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  • 51.
    Marais, Andrew
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    The use of polymeric amines to enhance the mechanical properties of lignocellulosic fibrous networks2012In: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 1437-1447Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cationic polyelectrolytes (polyallylamine and polyvinylamine with different molecular masses) were adsorbed onto lignocellulosic fibres from unbleached and unbeaten spruce chemical fibres with different kappa numbers to investigate the effects on the mechanical properties of the final paper materials. Adsorption isotherms were first established to determine the maximum quantity of polymer that could be adsorbed onto each type of fibre. Paper sheets were then made with different amounts of added polyelectrolyte, and the structural and mechanical properties of the sheets were investigated, as well as the effect of an extra heating. The use of fibres with different kappa numbers led to different responses in terms of adsorption, and thus to differences in the mechanical properties of the resulting sheets. The tensile strength index was significantly increased (almost 50 % improvement in the best case) as a consequence of this polyelectrolyte adsorption onto the fibres, even at as low an adsorption level as 2 mg/g. The heating of paper sheets for 10 min at 160 A degrees C was also shown to improve the tensile strength index by about 10 % for pulps with high kappa number.

  • 52.
    Mellin, Pelle
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering. Swerea KIMAB.
    Jönsson, Christina
    Swerea IVF.
    Åkermo, Malin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Fernberg, Patrik
    Swerea SICOMP.
    Nordenberg, Eva
    Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB.
    Brodin, Håkan
    Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB.
    Strondl, Annika
    Swerea KIMAB.
    Nano-sized by-products from metal 3D printing, composite manufacturing and fabric production2016In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 139, p. 1224-1233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, the health and environmental perspective of nano-materials has gained attention. Most previous work focused on Engineered Nanoparticles (ENP). This paper examines some recently introduced production routes in terms of generated nano-sized by-products. A discussion on the hazards of emitting such particles and fibers is included. Fine by-products were found in recycled metal powder after 3D printing by Selective Laser Melting (SLM). The process somehow generated small round metal particles (~1e2 mm) that are possibly carcinogenic and respirable, but not small enough to enter by skin-absorption. With preventive measures like closed handling and masks, any health related effects can be prevented. The composite manufacturing in particular generated ceramic and carbonaceous particles that are very small and respirable but do not appear to be intrinsically toxic. The smallest features in agglomerates were about 30 nm. Small particles and fibers that were not attached in agglomerates were found in a wide range of sizes, from 1 μm and upwards. Preventive measures like closed handling and masks are strongly recommended. In contrast, the more traditional production route of fabric production is investigated. Here, brushing residue and recycled wool from fabric production contained few nano-sized by-products.

  • 53.
    Meng, Qinggong
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH).
    Ageing properties of polyoxymethylene copolymer exposed to petroleum and biobased diesel at high temperature2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Polymer materials are widely used in the present transportation industry. With many applications, there is a direct contact between the fuel and the materials, which may cause problems if the fuel affects the material. In the present study, the properties of a polyoxymethylene copolymer was investigated after being exposed to petroleum diesel, biodiesel and a blended diesel with 20 vol.% biodiesel and 80 vol.% petroleum diesel at high temperature. It was observed that the material properties were affected, to different degrees, of the different fuels.

  • 54.
    Moyassari Sardehaei, Ali
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Molecular Structure, Interfacial Chain Topology, Electronic Structure and Fracture Toughness of Polyethylene: A Multiscale Computational Study2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The structure of semicrystalline polyethylene (PE) strongly affects its properties. Two important structural features, namely the concentrations of tie chains and entanglements cannot be directly assessed using experimental techniques. These parameters have a major impact on mechanical properties of the material, especially on its fracture toughness. The present study has therefore focused on developing methods based on computer simulation in order to determine the concentrations of tie chains and entanglements as a function of molecular structure in unimodal and bimodal PE systems.

    An off-lattice Monte Carlo (MC) method was developed to simulate the semicrystalline PE. The code was able to input molar mass distribution, short-chain branch distribution, and crystallinity data and model the crystalline-amorphous lamellar structure with the focus on determining the concentrations of tie chains and entanglements. Introduction of the short-chain branches significantly increased the tie chain and entanglement concentrations. The method was then used to simulate a typical semicrystalline structure, and this structure as well as other simulated variations of the PE structure were equilibrated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. A linear-scaling DFT (density functional theory) method was then used in order to determine the electronic structure of the materials. Bandgap of the semicrystalline model was found to be smaller than both pure crystalline or amorphous systems. This could indicate the preference for electrons to reside in the interfacial regions rather than in crystalline or bulk amorphous regions. Low effective activation energies obtained indicated a high mobility of holes, excess electrons, and charge carriers at room temperature.

    Coarse-grained (CG) potentials were derived using the iterative Boltzmann inversion (IBI) method to describe linear and branched PE. The potentials were then used in CG-MD simulations to crystallize and draw blends of low and high molar mass PE. The purpose was to determine the concentrations of tie chains and entanglements as well as their effect on the fracture toughness. Addition of a linear high molar mass component (only 25 % by weight) significantly increased the concentration of entanglements and thus the fracture toughness of the material. The introduction of a butyl-branched high molar mass fraction had an even stronger effect on the concentration of entanglements and, in particular, on the tie chain concentration. These latter systems exhibited the highest fracture toughness values of all systems studied.

  • 55.
    NAGARAJAN, NIVEDITHA
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE).
    Ovanliga dragegenskaper hos en mjuk exopi/kolfiber komposit2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of strain rate on the mechanical behavior of pure flexible epoxy and its carbon fiber composite was investigated. The carbon fiber composite was made with variation in the number of plies and degree of orientation. Samples of cured epoxy and composites were tested at various strain rates (800mm/min, 100mm/min and 1mm/min). Analysis of the results showed unusual behavior in the fact that the fracture strain increased with an increase in strain rate. In order to investigate further, FTIR and NMR spectroscopy was carried out on the samples. Also, a swelling experiment was done in order to determine the swelling ratio of the polymer composite. The fracture morphology of the specimens was studied using SEM.

  • 56. Olatunji, O.
    et al.
    Olsson, Richard
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Processing and characterization of natural polymers2015In: Natural Polymers: Industry Techniques and Applications, Springer, 2015, p. 19-61Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter covers recent techniques applied in processing and characterization of natural polymers. This includes techniques in processing natural polymers from their natural forms into modified forms for more varied application and functionality. It also looks at techniques for processing modified and unmodified natural polymers for various purposes such as film formation for transdermal patches, composite and blends production to form films with improved mechanical properties, magnetic decoration for production of tough membranes with magnetic properties. The characterization methods covered in this chapter include X-ray diffraction, microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. We look at recent reported processing and characterization techniques which are applicable to the major industries today for natural polymer-based materials.

