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  • 51.
    Avango, Dag
    et al.
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Hacquebord, Louwrens
    Arctic Centre, University of Groningen, The Netherlands.
    The history and heritage of natural resource exploitation in the Arctic and Antarctic: the LASHIPA project2008In: Patrimoine de l'industrie, ISSN 1296-7750, Vol. 19, p. 7-16Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 52.
    Avango, Dag
    et al.
    Arctic Centre, University of Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Hacquebord, Louwrens
    Arctic Centre, University of Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Aalders, Ypie
    Arctic Centre, University of Groningen, The Netherlands.
    de Haas, Hidde
    Gustafsson, Ulf
    Kruse, Frigga
    Between markets and geo-politics: natural resource exploitation on Spitsbergen from 1600 to the present day2010In: Polar Record, ISSN 0032-2474, E-ISSN 1475-3057, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 29-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What are the driving forces behind large scale natural resource exploitation in the Polar Regions and how should we understand the relations between these forces? New historical-archaeological research performed during the International Polar Year (IPY) 2007–2009 on whaling, hunting and mining in Spitsbergen (1600–present) show both economic and geopolitical factors driving the development of those industries, both the whaling industries in the 17th

    century and 1900’s, and the mining industry of the early 20th century. However, the relation between these driving forces has differed, both between time periods and between actors. In most cases economic motives provided the main rationale for utilising resources and for government support for resource exploiters, but in some instances governments would support even unprofitable ventures in order to maintain a foothold on Spitsbergen.

  • 53.
    Avango, Dag
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Hacquebord, Louwrens
    Martin, Patrick E.
    THE LASHIPA PROJECT: Industry, Geopolitics and Environment in the Polar Areas Through the Lens of Industrial Heritage2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 54.
    Avango, Dag
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Houltz, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Arbetets hjältar?: Skildringar av liv och arbete i Arktis under tidigt 1900-tal2008In: Arbete pågår: i tankens mönster och kroppens miljöer / [ed] Anders Houltz, Brita Lundström, Lars Magnusson, Mats Morell, Marie Nisser och Eva Silven, Uppsala: Uppsala Universitet , 2008, p. 37-88Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 55.
    Avango, Dag
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Houltz, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Industriarvet Idag2013In: Bebyggelsehistorisk tidskrift, ISSN 0349-2834, p. 5-9Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction to thematic issue of Bebyggelsehistorisk tidskrift, identifying trends.

  • 56.
    Avango, Dag
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Houltz, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    "The essence of the adventure": Narratives of Arctic work and engineering in the early 20th century2012In: LASHIPA: History of Large Scale Resource Exploitation in Polar Areas / [ed] Louwrens Hacquebord, Groningen: Barkhuis Publishing , 2012, p. 87-104Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 57.
    Avango, Dag
    et al.
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Högselius, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Under the Ice: Exploring the Arctic’s Energy Resources, 1898-19852013In: Media and the Politics of Arctic Climate Change: When the Ice Breaks / [ed] Miyase Christensen, Annika E. Nilsson and Nina Wormbs, Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013, p. 128-155Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 58.
    Avango, Dag
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Högselius, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Nilsson, David
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Foreign Policy and Natural Resources: Swedish Neutrality from an Environmental History Perspective2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The year 2014 marks the 200th anniversary of the last time that Sweden was technically at war. Since then, Sweden has built an international image of itself as a peace-loving and morally advanced country. This is in sharp contrast with earlier Swedish history, in which Swedish Vikings and famous warrior kings like Gustavus Adolphus and Charles XII caused havoc across much of the European continent. In Swedish history-writing as well as in the country's dominant social and political self-understanding, the 200 years of peace are typically attributed to a policy of neutrality, or non-alignment. The non-alignment policy has also been coupled - both in theoretical terms and in practical effect - with an expansive development aid policy towards former colonies and other developing countries in the South. The image of a benevolent and disinterested neutral country was further strengthened by high-profile international pro-activism, for example, through the United Nations and institutions like the Nobel Prize. However, after the fall of the Iron Curtain, a vivid debate among Swedish historians has led to reinterpretations Swedish neutrality during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This paper contributes to this debate by applying an environmental history lens to the analysis of political neutrality. Our hypothesis is that Sweden's non-alignment has been intimately linked to the country's role in the global natural resource system. Starting from the observation that Swedish non-alignment policy became firmly established precisely at the time of Sweden's resource-dependent industrial breakthrough in the late nineteenth century, we use primary and secondary sources to explore the intimate connections between two sets of actors: foreign policy actors and the rapidly expanding community of industrial actors. The latter sought to influence foreign policymaking both in the context of the need for secure access to natural resources not available domestically - of crucial importance for the country's growing production and export of steel, agricultural produce, and increasingly sophisticated technological artefacts - and in the context of investment in extractive industries abroad, particularly in colonial regions. At the same time, however, Swedish industrialists, engineers, and scientists active abroad were also eyed by the government as political tools.

  • 59.
    Avango, Dag
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Högselius, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Nilsson, David
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Sweden and the Origins of Global Resource Colonialism: Exploring a Neutral Country's Natural Resource Interests in Africa, Caucasia and the Arctic2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The quest for the world's remaining natural resources has intensified markedly in recent years. A salient and controversial point of debate in this context has become the extent to and ways in which old colonial relations are argued to live on in a new global “resource colonialism”. Although Sweden is rarely thought of as a colonial power, Swedish actors are currently very active when it comes to resource exploitation in many parts of the world. As a small, neutral country with an excellent international reputation and virtually without enemies, we argue that Sweden has been able to mobilize the international resource system to its benefit much more effectively than many other European countries. This paper takes an historical perspective on the present by exploring the origins of Swedish interests and activities in the colonial resource arena from around 1880 to 1945. More precisely, we analyze and compare Swedish natural resource interests in three colonial arenas: Africa, Caucasia and the Arctic. In the case of Africa, we explore Sweden's virtually unknown - but highly active - participation at the Berlin conference in 1884-85. In the Caucasus case, we reinterpret the Nobel brothers crucial role in creating Baku's oil industry as a salient example of Swedish involvement in Russian resource colonialism. In the Arctic, we explore the connections between state and private interests in coal mining in Spitsbergen. An essential research issue concerns the extent to which it is possible to discern a common Swedish 'style' with regard to the country's interests and activities in colonial areas.

