significantly higher Pearson correlation coefficients were found for the VSR method than for the VAS on paper.

  • 99.
    Granqvist, Svante
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Hammarberg, Britta
    The correlogram: A visual display of periodicity2003In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 114, no 5, p. 2934-2945Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fundamental frequency (F-0) extraction is often used in voice quality analysis'. In pathological voices with a high degree of instability in F-0, it is common for F-0 extraction algorithms to fail. In such cases, the faulty F-0 values might spoil the possibilities for further data analysis. This paper presents the correlogram, a new method of displaying periodicity. The correlogram is based on the waveform-matching techniques often used in F-0 extraction programs, but with no mechanism to select an actual F-0 value. Instead, several candidates for F-0 are shown as dark bands. The result is presented as a 3D plot with time on the x axis, correlation delay inverted to frequency on the y axis, and correlation on the z axis. The z axis is represented in a gray scale as in a spectrogram. Delays corresponding to integer multiples, of the period time will receive high correlation, thus resulting in candidates at F-0, F-0/2, F-0/3, etc. While the correlogram, adds little to F-0 analysis of normal voices, it is useful for analysis of pathological voices since it illustrates the full. complexity of the periodicity in the voice signal. Also, in combination with manual tracing, the correlogram can be used for semimanual F-0 extraction. If so, F-0 extraction can be performed on many voices that cause problems for conventional F-0 extractors. To demonstrate the properties of the method it is applied to synthetic and natural voices, among them six pathological voices, which are characterized by roughness, vocal fry, gratings/scrape, hypofunctional breathiness and voice breaks, or combinations of these.

  • 100.
    Granqvist, Svante
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Hertegård, Stellan
    Larsson, Hans
    Sundberg, Johan
    Simultaneous analysis of vocal fold vibration and transglottal airflow: exploring a new experimental setup2003In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 17, p. 319-330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Summary: The purpose of this study was to develop an analysis system for studying the relationship between vocal fold vibration and the associated transglottal airflow. Recordings of airflow, electroglottography (EGG), oral air pressure, and acoustic signals were performed simultaneously with high-speed imaging at a rate of approximately 1900 frames/s. Inverse filtered airflow is compared with the simultaneous glottal area extracted from the high-speed image sequence. The accuracy of the synchronization between the camera images and the foot pedal synchronization pulse was examined, showing that potential synchronization errors increase with time distance to the synchronization pulse. Therefore, analysis was limited to material near the synchronization pulse. Results corroborate previous predictions that air flow lags behind area, but also they reveal that relationships between these two entities may be complex and apparently varying with phonation mode.

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