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  • 51.
    Björkman, Barbro
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Why Organ Donation from the Living is a Supererogatory Act: A Discussion on Philia and the Moral Right to Favour OneselfArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 52.
    Björkman, Barbro
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Why We are Not Allowed to Sell that Which We are Encouraged to Donate2006In: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, ISSN 0963-1801, E-ISSN 1469-2147, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 60-70Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 53.
    Björkman, Barbro
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Bodily Rights and Property Rights2006In: Journal of Medical Ethics, ISSN 0306-6800, E-ISSN 1473-4257, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 209-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whereas previous discussions on ownership of biological material have been much informed by the natural rights tradition, insufficient attention has been paid to the strand in liberal political theory represented by Felix Cohen, Tony Honore, and others, which treats property relations as socially constructed bundles of rights. In accordance with that tradition, we propose that the primary normative issue is what combination of rights a person should have to a particular item of biological material. Whether that bundle qualifies to be called `` property'' or `` ownership'' is a secondary, terminological issue. We suggest five principles of bodily rights and show how they can be applied to the construction of ethically appropriate bundles of rights to biological material.

  • 54.
    Björkman, Beyza
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning, Language and communication.
    Linguistic Justice for Europe and for the World2012In: International Studies in the Philosophy of Science, ISSN 0269-8595, E-ISSN 1469-9281, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 354-357Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 55.
    Björnberg, Karin Edvardsson
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, Philosophy.
    Historic Injustices and the Moral Case for Cultural Repatriation2015In: Ethical Theory and Moral Practice, ISSN 1386-2820, E-ISSN 1572-8447, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 461-474Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is commonly argued that cultural objects ought to be returned to their place of origin in order to remedy injustices committed in the past. In this paper, it is shown that significant challenges attach to this way of arguing. Although there is considerable intuitive appeal in the idea that if somebody wrongs another person then she ought to compensate for that injustice, the principle is difficult (albeit not impossible) to apply to wrongdoings committed many decades or centuries ago. It is not clear that historic injustices can meaningfully be corrected, or compensated for, and there are several arguments why, even in cases where there is a prima facie moral case for compensation, repatriation might not be a legitimate means of remedy. In order to bring analytical clarity to the issue, this paper discusses the various steps of the argument that must be addressed in order to ground a valid repatriation claim based on historic injustices.

  • 56. Bladh, K.
    et al.
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    VTT.
    Kahlbom, U.
    Nirmark, J.
    Sparre, E.
    An approach to analyse human reliability during refuelling outage of a nuclear power plant2007In: Proc. of Enlarged Halden Programme Group Meeting, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Human reliability analysis (HRA) constitutes a central role in the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) for the low power and shutdown period of a nuclear power plant. This is because a large number of operative and maintenance activities take place during a refuelling outage when the plant, to a great extent, is disassembled, maintained, and then reassembled back to operational mode. The paper presents the HRA approach used in the shutdown PSA for Forsmark 1/2 and 3 nuclear power units in Sweden. Challenges of the analysis comprises handling the large scope of activities to be analysed, development and use of a quantification method consistent with the full power PSA, and integration of HRA with the “technical” part of PSA. Experiences from the analysis and results will also be discussed.

  • 57. Bladh, K.
    et al.
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    VTT, Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Nirmark, J.
    Sandstedt, J.
    Shutdown PSA for Forsmark 1/2 and 32006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 58. Bladh, K.
    et al.
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    VTT, Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Pyy, P.
    An evaluation of the enhanced Bayesian THERP method using simulator data2009In: SAFETY, RELIABILITY AND RISK ANALYSIS: THEORY, METHODS AND APPLICATIONS, VOLS 1-4 / [ed] Martorell, S; Soares, CG; Barnett, J, London: Taylor & Francis Group, 2009, p. 227-232Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Enhanced Bayesian THERP (Technique for Human Reliability Analysis) method has been successfully used in real PSA-studies at Finnish and Swedish NPPs. The method offers a systematic approach to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze operator actions. In order to better know its characteristics from a more international perspective, it has been subject to evaluation within the framework of the "HRA Methods Empirical Study Using Simulator Data." This paper gives a brief overview of the method with major findings from the evaluation work including identified strengths and potential weaknesses of the method. A number of possible improvement areas have been identified and will be considered in future development of the method.

  • 59. Bladh, Kent
    et al.
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Oxstrand, Johanna
    Chalmers.
    Pyy, Pekka
    Enhanced Bayesian THERP: Experience from HRA method evaluation2010In: Proceedings of  European Safety and Reliability, ESREL 2010, London: Taylor & Francis Group, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Enhanced Bayesian THERP (Technique for Human Reliability Analysis) method uses as its basis the time-reliability curve introduced in the Swain’s human reliability analysis (HRA) handbook. It differs from the Swain's Handbook via a transparent adjustment of the time-dependent human error probabilities by use of five performance shaping factors (PSFs): (1) support from procedures, (2) support from training, (3) feedback from process, (4) need for co-ordination and communication, (5) mental load, decision burden. In order to better know the characteristics of the Enhanced Bayesian THERP from a more international perspective, the method has been subject to evaluation within the framework of the international “HRA Methods Empirical Study Using Simulator Data”. Without knowledge of the crews’ performances, several HRA analysis teams from different countries, using different methods, performed predictive analyses of four scenarios. This paper gives an overview of the method with major findings from the benchmarking. The empirical comparison gives confidence that the time reliability curve is a feasible and cost effective method to estimate human error probabilities when the time window is well defined and relatively short. The comparison of empirical observations with predictions was found as an useful exercise to identify areas of improvements in the HRA method.