  • 60.
    Avango, Dag
    et al.
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Högselius, Per
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Nilsson, David
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Swedish Explorers, In-Situ Knowledge, and Resource-Based Business in the Age of Empire2017In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The period from 1870 to 1914 plays a unique role in the history of natural resource exploration and extraction. This article analyses, from a Swedish viewpoint, the connections between two actor categories of special importance in this context: scientific-geographical explorers and industrial actors. The article examines their activities in three broadly defined regions: the Arctic, Russia, and Africa. We show that the Swedes generally had far-reaching ambitions, on par with those of the large imperial powers. In some cases, notably in Africa, Sweden was not able to compete with the larger imperial powers; but in other cases, such as the exploration of the Arctic – from Spitsbergen to Siberia – and the industrial exploitation of coal at Spitsbergen and petroleum in Russia’s colonial periphery, Swedish actors played a leading role, in competition with players from the larger European nations. Our paper shows that scientific exploration and industry were closely linked, and that foreign policy also influenced the shaping of these links. We distinguish different types of knowledge produced by the Swedish actors, pointing to local, situated knowledge as the most important type for many resource-based businesses, although modern, scientific knowledge was on the increase during this period.

  • 61.
    Avango, Dag
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Kaijser, Arne
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Vetenskaplig forskning - teknisk förändring - industriell förnyelse: slutrapportering av ett forskningsprojekt finansierat av Riksbankens jubileumsfond 1998-20072008Book (Other academic)
  • 62.
    Avango, Dag
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Lagerås, Per
    Riksantikvarieämbetet.
    Inledning2012In: Bebyggelsehistorisk tidskrift, ISSN 0349-2834, no 63Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 63.
    Avango, Dag
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Marie, NisserKTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Stålindustri och tung utrustning - vad kan vi bevara?: rapport från ett seminarium vid Karmansbo bruk, den 27-28 maj 20022006Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 64.
    Avango, Dag
    et al.
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Roberts, Peder
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Industrial Heritage and Arctic Mining Sites: Material Remains as Resources for the Present – and the Future2017In: Heritage and Change in the Arctic: Resources for the Present, and the Future / [ed] Robert C Thomsen and Lill Rastad Bjørst, Aalborg: Aalborg Universitetsforlag, 2017, p. 127-158Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 65.
    Avango, Dag
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Roberts, Peder
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Why history and industrial heritage matter for Arctic communities2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 66.
    Avango, Dag
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Robin, Libby
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Placing the Anthropocene2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 67.
    Avango, Dag
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Solnes, Sander
    Registrering av kulturminner i Pyramiden: Registrering utfört på oppdrag fra Sysselmannen på Svalbard2013Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta är en rapport från ett uppdrag vars syfte var att 1) registrere fredete kulturminner och 2) finna och kartfeste faste kulturminner fra før 1946 samt beskrive dem slik de er i dag og prøve å tolke tidligere funksjon. I uppdraget ingick att se närmmere på de teknisk industrielle kulturminnene som ligger i dagen, samt vurdere verdien av tidligere (men ikke fredete) industrielle kulturminner. Uppdraget ble utført av Dag Avango og Sander Solnes i Pyramiden i perioden 21.08-28.08. Rapporten innehåller resultaten av Avangos och Solnes inventering.

  • 68.
    Bauer, Petra
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Sisters!: Förhållandet mellan politisk handling och estetiska strategier i samtida film2013Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 69. Bergström, Roger
    et al.
    Sörlin, Sverker
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Danell, Kjell
    von Essen, Hans
    Mörner, Torsten
    Utbildning och forskning2016In: Jaktens historia i Sverige: Vilt – människa – samhälle – kultur, Stockholm: Liber Hermods , 2016, p. 291-300Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 70.
    Berkevall, Mona
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Partnerskap och processer vid genomförande av kulturprojekt: Fallstudie projekt Litteraturhus Nynäshamn2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta arbete redovisas en fallstudie från Nynäshamns kommun. En process för Sveriges första litteraturhus med anknytning till orten, genom författare som har levt och verkat i kommunen. Kommunen arbetar för att närma sig Stockholms läns bostads- och arbetsmarknadsregion genom förbättrad infrastruktur. I sin målsättning att attrahera intressegrupper har olika områden identifierats som viktiga. Ett av dessa områden är kultur.

     

    Processen startade med ett initiativ från en invånare och utvecklades till ett samarbete mellan en ideell förening och kommunen, men projektet mötte motstånd. Kommunen har under processens gång beslutat att bygga om och hyra ut en av kommunens fastigheter till den ideella föreningen. Innan ombyggnad kan starta behöver vänföreningen visa att de har den ekonomiska styrkan att driva verksamheten. Med tiden kommer en förfrågan till kommunen från vänföreningen om ett djupare samarbete tillsammans med dem och några ytterligare aktörer för ett litteraturhus. Processen hamnar i en låst situation i väntan på att kommunen ska ta ställning för eller emot ett partnerskap och att detaljplanen ska bli klar för området.

