kth.sePublications
Change search
Refine search result
12 51 - 93 of 93
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 51.
    Karnebäck, Stefan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Spectro-temporal properties of the acoustic speech signal used for speech/music discrimination2004Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
  • 52.
    Kohn, Kathlén
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.).
    Deuker, Ernst Ulrich
    Der Komplex der nicht-chromatischen Skalen2017In: Mitteilungen der DMV, ISSN 0942-5977, Vol. 25, p. 17-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider the space of all musical scales with the ambition to systematize it.To do this, we pursue the idea to view certain scales as basic constituents and to“mix” all remaining scales from these. The German version of this article appearedinMitteilungen der DMV, volume 25, issue 1

  • 53. Laukkanen, Anne-Maria
    et al.
    Björkner, Eva
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Throaty voice quality: Subglottal pressure, voice source, and formant characteristics2006In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 25-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    "Throaty" voice quality has been regarded by voice pedagogues as undesired and even harmful. This study attempts to identify acoustic and physiological correlates of this quality. One male and one female subject read a text habitually and with a throaty voice quality. Oral pressure during p-occlusion was measured as an estimate of subglottal pressure. Long-term average spectrum analysis described the average spectrum characteristics. Sixteen syllables, perceptually evaluated with regard to throaty quality by five experts, were selected for analysis. Formant frequencies and voice source characteristics were measured by means of inverse filtering, and the vocal tract shape of the throaty and normal versions of the vowels [a,u,i,ae] of the male subject were recorded by magnetic resonance imaging. From this material, area functions were derived and their resonance frequencies were determined. The throaty versions of these four vowels all showed a pharynx that was narrower than ill the habitually produced versions. To test the relevance of formant frequencies to perceived throaty quality, experts rated degree of throatiness in synthetic vowel samples, in which the measured formant frequency values of the subject were used. The main acoustic correlates of throatiness seemed to be all increase of F1, a decrease of F4, and in front vowels a decrease of F2, which presumably results from a narrowing of the pharynx. In the male Subject, voice Source parameters suggested a more hyperfunctional voice in throaty samples.

  • 54. Lehto, Laura
    et al.
    Airas, Matti
    Björkner, Eva
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Alku, Paavo
    Comparison of two inverse filtering methods in parameterization of the glottal closing phase characteristics in different phonation types2007In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 138-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inverse filtering (IF) is a common method used to estimate the source of voiced speech, the glottal flow. This investigation aims to compare two IF methods: one manual and the other semiautomatic. Glottal flows were estimated from speech pressure waveforms of six female and seven male subjects producing sustained vole /a/ in breathy, normal, and pressed phonation. The closing phase characteristics of the glottal pulse were parameterized using two time-based parameters: the closing quotient (C1Q) and the normalized amplitude quotient (NAQ). The information given by these two parameters indicates a strong correlation between the two IF methods. The results are encouraging in showing that the parameterization of the voice source in different speech sounds can be performed independently of the technique used for inverse filtering.

  • 55.
    Lindborg, PerMagnus
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics. Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
    About TreeTorika: Rhetoric, CAAC and Mao2008In: OM Composer’s Book #2 / [ed] Bresson, J., Agon C. & Assayag G., Paris, France: Éditions Delatour France / IRCAM - Centre Pompidou , 2008, p. 95-116Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter examines computer assisted analysis and composition (CAAC) techniquesin relation to the composition of my piece TreeTorika for chamber orchestra. I describemethods for analysing the musical features of a recording of a speech by Mao Zedong,in order to extract compositional material such as global form, melody, harmony andrhythm, and for developing rhythmic material. The first part focuses on large scalesegmentation, melody transcription, quantification and quantization. Automatic tran-scription of the voice was discarded in favour of an aural method using tools in Amadeusand Max/MSP. The data was processed in OpenMusic to optimise the accuracy and read-ability of the notation. The harmonic context was derived from the transcribed melodyand from AudioSculpt partial tracking and chord-sequence analyses. The second partof this chapter describes one aspect of computer assisted composition, that is the useof the rhythm constraint library in OpenMusic to develop polyrhythmic textures. Theflexibility of these techniques allowed the computer to assist me in all but the final phasesof the work. In addition, attention is given to the artistic and political implications ofusing recordings of such a disputed public figure as Mao.

  • 56.
    Lindborg, PerMagnus
    Université de Paris IV Sorbonne.
    Le dialogue musicien-machine : Aspects des systèmes d'interactivité musicale2003Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [fr]

    Ce texte a comme sujet la confluence entre la création musicale et les sciences cognitives. Le but principal du travail a été de faire de la reconnaissance sur le terrain. Le présent texte est donc forcément incomplet, et ne servira que de point de départ pour une recherche substantielle.

    J’ai choisi comme thématique l’interactivité musicale, qui sera définie comme le dialogue musicien–machine. Je vais tenter d’approcher ce phénomène par multiples chemins, qui se superposent. Le thème restera au centre, et autour de lui, j’esquisserai sa relation avec plusieurs faits et phénomènes liés, en particulier : les langages naturels et formels, la question de l’interface à la création, l’intelligence artificielle, et les notions de mémoire et de sens. Ces approches mises ensemble constitueront l’étude des aspects des systèmes d’interactivité.

    Le vaste sujet de l’interactivité musicale est incrusté dans l’histoire de la musique d’ordinateur, une histoire qui date déjà d’un demi-siècle au moins. Par conséquent il sera nécessaire de cerner le cœur du sujet et de parcourir des cercles concentriques ou en spirale, pour gagner des connaissances qui nous permettent de comprendre mieux le phénomène. La procédure est un peu comme quand on observe une étoile avec l’œil nu : si on la regarde tout droit elle disparaît… La rétine est plus sensible à la lumière dans les côtés. Le texte est donc fatalement un collage consistant de plusieurs études d’envergure limitée. Malgré cela, il faut respecter les aspects importants propres au sujet, essayer d’esquiver le superflu et faire le plus possible de liens. La recherche est guidée par trois thématiques. Quelle est la matière, en d’autres termes, les composants et les processus qui constituent le système de proprement dit, utilisé dans la situation de performance musicale ? Deuxièmement, quelle est la relation entre recherche cognitive et outils technologiques à disposition ? Troisièmement, quelles implications est-ce que les technologies ont eues et auront d’autant plus à l’avenir sur la créativité musicale ?