  • 60.
    Blancke, Stefaan
    et al.
    Tilburg Univ, Tilburg Ctr Moral Philosophy Epistemol & Philosoph, Dept Philosophy, Tilburg, Netherlands..
    Edis, Taner
    Truman State Univ, Dept Phys, Kirksville, MO USA..
    Braeckman, Johan
    Univ Ghent, Dept Philosophy & Moral Sci, Ghent, Belgium..
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, Philosophy.
    Landrum, Asheley R.
    Texas Tech Univ, Coll Media & Commun, Dept Advertising & Brand Strategy, Lubbock, TX USA..
    Shtulman, Andrew
    Occidental Coll, Dept Psychol, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Editorial: The Psychology of Pseudoscience2022In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 13, article id 935645Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 61.
    Boholm, Max
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, Philosophy.
    Risk, language and discourse2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This doctoral thesis analyses the concept of risk and how it functions as an organizing principle of discourse, paying close attention to actual linguistic practice.

              Article 1 analyses the concepts of risk, safety and security and their relations based on corpus data (the Corpus of Contemporary American English). Lexical, grammatical and semantic contexts of the nouns risk, safety and security, and the adjectives risky, safe and secure are analysed and compared. Similarities and differences are observed, suggesting partial synonymy between safety (safe) and security (secure) and semantic opposition to risk (risky). The findings both support and contrast theoretical assumptions about these concepts in the literature.

              Article 2 analyses the concepts of risk and danger and their relation based on corpus data (in this case the British National Corpus). Frame semantics is used to explore the assumptions of the sociologist Niklas Luhmann (and others) that the risk concept presupposes decision-making, while the concept of danger does not. Findings partly support and partly contradict this assumption.

              Article 3 analyses how newspapers represent risk and causality. Two theories are used: media framing and the philosopher John Mackie’s account of causality. A central finding of the study is that risks are “framed” with respect to causality in several ways (e.g. one and the same type of risk can be presented as resulting from various causes). Furthermore, newspaper reporting on risk and causality vary in complexity. In some articles, risks are presented without causal explanations, while in other articles, risks are presented as results from complex causal conditions. Considering newspaper reporting on an aggregated overall level, complex schemas of causal explanations emerge.

              Article 4 analyses how phenomena referred to by the term nano (e.g. nanotechnology, nanoparticles and nanorobots) are represented as risks in Swedish newspaper reporting. Theoretically, the relational theory of risk and frame semantics are used. Five main groups of nano-risks are identified based on the risk object of the article: (I) nanotechnology; (II) nanotechnology and its artefacts (e.g. nanoparticles and nanomaterials); (III) nanoparticles, without referring to nanotechnology; (IV) non-nanotechnological nanoparticles (e.g. arising from traffic); and (V) nanotechnology and nanorobots. Various patterns are explored within each group, concerning, for example, what is considered to be at stake in relation to these risk objects, and under what conditions. It is concluded that Swedish patterns of newspaper reporting on nano-risks follow international trends, influenced by scientific assessment, as well as science fiction.

              Article 5 analyses the construction and negotiation of risk in the Swedish controversy over the use of antibacterial silver in health care and consumer products (e.g. sports clothes and equipment). The controversy involves several actors: print and television news media, Government and parliament, governmental agencies, municipalities, non-government organisations, and companies. In the controversy, antibacterial silver is claimed to be a risk object that negatively affects health, the environment, and sewage treatment industry (objects at risk). In contrast, such claims are denied. Antibacterial silver is even associated with the benefit of mitigating risk objects (e.g. bacteria and micro-organisms) that threaten health and the environment (objects at risk). In other words, both sides of the controversy invoke health and the environment as objects at risk. Three strategies organising risk communication are identified: (i) representation of silver as a risk to health and the environment; (ii) denial of such representations; and (iii) benefit association, where silver is construed to mitigate risks to health and the environment.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Thesis Introduction (Kappa)
  • 62.
    Bülow, William
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, Philosophy.
    Democratic Theory and Mass Incarceration2017In: Theoria, ISSN 0040-5825, E-ISSN 1755-2567, Vol. 83, no 3, p. 262-267Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 63.
    Bülow, William
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, Philosophy.
    Ethics of Imprisonment: Essays in Criminal Justice Ethics2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This licentiate thesis consists of three essays which all concern the ethics of imprisonment and what constitutes an ethically defensible treatment of criminal offenders.

    Paper 1 defends the claim that prisoners have a right to privacy. I argue that the right to privacy is important because of its connection to moral agency. For that reasons is the protection of inmates’ right to privacy also warranted by different established philosophical theories about the justification of legal punishment. I discuss the practical implications of this argument. Ultimately I argue the invasion of privacy should be minimized to the greatest extent possible without compromising other important values and rights to safety and security. In defending this position, I argue that respect for inmates’ privacy should be part of the objective of creating and upholding a secure environment to better effect in the long run.