  • 57.
    Pallon, Love
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Polyethylene/metal oxide nanocomposites for electrical insulation in future HVDC-cables: probing properties from nano to macro2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanocomposites of polyethylene and metal oxide nanoparticles have shown to be a feasible approachto the next generation of insulation in high voltage direct current cables. In order to reach an operationvoltage of 1 MV new insulation materials with reduced conductivity and increased breakdown strengthas compared to modern low-density polyethylene (LDPE) is needed.In this work polyethylene MgO nanocomposites for electrical insulation has been produced andcharacterized both from an electrical and material perspective. The MgO nanoparticles weresynthesized into polycrystalline nanoparticles with a large specific surface area (167 m2 g–1). Meltprocessing by extrusion resulted in evenly dispersed MgO nanoparticles in LDPE for the silane surfacemodified MgO as compared to the unmodified MgO. All systems showed a reduction in conductivityby up to two orders of magnitude at low loading levels (1–3 wt.%), but where the surface modifiedsystems were able to retain reduced conductivity even at loading levels of 9 wt.%. A maximuminteraction radius to influence the conductivity of the MgO nanoparticles was theoretically determinedto ca. 800 nm. The interaction radius was in turn experimentally observed around Al2O3 nanoparticlesembedded in LDPE using Intermodulation electrostatic force microscopy. By applying a voltage on theAFM-tip charge injection and extraction around the Al2O3 nanoparticles was observed, visualizing theexistence of additional localized energy states on, and around, the nanoparticles. Ptychography wasused to reveal nanometre features in 3D of electrical trees formed under DC-conditions. Thevisualization showed that the electrical tree grows by pre-step voids in front of the propagatingchannels, facilitating further growth, much in analogy to mechanical crack propagation (Griffithconcept). An electromechanical effect was attributed as possible mechanism for the formation of the voids.

  • 58.
    Pallon, Love
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Yu, Shun
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Liu, Dongming
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Diaz, Ana
    Paul Scherrer Institute.
    Holler, Mirko
    Paul Scherrer Institute.
    Nilsson, Fritjof
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Chen, Xiangrong
    Chalmers University of Technology .
    Gubanski, Stanislaw
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Olsson, Richard
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Gedde, Ulf W.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Three-dimensional nanometre features of direct current electrical trees in low-density polyethyleneManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 59.
    Pardon, Gaspard
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    From Macro to Nano: Electrokinetic Transport and Surface Control2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, the growing and aging population, and the rise of new global threats on human health puts an increasing demand on the healthcare system and calls for preventive actions. To make existing medical treatments more efficient and widely accessible and to prevent the emergence of new threats such as drug-resistant bacteria, improved diagnostic technologies are needed. Potential solutions to address these medical challenges could come from the development of novel lab-on-chip (LoC) for point-of-care (PoC) diagnostics.

    At the same time, the increasing demand for sustainable energy calls for the development of novel approaches for energy conversion and storage systems (ECS), to which micro- and nanotechnologies could also contribute.

    This thesis has for objective to contribute to these developments and presents the results of interdisciplinary research at the crossing of three disciplines of physics and engineering: electrokinetic transport in fluids, manufacturing of micro- and nanofluidic systems, and surface control and modification. By combining knowledge from each of these disciplines, novel solutions and functionalities were developed at the macro-, micro- and nanoscale, towards applications in PoC diagnostics and ECS systems.

    At the macroscale, electrokinetic transport was applied to the development of a novel PoC sampler for the efficient capture of exhaled breath aerosol onto a microfluidic platform.

    At the microscale, several methods for polymer micromanufacturing and surface modification were developed. Using direct photolithography in off-stoichiometry thiol-ene (OSTE) polymers, a novel manufacturing method for mold-free rapid prototyping of microfluidic devices was developed. An investigation of the photolithography of OSTE polymers revealed that a novel photopatterning mechanism arises from the off-stoichiometric polymer formulation. Using photografting on OSTE surfaces, a novel surface modification method was developed for the photopatterning of the surface energy. Finally, a novel method was developed for single-step microstructuring and micropatterning of surface energy, using a molecular self-alignment process resulting in spontaneous mimicking, in the replica, of the surface energy of the mold.

    At the nanoscale, several solutions for the study of electrokinetic transport toward selective biofiltration and energy conversion were developed. A novel, comprehensive model was developed for electrostatic gating of the electrokinetic transport in nanofluidics. A novel method for the manufacturing of electrostatically-gated nanofluidic membranes was developed, using atomic layer deposition (ALD) in deep anodic alumina oxide (AAO) nanopores. Finally, a preliminary investigation of the nanopatterning of OSTE polymers was performed for the manufacturing of polymer nanofluidic devices.

  • 60.
    Pardon, Gaspard
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Haraldsson, Tommy
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    van der Wijngaart, Wouter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Simultaneous replication of hydrophilic and superhydrophobic micropatterns through area-selective monomer self-assembly2016In: Advanced Materials Interfaces, ISSN 2196-7350, Vol. 3, no 17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The control and permanent modification of the surface properties of polymers is a critical enabler for many applications. Here, we demonstrate a strategy, which we call surface energy mimicking, for the spontaneous replication of micropatterns of surface energies ranging from hydrophilic to superhydrophobic from a mold to several replicas.

    We introduce surface energy mimicking, enabling spontaneous replication of micropatterns (2D and 2.5D) of different surface energies, and enabled by self-assembly of functional mimicking monomers within a polymer matrix. We demonstrate replication of surface energies ranging from hydrophilic to superhydrophobic, and self-assembly of picoliter-droplet arrays on replicated micropatterned arrays containing hydrophilic patches in a hydrophobic surface.

  • 61.
    Pardon, Gaspard
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Haraldsson, Tommy
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    van der Wijngaart, Wouter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    SURFACE ENERGY MICROPATTERN INHERITANCE FROM MOLD TO REPLICA2014In: 27th IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (IEEE MEMS 2014), IEEE conference proceedings, 2014, p. 96-99Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report a novel surface-energy patterning phenomenon, in which a novel polymer composition inherits the surface energy of the medium it is in contact with during polymerization. This surface property mimicking process occurs via spontaneous selective molecular alignment of hydrophilic and hydrophobic monomers mixed into an off-stoichiometry thiol-ene (OSTE) formulation. This single-step method for simultaneous structuring and surface energy micropatterning of polymer structures is potentially more robust and lower cost than state-of-the-art processes requiring post-processing surface modification steps. We further demonstrate the self-assembly of a liquid droplet array on the replicated polymer surfaces.

  • 62.
    Pathanatecha, Worabhorn
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH).
    A Study of Various Parameters Affecting Adhesion of Coatings to Metal Substrates2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The adhesion of coatings is of high importance in the coating industry and a more thorough understanding of adhesion behavior is required. In this thesis work, seven parameters affecting adhesion of silane-modified poly(urethane urea) (PUSi) coatings on pretreated steel and aluminum substrates were studied. These parameters include substrate type, dry film thickness (20-30 and 60-70 μm), solid content (40, 60, and 70 wt%), resin ratio between two different types of PUSi (PUSi-A: PUSi-B = 70:30, 50:50, and 30:70 wt ratio), crosslinking density, additive, and curing condition. The different pretreatments of substrates include solvent wiping, sandblasting, phosphating, and galvanizing. A commercial paint product (‘yellow topcoat’) was used as a reference for the study of substrates and additives. Several formulations of clearcoat, prepared from the same PUSi resins as the commercial paint product, were mainly used in every experiment. The obtained coatings were tested for their adhesion properties using cross hatch adhesion test, bending test, and humidity resistance test. The film hardness and thermo-mechanical properties were evaluated with König pendulum hardness test and Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA), respectively. Surface energies of all substrates were analyzed with Contact Angle Measurement (CAM). The PUSi-A and PUSi-B resins used in the coating formulations were characterized with Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Size-Exclusion Chromatography (SEC), and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results showed a correlation between poor adhesion properties and the relatively low surface energies of some substrates, namely cold-rolled steel (CRS), industrial ACE aluminum, and standard Q aluminum. The use of silane-functional crosslinking agent and silane adhesion promoters in the coatings has greatly enhanced adhesion. The increase in film hardness via increased crosslinking density also did not hinder the adhesion due to the presence of silane groups in the crosslinker. Additionally, increased time and temperature during curing showed positive effects. However, the variation of resin ratio, solid content, and film thickness did not offer significant adhesion improvement in this study.