    Depuis plusieurs années, les concepts qui sous-tiennent ce texte ont influencé mon travail de compositeur et performeur. J’ai fait des expériences en la matière au travers d’œuvres employant des dispositifs électroacoustiques de configuration variable : “Beda+” (1995), “Tusalava” (1999), “Leçons pour un apprenti sourd-muet” (1998-9), “gin/gub” (2000), “Manifest”[1] (2000), “Project Time”[2] (2001), “sxfxs” (2001), “Extra Quality” (2001-2), ”D!sturbances 350–500”[3]… Ces morceaux de musique sont nés d'une curiosité pour le fondement théorique de la cognition et le fonctionnement du cerveau humain. En particulier, je me suis consacré à analyser la situation de jeu dans laquelle a lieu un échange d’informations et d’initiatives musicales entre musicien et machine, qui agissent sur un degré équivalent de participation dans un système complexe. J’éprouve que cette situation ludique peut également servir d’outil de recherche ; elle est un peu comme un laboratoire, ou un banc d’essai, pour tester des hypothèses, qu’elles soient des propos limités à la musique, ou bien plus étendues, élargissant vers des terrains inhabituels.

    Étant compositeur, j’ai essayé de rendre l’étude ni trop limitée, ni strictement descriptive. J’ai ressenti le besoin d’analyser des travaux contemporains, ayant des composants scientifiques : les trois projets étudiés sont effectivement en cours de développement. Il s’agissait dans cette étude de capter plutôt leur raison d’être que de montrer leurs formes respectives dans un état finalisé, qui de toute façon n’est pas leur destin. Si la musicologie se contentait de démontrer des structures dans des œuvres de répertoire connues depuis longtemps, ou si elle s’enfermait dans un académisme technocrate développant des modèles n’expliquant que des choses qui sont évidentes pour les musiciens, alors elle souffrirait d’anémie. En proposant une hypothèse, elle doit comporter des aspects prédictifs. Ce serait encore mieux si des modèles développés en support à l’hypothèse étaient facilement accessibles et pouvaient servir au développement de nouveaux outils innovants. Cela est souhaitable, non seulement pour stimuler la production créative, mais également pour aider à mieux comprendre le fonctionnement de la créativité lui-même.

    L’activité musicale, au sens général, pour ceux qui la produisent autant que pour ceux qui l’apprécient, est un exercice essentiellement non-verbal dont le but est l’émergence d'une compréhension de la créativité humaine d’un ordre autre que verbal ou écrit. En étudiant la créativité, et surtout sa formalisation, ne risquerait-on pas de la dénaturer ? Peut-être la créativité ne risque-t-elle pas de s’effondrer dans la recherche ? Que restera-t-il de la création musicale le jour où une machine aura composé une œuvre capable d’émouvoir les auditeurs ignorant tout de son mode de fabrication ? Néanmoins, en suivant l’appel de William Faulkner, “kill your darlings”, espérons transcender la créativité telle qu’on la connaît et aller vers des pays musicaux inouïs.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 57.
    Lindetorp, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID. KMH Royal Coll Mus, Dept Mus & Media Prod, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Svahn, Maria
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Hölling, Josefine
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Falkenberg, Kjetil
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Frid, Emma
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID. Inst Res & Coordinat Acoust Mus IRCAM, Sci & Technol Mus & Sound STMS, Paris, France..
    Collaborative music-making: special educational needs school assistants as facilitators in performances with accessible digital musical instruments2023In: Frontiers in Computer Science, E-ISSN 2624-9898, Vol. 5, article id 1165442Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The field of research dedicated to Accessible Digital Musical Instruments (ADMIs) is growing and there is an increased interest in promoting diversity and inclusion in music-making. We have designed a novel system built into previously tested ADMIs that aims at involving assistants, students with Profound and Multiple Learning Disabilities (PMLD), and a professional musician in playing music together. In this study the system is evaluated in a workshop setting using quantitative as well as qualitative methods. One of the main findings was that the sounds from the ADMIs added to the musical context without making errors that impacted the music negatively even when the assistants mentioned experiencing a split between attending to different tasks, and a feeling of insecurity toward their musical contribution. We discuss the results in terms of how we perceive them as drivers or barriers toward reaching our overarching goal of organizing a joint concert that brings together students from the SEN school with students from a music school with a specific focus on traditional orchestral instruments. Our study highlights how a system of networked and synchronized ADMIs could be conceptualized to include assistants more actively in collaborative music-making, as well as design considerations that support them as facilitators.

  • 58.
    Loriot, Benjamin
    et al.
    Univ Technol Compiegne, Compiegne, France..
    Madeiral Delfim, Fernanda
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Computer Science, Theoretical Computer Science, TCS.
    Monperrus, Martin
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Computer Science, Theoretical Computer Science, TCS.
    Styler: learning formatting conventions to repair Checkstyle violations2022In: Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, Vol. 27, no 6, article id 149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ensuring the consistent usage of formatting conventions is an important aspect of modern software quality assurance. To do so, the source code of a project should be checked against the formatting conventions (or rules) adopted by its development team, and then the detected violations should be repaired if any. While the former task can be automatically done by format checkers implemented in linters, there is no satisfactory solution for the latter. Manually fixing formatting convention violations is a waste of developer time and code formatters do not take into account the conventions adopted and configured by developers for the used linter. In this paper, we present Styler, a tool dedicated to fixing formatting rule violations raised by format checkers using a machine learning approach. For a given project, Styler first generates training data by injecting violations of the project-specific rules in violation-free source code files. Then, it learns fixes by feeding long short-term memory neural networks with the training data encoded into token sequences. Finally, it predicts fixes for real formatting violations with the trained models. Currently, Styler supports a single checker, Checkstyle, which is a highly configurable and popular format checker for Java. In an empirical evaluation, Styler repaired 41% of 26,791 Checkstyle violations mined from 104 GitHub projects. Moreover, we compared Styler with the IntelliJ plugin CheckStyle-IDEA and the machine-learning-based code formatters Naturalize and CodeBuff. We found out that Styler fixes violations of a diverse set of Checkstyle rules (24/25 rules), generates smaller repairs in comparison to the other systems, and predicts repairs in seconds once trained on a project. Through a manual analysis, we identified cases in which Styler does not succeed to generate correct repairs, which can guide further improvements in Styler. Finally, the results suggest that Styler can be useful to help developers repair Checkstyle formatting violations.