     

    Det insamlade materialet om fallstudien är från åren 2006-2009. I studien framkommer de olika parternas drivkrafter och möjligheter, men även stora problem i processarbetet. För att kunna förbättra framtida processer förs viktig erfarenhet fram i analys och diskussion av intervjuer, dokument och observationer från fallstudien tillsammans med utförd litteraturstudie.

  • 71.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), History of Science and Technology.
    Larsen, Katarina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), History of Science and Technology.
    Sörlin, Sverker
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), History of Science and Technology.
    Public-private innovation: Mediating roles and ICT niches of industrial research institutes2010In: INNOV-MANAG POLICY PRACT, ISSN 1447-9338, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 206-216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation processes involve diverse sets of organizations including universities, private firms, corporate research labs and public research institutes. Collaborative forms of knowledge production and innovative activity enable actors to reduce risk, specialize, and take advantage of knowledge internal and external to the own organization. This paper discusses interactions and collaborations between public and private sector innovation. This is done through an analysis of semi-public research institutes in Sweden and their roles as arenas for R&D processes involving industry, university and government in terms of funding, research and public-private innovation. Particular attention is paid to technological niches of research institutes and utilization of research findings from collaborative R&D. The results show that institutes occupy specific niches which influence their ways of transferring knowledge. It is argued that diversity among R&D performers as well as funding opportunities is paramount for innovation systems to thrive.

  • 72.
    Blomkvist, Pär
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Emanuel, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Från nyttofordon till frihetsmaskin: Teknisk och institutionell samevolution kring mopeden i Sverige 1952–752009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Blomkvist, Pär & Martin Emanuel, From Utility to Freedom: The Co-evolution of Technology and Institutions in the History of the Swedish Moped 1952–75, Division of Industrial Dynamics, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Stockholm 2009)

    The first of July 1952, the moped was legislatively excluded from existing restrictions for heavier two-wheeled motorized vehicles. A driver/owner of a “bicycle with auxiliary engine” – this was the original denomination of the vehicle – thus needed no registration, driver’s license or insurance, nor pay any vehicle tax. The legislators did, however, postulate some technical requirements. Besides regulation of the engine, the vehicle should be “bicycle-like” and have pedals. It should thus be driven primarily by means of human, not mechanical, power (i.e., it was not supposed to be a lighter version of a motorcycle). In terms of social and economical goals, the state assumed workers to be the primary users, and a utilitarian use rather than one connected to pleasure and spare time.

    Very quickly, however, the moped lost all resemblance with the ordinary bicycle (except for the pedals). In a new legislation in 1961, the state yielded to the technical development. The moped no longer needed to resemble a bicycle or have pedals. Meanwhile, the moped also became more of a toy for boys – a vehicle for freedom – rather than the useful tool the state had wished for. In fact, we argue that the demands from user groups not foreseen played a crucial role in changing the legal technical requirements of the moped.

    This report treats the co-evolution, technically and institutionally, of the moped during the period 1952–75. Using a method inspired by evolutionary theory, the moped models released in Sweden in these years are grouped in “families” with distinctive technical features and accompanying presumed uses. For understanding how demands of different user groups can alter the “dominant design” of a technology (Abernathy & Utterback, 1978), the concept pair of technical and functional demand specifications are developed. While dominant design may capture conservative features in technological development, our concepts seem to better capture the dynamics in technical and institutional change – the co-evolution of technology and institutions.

     

  • 73.
    Blomkvist, Pär
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Nilsson, David
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History.
    On the Need for System Alignment in Large Water Infrastructure: Understanding Infrastructure Dynamics in Nairobi, Kenya2017In: Water Alternatives, ISSN 1965-0175, E-ISSN 1965-0175, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 283-302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we contribute to the discussion of infrastructural change in Africa, and explore how a new theoretical perspective may offer a different, more comprehensive and historically informed understanding of the trend towards large water infrastructure in Africa. We examine the socio-technical dynamics of large water infrastructures in Nairobi, Kenya, in a longer historical perspective using two concepts that we call intra-systemic alignment and inter-level alignment. Our theoretical perspective is inspired by Large Technical Systems (LTS) and Multi-Level Perspective (MLP). While inter-level alignment focuses on the process of aligning the technological system at the three levels of niche, regime and landscape, intra-systemic alignment deals with how components within the regime are harmonised and standardised to fit with each other. We pay special attention to intrasystemic alignment between the supply side and the demand side, or as we put it, upstream and downstream components of a system. In narrating the history of water supply in Nairobi, we look at both the upstream (largescale supply) and downstream activities (distribution and payment), and compare the Nairobi case with European history of large infrastructures. We emphasise that regime actors in Nairobi have dealt with the issues of alignment mainly to facilitate and expand upstream activities, while concerning downstream activities they have remained incapable of expanding service and thus integrating the large segment of low-income consumers. We conclude that the present surge of large-scale water investment in Nairobi is the result of sector reforms that enabled the return to a long tradition – a 'Nairobi style' – of upstream investment mainly benefitting the highincome earners. Our proposition is that much more attention needs to be directed at inter-level alignment at the downstream end of the system, to allow the creation of niches aligned to the regime.