  • 63.
    Persson, Alexander
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH).
    Identification of Alternative Solvents to DCM for Dissolving PLA2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Polylactic acid (PLA) is a polyester made from renewable resources and exists in both semi-crystalline and amorphous states. The amorphous PLA can be easily dissolved in a variety of solvents; however, it is a challenge to find a suitable non-toxic solvent to dissolve semi-crystalline PLA. A solvent being widely used to dissolve semi-crystalline PLA is dichloromethane (DCM) besides chloroform. Dichloromethane cannot be used in industrial applications since it is highly toxic and carcinogenic. Laws and regulations are making the industry to thrive for more environmental and human friendly alternatives. Therefore, the focus of this study is, to find less hazardous alternative solvents that can dissolve semi-crystalline PLA.

    The Hansen solubility parameter software has been used as a tool to find solubility behaviors of a polymer and to find appropriate solvents to dissolve semi-crystalline PLA. To achieve this goal, a large set of solvents have been chosen for dissolving the semi-crystalline PLA. Some of the solvents have been chosen randomly to be able to calibrate the solubility of the polymer using the software. Then suitable solvents were identified with the aid of the software. This process was also done for the amorphous PLA. Subsequently, different solubility behaviors were calculated for both semi-crystalline PLA and amorphous PLA. The results showed that semi-crystalline PLA is significantly difficult to dissolve using organic solvents compared to the amorphous one which was expected. Three new solvents that were able to dissolve semi-crystalline PLA were found including benzene, pyrrolidine and benzylamine. Hopefully this study will help in understanding the solubility behavior of semi-crystalline PLA, and to display the strength of the Hansen software that can be applied on polymers in general.

  • 64.
    Rabu, Julie
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE).
    Wheat Gluten Flax-Fiber Composite2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this project, the wheat gluten with flax fibers composite has been studied with two processes: the dipping and the compression molding. With the supervision of Mikael Hedenqvist, several tests have been undertaken to understand the different properties of the composite: SEM observation, density measurements, tensile tests with notch, TGA and DSC measurements, spectroscopy studies (Raman and IR). The project was following on from two student projects which mainly established the processes of the production. This project has enabled to make a summary of the properties of the biobased composite, then to consider the possible applications.

  • 65. Rahiminejad, S.
    et al.
    Hansson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems. KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Kohler, E.
    van der Wijngaart, Wouter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Haraldsson, Klas Tommy
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Haasl, Sjoerd
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Technology in Medicine and Health, CTMH. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Enoksson, P.
    Rapid manufacturing of OSTE polymer RF-MEMS components2017In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), IEEE, 2017, p. 901-904Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports the first RF-MEMS component in OSTE polymer. Three OSTE-based ridge gap resonators were fabricated by direct, high aspect ratio, photostructuring. The OSTE polymer's good adhesion to gold makes it suitable for RF-MEMS applications. The OSTE ridge gap resonators differ in how they were coated with gold. The OSTE-based devices are compared to each other as well as to Si-based, SU8-based, and CNT-based devices of equal design. The OSTE-based process was performed outside the cleanroom, and with a fast fabrication process (∼1 h). The OSTE-based device performance is on par with that of the other alternatives in terms of frequency, attenuation, and Q-factor.

  • 66.
    Reineck Popa, Sebastian Erik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH).
    Improving thermomechanical properties of PLA2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is a renewable, biodegradable thermoplastic polyester that can be found either as an amorphous or a semi-crystalline polymer, with a glass transition temperature (Tg) of ca. 60 °C. The most interesting mechanical properties for the application in this work arose from a 60:40 blend (reference blend) of amorphous and semi-crystalline PLAs, obtaining an elongation at break of 25% and the corresponding stress at break of 34 MPa. In the case of semi-crystalline PLA, the elongation at break decreased compared to the reference 60:40 blend, whereas an opposite effect was observed for the amorphous PLA, while the tensile strength was lower for both. However, the difficulty of working with the semi-crystalline PLA in solution has been a problem since it can only be dissolved in a few solvents. In this work, amorphous PLA was blended with other polymers in order to match the mechanical properties of the reference 60:40 blend without significantly decreasing the Tg. The blends of PLA were prepared using miscible stiff polymers such as poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) to add strength, or more mobile polymers such as poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) to increase elongation, while tuning the ratios in a ternary blend to avoid decreasing the Tg which would be detrimental for the main application. Furthermore, poly(butyrate adipate terephthalate) (PBAT), a biodegradable polymer, was investigated for the possibility of increasing elongation without reducing the strength. Moreover, immiscible polymers such as polyamide 11 (PA11/Nylon11) have been investigated together with compatibilization via reactive epoxy-containing polymers poly(ethylene glycidyl methacrylate) (PEGM) and Joncryl. The miscibility of cellulose derivatives, such as cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) and cellulose acetate (CA), was also investigated, the latter together with compatibilization via poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). The study found that compatibilization of Nylon11 with Joncryl was successful and it increases both the elongation and the tensile strength, while PBAT can increase the elongation significantly while keeping the strength high. In addition, a 75/20/5 weight% blend of PLA/PMMA/PEO showed a significant increase in tensile strength while keeping the elongation and Tg at the same level as of neat amorphous PLA.

  • 67.
    Robert, Clément
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH).
    Stability of Aqueous Films During Application and Drying2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wet film deposition is a key process in glazing industry but is not fully understood. The present work explores how the stability of aqueous films of surfactants deposited onto glass substrates is impacted by surfactant chemistry and evaporation. Aqueous solutions of surfactants were blade coated into thin films of 10 to 100 μm, that were monitored during drying.Remarkably, both fast dewetting and self-healing properties were observed. Surfactant chemistry,concentration and relative humidity during drying step appear as key parameters. A plausible mechanism based on the measured physical and chemical properties of the surfactant solutions is suggested. Adsorption of surfactants to the substrate and Marangoni flows could govern the observed phenomena.

  • 68. Sanandaji, Nima
    et al.
    Ovaskainen, L.
    Klein Gunnewiek, M.
    Vancso, G. J.
    Hedenqvist, M. S.
    Yu, Shun
    Eriksson, L.
    Roth, Stephan V.
    Gedde, U. W.
    Morphology, unit cell structure and melting behaviour of single crystals of poly(e-caprolactone) prepared by the RESS technique2013In: Polymer, ISSN 0032-3861, E-ISSN 1873-2291, Vol. 54, p. 1497-1503Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 69. Santoro, Gonzalo
    et al.
    Yu, Shun
    DESY, Germany.
    Krywka, Christina
    Roth, Stephan V.
    Ellis, Gary
    Microfocus X-ray scattering and micro Raman spectroscopy: transcrystallinity in isotactic polypropylene2014In: Physica Status Solidi. Rapid Research Letters, ISSN 1862-6254, E-ISSN 1862-6270, Vol. 8, p. 724-727Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microfocus X-ray scattering and micro Raman spectroscopy have been applied to study the β-transcrystalline morphology in isotactic polypropylene. The transformation from the α- to the β-form through the so-called bifurcation of growth mechanism has been investigated with high spatial resolution. We found that the mixed α-β region does not present spatial correlation along the shearing direction, implying that there is no cooperative crystallization from the different β-nucleation centres. In addition, a strong change in the lamellar orientation of the α-form thin layer that induces the growth of the β-crystallites has been observed for the first time. Finally, changes in the relative intensities of some selected Raman bands allowed the observation of the α-β transformation process at the molecular level. (© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH &Co. KGaA, Weinheim) In fibre-reinforced materials the interaction between the fibre and the matrix strongly affects the final properties of the material. Therefore, a detailed analysis of the interface is of utmost importance. By applying a battery of different microscopic techniques, we investigate the transcrystalline polymorphic morphology of isotactic polypropylene with unprecedented spatial resolution.