  • 59. Lã, F.M.B.
    et al.
    Silva, L. S.
    Granqvist, Svante
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems.
    Long-Term Average Spectrum Characteristics of Portuguese Fado-Canção from Coimbra2023In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 631.e7-631.e15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Descriptions of acoustical characteristics of Fado, a Portuguese urban style sung in Lisbon and Oporto, are scarce, particularly concerning Fado-Canção, a related style sung in Coimbra. The present study aims at describing long-term average spectrum (LTAS) parameters of 16 professional singers while singing and reading the lyrics of a typical Fado-Canção. LTAS parameters were investigated in terms of: (1) equivalent sound level (Leq); (2) spectral differences between 3 frequency bands 0–2, 2–5, and 5–8 kHz; and (3) quantification of spectral prominence between 2 and 4 kHz, calculated as the level difference between the peak in this frequency region and a reference trendline between 1 and 5 kHz, henceforth Formant Cluster Prominence (FCP). Given that Fado-Canção, besides Fado and traditional styles, originated also from classical singing, and that previous studies on Fado suggest the absence of a singer's formant cluster, the averaged LTAS for all Fado-Canção singers was further compared to the LTAS of two world-touring opera baritones singing an operatic aria and a lied. Results show that Fado-Canção is commonly sung with a Leq of 86.4 dB and a FCP of about 10 dB, values significantly higher when compared to reading. The FCP in Fado-Canção, although smaller than for the two classical opera singers’ examples (14.8 and 20 dB, respectively), suggests that the style preserved some of its original lyrical influence. However, because younger singers present higher energy in the 5–8 kHz region relative to the remaining frequency bands as compared to older singers, it seems that Fado-Canção may be drifting towards non-classical vocal practices. FCP seems to be a promising straightforward method to quantify the degree of formant clustering around the region of the singer's formant in LTAS, allowing comparisons between different singers and singing styles. 

  • 60.
    McHugh, Laura
    et al.
    KTH.
    Wu, Chih Wei
    KTH.
    Xu, Xuanling
    KTH.
    Falkenberg, Kjetil
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Salient sights and sounds: comparing visual and auditory stimuli remembrance using audio set ontology and sonic mapping2023In: SMC 2023: Proceedings of the Sound and Music Computing Conference 2023, Sound and Music Computing Network , 2023, p. 426-432Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we explore how store customers recall their perceptual experience with a focus on comparing the remembrance of auditory and visual stimuli. The study was carried out using a novel mixed-methods approach that involved Deep Hanging Out, field study and interviews, including drawing sonic mind maps. The data collected was analysed using thematic analysis, sound classification with the Audio Set ontology, counting occurrences of different auditory and visual elements attended in the store, and rating the richness of their descriptions. The results showed that sights were more salient than sounds and that participants recalled music more frequently compared to the Deep Hanging Out observations, but remembered fewer varieties of sounds in general.

  • 61.
    Misgeld, Olof
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID. Department of Folk Music, Royal College of Music, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Holzapfel, Andre
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden;.
    Kallioinen, Petter
    Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ahlbäck, Sven
    Department of Folk Music, Royal College of Music, Stockholm, Sweden;.
    The melodic beat: exploring asymmetry in polska performance2021In: Journal of Mathematics and Music - Mathematical and Computational Approaches to Music Theory, Analysis, Composition and Performance, ISSN 1745-9737, E-ISSN 1745-9745, p. 1-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some triple-beat forms in Scandinavian Folk Music are characterized by non-isochronous beat durations: asymmetric beats. Theorists of folk music have suggested that the variability of rhythmic figures and asymmetric metre are fundamental to these forms. The aim of this study is to obtain a deeper understanding of the relationship between melodic structure and asymmetric metre by analysing semi-automatically annotated performances. Our study considers archive and contemporary recordings of fiddlers' different versions of the same musical pieces: polska tunes in a local Swedish tradition. Results show that asymmetric beat patterns are consistent between performances and that they correspond with structural features of rhythmic figures, such as the note density within beats. The present study goes beyond previous work by exploring the use of a state-of-the-art automatic music notation tool in a corpus study of Swedish traditional music, and by employing statistical methods for a comparative analysis of performances across different players. 

  • 62.
    Misgeld, Olof
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Holzapfel, André
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Ahlbäck, Sven
    Exploring beat connections in Swedish Folk music and dance2020Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 63. Mürbe, D.
    et al.
    Roers, F.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Stimmgattung professioneller Sänger: Einfluss von Stimmlippenlänge, Vokaltraktdimensionen und Körpermaßen2011In: HNO (Berlin. Print), ISSN 0017-6192, E-ISSN 1433-0458, Vol. 59, no 6, p. 556-562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Professional voice performance is strongly affected by the functional adjustments of the structures involved in voice production. Generally, these functional skills are required by means of intensive training. On the other hand, the individual morphology of the larynx and vocal tract limits this functional variability. Thus, to neglect morphological conditions might result in voice problems. The present paper summarizes investigations on the influence of morphological measurements on the voice classification of professional singers. Vocal fold length, vocal tract length and body height have been found to differ systematically between sopranos, mezzosopranos, altos, tenors, baritones and basses. Although the knowledge of morphological measures does not permit a definite assignment or prediction of the individual voice classification, the data are valuable for counseling by voice teachers and phoniatricians. This might contribute to the prevention of voice disorders.