    Paper 2 discusses whether the collateral harm of imprisonment to the close family members and children of prison inmates may give rise to special moral obligations towards them. Several collateral harms, including decreased psychological wellbeing, financial costs, loss of economic opportunities, and intrusion and control over their private lives, are identified. Two competing perspectives in moral philosophy are applied in order to assess whether the harms are permissible. The first is consequentialist and the second is deontological, and it is argued that both of them fails and therefore it is hard to defend the position that allowing for these harms would be morally permissible, even for the sake of the overall aims of incarceration. Instead, it is argued that these harms imply that imprisonment should only be used as a last resort. Where it is necessary, imprisonment should give rise to special moral obligations towards families of prisoners. Using the notion of residual obligation, these obligations are defended, categorized and clarified.

    Paper 3 evaluates electronic monitoring (EM) from an ethical perspective and discusses whether it could be a promising alternative to imprisonment as a criminal sanction for a series of criminal offenses. EM evaluated from an ethical perspective as six initial ethical challenges are addressed and discussed. It is argued that since EM is developing as a technology and a punitive means, it is urgent to discuss its ethical implications and incorporate moral values into its design and development.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Thesis
  • 64.
    Bülow, William
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, Philosophy.
    Felon Disenfranchisement and the Argument from Democratic Self-Determination2016In: Philosophia, ISSN 0048-3893, E-ISSN 1574-9274, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 759-774Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses an argument in defense of felon disenfranchisement originally proposed by Andrew Altman, which states that as a matter of democratic self-determination, members of a legitimate democratic community have a collective right to decide whether to disenfranchise felons. Although this argument-which is here referred to as the argument from democratic self-determination-is held to justify policies that are significantly broader in scope than many critics of existing disenfranchisement practices would allow for, it has received little attention from philosophers and political theorists. One exception is Claudio Lpez-Guerra, who recently raised several objections to the argument. In this paper, I argue that the argument from democratic self-determination can avoid Lpez-Guerra's objections. In responding to these, I explicate how and when it can be permissible for a legitimate democratic community to disenfranchise felons. I propose that this is the case only if the disenfranchisement of felons is not intended as a punishment, but as a way to express the view about citizenship one endorses as a democratic collective. I also discuss the implications of the argument in terms of offender reintegration.

  • 65. Bülow, William
    John Stuart Mill, Yttrandefrihet och Internet2011In: Tidskrift för politisk filosofi, ISSN 1402-2710, E-ISSN 2002-3383, no 3, p. 45-51Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 66.
    Bülow, William
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, Philosophy.
    William Irwin: The Free Market Existentialist: Capitalism without Consumerism2016In: Ethical Theory and Moral Practice, ISSN 1386-2820, E-ISSN 1572-8447, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 1057-1059Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 67.
    Bülow, William
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, Philosophy.
    Felix, C.
    On Friendship Between Online Equals2016In: Philosophy & Technology, ISSN 2210-5433, E-ISSN 2210-5441, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 21-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an ongoing debate about the value of virtual friendship. In contrast to previous authorships, this paper argues that virtual friendship can have independent value. It is argued that within an Aristotelian framework, some friendships that are perhaps impossible offline can exist online, i.e., some offline unequals can be online equals and thus form online friendships of independent value.

  • 68.
    Bülow, William
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, Philosophy.
    Helgesson, G.
    Hostage authorship and the problem of dirty hands2018In: Research Ethics, ISSN 1747-0161, E-ISSN 2047-6094, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses gift authorship, the practice where co-authorship is awarded to a person who has not contributed significantly to the study. From an ethical point of view, gift authorship raises concerns about desert, fairness, honesty and transparency, and its prevalence in research is rightly considered a serious ethical concern. We argue that even though misuse of authorship is always bad, there are instances where accepting requests of gift authorship may nevertheless be the right thing to do. More specifically, we propose that researchers may find themselves in a situation much similar to the problem of dirty hands, which has been frequently discussed in political philosophy and applied ethics. The problem of dirty hands is relevant to what we call hostage authorship, where the researchers include undeserving authors unwillingly, and only because they find it unavoidable in order to accomplish a morally important research goal. 

  • 69.
    Bülow, William
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Wester, Misse
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Genmodifierade organismer – hur rädda är vi?2011In: Genteknik som tar skruv / [ed] Förare, Jonas, Stockholm: Formas , 2011Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 70.
    Bülow, William
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Wester, Misse
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Privacy issues and Paternalism in the context of Social Networking Sites2011In: The Social Impact of Social Computing / [ed] Bisset, A., Bynum, T. W., Light, A., Lauener, A., Rogerson, S., 2011, p. 88-93Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 71.
    Bülow, William
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Wester, Misse
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    The Right to Privacy and the Protection of personal data in a Digital Era and the Age of InformationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 72.
    Cantwell, John
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    A Formal Model of Multi-Agent Belief-Interaction2006In: Journal of Logic, Language and Information, ISSN 0925-8531, E-ISSN 1572-9583, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 303-329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A semantics is presented for belief revision in the face of common announcements to a group of agents that have beliefs about each other's beliefs. The semantics is based on the idea that possible worlds can be viewed as having an internal-structure, representing the belief independent features of the world, and the respective belief states of the agents in a modular fashion. Modularity guarantees that changing one aspect of the world (a belief independent feature or a belief state) has no effect on any other aspect of the world. This allows us to employ an AGM-style selection function to represent revision. The semantics is given a complete axiomatisation (identical to the axiomatisation found by Gerbrandy and Groeneveld for a semantics based on non-wellfounded set theory) for the special case of expansion.

  • 73.
    Cantwell, John
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    A model for updates in a multi-agent setting2007In: Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics, ISSN 1166-3081, E-ISSN 1958-5780, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 183-196Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 74.
    Cantwell, John
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History.
    An Expressivist Analysis Of The Indicative Conditional With A Restrictor Semantics2021In: The Review of Symbolic Logic, ISSN 1755-0203, E-ISSN 1755-0211, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 487-530, article id PII S1755020319000662Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A globally expressivist analysis of the indicative conditional based on the Ramsey Test is presented. The analysis is a form of 'global' expressivism in that it supplies acceptance and rejection conditions for all the sentence forming connectives of propositional logic (negation, disjunction, etc.) and so allows the conditional to embed in arbitrarily complex sentences (thus avoiding the Frege-Geach problem). The expressivist framework is semantically characterized in a restrictor semantics due to Vann McGee, and is completely axiomatized in a logic dubbed ICL ('Indicative Conditional Logic'). The expressivist framework extends the AGM (after Alchourron, Gardenfors, Makinson) framework for belief revision and so provides a categorical ('yes'-'no') epistemology for conditionals that complements McGee's probabilistic framework while drawing on the same semantics. The result is an account of the semantics and acceptability conditions of the indicative conditional that fits well with the linguistic data (as pooled by linguists and from psychological experiments) while integrating both expressivist and semanticist perspectives.

  • 75.
    Cantwell, John
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, Philosophy.
    An Expressivist Bilateral Meaning-is-Use Analysis of Classical Propositional Logic2014In: Journal of Logic, Language and Information, ISSN 0925-8531, E-ISSN 1572-9583, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 27-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The connectives of classical propositional logic are given an analysis in terms of necessary and sufficient conditions of acceptance and rejection, i.e. the connectives are analyzed within an expressivist bilateral meaning-is-use framework. It is explained how such a framework differs from standard (bilateral) inferentialist frameworks and it is argued that it is better suited to address the particular issues raised by the expressivist thesis that the meaning of a sentence is determined by the mental state that it is conventionally used to express. Furthermore, it is shown that the classical requirements governing the connectives completely characterize classical logic, are conservative (indeed make the connectives redundant) and separable, are in bilateral harmony, are structurally preservative with respect to the classical coordination requirements and resolve the categoricity problem. These results are taken to show that one can give an expressivist bilateral meaning-is-use analysis of the connectives that confer on them a determinate coherent classical interpretation.

  • 76.
    Cantwell, John
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Changing the modal context2008In: Theoria, ISSN 0040-5825, E-ISSN 1755-2567, Vol. 74, no 4, p. 331-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conditionals that contain a modality in the consequent give rise to a particular semantic phenomenon whereby the antecedent of the conditional blocks possibilities when interpreting the modality in the consequent. This explains the puzzling logical behaviour of constructions like "If you don't buy a lottery ticket, you can't win", "If you eat that poison, it is unlikely that you will survive the day" and "If you kill Harry, you ought to kill him gently". In this paper it is argued that a semantic version of the Ramsey Test provides a key in the analysis of such constructions. The logic for this semantics is axiomatized and some examples are studied, among them a well-known puzzle for contrary-to-duty obligations.

  • 77.
    Cantwell, John
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Conditionals in causal decision theory2013In: Synthese, ISSN 0039-7857, E-ISSN 1573-0964, Vol. 190, no 4, p. 661-679Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the possibility that causal decision theory can be formulated in terms of probabilities of conditionals. It is argued that a generalized Stalnaker semantics in combination with an underlying branching time structure not only provides the basis for a plausible account of the semantics of indicative conditionals, but also that the resulting conditionals have properties that make them well-suited as a basis for formulating causal decision theory. Decision theory (at least if we omit the frills) is not an esoteric science, however unfamiliar it may seem to an outsider. Rather it is a systematic exposition of the consequences of certain well-chosen platitudes about belief, desire, preference and choice. It is the very core of our common-sense theory of persons, dissected out and elegantly systematized. (David Lewis, Synthese 23:331-344, 1974, p. 337). A small distortion in the analysis of the conditional may create spurious problems with the analysis of other concepts. So if the facts about usage favor one among a number of subtly different theories, it may be important to determine which one it is.

  • 78.
    Cantwell, John
    Royal Institute of Technology KTH.
    Expressivism detrivialized2015In: Logique et Analyse, ISSN 0024-5836, E-ISSN 2295-5836, Vol. 58, no 232, p. 487-508Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is argued that David Lewis' two triviality results (the probability of the conditional cannot be the conditional probability; desire cannot be belief) both present a potential problem for expressivism, are related, and can both be resolved in the same way: by allowing for gappy propositions (propositions that can lack truth value). In particular, a semantics for 'A is good' is provided that allows one to embrace the major premises leading up to Lewis' triviality result while avoiding its conclusion.

  • 79.
    Cantwell, John
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Indicative conditionals: Factual or Epistemic2008In: Studia Logica: An International Journal for Symbolic Logic, ISSN 0039-3215, E-ISSN 1572-8730, Vol. 88, no 1, p. 157-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is argued that indicative conditionals are best viewed as having truthconditions (and so they are in part factual) but that these truth conditions are ‘gappy’which leaves an explanatory gap that can only be filled by epistemic considerations (and soindicative conditionals are in part epistemic). This dual nature of indicative conditionalsgives reason to rethink the relationship between logic viewed as a descriptive discipline(focusing on semantics) and logic viewed as a discipline with a normative import (focusingon epistemic notions such as ‘reasoning’, ‘beliefs’ and ‘assumptions’). In particular, it isargued that the development of formal models for epistemic states can serve as a startingpoint for exploring logic when viewed as a normative discipline.

  • 80.
    Cantwell, John
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, Philosophy. Swedish Coll Adv Study, Thunbergsvagen 2, SE-75238 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Making sense of (in)determinate truth: the semantics of free variables2018In: Philosophical Studies, ISSN 0031-8116, E-ISSN 1573-0883, Vol. 175, no 11, p. 2715-2741Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is argued that truth value of a sentence containing free variables in a context of use (or the truth value of the proposition it expresses in a context of use), just as the reference of the free variables concerned, depends on the assumptions and posits given by the context. However, context may under-determine the reference of a free variable and the truth value of sentences in which it occurs. It is argued that in such cases a free variable has indeterminate reference and a sentence in which it occurs may have indeterminate truth value. On letting, say, x be such that x(2) = 4, the sentence 'Either x = 2 or x = -2' is true but the sentence 'x = 2' has an indeterminate truth value: it is determinate that the variable x refers to either 2 or -2, but it is indeterminate which of the two it refers to, as a result 'x = 2' has a truth value but its truth value is indeterminate. The semantic indeterminacy is analysed in a 'radically' supervaluational (or plurivaluational) semantic framework closely analogous to the treatment of vagueness in McGee and McLaughlin (South J Philos 33: 203-251, 1994, Linguist Philos 27: 123-136, 2004) and Smith (Vagueness and degrees of truth, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2008), which saves bivalence, the T-schema and the truth-functional analysis of the boolean connectives. It is shown that on such an analysis the modality 'determinately' is quite clearly not an epistemic modality, avoiding a potential objection raised by Williamson (Vagueness, Routledge, London, 1994) against such 'radically' supervaluational treatments of vagueness, and that determinate truth (rather than truth simpliciter) is the semantic value preserved in classically valid arguments. The analysis is contrasted with the epistemicist proposal of Breckenridge and Magidor (Philos Stud 158: 377-400, 2012) which implies that (in the given context) 'x = 2' has a determinate but unknowable truth value.

  • 81.
    Cantwell, John
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History.
    Revisiting McGee’s Probabilistic Analysis of Conditionals2022In: Journal of Philosophical Logic, ISSN 0022-3611, E-ISSN 1573-0433, Vol. 51, no 5, p. 973-1017Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper calls for a re-appraisal of McGee’s analysis of the semantics, logic and probabilities of indicative conditionals presented in his 1989 paper Conditional probabilities and compounds of conditionals. The probabilistic measures introduced by McGee are given a new axiomatisation—built on the principle that the antecedent of a conditional is probabilistically independent of the conditional—and a more transparent method of constructing such measures is provided. McGee’s Dutch book argument is restructured to more clearly reveal that it introduces a novel contribution to the epistemology of semantic indeterminacy, and shows that its more controversial implications are unavoidable if we want to maintain the Ramsey Test along with the standard laws of probability. Importantly, it is shown that the counterexamples that have been levelled at McGee’s analysis—generating a rather wide consensus that it yields ‘unintuitive’ or ‘wrong’ probabilities for compounds —fail to strike at their intended target; for to honour the intuitions of the counterexamples one must either give up the Ramsey Test or the standard laws of probability. It will be argued that we need to give up neither if we take the counterexamples as further evidence that the indicative conditional sometimes allows for a non-epistemic ‘causal’ interpretation alongside its usual epistemic interpretation. 

  • 82.
    Cantwell, John
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    The laws of non-bivalent probability2006In: Logic and Logical Philosophy, ISSN 1425-3305, E-ISSN 2300-9802, Vol. 15, p. 163-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-bivalent languages (languages containing sentences that canbe true, false or neither) are given a probabilitistic interpretation in termsof betting quotients. Necessary and sufficient conditions for avoiding Dutchbooks—the laws of non-bivalent probability—in such a setting are provided.

  • 83.
    Cantwell, John
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    The Logic of Conditional Negation2008In: Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic, ISSN 0029-4527, E-ISSN 1939-0726, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 245-260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is argued that the "inner" negation ∼ familiar from 3-valued logic can be interpreted as a form of "conditional" negation: ∼A is read 'A is false if it has a truth value'. It is argued that this reading squares well with a particular 3-valued interpretation of a conditional that in the literature has been seen as a serious candidate for capturing the truth conditions of the natural language indicative conditional (e.g., "If Jim went to the party he had a good time"). It is shown that the logic induced by the semantics shares many familiar properties with classical negation, but is orthogonal to both intuitionistic and classical negation: it differs from both in validating the inference from A→∼B to ∼(A→B).

  • 84.
    Cantwell, John
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, Philosophy.
    Unity and Autonomy in Expressivist Logic2014In: Dialectica, ISSN 0012-2017, E-ISSN 1746-8361, Vol. 68, no 3, p. 443-457Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is argued that expressivists can solve their problems in accounting for the unity and autonomy of logic - logic is topic independent and does not derive from a general logic' of mental states - by (1) adopting an analysis of the logical connectives that takes logically complex sentences to express complex combinations of simple attitudes like belief and disapproval and dispositions to form such simple attitudes upon performing suppositional acts, and (2) taking acceptance and rejection of sentences to be the common mental denominator in descriptive and evaluative discourse, and structural requirements governing these to be the basis for logic. Such an account requires that attitudes like belief, intention and disapproval can come in hypothetical mode - plausibly linked to the capacity to mentally simulate or emulate one's own attitudes - and, if correct, suggests that these form the basic building blocks for our capacity to understand logically complex sentences.

  • 85.
    Cantwell, John
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, Philosophy.
    Lindström, S.
    Rabinowicz, W.
    McGee's Counterexample to the Ramsey Test2017In: Theoria, ISSN 0040-5825, E-ISSN 1755-2567, Vol. 83, no 2, p. 154-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vann McGee has proposed a counterexample to the Ramsey Test. In the counterexample, a seemingly trustworthy source has testified that p and that if not-p, then q. If one subsequently learns not-p (and so learns that the source is wrong about p), then one has reason to doubt the trustworthiness of the source (perhaps even the identity of the source) and so, the argument goes, one has reason to doubt the conditional asserted by the source. Since what one learns is that the antecedent of the conditional holds, these doubts are contrary to the Ramsey Test. We argue that the counterexample fails. It rests on a principle of testimonial dependence that is not applicable when a source hedges his or her claims.

  • 86.
    Cantwell, John
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History. SCAS Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rott, Hans
    SCAS Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden ; University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany.
    Probability, coherent belief and coherent belief changes2019In: Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence, ISSN 1012-2443, E-ISSN 1573-7470, Vol. 87, p. 259-291Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is about the statics and dynamics of belief states that are represented by pairs consisting of an agent’s credences (represented by a subjective probability measure) and her categorical beliefs (represented by a set of possible worlds). Regarding the static side, we argue that the latter proposition should be coherent with respect to the probability measure and that its probability should reach a certain threshold value. On the dynamic side, we advocate Jeffrey conditionalisation as the principal mode of changing one’s belief state. This updating method fits the idea of the Lockean Thesis better than plain Bayesian conditionalisation, and it affords a flexible method for adding and withdrawing categorical beliefs. We show that it fails to satisfy the traditional principles of Inclusion and Preservation for belief revision and the principle of Recovery for belief withdrawals, as well as the Levi and Harper identities. We take this to be a problem for the latter principles rather than for the idea of coherent belief change.

  • 87.
    Cao, GuiHong
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    A paradox between technological autonomy and ethical heteronomy of philosophy of technology: Social control system2013In: International Journal of Technoethics, ISSN 1947-3451, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 52-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With entering postmodern techne time since 1960s, society has experienced technical turn in 1985. After the emergence in 1877, philosophy of technology has undergone engineering ethics turn in 1970s and empirical turn in 1980s. A paradox (technoethics)(TE) highlights between technological autonomy (TA) and ethics heteronomy (EH) from philosophy of technology. Traced with the underlined reasons and responsibility party, social control system for TE need set up a set of social control principles (respect TA, enhance EH, minimize risk and maximize perfection via responsibility, imagine diversification via uplifting) and social control strategies (technical control mechanism, technical ethical education, technical law mechanism) among technicians, engineers, philosophers of technology, and technical users etc. Then, techne can develop towards rational perfection, under the reflection and supervising from ethics of philosophy of technology and law.

  • 88.
    Cao, GuiHong
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Comparison of China-US Engineering Ethics Educations in Sino-Western Philosophies of Technology2015In: Science and Engineering Ethics, ISSN 1353-3452, E-ISSN 1471-5546, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 1609-1635Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethics education has become essential in modern engineering. Ethics education in engineering has been increasingly implemented worldwide. It can improve ethical behaviors in technology and engineering design under the guidance of the philosophy of technology. Hence, this study aims to compare China-US engineering ethics education in Sino-Western philosophies of technology by using literature studies, online surveys, observational researches, textual analyses, and comparative methods. In my original theoretical framework and model of input and output for education, six primary variables emerge in the pedagogy: disciplinary statuses, educational goals, instructional contents, didactic models, teaching methods, and edificatory effects. I focus on the similarities and differences of engineering ethics educations between China and the US in Chinese and Western philosophies of technology. In the field of engineering, the US tends toward applied ethics training, whereas China inclines toward practical moral education. The US is the leader, particularly in the amount of money invested and engineering results. China has quickened its pace, focusing specifically on engineering labor input and output. Engineering ethics is a multiplayer game effected at various levels among (a) lower level technicians and engineers, engineering associations, and stockholders; (b) middle ranking engineering ethics education, the ministry of education, the academy of engineering, and the philosophy of technology; and (c) top national and international technological policies. I propose that professional engineering ethics education can play many important roles in reforming engineering social responsibility by international cooperation in societies that are becoming increasingly reliant on engineered devices and systems. Significantly, my proposals contribute to improving engineering ethics education and better-solving engineering ethics issues, thereby maximizing engineering sustainability.

  • 89.
    Cao, GuiHong
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, Philosophy.
    Science-Technology Relationships in Sino-Western Philosophies of Technology: Hints for Innovation, Competitiveness, and Policy2015In: GSTF Journal of General Philosophy (JPhilo), ISSN 2345-7856, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 10-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Science, technology, and innovation play crucial roles in the society. Studies on science-technology relationships primarily serve for innovation, competitiveness, and policy. Nevertheless, science-technology relationships in the evolution have been disputed in studies from academic and practical circles, especially from the philosophy of technology. This project aims to investigate science-technology relationships in Sino-Western philosophies of technology, and the hints for innovation, competitiveness, and policy. This paper launches and argues on a theoretical framework for science-technology relationships: (i) technology emerges earlier than science; (ii) science and technology are different but closely connected; (iii) science and technology engage in dynamic interaction; (iv) science-technology interaction takes various forms in its complex progress of nonlinearity and diversification; and (v) science-technology integration is presentational. This study applies a systems-theoretic approach to the interdependent policy issues relating to science, technology, innovation, and competitiveness. This article examines how endogenous and exogenous developments of science and technology in China and the West based on science-technology relationships have influenced science and technology innovations, national competitiveness, and science and technology policies. The results reveal cognitive progress and cultural diversity. National competitiveness is preferentially strengthened in real productivities by technological invention and innovation, assisted by scientific research and innovation. This study recommends shifting the centers of science policy and technology policy from exogenous developments to endogenous developments. This article proposes proper reforms from exogenous growth to endogenous growth in science and technology innovations, national competitiveness, and science and technology policies for policy making.

  • 90. Carlsen, H.
    et al.
    Dreborg, K.
    Edvardsson Björnberg, Karin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Rocklöv, J.
    Vredin Johansson, M.
    Hälsokonsekvenser av extrem värme i Umeå: Tillämpningsstudie för utvärdering av scenarioverktyg och beräkningsalgoritm för vårdbehov inom forskningsprogrammet Climatools2009Report (Other academic)
  • 91. Caruth, Cathy
    Lewis, Arthur (Translator)
    Lögn och historia2008In: Glänta, ISSN 1104-5205, Vol. 2008, no 4, p. 10p. 121-130Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 92.
    Clausen, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Nilsson, Fred
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.).
    Generalizing the Safety Factor Approach2006In: Reliability Engineering & System Safety, ISSN 0951-8320, E-ISSN 1879-0836, Vol. 91, no 8, p. 964-973Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Safety factors (uncertainty factors) are used to avoid failure in a wide variety of practices and disciplines, in particular engineering design and toxicology. Although these two areas have similar problems in their use of safety factors, there are no signs of previous communication between the two disciplines. The present contribution aims at initiating such communications by pointing out parallel practices and joint issues between the two disciplines. These include the distinction between probabilistic variability and epistemic uncertainty, the importance of distribution tails, and the problem of countervailing risks. In conclusion, it is proposed that future research in this area should be interdisciplinary and make use of experiences from the various areas in which safety factors are used.

  • 93.
    Clausen Mork, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Dealing with uncertainty2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Uncertainty is, it seems, more or less constantly present in our lives. Even so, grasping the concept philosophically is far from trivial. In this doctoral thesis, uncertainty and its conceptual companion information are studied. Axiomatic analyses are provided and numerical measures suggested. In addition to these basic conceptual analyses, the widespread practice of so-called safety factor use in societal regulation is analyzed along with the interplay between science and policy in European regulation of chemicals and construction.

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  • 94.
    Clausen Mork, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Information gain and approaching true beliefArticle in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent years has seen a renewed interest in the philosophical study of information. In this paper a two-part analysis of information gain – objective and subjective – in the context of doxastic change is presented and discussed. Objective information gain is analyzed in terms of doxastic movement towards true belief, while subjective information gain is analyzed as an agent’s expectation value of her objective information gain for a given doxastic change. The resulting expression for subjective information gain turns out to be a familiar one with well-known formal properties: the Kullback-Leibler divergence.

    The suggested measure of subjective information gain is then compared with the view that information gain equals uncertainty reduction. Three counterexamples to the latter view are suggested and it is also argued that the numerical results given by the suggested measure of subjective information gain in those three cases are considerably more intuitive.

  • 95.
    Clausen Mork, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Is it safe? safety factor reasoning in policy-making under uncertainty2006Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines the practice of using safety factors in decision-making under uncertainty, in particular in the areas of toxicology and civil engineering. The aim is to expose and clarify some of the philosophical issues surrounding the practice.

    Paper I (co-written with Sven Ove Hansson and Fred Nilsson) gives an historical background to the practice of formal safety factor and safety margin use. The notion of an uncertainty function is presented as a more general concept covering safety margins, safety factors and the related uncertainty factors. Three categories of uncertainty functions are identified: explicit, implicit and natural safety reserves. Finally, the problems of countervailing risks and distribution arbitrariness are discussed.

    Paper II (co-written with John Cantwell) discusses the relation between decision-making with safety factor rules and the ideal of formal normative decision theory. The role of safety factor rules in practical and theoretical reasoning is also examined and certain difficulties regarding normative evaluation of safety factor rules are pointed out.

    Paper III (co-written with Sven Ove Hansson) looks at two current regulatory systems under development: Eurocodes for construction and REACH for chemicals. The two regulations have many similarities but reactions to them have been highly divergent. The differences are discussed and some hypotheses as to their explanation are suggested.

  • 96.
    Clausen Mork, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Uncertainty, credal sets and second order probability2013In: Synthese, ISSN 0039-7857, E-ISSN 1573-0964, Vol. 190, no 3, p. 353-378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The last 20 years or so has seen an intense search carried out within Dempster–Shafer theory, with the aim of finding a generalization of the Shannon entropy for belief functions. In that time, there has also been much progress made in credal set theory—another generalization of the traditional Bayesian epistemic representation—albeit not in this particular area. In credal set theory, sets of probability functions are utilized to represent the epistemic state of rational agents instead of the single probability function of traditional Bayesian theory. The Shannon entropy has been shown to uniquely capture certain highly intuitive properties of uncertainty, and can thus be considered a measure of that quantity. This article presents two measures developed with the purpose of generalizing the Shannon entropy for (1) unordered convex credal sets and (2) possibly non-convex credal sets ordered by second order probability, thereby providing uncertainty measures for such epistemic representations. There is also a comparison with the results of the measure AU developed within Dempster–Shafer theory in a few instances where unordered convex credal set theory and Dempster–Shafer theory overlap.

  • 97.
    Clausen Mork, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Cantwell, John
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Reasoning with Safety Factor Rules2007In: Techné: Research in Philosophy and Technology, ISSN 1091-8264, E-ISSN 2691-5928, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 55-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Safety factor rules are used for drawing putatively reasonable conclusions from incomplete datasets. The paper attempts to provide answers to four questions: “How are safety factors used?”, “When are safety factors used?”, “Why are safety used?” and “How do safety factor rules relate to decision theory?”. The authors conclude that safety factor rules should be regarded as decision methods rather than as criteria of rightness and that they can be used in both practical and theoretical reasoning. Simplicity of application and inability or unwillingness to defer judgment appear to be important factors in explaining why the rules are used.

  • 98.
    Clausen Mork, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Eurocodes and REACH - differences and similarities2007In: Risk Management: An International Journal, ISSN 1460-3799, E-ISSN 1743-4637, no 19, p. 19-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The developments of the new European construction standard (Eurocodes) and the new European chemical legislation (REACH) have taken place in parallel, and they are now both in their final stages. Both consist in European harmonization of safety regulations that concern major industries. In this paper, we compare Eurocodes and REACH in terms of purpose, intended level of harmonization, the science-policy interface and controversies about the costs of the regulations. We have found that the science-policy interface of REACH is characterized by public controversy and by attempts to keep risk assessment and risk management apart while the science-policy interface of Eurocodes is characterized by trust in experts, limited public involvement and organizational confluence of risk assessment and risk management. Furthermore, the costs of REACH have been a major issue in discussions between the Commission and the chemical industry while, in contrast, the costs of Eurocodes have not even been calculated either by the Commission or by the construction industry. A major reason for this is that construction industry does not seem to regard possible cost increases due to Eurocodes as a threat to their business interests. Regulators seem to have treated the cost issue as a business interest, not as an aspect of the decision that they should be concerned with even in the absence of external pressure.

  • 99.
    Conceicao, Pedro
    et al.
    Univ Aberdeen, Inst Math, Aberdeen, Scotland..
    Govc, Dejan
    Univ Ljubljana, Fac Math & Phys, Ljubljana, Slovenia..
    Lazovskis, Janis
    Riga Tech Univ, Riga Business Sch, Riga, Latvia..
    Levi, Ran
    Univ Aberdeen, Inst Math, Aberdeen, Scotland..
    Riihimaki, Henri
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.).
    Smith, Jason P.
    Nottingham Trent Univ, Dept Math & Phys, Nottingham, England..
    An application of neighbourhoods in digraphs to the classification of binary dynamics2022In: NETWORK NEUROSCIENCE, ISSN 2472-1751, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 528-551Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A binary state on a graph means an assignment of binary values to its vertices. A time-dependent sequence of binary states is referred to as binary dynamics. We describe a method for the classification of binary dynamics of digraphs, using particular choices of closed neighbourhoods. Our motivation and application comes from neuroscience, where a directed graph is an abstraction of neurons and their connections, and where the simplification of large amounts of data is key to any computation. We present a topological/graph theoretic method for extracting information out of binary dynamics on a graph, based on a selection of a relatively small number of vertices and their neighbourhoods. We consider existing and introduce new real-valued functions on closed neighbourhoods, comparing them by their ability to accurately classify different binary dynamics. We describe a classification algorithm that uses two parameters and sets up a machine learning pipeline. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the method on simulated activity on a digital reconstruction of cortical tissue of a rat, and on a nonbiological random graph with similar density. Author Summary We explore the mathematical concept of a closed neighbourhood in a digraph in relation to classifying binary dynamics on a digraph, with particular emphasis on dynamics on a neuronal network. Using methodology based on selecting neighbourhoods and vectorising them by combinatorial and topological parameters, we experimented with a dataset implemented on the Blue Brain Project reconstruction of a neocortical column, and on an artificial neural network with random underlying graph implemented on the NEST simulator. In both cases the outcome was run through a support vector machine algorithm reaching classification accuracy of up to 88% for the Blue Brain Project data and up to 81% for the NEST data. This work is open to generalisation to other types of networks and the dynamics on them.

  • 100. Cronvall, O.
    et al.
    Männistö, I.
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    VTT, Finland.
    Pulkkinen, U.
    Development and application of risk informed in-service inspection analysis procedures2006In: SAFIR, The Finnish Research Programme on Nuclear Power Plant Safety 2003–2006: Final Report, VTT Research Notes 2363, VTT. Espoo 2006, VTT , 2006, p. 92-102Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Characteristics and development of risk informed in-service inspection (RI-ISI) methodology for nuclear piping systems are examined in this report. This involves applying the combination of probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) and Markov system analyses, and by refining an existing and commonly applied risk analysis procedure. The applicability of the developed risk matrix approach was examined as a pilot study performed to a piping system in an existing Finnish nuclear power plant (NPP).

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