  • 70. Schneegass, Stefan
    et al.
    Hassib, Mariam
    Zhou, Bo
    Cheng, Jingyuan
    Seoane, Fernando
    Högskolan i Borås, Sweden.
    Amft, Oliver
    Lukowicz, Paul
    Schmidt, Albrecht
    SimpleSkin: towards multipurpose smart garments2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart textiles have been researched in the lab over thelast 20 years. However, the gap between research andavailable mass-market products is huge. We identifychallenges that are the core reasons for this gap. Totackle these challenges, we present our work towards amultipurpose smart textile with dierent sensingmodalities. It separates the concern of developing textiles,electronics, infrastructure, and applications. Furthermore,it uses a similar application model as current smart-phonesallowing developers to create applications for the smarttextiles. We believe that this approach is capable ofmoving smart textiles from niche to mainstream.

  • 71.
    Seoane, Fernando
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical sensors, signals and systems (MSSS).
    Ferreira, Javier
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical sensors, signals and systems (MSSS).
    Marquez, Juan Carlos
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical sensors, signals and systems (MSSS).
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås.
    Conductive Polymer Films as Textrodes for Biopotential Sensing2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: After several years of progresses in textile technology and wearable measurement instrumentation, applications of wearable textile-electronics systems are arising providing a stable background for commercial applications. So far, the available commercial solutions are centered on fitness applications and mostly based in the acquisition of heart rate through Textile Electrodes (Textrodes) based on metallic threads or on conductive rubber compounds. Methods and Materials: In this work a novel material approach is presented to produce Textrodes for acquisition of Electrocardiographic (ECG) signals using a conductive polypropylene (PP1386 from Premix, Finland) polymer material. The polymer was film extruded into thin films, and used as such in the Textrode. Conductive Polymer Films (CPF) have been used to produce Textrodes, and its measurement performance has been compared with the ECG signals obtained with commercial Textrode fabrics and conventional Ag/AgCl electrodes. In order to set up the same measurement conditions, a chest strap tailored to host the testing electrodes has been used. Results: The close resemblance of the ECG acquired with the textile fabric electrodes, the Ag/AgCl electrodes and the PP1386 CPF electrodes suggest that the Polymer Electrodes PP1386 are a feasible alternative to the current textile fabrics that use silver thread as conductive material and also to conductive rubber material. Discussion & Conclusion: The availability of the Conductive Polymer Electrode PP1386 in a film form allows the manufacturing of electrodes by conventional textile processes, like lamination or sewing, therefore facilitating the transition from lab prototyping to industrial manufacturing. Replacing the traditional silver thread as conductive element in the fabrication of Textrodes will definitely reduce the material cost per Textrode. Biocompatibility issues and manufacturability issues must be addressed but the exhibited functional performance is showing encouraging results.

  • 72.
    Seoane, Fernando
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical sensors, signals and systems (MSSS).
    Rempfer, Markus
    University of Borås.
    Marquez, Juan Carlos
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical sensors, signals and systems (MSSS).
    Lindecrantz, Kaj
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical sensors, signals and systems (MSSS).
    Textile-enabled Instrumentation for Impedance Cardiographic Signals2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 73.
    Seoane, Fernando
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical sensors, signals and systems. Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för vård, arbetsliv och välfärd.
    Soroudi, Azadeh
    Högskolan i Borås, Sverige.
    Abtahi, Farhad
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Lu, Ke
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    Högskolan i Borås, Sverige.
    Printed Electronics Enabling a Textile-friendly Interconnection between Wearable Measurement Instrumentation & Sensorized Garments2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 74.
    Shenxun, Yuan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Prevention of waste from textile in Sweden2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the population growing gradually and economy booming in the world, the need of textile product accordingly increases rapidly, which results in the big generation of textile waste. The disposal of textile waste brings in many adverse effects on environment, such as the landfill occupation. The production of textile product itself also causes much environmental concerning. In order to cope with the increasing textile waste and reduce the pressure of waste management, waste prevention is primary, as well as effective choice. The prevention of waste from textile can return ideal revenue from economic, social and environmental aspects. So many countries have conducted some researches and practices on the prevention of waste from textile. Sweden also has some existed prevention measures. But these prevention measures mainly focus on two stakeholders: consumer and charitable organization. 

    Associated with the practical situation in Sweden, some existed prevention measures are transferred to the Swedish circumstance and then suggest a new prevention scheme about textile waste in Sweden. The suggested prevention scheme is based on four stakeholders’ (designer, retailer, consumer, charitable organization) point of view.

  • 75. Sticker, Drago
    et al.
    Rothbauer, Mario
    Ehgartner, Josef
    Steininger, Christoph
    Liske, Olga
    Liska, Robert
    Neuhaus, Winfried
    Mayr, Torsten
    Haraldsson, Klas Tommy
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Kutter, Jorg P.
    Ertl, Peter
    Oxygen Management at the Microscale: A Functional Biochip Material with Long-Lasting and Tunable Oxygen Scavenging Properties for Cell Culture Applications2019In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 11, no 10, p. 9730-9739Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oxygen plays a pivotal role in cellular homeostasis, and its partial pressure determines cellular function and fate. Consequently, the ability to control oxygen tension is a critical parameter for recreating physiologically relevant in vitro culture conditions for mammalian cells and microorganisms. Despite its importance, most microdevices and organ-on-a-chip systems to date overlook oxygen gradient parameters because controlling oxygen often requires bulky and expensive external instrumental setups. To overcome this limitation, we have adapted an off-stoichiometric thiol-ene-epoxy polymer to efficiently remove dissolved oxygen to below 1 hPa and also integrated this modified polymer into a functional biochip material. The relevance of using an oxygen scavenging material in microfluidics is that it makes it feasible to readily control oxygen depletion rates inside the biochip by simply changing the surface-to-volume aspect ratio of the microfluidic channel network as well as by changing the temperature and curing times during the fabrication process.