  • 64. Mürbe, Dirk
    et al.
    Zahnert, Thomas
    Kuhlisch, Eberhard
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Effects of professional singing education on vocal vibrato - A longitudinal study2007In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 21, no 6, p. 683-688Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vocal vibrato is regarded as one of the essential characteristics of voice quality in classical singing. Professional singers seem to develop vibrato automatically, without actively striving to acquire it. In this longitudinal investigation, the vocal vibrato of 22 singing students was examined at the beginning of and after 3 years of professional singing education. Subjects sang an ascending-descending triad pattern in slow tempo on vowel [a:] at a comfortable pitch level twice at soft (piano) and twice at medium (mezzo-forte) loudness. The top note of the triad pattern was sustained for approximately 5 s. The mean and the standard deviation (SD) of the vibrato rate were measured for this note. Results revealed that after 3 years of training, voices with vibrato slower than 5.2 Hz were found to have a faster vibrato, and voices with vibrato faster than 5.8 Hz were found to have a slower vibrato. Standard deviation of vibrato rate was higher in soft than in medium loudness, particularly before the education. Also high values of SD of vibrato rate, exceeding 0.65 Hz, had decreased after the education. These findings confirm that vibrato characteristics can be affected by singing education.

  • 65. Saldías, M.
    et al.
    Laukkanen, A. -M
    Guzmán, M.
    Miranda, G.
    Stoney, J.
    Alku, P.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    The Vocal Tract in Loud Twang-Like Singing While Producing High and Low Pitches2021In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 807.e1-807.e23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Twang-like vocal qualities have been related to a megaphone-like shape of the vocal tract (epilaryngeal tube and pharyngeal narrowing, and a wider mouth opening), low-frequency spectral changes, and tighter and/or increased vocal fold adduction. Previous studies have focused mainly on loud and high-pitched singing, comfortable low-pitched spoken vowels, or are based on modeling and simulation. There is no data available related to twang-like voices in loud, low-pitched singing. Purpose: This study investigates the possible contribution of the lower and upper vocal tract configurations during loud twang-like singing on high and low pitches in a real subject. Methods: One male contemporary commercial music singer produced a sustained vowel [a:] in his habitual speaking pitch (B2) and loudness. The same vowel was also produced in a loud twang-like singing voice on high (G4) and low pitches (B2). Computerized tomography, acoustic analysis, inverse filtering, and audio-perceptual assessments were performed. Results: Both loud twang-like voices showed a megaphone-like shape of the vocal tract, being more notable on the low pitch. Also, low-frequency spectral changes, a peak of sound energy around 3 kHz and increased vocal fold adduction were found. Results agreed with audio-perceptual evaluation. Conclusions: Loud twang-like phonation seems to be mainly related to low-frequency spectral changes (under 2 kHz) and a more compact formant structure. Twang-like qualities seem to require different degrees of twang-related vocal tract adjustments while phonating in different pitches. A wider mouth opening, pharyngeal constriction, and epilaryngeal tube narrowing may be helpful strategies for maximum power transfer and improved vocal economy in loud contemporary commercial music singing and potentially in loud speech. Further studies should focus on vocal efficiency and vocal economy measurements using modeling and simulation, based on real-singers’ data. 

  • 66.
    Sandberg, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Lindblom, Bjorn
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Jan Gauffin: In memorium2008In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 258-259Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 67. Scherer, K. R.
    et al.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Fantini, B.
    Trznadel, S.
    Eyben, F.
    The expression of emotion in the singing voice: Acoustic patterns in vocal performance2017In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 142, no 4, p. 1805-1815Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been little research on the acoustic correlates of emotional expression in the singing voice. In this study, two pertinent questions are addressed: How does a singer's emotional interpretation of a musical piece affect acoustic parameters in the sung vocalizations? Are these patterns specific enough to allow statistical discrimination of the intended expressive targets? Eight professional opera singers were asked to sing the musical scale upwards and downwards (using meaningless content) to express different emotions, as if on stage. The studio recordings were acoustically analyzed with a standard set of parameters. The results show robust vocal signatures for the emotions studied. Overall, there is a major contrast between sadness and tenderness on the one hand, and anger, joy, and pride on the other. This is based on low vs high levels on the components of loudness, vocal dynamics, high perturbation variation, and a tendency for high low-frequency energy. This pattern can be explained by the high power and arousal characteristics of the emotions with high levels on these components. A multiple discriminant analysis yields classification accuracy greatly exceeding chance level, confirming the reliability of the acoustic patterns.

  • 68.
    Schoonderwaldt, Erwin
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Mechanics and acoustics of violin bowing: Freedom, constraints and control in performance2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis addresses sound production in bowed-string instruments from two perspectives: the physics of the bowed string, and bow control in performance. Violin performance is characterized by an intimate connection between the player and the instrument, allowing for a continuous control of the sound via the main bowing parameters (bow velocity, bow force and bow-bridge distance), but imposing constraints as well. In the four included studies the focus is gradually shifted from the physics of bow-string interaction to the control exerted by the player. In the first two studies the available bowing parameter space was explored using a bowing machine, by systematically probing combinations of bow velocity, bow force and bow-bridge distance. This allowed for an empirical evaluation of the maximum and minimum bow force required for the production of a regular string tone, characterized by Helmholtz motion. Comparison of the found bow-force limits with theoretical predictions by Schelleng revealed a number of striking discrepancies, in particular regarding minimum bow force. The observations, in combination with bowed-string simulations, provided new insights in the mechanism of breakdown of Helmholtz motion at low bow forces. In the second study the influence of the main bowing parameters on aspects of sound quality was analyzed in detail. It was found that bow force was totally dominating the control of the spectral centroid, which is related to the perceived brightness of the tone. Pitch flattening could be clearly observed when approaching the upper bow-force limit, confirming its role as a practical limit in performance. The last two studies were focused on the measurement of bowing gestures in violin and viola performance. A method was developed for accurate and complete measurement of the main bowing parameters, as well as the bow angles skewness, inclination and tilt. The setup was used in a large performance study. The analyses revealed clear strategies in the use of the main bowing parameters, which could be related to the constraints imposed by the upper and lower bow-force limits and pitch flattening. Further, it was shown that two bow angles (skewness and tilt) were systematically used for controlling dynamic level; skewness played an important role in changing bow-bridge distance in crescendo and diminuendo notes, and tilt was used to control the gradation of bow force. Visualizations and animations of the collected bowing gestures revealed significant features of sophisticated bow control in complex bowing patterns.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 69.
    Schoonderwaldt, Erwin
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    On the Use of Skewness in Violin Bowing: Should the Bow be Straight or Not?2010In: Acta Acoustica united with Acustica, ISSN 1610-1928, E-ISSN 1861-9959, Vol. 96, no 4, p. 593-602Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bowing parallel to the bridge is by many players considered as the golden standard. However, in practice straight bow strokes are rarely observed, and the bow can be considerably slanted even in the performance of renowned players. In any case, the angle of the bow with the violin (skewness) is likely to form an important control parameter, which has hardly been addressed in scientific studies of violin performance. In the current study measurements of skewness in violin and viola performance are presented, and possible explanations of the observed behavior are offered. The results provide strong indications of that skewness fulfills an important function in controlling bow-bridge distance, integrated in players' performance strategies.