  • 74.
    Blomkvist, Pär
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Sustainability and Industrial Dynamics.
    Nilsson, David
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History.
    On the Need for System Alignment in Large Water Infrastructure: Understanding Infrastructure Dynamics in Nairobi, Kenya2017In: Water Alternatives, ISSN 1965-0175, E-ISSN 1965-0175, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 283-302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we contribute to the discussion of infrastructural change in Africa, and explore how a new theoretical perspective may offer a different, more comprehensive and historically informed understanding of the trend towards large water infrastructure in Africa. We examine the socio-technical dynamics of large water infrastructures in Nairobi, Kenya, in a longer historical perspective using two concepts that we call intra-systemic alignment and inter-level alignment. Our theoretical perspective is inspired by Large Technical Systems (LTS) and Multi-Level Perspective (MLP). While inter-level alignment focuses on the process of aligning the technological system at the three levels of niche, regime and landscape, intra-systemic alignment deals with how components within the regime are harmonised and standardised to fit with each other. We pay special attention to intra-systemic alignment between the supply side and the demand side, or as we put it, upstream and downstream components of a system. In narrating the history of water supply in Nairobi, we look at both the upstream (large-scale supply) and downstream activities (distribution and payment), and compare the Nairobi case with European history of large infrastructures. We emphasise that regime actors in Nairobi have dealt with the issues of alignment mainly to facilitate and expand upstream activities, while concerning downstream activities they have remained incapable of expanding service and thus integrating the large segment of low-income consumers. We conclude that the present surge of large-scale water investment in Nairobi is the result of sector reforms that enabled the return to a long tradition – a 'Nairobi style' – of upstream investment mainly benefitting the high-income earners. Our proposition is that much more attention needs to be directed at inter-level alignment at the downstream end of the system, to allow the creation of niches aligned to the regime.

  • 75. Bonan, Giacomo
    et al.
    Armiero, Marco
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    The historian, the activist, the ecocritic, and the writer: an undisciplined debate on the Italian environmental history2016In: AREAS-REVISTA INTERNACIONAL DE CIENCIAS SOCIALES, ISSN 0211-6707, no 35, p. 37-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is difficult to define what belongs exclusi-vely to Environmental History (EH), and even more what belongs to Italian Environmental History (IEH). This discipline often includes research concerned with different chronological periods, issues, approaches, and methods. This plurality of perspectives reflects the varied and often contrasting labels attached to those studies. This plurality of paths and experiences should not be considered a problem, but an opportunity to overcome the limitations of the current hyperspecialized structuring of research. For this reason, we have chosen to refer to the multidisciplinary area of the environmental humanities as the common ground. On the other hand, we have chosen a new way to present IEH to an international public: the interview and, especially in the last part, the multidisciplinary and hybrid dialogue.

  • 76.
    Bruno, Karl
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Dynamics of knowledge production in the Swedish Institute for Surface Chemistry, 1975-20052011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish industrial research institutes are research organisations that exist somewhat in between academy and industry, fulfilling an intermediary role as well as providing a space for research relevant to industrial companies, and they have a history of being funded by both state and industry as a way to support technical research in Sweden. The present study examines the history one of these institutes – the Institute for Surface Chemistry – with respect to three dimensions of its knowledge production: the role that basic and applied research has played for the institute, its external connections and the heterogeneity of its knowledge production, and how it has evaluated the quality of its research. The time period considered is 1975-2005, a challenging time for the Swedish institute sector, and the analysis is based on an interpretation of annual reports, research programs and newsletters from the period, as well as on interviews with institute managers and researchers.This work contributes to a wider research field in two respects. First, it provides input to the ongoing debate about how a changing research system is linked to changes in knowledge production. Second, it increases our knowledge of the Swedish industrial research institute sector, something interesting in its own right but that also can provide input to the ongoing policy reorientation vis-à-vis these institutes. The main novelty of the work is that it engagessystematically and historically with changes in knowledge production within an industrial research institute, something not done in previous studies of the sector.

    To briefly summarise the results, applied research gradually becomes more important than basic research at the institute, but basic research still keeps playing a rather large role for some time, even as this roleis downplayed in the official publications. At the same time, the institute becomes more heterogeneous in its knowledge production, associates closer with its industrial partners, and loses some of its independent knowledge production in favour of a more classic intermediary role. During the study period, the institute mainly ascertains the quality of its work through the use of traditional academic standards, and it retains a strong publication culture throughout.Three main conclusions are drawn: that the institute generally has oriented itself more towards its industrial partners; that this is the result of adapting to a situation in which the traditional state funding and political support appear ever more insecure; and that in spite of this general dynamic of adaption, the institute, thanks to a unique knowledge base or strong and well-connected actors, has sometimes been able to defend its preferred modes of knowledge production instead of adapting,something which also has had a notable impact on its development.

  • 77.
    Bruzelius, Nils
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    "near friendly or neutral shores": the deployment of the fleet ballistic missile submarines and US policy towrads Scandinavia, 1957-19632007Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The Polaris submarine, USS George Washington, went on her first deterrent patrol in November 1960. By that, the US Navy had acquired the capability to deliver a retaliatory attack upon Moscow and other cities in the Soviet Union by means of submarine launched ballistic missiles.

    The basic idea of this dissertation, namely the main thesis, is that there is a connection between the US attention to the defence of Scandinavia and operational needs of the Polaris submarines. A unilateral security guarantee given to Sweden and the Norwegian ship construction programme are two distinct examples of this US attention.

    The Polaris A-1 missile had many technical limitations or “reverse salients” that were corrected in later versions of the missile. Before the engineers could correct the reverse salients, the submarine commanders had to use “tactical adaptations” to make the system work. The first and most obvious of these adaptations was to navigate the submarine to an area from where it was possible to reach the target. The range of the Polaris A-1 missile was 1109 nautical miles. The most suitable launching area from where Moscow, the prime target, and also the five largest cities in the Soviet Union, were within reach was Skagerrak outside the west coast of Sweden.