  • 76.
    Stig, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Lightweight Structures.
    Hallström, Stefan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Lightweight Structures.
    Constitutive modelling of composite materials with full 3D orientation of reinforcement2010In: Proceedings of the 14th European Conference on Composite Materials (ECCM-14), 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 77.
    Stig, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Lightweight Structures.
    Hallström, Stefan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Lightweight Structures.
    Effects of Crimp and Textile Architecture on  the Tensile Response of Composites with 3D ReinforcementManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 78.
    Stig, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Lightweight Structures.
    Hallström, Stefan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Lightweight Structures.
    Influence of Crimp on 3D-woven Fibre Reinforced Composites2013In: Composite structures, ISSN 0263-8223, E-ISSN 1879-1085, Vol. 95, p. 114-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three analytical models are developed for prediction of the longitudinal Young's modulus of carbon fibre composite materials containing fully interlaced 3D-woven textile reinforcement. Two of the non-linear models utilise rods and springs and are designed to handle an idealised periodic repetitive volume element of the composite material. For validation, an experimental study is performed, and a more detailed model is built using existing textile software (TexGen and WiseTex). All models are employed to explore the effect of three-dimensional yarn crimp on the longitudinal Young's modulus, and they give at hand that the longitudinal stiffness decreases non-linearly with increasing crimp. One of the proposed models agrees particularly well with the experimental results but there are also a few sources of discrepancy, such as shape distortions in the textile architecture.

  • 79.
    Stig, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Lightweight Structures.
    Hallström, Stefan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Lightweight Structures.
    Modelling of Composites containing 3D-woven Reinforcement2011In: Proceedings of the 3rd World Conference on 3D Fabrics and Their Applications, WORLD ACAD UNION-WORLD ACAD PRESS , 2011, p. 142-147Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    3D weaving is an emerging textile technology that is now receiving great interest, particularly from the aerospace industry, for its potential utilisation in structural composites. The challenge and the driver for this work, is to generate numerical models to predict the mechanical behaviour of these composites. Presently, there seem to be no modelling software or framework able to generate such models with a sufficient level of detail, i.e. providing reliable predictions of mechanical properties and overall behaviour. The proposed modelling framework is based on a number of Python scripts that primarily perform three types of operations. They generate information such as yarn orientations, principal architecture and local fibre volume fractions, they locate and organise node pairs used for applying boundary conditions etc., and finally, they transfer information between different (other) software packages. The result of the final modelling stage is an FE model of the composite's representative volume element (RVE). It is created by using only a small number of input parameters, such as the size of the RVE, the number of yarns and their mutual interlacing, and the yarn crimp. The FE-model may then be utilised for various purposes, but is here used to calculate the homogenised elastic mechanical properties. The correlation between the model and the experiments is very good, both in terms of details in the architecture and mechanical properties. There are however some deviations that could be explained by the model being more regular than the real material.

  • 80.
    Stig, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Lightweight Structures.
    Hallström, Stefan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Lightweight Structures.
    Spatial modelling of 3D-woven textiles2012In: Composite structures, ISSN 0263-8223, E-ISSN 1879-1085, Vol. 94, no 5, p. 1495-1502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When analysing for instance permeability and mechanical behaviour of advanced textiles, a representative description of the textiles' architecture is desired. Realistic geometric representations of textiles are however often either difficult to obtain due to limitations in modelling tools, or judged unfeasible to generate due to unreasonable modelling efforts. In this paper a scheme is presented that enables modelling of the internal strand geometry including details of the strand path and smoothly varying cross-section size and shape, on a meso-scale. The main modelling artifice is to initially model the strand perimeters as inflatable tubes in an explicit finite element simulation. The tubes are initially made slender to avoid strand inter-penetration, and then expanded under general contact conditions until the desired volume fraction of strand is reached. For validation a model is compared with pictures from a computer tomography scan of a 3-dimensionally woven carbon fibre preform. The correlation between the simulated geometry and the real sample is striking. The results also indicate that the approach is relatively robust in terms of sensitiveness to variations of input data and starting conditions.

  • 81.
    Van der Kelen, Christophe
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, MWL Structural and vibroacoustics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, MWL Numerical acoustics.
    Vibro-acoustic modelling of anisotropic poroelastic materials: characterisation of the anisotropic properties2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present-day challenges in the transport industry, steered by the increasing environmental awareness, necessitate manufacturers to take measures to reduce emissions related to the movements of goods and humans. In particular, the measures aiming at a reduced mass or higher load capacity to increase fuel efficiency,  generally deteriorate the noise and vibration insulation properties of their products. In order to comply with the regulations and customer demands, modern vehicles increasingly move towards a multifunctional integrated design approach, if possible for all subcomponents involved. Such a multifunctional design approach is an iterative process, evaluating the proposed solutions in every stage, and is therefore best performed in a virtual testing environment. \\Poroelastic materials are interesting to include in a multifunctional design, offering reasonably good vibro-acoustic insulation properties at a low weight penalty. These materials can also be combined in multilayer arrangements to further enhance the overall performance. \\In order to achieve an accurate modelling of the vibro-acoustic behaviour of poroelastic materials, the input data describing the material properties should be of a high quality. Two characteristics inherent to these materials encumber a precise characterisation with traditional techniques. Poro-elastic aggregates are anelastic due to the constituent material used, and anisotropic as a consequence of the production process. Characterisation techniques allowing for an accurate determination of the material properties need to take these intrinsic characteristics into account.\\The objective in this thesis is to enable the characterisation of a constitutive material model for poroelastic materials which is as general as possible, and includes the inherent material anelasticity and anisotropy. For this purpose, a set of advanced characterisation techniques has been developed to characterise the anisotropic flow resistivity tensor and the anisotropic dynamic Hooke's tensor. \\These advanced characterisation techniques are based on an inverse estimation procedure, used consistently throughout the work, and includes both experiments and numerical predictions. The property to characterise is isolated in a specially designed set-up such that it can be modelled by physics solely involving this property. The obtained experimental and numerical data then serve as the input to an optimisation, which returns the material properties for which the difference between both is as small as possible. These methods have been successfully applied to melamine foam, which is found to be both anisotropic and anelastic, confirming the need for such advanced characterisation techniques.

  • 82.
    Van der Kelen, Christophe
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, MWL Structural and vibroacoustics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, MWL Numerical acoustics.
    Cuenca, Jacques
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, MWL Numerical acoustics.
    Göransson, Peter
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, MWL Numerical acoustics.
    A method for characterisation of the static elastic properties of the porous frame of orthotropic open-cell foams2015In: International Journal of Engineering Science, ISSN 0020-7225, E-ISSN 1879-2197, Vol. 86, p. 44-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a method to identify the static, fully relaxed elastic Hooke's matrix of a porous open-cell material. The moduli are estimated through an inverse estimation method, by performing a fit of a numerical model on the measured displacements on the faces of the porous material. These displacements are obtained from a static compression along each of the three coordinate axes. The material is modelled as an orthotropic equivalent solid, of which the principal directions are not necessarily aligned with the orthonormal coordinate system in which the experiments are conducted. The angles of relative orientation accounting for the misalignment are among the properties to be estimated. The focus in this paper is on the methodology itself, and its validity is verified by applying the method to four artificial materials with different levels of anisotropy. In addition, the robustness of the method to perturbations on the input data is investigated.

  • 83.
    Van der Kelen, Christophe
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, MWL Structural and vibroacoustics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, MWL Numerical acoustics.
    Cuenca, Jacques
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, MWL Numerical acoustics.
    Göransson, Peter
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, MWL Numerical acoustics.
    A method for inverse estimation of the static elastic properties of anisotropic poroelastic foams - with application to a melamine foam2013Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a method for the characterisation of the static, fully relaxed elastic properties of poroelastic materials. The approach is based on full field measurements of the 3D displacements in a number of points on the faces of the compressed material sample. These are used as targets in an inverse estimation to fit a model of the material to experimental data. In the current work, the material is modelled as an orthotropic equivalent solid, of which the principal directions are not necessarily aligned with the orthonormal coordinate system in which the experiments are conducted. The angles of relative orientation accounting for the misalignment are among the properties to be estimated. In addition, the proposed model considers the region of reduced stiffness close to material discontinuities, which has been identified in previous investigations. The method presented is verified for an artificial material, and its robustness is studied. A characterised melamine foam is found to have an orthotropic symmetry, and its lowest stiffness in the direction parallel to the rise direction of the material.

  • 84.
    Van der Kelen, Christophe
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, MWL Structural and vibroacoustics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, MWL Numerical acoustics.
    Göransson, Peter
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    Pluymers, Bert
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Heverlee, Belgium.
    Desmet, Wim
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Heverlee, Belgium.
    On the influence of frequency-dependent elastic properties in vibro-acoustic modelling of porous materials under structural excitation2014In: Journal of Sound and Vibration, ISSN 0022-460X, E-ISSN 1095-8568, Vol. 333, no 24, p. 6560-6571Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aspects related to the frequency dependence of the elastic properties of porous materials have been largely neglected in the past for several reasons. For acoustic excitation of porous materials, the material behaviour can be quite well represented by models where the properties of the solid frame have little influence. Only recently has the importance of the dynamic moduli of the frame come into focus. This is related to a growing interest in the material behaviour due to structural excitation. Two aspects stand out in connection with the elastic-dynamic behaviour. The first is related to methods for the characterisation of the dynamic moduli of porous materials. The second is a perceived lack of numerical methods able to model the complex material behaviour under structural excitation, in particular at higher frequencies. In the current paper, experimental data from a panel under structural excitation, coated with a porous material, is used in correlation with numerical predictions, involving a frequency-dependent material model for the stiffness properties of the porous material. The results suggest that the frequency dependence is of importance for a correct prediction of the response of trim installations. The change in material behaviour due to the frequency-dependent properties is illustrated in terms of the propagation of the slow wave and the shear wave in the porous material.

  • 85.
    Vega-Barbas, Mario
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical sensors, signals and systems. Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain.
    Pau, Ivan
    Universidad Politecnica de Madrid.
    Ferreira, Javier
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical sensors, signals and systems. Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain.
    Lebis, Evelyn
    CETEMMSA.
    Seoane, Fernando
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical sensors, signals and systems. University of Borås, Sweden.
    Utilizing Smart Textiles-Enabled Sensorized Toy and Playful Interactions for Assessment of Psychomotor Development on Children2015In: Journal of Sensors, ISSN 1687-725X, E-ISSN 1687-7268, Vol. 2015, article id 898047Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emerging pervasive technologies like smart textiles make it possible to develop new and more accessible healthcare services for patients independently of their location or time. However, none of these new e-health solutions guarantee a complete user acceptance, especially in cases requiring extensive interaction between the user and the solution. So far, researchers have focused their efforts on new interactions techniques to improve the perception of privacy and confidence of the people using e-health services. In this way, the use of smart everyday objects arises as an interesting approach to facilitate the required interaction and increase user acceptance. Such Smart Daily Objects together with smart textiles provide researchers with a novel way to introduce sophisticated sensor technology in the daily life of people. This work presents a sensorized smart toy for assessment of psychomotor development in early childhood. The aim of this work is to design, develop, and evaluate the usability and playfulness of a smart textile-enabled sensorized toy that facilitates the user engagement in a personalized monitoring healthcare activity. To achieve this objective the monitoring is based on a smart textile sensorized toy as catalyzer of acceptance and multimodal sensing sources to monitor psychomotor development activities during playtime.

  • 86.
    Wang, Linqin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Organic chemistry.
    Zhang, Jinbao
    Monash Univ, Dept Mat Sci & Engn, 22 Alliance Lane, Clayton, Vic 3800, Australia..
    Liu, Peng
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Material Physics. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Centre of Molecular Devices, CMD.
    Xu, Bo
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Chem, Angstrom Lab, Box 523, S-75120 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Zhang, Biaobiao
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Organic chemistry.
    Chen, Hong
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Organic chemistry.
    Inge, A. Ken
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Mat & Environm Chem MMK, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Li, Yuanyuan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Wang, Haoxin
    Dalian Univ Technol, Inst Artificial Photosynth, DUT KTH Joint Educ & Res Ctr Mol Devices, State Key Lab Fine Chem, Dalian 116024, Peoples R China..
    Cheng, Yi-Bing
    Monash Univ, Dept Mat Sci & Engn, 22 Alliance Lane, Clayton, Vic 3800, Australia..
    Kloo, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Centre of Molecular Devices, CMD. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Centre of Molecular Devices, CMD. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Organic chemistry. Dalian Univ Technol, Inst Artificial Photosynth, DUT, State Key Lab Fine Chem, Dalian 116024, Peoples R China..
    Design and synthesis of dopant-free organic hole-transport materials for perovskite solar cells2018In: Chemical Communications, ISSN 1359-7345, E-ISSN 1364-548X, Vol. 54, no 69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two novel dopant-free hole-transport materials (HTMs) with spiro[dibenzo[c,h]xanthene-7,9-fluorene] (SDBXF) skeletons were prepared via facile synthesis routes. A power conversion efficiency of 15.9% in perovskite solar cells is attained by using one HTM without dopants, which is much higher than undoped Spiro-OMeTAD-based devices (10.8%). The crystal structures of both new HTMs were systematically investigated to reveal the reasons behind such differences in performance and to indicate the design principles of more advanced HTMs.

  • 87. Wang, Weijia
    et al.
    Proeller, Stephan
    Niedermeier, Martin A.
    Koerstgens, Volker
    Philipp, Martine
    Su, Bo
    Gonzalez, Daniel Mosegui
    Yu, Shun
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Roth, Stephan V.
    Mueller-Buschbaum, Peter
    Development of the Morphology during Functional Stack Build-up of P3HT:PCBM Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells with Inverted Geometry2015In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 602-610Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Highly efficient poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) bulk heterojunction solar cells are achieved by using an inverted geometry. The development of the morphology is investigated as a function of the multilayer stack assembling during the inverted solar cell preparation. Atomic force microscopy is used to reveal the surface morphology of each stack, and the inner structure is probed with grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering. It is found that the smallest domain size of P3HT is introduced by replicating the fluorine-doped tin oxide structure underneath. The structure sizes of the P3HT:PCBM active layer are further optimized after thermal annealing. Compared to devices with standard geometry, the P3HT:PCBM layer in the inverted solar cells shows smaller domain sizes, which are much closer to the exciton diffusion length in the polymer. The decrease in domain sizes is identified as the main reason for the improvement of the device performance.

  • 88.
    Wei, Xin-Feng
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    De Vico, Loris
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Larroche, Pierre
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Kallio, Kai
    Bruder, Stefan
    Bellander, Martin
    Gedde, Ulf W.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Ageing properties and polymer/fuel interactions of polyamide 12 exposed to (bio)diesel at high temperature2019In: npj Materials Degradation, ISSN 2397-2106, no 3, article id 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biodiesel derived from oil crops and animal fats has been developed as a promising carbon-neutral alternative to petroleum fuels in the transport sector, but the compatibility between biodiesel/petroleum diesel and polymer components in the automotive fuel system has not been free from controversy. In this present study, the degradation of polyamide 12 (PA12), one of the most common polymers used in vehicle fuel systems, has been investigated after exposure to petroleum diesel, biodiesel and a mixture of these (20 vol.% of biodiesel/80 vol.% petroleum diesel). Fuel sorption kinetics, glass transition temperature data and mechanical properties all showed that the fuels plasticized the PA12. In addition, monomers and oligomers were extracted from PA12 by the fuels. The long-term exposure led to oxidation and an annealing-induced increase in crystallinity of the polymer. The plasticization, oxidation and annealing effects were combined with the tensile mechanical properties to assess the overall degree of ageing and degradation of the PA12 material. The fuel-polymer interactions and ageing mechanisms, demonstrated here at high temperature for PA12, are 'generic' in the sense that they are also expected to occur, to various degrees, with many other polymers and they indicate that care should be taken when choosing polymers in applications where they will be exposed to fuels at high temperature.

  • 89.
    Wei, Xin-Feng
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Kallio, Kai
    Bruder, Stefan
    Bellander, Martin
    Olsson, Richard
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    High-performance glass-fibre reinforced biobased aromatic polyamide in automotive biofuel supply systemsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 90.
    Wei, Xin-Feng
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Kallio, Kai J.
    Volvo Car Corp, Polymer Ctr, SE-40531 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Bruder, Stefan
    Scania CV AB, Mat Technol, SE-15187 Sodertalje, Sweden..
    Bellander, Martin
    Scania CV AB, Mat Technol, SE-15187 Sodertalje, Sweden..
    Kausch, Hans-Henning
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol Lausanne EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Gedde, Ulf W
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Diffusion-limited oxidation of polyamide: Three stages of fracture behavior2018In: Polymer degradation and stability, ISSN 0141-3910, E-ISSN 1873-2321, Vol. 154, p. 73-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polyamides (PAs) frequently experience diffusion-limited oxidation (DLO) under elevated temperatures due to their combination of relatively high oxygen barrier properties and high susceptibility to, and rate of, oxidation; under DLO conditions, oxidation is uneven and limited to a thin surface layer. In this study, the reduced extensibility/embrittlement of unstabilized PA6 under DLO conditions was understood by revealing DLO-induced fracture behavior. The DLO was induced by thermally ageing PA6 samples at 180 degrees C; the built-up of the thin oxidized layer by ageing was revealed by infrared microscopy. Notably, the formation of the thin oxidized layer significantly reduced the strain-at-break. Depending on whether the oxidized layer was brittle, two types of surface behavior (voiding and cracking) occurred during the tensile tests, which in turn lead to three types (stages) of tensile fracture behavior. In particular, in the early stage (Stage I) of ageing, the fracture was caused by a long crack formed by the coalescence of adjacent surface voids, leading to a decrease in the strain-at-break from 300% to 30%. In Stage II, multiple surface cracks, which initiated in the oxidized layer, was arrested by the interface between the oxidized and unoxidized material, leading to an almost constant strain-at-break (at or close to the necking strain). Maximum brittleness occurred in Stage III, where a more extensive oxidation of the oxidized layer initiated cracks with high propagation rate, causing the interface to be unable to arrest the cracks. 

  • 91.
    Wei, Xin-Feng
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Linde, Erik
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Plasticiser loss from plastic or rubber products through diffusion and evaporation2019In: npj Materials Degradation, E-ISSN 2397-2106, article id 18Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 92.
    Yang, Mingzhao
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH).
    Attempts to improve the performance properties of gluten polymer2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents ways to improve performance properties of wheat gluten (WG) polymers. One was to improve the water/moisture resistance. The method was to protect flexible WG films against water or moisture by coating it with polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film and a diamine (Jeffamine®) was used as a coupling agent to manufacture PET-coated films. The strength of bonding between the gluten polymer and PET was strong for the samples using 15 wt % and 20 wt% diamin, but weak for that with 5 wt% diamin. Moreover, Infrared spectroscopy indicated that the Jeffamine® and glycerol had penetrated the PET layer over time.

  • 93.
    Yoder, Mikayla A.
    et al.
    Univ Illinois, Sch Chem Sci, Urbana, IL 61801 USA.;Univ Illinois, Frederick Seitz Mat Res Lab, Urbana, IL 61801 USA.;Univ Illinois, Dept Mat Sci & Engn, Urbana, IL 61801 USA..
    Yan, Zheng
    Univ Missouri, Dept Chem Engn, Columbia, MO 65211 USA.;Univ Missouri, Dept Mech & Aerosp Engn, Columbia, MO 65211 USA..
    Han, Mengdi
    Northwestern Univ, Ctr Biointegrated Elect, Evanston, IL 60208 USA..
    Rogers, John A.
    Univ Illinois, Frederick Seitz Mat Res Lab, Urbana, IL 61801 USA.;Univ Illinois, Dept Mat Sci & Engn, Urbana, IL 61801 USA.;Northwestern Univ, Ctr Biointegrated Elect, Evanston, IL 60208 USA..
    Nuzzo, Ralph G.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Semiconductor Nanomembrane Materials for High-Performance Soft Electronic Devices2018In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 140, no 29, p. 9001-9019Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of methods to synthesize and physically manipulate extremely thin, single-crystalline inorganic semiconductor materials, so-called nano membranes, has led to an almost explosive growth of research worldwide into uniquely enabled opportunities for their use in new "soft" and other unconventional form factors for high-performance electronics. The unique properties that nanomembranes afford, such as their flexibility and lightweight characteristics, allow them to be integrated into electronic and optoelectronic devices that, in turn, adopt these unique attributes. For example, nanomembrane devices are able to make conformal contact to curvilinear surfaces and manipulate strain to induce the self-assembly of various 3D nano/micro device architectures. Further, thin semiconductor materials (e.g., Si-nanomembranes, transition metal dichalcogenides, and phosphorene) are subject to the impacts of quantum and other size-dependent effects that in turn enable the manipulation of their bandgaps and the properties of electronic and optoelectronic devices fabricated from them. In this Perspective, nanomembrane synthesis techniques and exemplary applications of their use are examined. We specifically describe nanomembrane chemistry exploiting high-performance materials, along with precise/high-throughput techniques for their manipulation that exemplify their growing capacities to shape outcomes in technology. Prominent challenges in the chemistry of these materials are presented along with future directions that might guide the development of next generation nanomembrane-based devices.