  • 70.
    Schoonderwaldt, Erwin
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    The player and the bowed string: Coordination and control of bowing in violin and viola performance2009In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, Vol. 126, no 5, p. 2709-2720Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experiment was conducted with four violin and viola players, measuring their bowing in performance using a combination of motion capture and sensors. The measurements allowed for a detailed analysis of the main bowing parameters bow velocity, bow force and bow-bridge distance, as well as the bow angles skewness and tilt. An analysis of bowing strategies in détaché playing of notes of three durations (0.2, 2, 4 seconds) at three dynamic levels (pp, mf, f) on all four strings is presented, focusing on the "steady" part of the notes. The results revealed clear trends in the coordinated variations of the bowing parameters depending of the constraints of the task, reflecting a common behavior as well as individual strategies. Furthermore, there were clear indications of that the players adapted the bowing parameters to the physical properties of the string and the instrument, respecting the limits of the playable control parameter space. A detailed analysis of the bow angles skewness and tilt showed that skewness played an important role in controlling bow-bridge distance, particularly in crescendo and diminuendo notes, and that tilt was used to control the gradation of bow force.

  • 71.
    Schoonderwaldt, Erwin
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    The violinist's sound palette: Spectral centroid, pitch flattening and anomalous low frequencies2009In: Acta Acoustica united with Acustica, ISSN 1610-1928, E-ISSN 1861-9959, Vol. 95, no 5, p. 901-914Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The string player controls variations in spectral content mainly via bow velocity, bow-bridge distance and bow force. Many combinations of the bowing parameters influence the pitch noticeably as well, in particular close to the upper bow-force limit in the Schelleng diagram. The influence of the bowing parameters on the spectral content and pitch were studied systematically by use of a monochord and a bowing machine. Bow force was found to be the totally dominating parameter in determining the spectral centroid. Bow-bridge distance and bow velocity serve essentially as indirect control parameters of spectral content by giving the player access to playable areas with high or low bow forces in the Schelleng diagram. Clear areas of pitch flattening could be distinguished below the upper bow-force limits in the Schelleng diagrams, confirming the role of pitch flattening as a practical bow-force limit in playing. The conditions for anomalous low frequencies (ALF), S-motion and other, higher types of string motion were analyzed, and it was shown that secondary waves might play an important role in their creation.

  • 72.
    Schoonderwaldt, Erwin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Guettler, Knut
    Askenfelt, Anders
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    An empirical investigation of bow-force limits in the Schelleng diagram2008In: Acta Acoustica united with Acustica, ISSN 1610-1928, E-ISSN 1861-9959, Vol. 94, no 4, p. 604-622Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimental study of the upper and lower bow-force limits for bowed violin strings is reported. A bowing machine was used to perform bow strokes with a real violin bow on steel D and E strings mounted on a rigid monochord and on a violin. Measurements were systematically performed for 11 values of relative bow-bridge distance and 24 values of bow force at four bow velocities (5, 10, 15 and 20 cm/s). The measured string velocity signals were used to compile Schelleng diagrams, showing the distribution of different classes of string motion (multiple slipping, Helmholtz motion, raucous motion). It was found that the maximum bow-force limit for Helmholtz motion corresponded well to Schelleng's equation in modified form, taking the shape of the (hyperbolic) friction curve into account. The minimum bow force was found to be independent of bow velocity, which is in clear contradiction to Schelleng's prediction. Observations and simulations suggested that the breakdown of Helmholtz motion at low bow forces involves a mechanism related to ripple and corner rounding which was not taken into account in Schelleng's derivation of minimum bow force. The influence of damping showed only qualitative agreement with Schelleng's predictions.

  • 73. Serafin, S.
    et al.
    Dahl, S.
    Bresin, Roberto
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Jensenius, A. R.
    Unnthorsson, R.
    Välimäki, V.
    NordicSMC: A nordic university hub on sound and music computing2018In: Proceedings of the 15th Sound and Music Computing Conference: Sonic Crossings, SMC 2018, Sound and music Computing network , 2018, p. 124-128Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sound and music computing (SMC) is still an emerging field in many institutions, and the challenge is often to gain critical mass for developing study programs and undertake more ambitious research projects. We report on how a long-term collaboration between small and medium-sized SMC groups have led to an ambitious undertaking in the form of the Nordic Sound and Music Computing Network (NordicSMC), funded by the Nordic Research Council and institutions from all of the five Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden). The constellation is unique in that it covers the field of sound and music from the "soft" to the "hard," including the arts and humanities, the social and natural sciences, and engineering. This paper describes the goals, activities, and expected results of the network, with the aim of inspiring the creation of other joint efforts within the SMC community.

  • 74. Sonnenfeld, Alexander
    et al.
    Hansen, Kjetil Falkenberg
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    S-notation: A complete musical notation system for scratching and sample music derived from "Theory of Motions"2016In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation - TENOR2016, Anglia Ruskin University , 2016, p. 50-57Conference paper (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 75.
    Sturm, Bob
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    The Ai music generation challenge 2021: Summary and results2022In: Proceedings of the 3rd Conference on AI Music Creativity, AIMC, 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We discuss the design and results of The Ai Music Generation Challenge 2021 and compare it to the challenge of the previous year. While the 2020 challenge was focused on the Irish double jig, the 2021 challenge was focused on a particular kind of Swedish traditional dance music, called slängpolska. Six systems participated in the 2021 challenge, each generating a number of tunes evaluated by five judges, all professional musicians and experts in the music style. In the first phase, the judges reject all tunes that are plagiarised, or that have incorrect meter or rhythm. In the second phase, they score the remaining tunes along four qualities: dancability, structure coherence, formal coherence, and playability. The judges know all the tunes are computer generated, but do not know what tunes come from what systems, or what kinds of machine learning and data are involved. In the third stage, the judges award prizes to the top tunes. This resulted in five tunes garnering first and second prizes, four of which come from one particular system. We perform a statistical analysis of the scores from all judges, which allows a quantitative comparison of all factors in the challenge. Finally, we look to the 2022 challenge. 