    The relatively low yield of the warhead, 400 kilotons, necessitated accurate navigation of the submarine. Even such a small miscalculation as one nautical mile in launching position would reduce the effect of an attack significantly. Likewise, all movements of the submarine would increase the divergence of the warheads at the target and because of that reduce system efficiency. Preparing the missile for launch was an elaborate process that took many hours. To keep the submarine hovering at a fixed launching position during long time was difficult. One tactical adaptation that nullified all these problems was to put the submarine at rest on the seabed. Inside Swedish territorial waters, several suitable resting areas could be found.

    The short range of the Polaris missile made its theatre of operations predictable and relatively small. If the Russians were prepared to invest in an airborne patrol, which could engage in hunter-killer missions in conjunction with a Soviet first strike, it might be possible to locate and destroy the submarine after only one of two missiles had, been launched. Such a prospect would reduce the efficacy of Polaris as a deterrent and action to preserve its invulnerability was needed.

    The security guarantee for Sweden was discussed at the National Security Council meeting on April 1, 1960. No motive was given as to why the US should grant Sweden such a guarantee. The Secretary of State, Christian Herter, objected strongly to the suggested guarantee. Later, after he had been informed about the need to protect the Polaris’ safe haven in Skagerrak, Herter concurred to grant Sweden a security guarantee. The existence of a guarantee was unknown to Sweden but it conferred great benefits on the country. The co-operation between Sweden and the US increased.

    In 1960, the Norwegian Parliament decided that a new fleet should be built. The new navy was a US initiative and the US paid half the cost of building fifty new ships. The new fleet was an Anti-Submarine Warfare fleet with a high order of readiness. It was well-suited to protect the Northern entrance to Skagerrak. In the Military Assistance Programme, no authorization existed for any US authority to enter into a costly deal with Norway. NATO Headquarters in Europe had other and lower ambitions for the Norwegian fleet. The dissertation demonstrates one way the US Navy could get the necessary authorization and cover the expenditure for the new fleet.

    The military bureaucracy in Sweden was aware of the Polaris development but paid little attention to it. The intelligence focus was on the Warsaw Pact in the East. The Swedish defence attaché office in Washington never received any questions from Stockholm concerning Polaris submarines and made no inquiries on its own. The only Swedish person that asked questions about Polaris, to my knowledge, was the King and he did so during a luncheon with Admiral Burke. When told detailed information about the deployment of the Polaris submarines on the west coast of Sweden by the spy Stig Wennerström during de-briefing, the military did not believe him. Even the larger question, that the Polaris deployment made Sweden and the Swedish Air Force a target for Soviet counterattacks, was overlooked by Swedish intelligence.

  • 78.
    Brynielsson, Joel
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Message from the EISIC 2017 program chair2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 79.
    Cano-Viktorsson, Carlos
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    From Maps to Apps: Tracing the Organizational Responsiveness of an Early Multi-Modal Travel Planning Service2015In: The Journal of urban technology, ISSN 1063-0732, E-ISSN 1466-1853, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 87-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An Internet-based system for informing on multimodal travel planning (several modes of transportation) was introduced in Stockholm, Sweden in October 2000 in the form of a web page called trafiken.nu. The web page has a historical value of being one of the first attempts in Europe, and possibly the world, at providing an ICT-based travel planning service geared towards facilitating sustainable travel to the general public. The aim of this article is to investigate the historical development of trafiken.nu in order to draw lessons on how to better provide for a public information service with a potential for facilitating sustainable travel planning. Findings from the study of trafiken.nu suggest that the organizations behind the service have been slow in adapting to shifting media technology practices on how to provide for information which has affected the uptake of the service. Lessons from the case study provide a basis for arguing that organizations attempting to implement public information services would benefit from finding a means of harnessing collective intelligence in order to provide for a more customizable and responsive service to the general public.

  • 80.
    Cano-Viktorsson, Carlos
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    From Vision to Transition: Exploring the Potential for Public Information Services to Facilitate Sustainable Urban Transport2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Policy initiatives to promote sustainable travel through the use of Internet based public information systems have increased during the last decade. Stockholm, in being one of the first cities in Europe to implement an Internet based service for facilitating sustainable travel is believed to be a good candidate for an analysis of key issues for developing sustainable travel planning services to the public.

    Aim: This thesis investigates the past development of two Stockholm based public information systems and their services in order to draw lessons on how to better provide for a public information service geared towards facilitating  environmentally sustainable travel planning through information and communications technology. The overall goal of the thesis is to contribute to an understanding on how to better design and manage current and future attempts at facilitating sustainable travel planning services based on historical case studies.

    Approach: The thesis draws ideas from the concept of organizational responsiveness – an organization’s ability to listen, understand and respond to demands put to it by its internal and external stakeholders – in order to depict how well or not the two public information systems and their owners have adapted to established norms and values of their surroundings.

    Results: Overall, the findings from the historical case studies suggest that organizations attempting to provide sustainable travel planning to the public need to design and manage their systems in such a way that it responds to shifting demands on how to provide for information. Implementing and embedding new technologies involves complex processes of change both at the micro level – for users and practitioners of the service – and at the meso level for the involved public service organizations themselves. This condition requires a contextualist framework to analyze and understand organizational, contextual and cultural issues involved in the adoption of new technologies and procedures.

    Conclusions: The thesis concludes with a discussion on how the findings from the historical case studies may provide lessons for both current and future attempts at providing public information systems geared towards facilitating environmentally sustainable travel planning to the public. Historical examples and issues concerning collective intelligence and peer to peer based forms of designing, producing and supervising public information services identified throughout the study are looked upon and discussed in terms of their possible role in increasing the potential for public information services to facilitate sustainable urban transport.