  • 94.
    Zeglio, Erica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Rutz, Alexandra L.
    Winkler, Thomas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Malliaras, George G
    Herland, Anna
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Conjugated Polymers for Assessing and Controlling Biological Functions2019In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 31, no 22, article id 1806712Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The field of organic bioelectronics is advancing rapidly in the development of materials and devices to precisely monitor and control biological signals. Electronics and biology can interact on multiple levels: organs, complex tissues, cells, cell membranes, proteins, and even small molecules. Compared to traditional electronic materials such as metals and inorganic semiconductors, conjugated polymers (CPs) have several key advantages for biological interactions: tunable physiochemical properties, adjustable form factors, and mixed conductivity (ionic and electronic). Herein, the use of CPs in five biologically oriented research topics, electrophysiology, tissue engineering, drug release, biosensing, and molecular bioelectronics, is discussed. In electrophysiology, implantable devices with CP coating or CP-only electrodes are showing improvements in signal performance and tissue interfaces. CP-based scaffolds supply highly favorable static or even dynamic interfaces for tissue engineering. CPs also enable delivery of drugs through a variety of mechanisms and form factors. For biosensing, CPs offer new possibilities to incorporate biological sensing elements in a conducting matrix. Molecular bioelectronics is today used to incorporate (opto)electronic functions in living tissue. Under each topic, the limits of the utility of CPs are discussed and, overall, the major challenges toward implementation of CPs and their devices to real-world applications are highlighted.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-03-13 11:58
  • 95.
    Zhang, L
    et al.
    Wuhan University, China .
    Zhou, Qi
    Wuhan University, China .
    Effects of molecular weight of nitrocellulose on structure and properties of polyurethane nitrocellulose IPNs1999In: Journal of Polymer Science Part B-Polymer Physics, Vol. 37, no 14, p. 1623-1631Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) coatings were prepared by using castor oil-based polyurethane (PU) and nitrocellulose (NC) with various viscosity-average molecular weights (Mη) from 6 × 104 to 42 × 104, and coated on a regenerated cellulose (RC) film to obtain water-resistant film. The PU/NC coatings and coated films, which were cured at 80°C for 5 min and 2 min, respectively, were investigated by infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, swelling test, strength test, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results show that the crosslink densities of the PU/NC semi-IPNs were smaller than that of pure PU, and decreased with the decrease of Mη of nitrocellulose (NC Mη), indicating NC molecules cohered intimately with PU, and hindered the PU network formation. The physical and mechanical properties of the films coated with PU/NC coatings were significantly improved. With the increase of NC Mη, the strength and thermal stability of the coated films increased, but the pliability, water resistivity, and optical transmission decreased slowly. The PU/NC coating with low NC Mη more readily penetrated into the RC film, and reacted with cellulose, resulting in a strong interfacial bonding and dense surface caused by intimate blend of PU/NC in the coated films.

  • 96. Zhang, L
    et al.
    Zhou, Qi
    Wuhan University, China.
    Water-resistant film from polyurethane/nitrocellulose coating to regenerated cellulose1997In: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, Vol. 36, no 7, p. 2651-2656Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Water-resistant films were obtained from polyurethane (PU)/nitrocellulose coating to regenerated cellulose films, which were prepared by coagulating cellulose cuoxam solution. The PU/nitrocellulose coating layer was cured at 80 degrees C for 2 min and formed semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (semi-IPNs) structure. The tensile strength (sigma(b)), water resistivity (R), water vapor permeability (P), and light transmittance of the coated films changed with nitrocellulose content in the coating, and the best values (such as sigma(b), 679 kg.cm(-2); R, 53%; P, 0.004 g.cm(-2).day(-1)) were attained at 33 wt % nitrocellulose. The TEM, EPMA, DTA, IRI and UV results-showed that the coated films have strong interfacial bonding, which is caused by covalent and hydrogen bonds between the cellulose film and the semi-IPNs coating. The biodegradation half-life t(1/2) of the coated films in soil at 20-30 degrees C was given to be 58 days, and after about 6 months the coated films were almost completely decomposed by microorganisms. SEM and the kinetics of decay studied on the biodegradability were discussed. The water-resistant films coated with PU/nitrocellulose have promising application where biodegradation is important.

  • 97. Zhang, Peng
    et al.
    Huang, Haiying
    Chen, Yu
    Yu, Shun
    Krywka, Christina
    Vayalil, Sarathlal K.
    Roth, Stephan V.
    He, Tianbai
    Preparation of long-range ordered nanostructures in semicrystalline diblock copolymer thin films using micromolding2014In: Chinese Journal of Polymer Science, ISSN 0256-7679, E-ISSN 1439-6203, Vol. 32, no 9, p. 1188-1198Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 98.
    Zheng, Jukuan
    et al.
    University of Akron, United States .
    Hua, Geng
    University of Akron, United States .
    Yu, Jiayi
    University of Akron, United States .
    Lin, Fei
    University of Akron, United States .
    Wade, Mary Beth
    University of Akron, United States .
    Reneker, Darrell H.
    University of Akron, United States .
    Becker, Matthew L.
    University of Akron, United States .
    Post-Electrospinning “Triclick” Functionalization of Degradable Polymer Nanofibers2015In: ACS Macro Letters, E-ISSN 2161-1653, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 207-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    4-Dibenzocyclooctynol (DIBO) was used as an initiator for the ring-opening copolymerization of ε-caprolactone and 1,4,8-trioxaspiro[4.6]-9-undecanone (TOSUO) resulting in a series of DIBO end-functionalized copolymers. Following deprotection of the ketone group, the polymers were derivatized with aminooxyl-containing compounds by oxime ligation. Mixtures of keto- and alkyne-derivatized polymers were co-electrospun into well-defined nanofibers containing three separate chemical handles. Strain-promoted azide alkyne cycloaddition (SPAAC), oxime ligation, and copper-catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) were used to sequentially functionalize the nanofibers first with fluorescent reporters and then separately with bioactive Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (GRGDS), BMP-2 peptide, and dopamine. This translationally relevant approach facilitates the straightforward derivatization of diverse bioactive molecules that can be controllably tethered to the surface of nanofibers.

  • 99.
    Zheng, Jukuan
    et al.
    University of Akron, United States .
    Kontoveros, Dimitria
    University of Akron, United States .
    Lin, Fei
    University of Akron, United States .
    Hua, Geng
    University of Akron, United States .
    Reneker, Darrell H.
    University of Akron, United States .
    Becker, Matthew L.
    University of Akron, United States .
    Willits, Rebecca K.
    University of Akron, United States .
    Enhanced Schwann Cell Attachment and Alignment Using One-Pot “Dual Click” GRGDS and YIGSR Derivatized Nanofibers2015In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 357-363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using metal-free click chemistry and oxime condensation methodologies, GRGDS and YIGSR peptides were coupled to random and aligned degradable nanofiber networks postelectrospinning in a one-pot reaction. The bound peptides are bioactive, as demonstrated by Schwann cell attachment and proliferation, and the inclusion of YIGSR with GRGDS alters the expression of the receptor for YIGSR. Additionally, aligned nanofibers act as a potential guidance cue by increasing the aspect ratio and aligning the actin filaments, which suggest that peptide-functionalized scaffolds would be useful to direct SCs for peripheral nerve regeneration.

  • 100.
    Zheng, Jukuan
    et al.
    University of Akron, United States .
    Xie, Sibai
    University of Akron, United States .
    Lin, Fei
    University of Akron, United States .
    Hua, Geng
    University of Akron, United States .
    Yu, Tianyi
    University of Akron, United States .
    Reneker, Darrell H.
    University of Akron, United States .
    Becker, Matthew L.
    University of Akron, United States .
    4-Dibenzocyclooctynol (DIBO) as an initiator for poly([varepsilon]-caprolactone): copper-free clickable polymer and nanofiber-based scaffolds2013In: Polymer Chemistry, ISSN 1759-9954, E-ISSN 1759-9962, Vol. 4, no 7, p. 2215-2218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Utilization of 4-dibenzocyclooctynol (DIBO) as an initiator for the ring-opening polymerization of [varepsilon]-caprolactone yields well-defined, high molecular weight poly([varepsilon]-caprolactone) end functionalized with DIBO (DIBO-PCL). Nanofibers bearing reactive DIBO groups were generated via electrospinning and functionalized post-fabrication with azide-tethered molecules.

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