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 76.
    Sturm, Bob
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Uitdenbogerd, A. L.
    RMIT University, AU.
    Koops, H. V.
    RMIT University, AU.
    Huang, A.
    University of Montreal, CA.
    Editorial for TISMIR Special Collection: AI and Musical Creativity2022In: Transactions of the International Society for Music Information Retrieval, ISSN 2514-3298, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 67-70Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This special issue focuses on research developments and critical thought in the domain of artificial intelligence (AI) applied to modeling and creating music. It is motivated by the AI Song Contests of 2020 and 2021, in which the four guest editors adjudicated or participated among many teams from around the world. The 2020 edition had 13 submissions and the 2021 edition had 38. The 2022 edition is now being planned. These unique events provide exciting opportunities for AI music researchers to test the state of the art and push the boundaries of what is possible, within the context of music creation. They portend a future when humans and machines work together as partners in music creation. Maybe "portend" is not the right term, but we must not think that the future of AI and music is only warm and fuzzy. It is important and timely to consider how we, in local and global contexts, can effectively and ethically develop and apply AI in contexts of music creation.

  • 77.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH. University College of Music Education, Stockholm, Sweden.
    An effect of source-filter interaction on amplitudes of source spectrum partials2017In: Proceedings and Report - 10th International Workshop on Models and Analysis of Vocal Emissions for Biomedical Applications, MAVEBA 2017, Firenze University Press , 2017, p. 95-98Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The timbral properties of the voice are partly determined by the voice source, i.e., the pulsating glottal airflow, the properties of which are controlled by the combination of subglottal pressure, glottal adduction and other laryngeal adjustments. Its waveform, the flow glottogram, mainly reflects the amplitudes of the lowest partials. Due to source-filter interaction the lowest formants can affect the periodicity of vocal fold vibration, particularly when the first or second formant coincides with a partial. The aim of the present experimental study was to study associated spectrum effects. Glide tones performed by male singers on /ae/ or /a/ were analyzed by inverse filtering, using ripple-free closed phase as criterion. Partials coinciding with the first formant were observed to have amplitudes causing a dip in the source spectrum envelope. The sound level of a vowel is determined mainly by the strongest spectrum partial, typically the partial closest to the first formant. Glide tones obtained from the formant synthesizer MADDE, which is void of source-filter interaction, showed a much stronger sound level variation with fundamental frequency than the singer subjects. The findings thus seem relevant to the understanding of voice range profiles which show sound level versus fundamental frequency. 

  • 78.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Articulatory Configuration and Pitch in a Classically Trained Soprano Singer2009In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 546-551Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies suggest that singers modify articulation to avoid that the pitch frequency F0 exceeds the normal value of the first formant F1(Normal). Using magnetic resonance imaging at a rate of 5 frames/s, articulation was analyzed in a professional soprano singing an ascending triad pattern from C4 to G5 (262-784 Hz) on the vowels /i, e, u, o, a/. Lip and jaw opening and tongue dorsum height were measured and analyzed as function of pitch. Four or five semitones below the pitch where F0 = F1(Normal) the tongue dorsum height was reduced in /i, e, u, a/, whereas in /o/ the lip opening was widened and in /a/ also the jaw opening was widened. At higher pitches, the jaw opening was widened in all vowels. These articulatory maneuvers are likely to raise F1 in these vowels.

  • 79.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Some observations on operatic singers’ intonation2011In: Interdisciplinary Studies in Musicology, ISSN 1734-2406, Vol. 10, p. 47-59Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 80.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH. Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University; University College of Music Education Stockholm.
    Three applications of analysis-by-synthesis in music science2022In: Journal of Creative Music Systems, E-ISSN 2399-7656, Vol. 1, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article describes how my research has applied the analysis-by-synthesis strategy to (1) the composition of melodies in the style of nursery tunes, (2) music performance and (3) singing. The descriptions are formulated as generative grammars, which consist of a set of ordered, context-dependent rules capable of producing sound examples. These examples readily reveal observable weaknesses in the descriptions, the origins of which can be traced in the rule system and eliminated. The grammar describing the compositional style of nursery tunes composed by A. Tegnér demonstrates the paramount relevance of a hierarchical structure. Principles underlying the transformation from a music score file to a synthesized performance are derived from recommendations by a violinist and music performance coach, and can thus be regarded as a description of his professional skills as musician and pedagogue. Also in this case the grammar demonstrates the relevance of a hierarchical structure in terms of grouping, and reflects the role of expectation in music listening. The rule system describing singing voice synthesis specifies acoustic characteristics of performance details. The descriptions are complemented by sound examples illustrating the effects of identified compositional and performance rules in the genres analysed.

  • 81.
    Sundberg, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Batter-Huppmann, Julia
    When does a sung tone start?2007In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 285-293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the consonant is mostly considered as the start of a syllable in phonetics and orthography, musicians generally agree that the vowel onset in singing should be synchronized with the beat. As a test of this assumption, the current investigation analyzes the time interval between vowel onsets and piano accompaniment onsets in a set of songs performed by international vocal artists and published on commercial CD recordings. The results show that, most commonly, the accompanists synchronized their tones with the singers' vowel onsets. Nevertheless, examples of lead and lag were found, probably made for expressive purposes. The lead and lag varied greatly between songs, being smallest in a song performed in a fast tempo and longest in a song performed in a slow tempo.