  • 81.
    Cano-Viktorsson, Carlos
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Traffic Radio as a Precursor to Smart Travel Planning Systems: The Challenge of Organizing “Collective Intelligence”2013In: The Journal of urban technology, ISSN 1063-0732, E-ISSN 1466-1853, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 43-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper depicts how a Swedish radio station organized a means of real-time information management to report on local traffic conditions long before the common use of the Internet. Drawing on a history of the Stockholm traffic radio staff the study examines particular conditions for organizing a service that may inform next generations of smart travel planning systems. The author notes how a vision of involving the public together with the use of increasingly mobile and interconnected communication devices provided the service with an opportunity for harnessing collective intelligence. The study highlights critical success factors and barriers for organizing collective  intelligence and the importance they may have had for providing a real-time information service to the public.

  • 82.
    Christensen, Miyase
    et al.
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Nilsson, Annika E.
    Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Wormbs, Nina
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Changing Arctic: Changing World2013In: Media and the Politics of Arctic Climate Change: When the Ice Breaks / [ed] Miyase Christensen; Annika E. Nilsson; Nina Wormbs, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013, 1, p. 157-171Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 83.
    Christensen, Miyase
    et al.
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Nilsson, Annika E.
    Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Wormbs, Nina
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Eyes on the Ice2013In: Le Monde diplomatique, ISSN 1478-6591, no November, p. 10-11Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    A new report confirms that we are responsible for global warming. The continued melting of the Arctic’s sea ice is now widely seen to be true. So too is the idea that this has major global consequences. Is the situation reversible?

  • 84.
    Christensen, Miyase
    et al.
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Nilsson, Annika E.
    Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Wormbs, Nina
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Globalization, Climate Change and the Media: An Introduction2013In: Media and the Politics of Arctic Climate Change: When the Ice Breaks / [ed] Miyase Christensen; Annika Nilsson; Nina Wormbs, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013, 1, p. 1-25Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 85.
    Christensen, Miyase
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Nilsson, Annika E.Stockholm Environment Institute.Wormbs, NinaPhilosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Media and the Politics of Arctic Climate Change: When the Ice Breaks2013Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Arctic sea-ice reached record lows in 2007, and again in 2012. In the international news media, these moments were reflected via striking images of polar bears, crumbling ice chunks and the use of more alarmist metaphors about global climate change. Through these narratives, and despite the periodic disappearance of climate change from media reports due to issue fatigue, a sharper narrative of climate change has entered public discourse: a new global reality where the future is no longer a given. Going beyond media studies as well as descriptive or highly scientific accounts of the impacts of climate change in the Arctic, this book explores how both historical and contemporary mediations, scientific narratives and satellite technology simultaneously capture and reconstruct this new reality of the Anthropocene, where human activities shape the planet. By highlighting the linkages between science, media, environmental change and geopolitics, the informed contributors to the volume invite the reader to reflect on what is local and what is global in today's connected mediatized world.

  • 86.
    Christensen, Miyase
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment. Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Titley, G.
    Technology and the Question of Empowerment2014In: Popular Communication, ISSN 1540-5702, E-ISSN 1540-5710, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 202-207Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 87. Dussauge, I.
    et al.
    Gribbe, Johan
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Kaijser, Arne
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Lundin, Per
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Peralta, Julia
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Sjöblom, G.
    Thodenius, B.
    Precursors of the IT Nation: Computer use and control in swedish society, 1955–19852011In: 3rd IFIP WG 9.7 Conference on History of Nordic Computing, HiNC 2010, Springer-Verlag New York, 2011, p. 425-432Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is a presentation of a research project that aims at writing the history of computing in Sweden in the mainframe age from a user perspective. Rather than beginning with the history of hardware, this project takes as its point of departure the way in which actors in different sectors of society used computer technology in order to achieve a higher degree of control over crucial processes, whether through electronic data processing systems, process control or technical/scientific computation.

  • 88. Dussauge, I.
    et al.
    Peralta, Julia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Instruments of surveillance welfare: Computerizing unemployment and health in 1960s and 1970s Sweden2011In: 3rd IFIP WG 9.7 Conference on History of Nordic Computing, HiNC 2010, Springer-Verlag New York, 2011, p. 56-64Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The object of this paper is the role of computerization in the establishment of a specific form of “surveillance welfare” after World War II. Was computerization used as a technology of mass-welfaring to produce a governable population in the frame of an expanding welfare state? Large-scale welfare practices such as health screenings and databasing of the unemployed seem to have a common purpose: making the population into a governable, partially self-regulating, collective body–a welfare body. The paper analyzes the use of computers in the implementation of regional health screenings in the 1960s and the 1970s and in the transformation of (un)employment procedures in the 1970s as two sites for the exercise of state control in post-WWII Sweden.

  • 89.
    Dussauge, Isabelle
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), History of Science and Technology.
    Technomedical Visions: Magnetic Resonance Imaging in 1980s Sweden2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The medical imaging technology called MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) stems from a blind measurement technology which was further developed in research and practice to enable seeing into the inner body. Vision with MRI was open-ended, and it was developed and tamed in a context of fragmented medical perspectives on the body and on technology. "Technomedical Visions" addresses the formation of MRI’s specific visualities in the first decade of its introduction in Sweden.

    The purpose of this dissertation is to explore how vision with MRI has been constructed in practice in relation to existing ways of knowing the body within medicine. Dussauge investigates first the early decisions that led to a national evaluation of MRI technology in the mid-1980s in Sweden. Then she addresses the shaping of MRI’s quantitative visuality in the practices of radiology, psychiatry and the laboratory, with focus on microhistories at St. Göran’s Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Uppsala University Hospital, and Lund University.

    Dussauge shows that whereas authorities’ early decisions momentarily defined MRI as a radiological tool for immediate clinical use and evaluation, a crucial part of MRI’s introduction was the work conducted by MRI-users. These researchers from a range of scientific and medical disciplines performed, over time, a multitude of shapings of MRI’s vision. This studies shows how MRI was made congruent with existing technomedical gazes. The novel MRI gaze was made intelligible within cross-referential networks, and researchers reproduced technomedicine’s existing gazes both in the production, optimization and interpretation of MRI representations.

    Technomedical time frames, epistemologies and definitions of the normal and the pathological were reproduced and sometimes, re-cast, in the shaping of MRI in practice. This study also demonstrates that anatomy recurrently worked as an underlying frame for the exploration and production of MRI visions. Anatomy’s material visuality provided a site for the production of novel facts at the intersection of existing gazes. Through the practices of shaping MRI gazes, anatomy was systematically remediated, reproduced and reconfigured.

  • 90.
    Dávila, Milena
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Datorisering av medicinsk laboratorieverksamhet 1: En översikt: Transkript av ett vittnesseminarium vid Svenska Läkaresällskapet i Stockholm den 17 februari 20062008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The witness seminar ”Datorisering av medicinsk laboratorieverksamet 1: En översikt” [Computerization of Laboratory Work 1: An Outline] was held at Svenska Läkaresällskapet The Swedish Society of Medicine] in Stockholm on 17 February 2006, and led by Hans Peterson and Urban Rosenqvist. During the seminar different technical developments within the health care sphere were discussed. Furthermore, different computer programs developed for use in health care in the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s in Sweden were brought up. One of the large projects discussed was the ”Kirurgen II”-system that was developed at Sahlgrenska sjukhuset in Göteborg. Elemas cardiac catheterisation project and radiotherapy project that were initiated in the 1960s in Uppsala were also confered. Other subjects that arose were the digitalisation of laboratory results and medical journals with the first computers in a hospital environment. The early computers were also used for evaluation of laboratory results as well as for digital filterisation, imaging, pattern recognition and dose planning. Technical problems of different sorts and also problems involving the human factor were brought up, e.g. resistance from the users, the physicians when introducing computers in their working environment. The early users bore witness to the lucrative and the favorable medical results of these developments for the industry, e.g. companies as Siemens and the health care system, e.g. Uppsala akademiska sjukhus. Another subject touched upon was the importance of study trips abroad, as to the USA and to various countries in Europe where techniques were being developed by early pioneers which inspired the early developers in Sweden.

  • 91.
    Dávila, Milena
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Datorisering av medicinsk laboratorieverksamhet 2: Massanalyser och hälsokontroller: Transkript av ett vittnesseminarium vid Tekniska museet i Stockholm den 20 september 20062008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The witness seminar “Datorisering av medicinsk laboratorieverksamhet 2: Massanalyser och hälsokontroller” [Computerization of Laboratory Work 2: Automation and Health Screenings] was held at Tekniska museet [The National Museum of Science and Technology] in Stockholm on 20 September 2006. The seminar was led by Urban Rosenqvist and focused on the upscaling of medical laboratory work through automation and computerization for screening purposes in the 1960s.

    The participants described crucial Swedish projects, which addressed issues of upscaling, rationalization, labeling and patient identification of laboratory results. During the seminar the development of mass analysis through Auto-Chemist, one of the first devices for automated blood analysis in the world, was explained. Two large-scale health screening projects, Värmlandsundersökningen and X69 were also brought up. The latter project was accomplished in cooperation with Uppsala Datacentral, UDAC.

    Early computers were a central part in all the mentioned projects. The interaction between local university-based developments, industrial production, and Swedish health care authorities were addressed. Another challenge the early ITusers in the panel had to deal with was that professional programmers had difficulties to adjust to the working conditions in the laboratories. This may explain why many chemists learned to program and developed computerized applications for the laboratories. Another subject touched upon was the importance of study trips abroad, as to the National Institute of Health (NIH) in the USA where techniques and visions were being developed, which inspired the early users and developers in Sweden.

  • 92.
    Edström, Kristina
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning.
    The tension between academic and professional values in engineering education - comparing the work of Carl Richard Söderberg and the CDIO approach2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 93.
    Ekström, Anders
    Uppsala universitet.
    Det vertikala arkivet: Om översiktsmedier och historiska svindelkänslor2006In: 1897: Mediehistorier kring Stockholmsutställningen / [ed] Anders Ekström, Solveig Jülich & Pelle Snickars, Stockholm: Statens ljud- och bildarkiv , 2006, 1, p. 275-307Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 94.
    Ekström, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Viljan att synas, viljan att se: Medieumgänge och publik kultur kring 19002010 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 95. Ekström, Anders
    et al.
    Sörlin, Sverker
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Integrativa kunskapsmiljöer: Rapport från två seminarier våren 2016.2016Report (Other academic)
  • 96.
    Emanuel, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    ABC 80 i pedagogikens tjänst: Exempel på tidig användning av mikrodatorer i den svenska skolan: Transkript av ett vittnesseminarium vid Cloetta Center i Linköping den 23 september 20082008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     The witness seminar ”ABC 80 i pedagogikens tjänst: Exempel på tidig användning av mikrodatorer i den svenska skolan” [ABC 80 in Education: An Example of Early Use of Micro Computers in the Swedish School] was held at Cloetta Center in Linköping on 23 September 2008 and was led by Magnus Johansson. The seminar focused on technical and educational aspects of the Swedish micro computer ABC 80, manufactured by the Luxor company starting in 1978. Geographically, it focused on the region of Östra Götaland. The seminar treated the origins and development of the ABC 80, marketing efforts addressing Swedish schools, various prerequisites for introducing and using these and other micro computers in secondary and higher secondary schools, as well as the actual use of computers in different school subjects. The seminar revealed the domination of teachers in Mathematics and Science regarding the use of computers for educational purposes. Roughly focusing the period 1978–85, the use of computers in education mainly included programming, calculation and for controlling and measuring in laboratory work. It was rather a fascination of the new technology than ideas about how it might influence education that impelled the teachers to use computers in their teaching. The participants also stressed the importance of ABC 80 and other micro computers for computer use in schools, due to increased affordability and flexibility in comparison with minicomputers.

  • 97. Emanuel, Martin
    Bengt Halse En intervju av Martin Emanuel 5 oktober 20172017Data set
    Abstract [en]

    The interview treats Bengt Halse’s experiences from working with satellite technology at Ericsson, with a focus on microwave technology, antennas and signal processing, most notably in European projects such as ELDO F9, OTS, MAROTS, as well as the Swedish Tele-X project. As part of the story, Halse identifies some of the key project leaders and supporters at the higher level within the company of this relatively small segment. As a key aspect of the “return” of space-oriented projects, he points to their character as high tech, international, but still relatively small projects, which made them well-suited as a “school” in project management. Halse also elaborates on Ericsson’s relationship to other relevant actors with respect to space activities. On the international arena, ESA stands out as the most important funder, and Halse discusses the position of Ericsson within Star (one of three European space industry consortia) and the space industry landscape more generally. The company’s space related technology development was essentially carried out within the Military Industrial (MI) division in Mölndal. Still, according to Halse, Sweden stands out as a country where space technology was not carried out in any close collaboration with the Swedish Defence. In fact, in spite of the high potential to use satellite technology for signal intelligence purposes—and Ericsson’s capacity in the field—the Swedish Defence Materiel Administration (Försvaret Materielverk) appears to have been reluctant to engage in such developments. Also with respect to the Swedish space landscape, Halse highlights the frictions between Ericsson and the Swedish Space Corporation (Rymdbolaget), due to their different agendas and necessary considerations, which were however differently navigated depending on personal dynamics. Finally, Halse brings some insider reflection on the merger between Ericsson’s and Saab’s space technology divisions into Saab Ericsson Space, which he considers as essentially a natural and friction-free process.

  • 98.
    Emanuel, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Bicycle Renaissance Cut Short: Bicycle Planning and Appraisal of the Bicycle in Stockholm, 1970–19852012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Like in most other European cities, Stockholm experienced a bicycle “renaissance” in the 1970s, after more than two decades of rapidly declining levels of bicycling. However, the renaissance had already abated by the early 1980s, and the present upward trend only began after 1990. This article is the result of on-going inquiries into the longer trends and contingencies in bicycle traffic and planning in Stockholm, focusing on the period 1970–85 and, thus, capturing two turning points in terms of bicycle traffic levels and public and political appraisal of the bicycle. Particularly, the fluctuations of bicycle traffic are considered in relation to urban planning, infrastructure provision, and the changing assessments of the bicycle in light of the 1960s’ predominantly urban environmental debates and the 1970s’ (“green”) environmental debates at the local level in Stockholm. While defined increasingly as a “humane” and environmentally-sensible alternative to the automobile, reassessments of the bicycle in terms of safety and speed proved more important to the (socially) constructed material conditions for using the bicycle. Although bicycle traffic had broad public and political support in the 1970s, design choices made during this decade, based on thrift and the persistence of the car as norm, led to conflicts among different road users—not least between bicyclists and pedestrians—and thus more hesitance towards stimulating bicycle traffic. In the 1980s, bicycle traffic received less policy attention and less funding for infrastructure. The huge labor dispute in Sweden in the spring of 1980 stands out as an important singular event. The resulting standstill of the Stockholm subway and generally deficient public transport (the staff went on strike) made many people turn to and reassess the bicycle as a transport option. However, due to the sudden growth of inexperienced bicyclists, the problems of bicycle traffic attracted much attention—which was similar to what had happened during the Second World War. In sum, bicycling stood out as an asset in environmental terms, but the early “greening” of the bicycle was not enough to overcome the long-standing notion of the bicycle as a safety problem.

  • 99. Emanuel, Martin
    Conny Kullman, interview from 2017/20182018Data set
    Abstract [en]

    The interview treats Conny Kullman’s experiences from space-related work, first at Saab Space in Gothenburg and later from his career within Intelsat. Kullman describes the Gothenburg department of Saab Space—where he worked as a system design engineer, designing and testing on board computer models for the Ariane launcher and a number of European satellites—as relatively independent from the Linköping main office. Coming to Intelsat as a systems engineer in 1986, during the 1990s Kullman advanced within the organization and held management positions with responsibility for Systems Operation, Systems Planning, as Chief Information Officer, and as Vice President for all operation as well as Engineering. In 1998 he became CEO of Intelsat and embarked on a three-tiered program: to privatize Intelsat, to make an IPO, and to have Intelsat develop a ground infrastructure for satellite communication. In the interview, Kullman elaborates on the organizational structure of Intelsat, an “intergovernmental cooperative” as he calls it, and how this structure, having been a strength in the early days, in his view became a major weakness. As fibre optics began to provide a cheap alternative to satellite telecommunication, and with the development of competing satellite communication systems, the treaty-based regulations as well as the interests of the largest Signatories (owners) of Intelsat, not least American Comsat and British Telecom, impeded sound operation from a business point of view. The interview treats in detail Kullman’s role in and insights from the privatization process, the transition in ownership in 2005, when Intelsat was bought by private equity firms, as well as Intelsat’s acquisition of Loral (2003) and PanAmSat (2006).

  • 100.
    Emanuel, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Constructing the cyclist: Ideology and representations in urban traffic planning in Stockholm, 1930-702012In: Journal of Transport History, ISSN 0022-5266, E-ISSN 1759-3999, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 67-91Article in journal (Refereed)
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