  • 82.
    Sundberg, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Birch, P.
    Gumoes, B.
    Stavad, H.
    Prytz, S.
    Karle, A.
    Experimental findings on the nasal tract resonator in singing2007In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 127-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many professional operatic singers sing the vowel /a/ with a velopharyngeal opening.(1) Here resonatory effects of such an opening are analyzed. On the basis of CAT scan imaging of a baritone singer's vocal tract and nasal cavity system, including the maxillary sinuses, acoustic epoxy models were constructed, in which velopharyngeal openings were modeled by different tubes. The sound transfer characteristics of this model were determined by means of sine-tone sweep measurements. In an idealized (iron tube) model, the VPO introduced a zero in the transfer function at the frequency of the nasal resonance. In the epoxy models, however, the resonances of the nasal system, and hence the zero, were heavily damped, particularly when the maxillary sinuses were included in the nasal system. A velopharyngeal opening was found to attenuate the first formant in /a/, such that the relative level of the singer's formant increased. A similar effect was observed in a modified epoxy model shaped to approximate the vocal tract of an /u/ and an /i/, although it also showed a substantial widening of the first formant bandwidth. Varying the size of the velopharyngeal opening affected the transfer function only slightly. It seems likely that singers can enhance higher spectrum partials by a careful tuning of a velopharyngeal opening.

  • 83.
    Sundberg, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    La, Filipa M. B.
    Gill, Brian P.
    Formant Tuning Strategies in Professional Male Opera Singers2013In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 278-288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The term "formant tuning" is generally used for the case that one of the lowest formant frequencies coincides with the frequency of a source spectrum partial. Some authors claim that such coincidence is favorable and belongs to the goals of classical opera voice training, whereas other authors have found evidence for advising against it. This investigation analyzes the relationships between formant frequencies and partials in professional singers, who sang scales on the vowels /a/, /u/, /i/, and /ae/ in a pitch range including the passaggio, that is, the fundamental frequency range of approximately 300-400 Hz, applying either of the two singing strategies that are typically used (1) in classical and (2) in nonclassical singing, respectively. Formant frequencies of each note in the scales were measured by inverse-filtering the acoustic signal. In the classical style, the first formant tended to be lower than in the nonclassical style. Neither the first nor the second formant tended to change systematically between scale tones, such that on some scale tones either or both formants was just below, just above, or right on a spectrum partial. In many cases, singers produced similar spectrum characteristics of the top tones of the scales with different first and second formant frequencies. Regardless of whether the first formant was slightly lower, slightly higher, or right on a partial, the properties of the voice source did not seem to be affected.

  • 84.
    Sundberg, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    La, Filipa M. B.
    Himonides, Evangelos
    Intonation and Expressivity: A Single Case Study of Classical Western Singing2013In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 391-+Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have shown that singers tend to sharpen phrase-peak tones as compared with equally tempered tuning ( ETT). Here we test the hypothesis that this can serve the purpose of musical expressivity. Data were drawn from earlier recordings, where a professional baritone sang excerpts as void of musical expression as he could (Neutral) and as expressive as in a concert (Concert). Fundamental frequency averaged over tones was examined and compared with ETT. Phrase-peak tones were sharper in excited examples, particularly in the Concert versions. These tones were flattened to ETT using the Melodyne software. The manipulated and original versions were presented pairwise to a musician panel that was asked to choose the more expressive version. By and large, the original versions were perceived as more expressive, thus supporting the common claim that intonation is a means for adding expressivity to a performance.

  • 85.
    Sundberg, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Lindblom, B.
    Hefele, A. -M
    Voice source, formant frequencies and vocal tract shape in overtone singing. A case study2021In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: In overtone singing a singer produces two pitches simultaneously, a low-pitched, continuous drone plus a melody played on the higher, flutelike and strongly enhanced overtones of the drone. The purpose of this study was to analyse underlying acoustical, phonatory and articulatory phenomena. Methods: The voice source was analyzed by inverse filtering the sound, the articulation from a dynamic MRI video of the vocal tract profile, and the lip opening from a frontal-view video recording. Vocal tract cross-distances were measured in the MR recording and converted to area functions, the formant frequencies of which computed. Results: Inverse filtering revealed that the overtone enhancement resulted from a close clustering of formants 2 and 3. The MRI material showed that for low enhanced overtone frequencies (F E) the tongue tip was raised and strongly retracted, while for high F E the tongue tip was less retracted but forming a longer constriction. Thus, the tongue configuration changed from an apical/anterior to a dorsal/posterior articulation. The formant frequencies derived from the area functions matched almost perfectly those used for the inverse filtering. Further, analyses of the area functions revealed that the second formant frequency was strongly dependent on the back cavity, and the third on the front cavity, which acted like a Helmholtz resonator, tuned by the tongue tip position and lip opening. Conclusions: This type of overtone singing can be fully explained by the well-established source-filter theory of voice production, as recently found by Bergevin et al. [1] for another type of overtone singing. 

  • 86.
    Sundberg, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Romedahl, Camilla
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Text Intelligibility and the Singer's Formant: A Relationship?2009In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 539-545Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Hypothesis: A clear enunciation of consonants is crucial to text intelligibility, and consonants are identified by specific formant frequency patterns. The singer's formant, a spectral peak near 3,000 Hz, enhances the higher formants in male opera singers' voices. It is well known that the second and higher formants are crucial to text intelligibility. Therefore, it seams reasonable to hypothesize that the singer's formant increases intelligibility of consonants and hence also the intelligibility of the text. For the same reason, text intelligibility of musical theatre singers, who lack a singer's formant, could be assumed to be lower than that of opera singers. Method: Two professional opera singers and two professional musical theatre singers sang a carrier phrase that contained one nonsense syllable. The phrases were masked with noise of different levels. The degree of intelligibility was measured by a listening test. Result: The results showed that the intelligibility was slightly higher for the musical theatre singers than for the opera singers. Conclusion: One possible reason for this Would be that the musical theatre singers use formant frequencies more similar to those occurring in normal speech. Another reason could be that the formant transitions characterizing the consonants were considerably slower in the case of the musical theatre singers than in the case of the operatic singers.

  • 87.
    Sundberg, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Scherer, Klaus R
    Trznadel, Stéphanie
    Fantini, Bernardino
    Recognizing emotions in the singing voice2017In: Psychomusicology, ISSN 0275-3987, E-ISSN 2162-1535, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 244-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the human ability to recognize emotions in vocal speech utterances with reasonable accuracy has been well documented in numerous studies, little research has been reported on emotion recognition from emotional expression in the singing voice. This paper is the first to examine this issue by asking internationally known professional opera singers to portray 9 major emotions by singing sequences of nonsense syllables on the standard musical scale. We then asked more than 500 hundred listener/judges from different cultures with a wide range of musical preferences and degree of musical knowledge to recognize the intended emotions from the voice recordings. The data show that listeners are indeed able to recognize emotions expressed in singing with better-than-chance accuracy. In addition, we find some evidence that there seem to be only minor effects of culture or language on the ability to recognize the emotional interpretations. Some emotions are more easily recognized than others are. Overall, recognition ability from the singing voice compares well to accuracy rates in studies using speaking. Judges clearly use the differential acoustic patterns of sound generated by the singers in their performance to infer the emotion expressed, as demonstrated by comparing the recognition rates for different emotions to results of statistical classification based on acoustic parameters. We also attempt to explore the nature of the inference process by examining, using path models, the major acoustic variables involved and the inference from subjectively perceived configurations of voice quality.

  • 88. Svec, Jan G.
    et al.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Hertegård, Stellan
    Three registers in an untrained female singer analyzed by videokymography, strobolaryngoscopy and sound spectrography2008In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 123, no 1, p. 347-353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been a lack of objective data on the singing voice registers, particularly on the so called "whistle" register, occurring in the top part of the female pitch range, which is accessible only to some singers. This study offers unique strobolaryngoscopic and high-speed (7812.5 images/s) videokymographic data on the vocal fold behavior of an untrained female singer capable of producing three distinct voice qualities, i.e., the chest, head and whistle registers. The sound was documented spectrographically. The transition from chest to head register, accompanied by pitch jumps, occurred around tones 134-C#5 (500-550 Hz) and was found to be associated with a slight decrease in arytenoids adduction, resulting in decrease of the closed quotient. The register shifts from head to whistle, also accompanied by pitch jumps, occurred around tones E5-B5 (670-1000 Hz) without any noticeable changes in arytenoids adduction. Some evidence was found for the vocal. tract influence on this transition. The mechanism of the vocal fold vibration in whistle register was found principally similar to that at lower registers: vibrations along the whole glottal length and vertical phase differences (indicated by sharp lateral peaks in videokymography) were seen on the vocal folds up to the highest tone G6 (1590 Hz).

  • 89.
    Thunberg, Hans
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Mathematics (Div.).
    Matematiska perspektiv på musik - tankar kring "Formalized Music"1999In: Nutida Musik, ISSN 1652-6082, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 8-17Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Om matematiken i tonsättaren Iannsi Xenakis arbete.

  • 90.
    Thunberg, Hans
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Mathematics (Div.).
    Symmetriska tonförrådManuscript (preprint) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Heltonsskalorna och dimskalorna är exempel på så kallade symmetriska skalor, det vill säga tonklassmängder (tonförråd) som är invarianta under transponering med $n$ halvtonssteg för något tal $n$, $1\le n \le 11$.

    På ett systematiskt sätt konstrueras i artikeln alla möjliga symmetriska tonklassmängder inom det kromatiska tonförrådet. Vi finner totalt 15 olika typer, varav 10 stycken innehåller sex tonklasser (toner) eller fler. 

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 91. Trochidis, Konstantinos
    et al.
    Guedes, Carlos
    Holzapfel, André
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Anantapadmanabhan, Akshay
    Klaric, Andrija
    Analysis-by-synthesis of rhythm in South Indian Art percussion performances by means of statistical analysis2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 92. Turchet, L.
    et al.
    Benincaso, M.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Network and Systems engineering.
    Examples of use cases with Smart Instruments2017In: AM '17 Proceedings of the 12th International Audio Mostly Conference on Augmented and Participatory Sound and Music Experiences, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2017, Vol. Part F131930, article id a47Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents some of the possibilities for interaction between performers, audiences, and their smart devices, offered by the novel family of musical instruments, the Smart Instruments. For this purpose, some implemented use cases are described, which involved a preliminary prototype of MIND Music Labs' Sensus Smart Guitar, the first exemplar of Smart Instrument. Sensus consists of a guitar augmented with sensors, actuators, onboard processing, and wireless communication. Some of the novel interactions enabled by Sensus technology are presented, which are based on connectivity of the instrument to smart devices, virtual reality headsets, and the cloud.

  • 93.
    Turchet, Luca
    et al.
    Department of Information Engineering and Computer Science, University of Trento, Via Sommarive 9, Trento, 38123, Italy, Via Sommarive 9.
    Pauwels, Johan
    Centre for Digital Music, Queen Mary University of London, 327 Mile End Road, London, E1 4NS, United Kingdom, 327 Mile End Road.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Computer Science, Network and Systems Engineering.
    Fazekas, György
    Centre for Digital Music, Queen Mary University of London, 327 Mile End Road, London, E1 4NS, United Kingdom, 327 Mile End Road.
    Cloud-smart Musical Instrument Interactions: Querying a Large Music Collection with a Smart Guitar2020In: ACM Transactions on Internet of Things, ISSN 2577-6207, Vol. 1, no 3, article id 15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large online music databases under Creative Commons licenses are rarely recorded by well-known artists, therefore conventional metadata-based search is insufficient in their adaptation to instrument players' needs. The emerging class of smart musical instruments (SMIs) can address this challenge. Thanks to direct internet connectivity and embedded processing, SMIs can send requests to repositories and reproduce the response for improvisation, composition, or learning purposes. We present a smart guitar prototype that allows retrieving songs from large online music databases using criteria different from conventional music search, which were derived from interviewing 30 guitar players. We investigate three interaction methods coupled with four search criteria (tempo, chords, key and tuning) exploiting intelligent capabilities in the instrument: (i) keywords-based retrieval using an embedded touchscreen; (ii) cloud-computing where recorded content is transmitted to a server that extracts relevant audio features; (iii) edge-computing where the guitar detects audio features and sends the request directly. Overall, the evaluation of these methods with beginner, intermediate, and expert players showed a strong appreciation for the direct connectivity of the instrument with an online database and the approach to the search based on the actual musical content rather than conventional textual criteria, such as song title or artist name.

12 51 - 93 of 93
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf