kth.sePublications
Change search
Refine search result
123 51 - 100 of 134
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 51. Hălbac-Cotoară-Zamfir, R.
    et al.
    Keesstra, S.
    Kalantari, Z.
    The impact of political, socio-economic and cultural factors on implementing environment friendly techniques for sustainable land management and climate change mitigation in Romania2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 654, p. 418-429Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 52.
    Ijumulana, Julian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. Univ Dar Es Salaam, Coll Engn & Technol, Dept Water Resources Engn, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania..
    Ligate, Fanuel Josephat
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. KWR Watercycle Res Inst, Groningenhaven 7, NL-3433 PE Nieuwegein, Netherlands..
    Mtalo, Felix
    Univ Dar Es Salaam, Coll Engn & Technol, Dept Water Resources Engn, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania..
    Zhang, Chaosheng
    Natl Univ Ireland, Sch Geog & Archaeol, Int Network Environm & Hlth INEH, Galway, Ireland.;Natl Univ Ireland, Ryan Inst, Galway, Ireland..
    Spatial analysis and GIS mapping of regional hotspots and potential health risk of fluoride concentrations in groundwater of northern Tanzania2020In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 735, article id 139584Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Safe drinking water supply systems in naturally contaminated hydrogeological environments require precise geoinformation on contamination hotspots. Spatial statistical methods and GIS were used to study fluoride occurrence in groundwater and identify significant spatial patterns using fluoride concentrations. The global and local Morans I indices were used. While the significant positive global Morans I index indicated spatial structure in fluoride occurrence, the significant spatial clusters were identified using local Morans I index and mapped at p-value of 0.05. The spatial clusters demonstrated patterns of drinking water sources with fluoride concentrations below or above WHO guideline and Tanzania standard for drinking water and were considered as ‘regional fluoride cool spots’ and ‘regional fluoride contamination hotspots’, respectively. Two regional fluoride contamination hotspots were identified and mapped around the Stratovolcano Mountains in the north-east and south-west of the study area; and along the Neogene Quaternary volcanic formations and Palaeo-Neoproterozoic East African Orogen (Mozambique Belt). The two largest regional fluoride cool spots dominated the major and minor rift escarpments in the west and east of the study area respectively while the small ones emerged around the volcanic mountains in the north and south. Furthermore, significant spatial outliers emerged at the boundary of regional fluoride hotspots and cool spots as an indication of the spatial processes controlling the mobilization of fluoride in groundwater. While all water sources in the cool spots had fluoride concentrations below 1.5 mg/L, some had extremely low concentrations below 0.5 mg/L which is not safe for human consumption. For hotspots, 96% of water sources had fluoride concentrations above 1.5 mg/L. The probability of having safe source of drinking water varied from one geological unit to another with sources in the Neogene Quaternary volcanic formations having least probabilities.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 53.
    Ijumulana, Julian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. Univ Dar Es Salaam, Coll Engn & Technol, Dept Water Resources Engn, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.;Univ Dar Es Salaam, Coll Engn & Technol, Dept Transportat & Geotech Engn, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania..
    Ligate, Fanuel Josephat
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. Univ Dar Es Salaam, Coll Engn & Technol, Dept Water Resources Engn, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.;Univ Dar Es Salaam, Mkwawa Coll Educ, Dept Chem, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania..
    Irunde, Regina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering. Univ Dar Es Salaam, Coll Engn & Technol, Dept Water Resources Engn, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.;Univ Dar Es Salaam, Coll Nat & Appl Sci, Dept Chem, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania..
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. KWR Water Cycle Res Inst, Groningenhaven 7, NL-3433 PE Nieuwegein, Netherlands..
    Ahmad, Arslan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. SIBELCO Ankerpoort NV, Op Bos 300, NL-6223 EP Maastricht, Netherlands..
    Tomasek, Ines
    Univ Clermont Auvergne, Lab Magmas & Volcans LMV, OPGC, CNRS,IRD, Clermont Ferrand, France.;Univ Clermont Auvergne, Inst Genet Reprod & Dev iGReD, CNRS UMR 6293,INSERM U1103, Translat Approach Epithelial Injury & Repair Team, Clermont Ferrand, France..
    Maity, Jyoti Prakash
    KIIT Deemed Univ, Sch Appl Sci, Dept Chem, Bhubaneswar 751024, Odisha, India..
    Mtalo, Felix
    Univ Dar Es Salaam, Coll Engn & Technol, Dept Water Resources Engn, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania..
    Spatial variability of the sources and distribution of fluoride in groundwater of the Sanya alluvial plain aquifers in northern Tanzania2022In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 810, article id 152153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwater contamination from geogenic sources paces challenges to many countries, especially in the developing world. In Tanzania, the elevated fluoride (F-) concentration and related chronic fluorosis associated with drinking F- rich water arc common in the Fast African Rift Valley regions. In these regions, F- concentration is space dependence which poses much uncertainty when targeting safe source for drinking water. To account for the spatial effects, integrated exploratory spatial data analysis, regression analysis, and geographical information systems tools were used to associate the distribution of F- in groundwater with spatial variability in terrain slopes, volcanic deposits, recharge water/vadose materials contact time, groundwater resource development for irrigated agriculture in the Sanya alluvial plain (SAP) of northern Tanzania. The F- concentration increased with distance from steep slopes where the high scale of variation was recorded in the gentle sloping and flat grounds within the SAP. The areas covered with debris avalanche deposits in the gentle sloping and flat grounds correlated with the high spatial variability in F- concentration. Furthermore, the high spatial variability in F- correlated positively with depth to groundwater in the Sanya flood plain. In contrast, a negative correlation between F- and borehole depth was observed. The current irrigation practices in the Sanya alluvial plain contribute to the high spatial variability in F- concentration, particularly within the perched shallow aquifers in the volcanic river valleys. The findings of this study arc important to the overall chain of safe water supply process in historically fluorotic regions. They provide new insights into the well-known F- contamination through the use of modern geospatial methods and technologies. In Tanzania's context, the findings can improve the current process of drilling permits issuance by the authority and guide the local borehole drillers to be precise in siting safe source for drinking water.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 54.
    Islam, Md. Aminul
    et al.
    Noakhali Sci & Technol Univ, Dept Microbiol, COVID 19 Diagnost Lab, Noakhali 3814, Bangladesh.;President Abdul Hamid Med Coll, Dept Microbiol, Adv Mol Lab, Kishoreganj, Bangladesh..
    Rahman, Md. Arifur
    Noakhali Sci & Technol Univ, Dept Microbiol, COVID 19 Diagnost Lab, Noakhali 3814, Bangladesh..
    Jakariya, Md.
    North South Univ, Dept Environm Sci & Management, Dhaka 1229, Bangladesh..
    Bahadur, Newaz Mohammed
    Noakhali Sci & Technol Univ, Dept Appl Chem & Chem Engn, Noakhali 3814, Bangladesh..
    Hossen, Foysal
    Noakhali Sci & Technol Univ, Dept Microbiol, COVID 19 Diagnost Lab, Noakhali 3814, Bangladesh..
    Mukharjee, Sanjoy Kumar
    Noakhali Sci & Technol Univ, Dept Microbiol, COVID 19 Diagnost Lab, Noakhali 3814, Bangladesh..
    Hossain, Mohammad Salim
    Noakhali Sci & Technol Univ, Dept Pharm, Noakhali 3814, Bangladesh..
    Tasneem, Atkeeya
    Noakhali Sci & Technol Univ, Dept Environm Sci & Disaster Management, Noakhali 3814, Bangladesh..
    Haque, Md. Atiqul
    China Agr Univ, Coll Vet Med, Key Lab Anim Epidemiol & Zoonoses, Minist Agr & Rural Affairs, Beijing, Peoples R China.;Hajee Mohammad Danesh Sci & Technol Univ, Fac Vet & Anim Sci, Dept Microbiol, Dinajpur 5200, Bangladesh..
    Sera, Francesco
    Univ Florence, Dept Stat Informat Applicat, Florence, Italy.;London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, Dept Publ Hlth Environm & Soc, London, England..
    Jahid, Iqbal Kabir
    Jashore Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Microbiol, Jashore 7408, Bangladesh..
    Ahmed, Tanvir
    Bangladesh Univ Engn & Technol, Dept Civil Engn, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh..
    Hasan, Mohammad Nayeem
    Shahjalal Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Stat, Sylhet 3114, Bangladesh..
    Islam, Md. Tahmidul
    Water Aid Bangladesh, Dhaka 1213, Bangladesh..
    Hossain, Amzad
    Noakhali Sci & Technol Univ, Dept Microbiol, COVID 19 Diagnost Lab, Noakhali 3814, Bangladesh..
    Amin, Ruhul
    Noakhali Sci & Technol Univ, Dept Microbiol, COVID 19 Diagnost Lab, Noakhali 3814, Bangladesh..
    Tiwari, Ananda
    Univ Helsinki, Fac Vet Med, Dept Food Hyg & Environm Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.;Finnish Inst Hlth & Welf, Dept Hlth Secur, Expert Microbiol Res Unit, Helsinki, Finland..
    Didar-Ul-Alam, Md
    Noakhali Sci & Technol Univ, Dept Microbiol, COVID 19 Diagnost Lab, Noakhali 3814, Bangladesh..
    Dhama, Kuldeep
    ICAR Indian Vet Res Inst, Div Pathol, Bareilly 243122, Uttar Pradesh, India..
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering.
    Ahmed, Firoz
    Noakhali Sci & Technol Univ, Dept Microbiol, COVID 19 Diagnost Lab, Noakhali 3814, Bangladesh..
    A 30-day follow-up study on the prevalence of SARS-COV-2 genetic markers in wastewater from the residence of COVID-19 patient and comparison with clinical positivity2023In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 858, p. 159350-, article id 159350Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wastewater based epidemiology (WBE) is an important tool to fight against COVID-19 as it provides insights into the health status of the targeted population from a small single house to a large municipality in a cost-effective, rapid, and non-invasive way. The implementation of wastewater based surveillance (WBS) could reduce the burden on the public health system, management of pandemics, help to make informed decisions, and protect public health. In this study, a house with COVID-19 patients was targeted for monitoring the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 genetic markers in wastewa-ter samples (WS) with clinical specimens (CS) for a period of 30 days. RT-qPCR technique was employed to target non-structural (ORF1ab) and structural-nucleocapsid (N) protein genes of SARS-CoV-2, according to a validated experimental protocol. Physiological, environmental, and biological parameters were also measured following the American Public Health Association (APHA) standard protocols. SARS-CoV-2 viral shedding in wastewater peaked when the highest number of COVID-19 cases were clinically diagnosed. Throughout the study period, 7450 to 23,000 gene copies/1000 mL were detected, where we identified 47 % (57/120) positive samples from WS and 35 % (128/360) from CS. When the COVID-19 patient number was the lowest (2), the highest CT value (39.4; i.e., lowest copy number) was identified from WS. On the other hand, when the COVID-19 patients were the highest (6), the lowest CT value (25.2 i.e., highest copy numbers) was obtained from WS. An advance signal of increased SARS-CoV-2 viral load from the COVID-19 patient was found in WS earlier than in the CS. Using customized primer sets in a traditional PCR approach, we confirmed that all SARS-CoV-2 variants identified in both CS and WS were Delta variants (B.1.617.2). To our knowledge, this is the first follow-up study to determine a temporal relationship be-tween COVID-19 patients and their discharge of SARS-CoV-2 RNA genetic markers in wastewater from a single house including all family members for clinical sampling from a developing country (Bangladesh), where a proper sewage system is lacking. The salient findings of the study indicate that monitoring the genetic markers of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in wastewater could identify COVID-19 cases, which reduces the burden on the public health system during COVID-19 pandemics.

  • 55.
    Islam, Md Aminul
    et al.
    Department of Microbiology, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Noakhali-3814, Bangladesh; Department of Microbiology, President Abdul Hamid Medical College, Karimganj, Kishoreganj, Bangladesh.
    Rakib, Sakhawat Hossen
    Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, University of Asia Pacific, Dhaka.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering.
    Jakariya, Md
    Department of Environmental Science and Management, North South University, Bashundhara, Dhaka-1229, Bangladesh.
    Haque, Md Masudul
    Department of Public Health, North South University, Dhaka 1229, Bangladesh.
    Tiwari, Anand
    Department of Food Hygiene and Environmental Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Integrated strategy: Identifying SARS-CoV-2 strains in communities via wastewater monitoring and clinical diagnosis2024In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 912, article id 168617Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 56.
    Jakariya, Md.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Vahter, M.
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Rahman, M.
    ICDDR, B: Centre for Health and Population Research, Dhaka.
    Wahed, M. A.
    ICDDR, B: Centre for Health and Population Research, Dhaka.
    Hore, S. K.
    ICDDR, B: Centre for Health and Population Research, Dhaka.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Persson, L. Å.
    ICDDR, B: Centre for Health and Population Research, Dhaka.
    Screening of arsenic in tubewell water with field test kits: Evaluation of the method from public health perspective2007In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 379, no 2-3, p. 167-175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an urgent need for Bangladesh to identify the arsenic (As) contaminated tubewells (TWs) in order to assess the health risks and initiate appropriate mitigation measures. This will involve testing water in millions of TWs and raising community awareness about the health problems related to chronic As exposure from drinking water. Field test kits offer the only practical tool within the time frame and financial resources available for screening and assessment of the As contaminated TWs as well as their monitoring than that of the laboratory measurement. A comparison of field test kit and laboratory measurements by AAS as "gold standard" for As in water of 12,532 TWs in Matlab Upazila in Bangladesh, indicates that the field kit correctly determined the status of 91% of the As levels compared to the Bangladesh Drinking Water Standard (BDWS) of 50 mu g/L, and 87% of the WHO guideline value of 10 mu g/L. Nevertheless, due to analytical and human errors during the deten-nination of As by the field test kits, some misclassification of wells is inevitable. Cross-checking of the field test kit results, both by Field Supervisor and by the laboratory analyses reveal considerable discrepancies in the correct screening mainly at As concentration ranges of 10-24.9 mu g/L and 50-99.9 mu g/L, critical from a public health point of view. The uncertainties of misclassification of these two groups of TWs have severe public health implications due to As exposure from drinking water sources. This can be reduced through proper training of the field personnel, cross verification of the field test kit results with laboratory analyses and further development of the field test kits to determine As at low concentrations.

  • 57. Johansson, H.
    et al.
    Jonsson, K.
    Forsman, K. J.
    Wörman, Anders
    Retention of conservative and sorptive solutes in streams - simultaneous tracer experiments2001In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 266, no 03-jan, p. 229-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effective transport velocity of solutes in rivers and streams is governed by transient storage in hyporheic zones in which the longitudinal advection velocity is small relative to the main stream flow velocity. Results from a simultaneous tracer experiment using a non-reactive (tritium, (H2O)-H-3) and a sorptive tracer [chromium, Cr-51(III)] have formed the basis of a more accurate interpretation of the retention characteristics of solutes in streams than previously has been possible. By using a simultaneous injection of these two tracers, it was possible to distinguish between their different behaviours. Based on estimations of fluxes, the retained mass of chromium in the storage zones along the 30-km-long study-reach was 76% after 150 h. Independent observations in the bed sediment indicated that the loss of chromium observed in the water was mainly a result of uptake into the bed sediment. To describe the transport in the stream, a model concept including solute sorption kinetics in the bed sediment was proposed. Evaluation of parameters in the model, indicated that the uptake of chromium in the bed sediment is controlled by sorption kinetics.

  • 58.
    Johansson Thunqvist, Eva-Lotta
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Airborne spreading and deposition of de-icing salt: A case study1999In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 235, no 1-3, p. 161-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study it was concluded that between 20 and 63% of the de-icing salt applied on the road was transported by air and deposited on the ground 2-40 m from the road. The reason for the higher percentages is suggested to be intense snowfall, which leads to more splash generation and ploughing. Ninety percent or more of the total deposition occurs within 20 m at all transects. For all periods and both localities the deposition was greater on the east side of the road, which reflects the prevailing westerly winds in relation to the de-icing action occasions.

  • 59. Jonsson, K.
    et al.
    Wörman, Anders
    Effect of sorption kinetics on the transport of solutes in streams2001In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 266, no 03-jan, p. 239-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To provide an appropriate description of the transport of a reactive substance in a stream, it is important to include a kinetic description of sorption in a transport model. In this study, first-order sorption kinetics was taken into account in both the transient storage zone and the stream water, and analytical expressions for relative error in statistical moments of the residence time PDF, resulting from disregarding sorption kinetics, were derived. The sorption rate coefficient in the water was found to influence the error in the expected value, and the error was found to approach infinity as the travel distance or sorption rate coefficient approaches zero. The sorption rate coefficient in the storage zone influences only higher-order moments. For sufficiently long distances, the error in the variance was found to be more pronounced when sorption kinetics in the storage zone was disregarded, than when sorption kinetics in the stream water was disregarded. Parameter values from a tracer experiment with Cr-51 revealed that the relative error in the variance could be more than 100%, if sorption kinetics in the storage zone is disregarded.

  • 60. Kalantari, Z.
    et al.
    Ferreira, C. S. S.
    Koutsouris, A. J.
    Ahmer, A. -K
    Cerdà, A.
    Destouni, G.
    Assessing flood probability for transportation infrastructure based on catchment characteristics, sediment connectivity and remotely sensed soil moisture2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 661, p. 393-406Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 61.
    Kalantari, Zahra
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Briel, Annemarie
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Lyon, Steve W.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    On the utilization of hydrological modelling for road drainage design under climate and land use change2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 475, no 15, p. 97-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Road drainage structures are often designed using methods that do not consider process-based representations of a landscape's hydrological response. This may create inadequately sized structures as coupled land cover and climate changes can lead to an amplified hydrological response. This study aims to quantify potential increases of runoff in response to future extreme rain events in a 61 km2 catchment (40% forested) in southwest Sweden using a physically-based hydrological modelling approach. We simulate peak discharge and water level (stage) at two types of pipe bridges and one culvert, both of which are commonly used at Swedish road/stream intersections, under combined forest clear-cutting and future climate scenarios for 2050 and 2100. The frequency of changes in peak flow and water level varies with time (seasonality) and storm size. These changes indicate that the magnitude of peak flow and the runoff response are highly correlated to season rather than storm size. In all scenarios considered, the dimensions of the current culvert are insufficient to handle the increase in water level estimated using a physically-based modelling approach. It also appears that the water level at the pipe bridges changes differently depending on the size and timing of the storm events. The findings of the present study and the approach put forward should be considered when planning investigations on and maintenance for areas at risk of high water flows. In addition, the research highlights the utility of physically-based hydrological models to identify the appropriateness of road drainage structure dimensioning.

  • 62.
    Kalantari, Zahra
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Department of Physical Geography and Bolin Centre for Climate Research, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Cavalli, M.
    Research Institute for Geo-Hydrological Protection, National Research Council, Padova, Italy.
    Cantone, C.
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI), SE-601 76 Norrköping, Sweden.
    Crema, S.
    Research Institute for Geo-Hydrological Protection, National Research Council, Padova, Italy.
    Destouni, G.
    Stockholm University, Department of Physical Geography and Bolin Centre for Climate Research, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Flood probability quantification for road infrastructure: Data-driven spatial-statistical approach and case study applications2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 581-582, p. 386-398Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate-driven increase in the frequency of extreme hydrological events is expected to impose greater strain on the built environment and major transport infrastructure, such as roads and railways. This study develops a data-driven spatial-statistical approach to quantifying and mapping the probability of flooding at critical road-stream intersection locations, where water flow and sediment transport may accumulate and cause serious road damage. The approach is based on novel integration of key watershed and road characteristics, including also measures of sediment connectivity. The approach is concretely applied to and quantified for two specific study case examples in southwest Sweden, with documented road flooding effects of recorded extreme rainfall. The novel contributions of this study in combining a sediment connectivity account with that of soil type, land use, spatial precipitation-runoff variability and road drainage in catchments, and in extending the connectivity measure use for different types of catchments, improve the accuracy of model results for road flood probability.

  • 63.
    Kalantari, Zahra
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ferreira, Carla Sofia Santos
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Polytech Inst Coimbra, Res Ctr Nat Resources Environm & Soc CERNAS, Agrarian Sch Coimbra, P-3045601 Coimbra, Portugal..
    Pan, Haozhi
    Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, China Inst Urban Governance, Sch Int & Publ Affairs, Shanghai, Peoples R China..
    Pereira, Paulo
    Mykolas Romeris Univ, Environm Management Ctr, Ateities g 20, LT-08303 Vilnius, Lithuania..
    Nature-based solutions to global environmental challenges2023In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 880, p. 163227-, article id 163227Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Nature-based solutions (NBS) supply many ecosystem services key to wellbeing. There is evidence that several ecosystems that serve as NBS (e.g., forests) are being threatened by land use and climate change. Urban expansion and agriculture intensification is imposing an extensive degradation in several ecosystems, increasing human vulnerability to climate change-related events. Therefore, it is key to rethink how to develop strategies that minimize these effects. Halt ecosystem degradation and establishing NBS in areas of high human pressure (e.g., urban and agriculture) is essential to reduce environmental impacts. Numerous NBS can be helpful in agriculture (e.g., retention of crop residues/mulching) to reduce erosion or diffuse pollution or in urban areas (e.g., urban green spaces) to mitigate urban heat island effects or floods. Although these measures are important, it is crucial to raise awareness among the stakeholders, assess case by case and minimize the tradeoffs associated with the NBS application (e.g., area needed). Overall, NBS are vital in addressing present and future global environmental challenges.

  • 64.
    Kalantari, Zahra
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Lyon, Stve W.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    French, Helen K.
    Stolte, Jannes
    Jansson, Per-Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Sassner, Mona
    Quantifying the hydrological impact of simulated changes in land use on peak discharge in a small catchment2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 466-467, p. 741-754Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A physically-based, distributed hydrological model (MIKE SHE) was used to quantify overland runoff in response to four extreme rain events and four types of simulated land use measure in a catchment in Norway. The current land use in the catchment comprises arable lands, forest, urban areas and a stream that passes under a motorway at the catchment outlet. This model simulation study demonstrates how the composition and configuration of land use measures affect discharge at the catchment outlet differently in response to storms of different sizes. For example, clear-cutting on 30% of the catchment area produced a 60% increase in peak discharge and a 10% increase in total runoff resulting from a 50-year storm event in summer, but the effects on peak discharge were less pronounced during smaller storms. Reforestation of 60% of the catchment area was the most effective measure in reducing peak flows for smaller (2-, 5- and 10-year) storms. Introducing grassed waterways reduced water velocity in the stream and resulted in a 28% reduction in peak flow at the catchment outlet for the 50-year storm event. Overall, the results indicate that the specific effect of land use measures on catchment discharge depends on their spatial distribution and on the size and timing of storm events.

  • 65.
    Kalantari, Zahra
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering. Stockholm University, Sweden .
    Lyon, Stve W.
    Jansson, Per-Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Stolte, Jannes
    French, Helen K.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Sassner, Mona
    Modeller subjectivity and calibration impacts on hydrological model applications: An event-based comparison for a road-adjacent catchment in south-east Norway2015In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 502, p. 315-329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Identifying a 'best' performing hydrologic model in a practical sense is difficult due to the potential influences of modeller subjectivity on, for example, calibration procedure and parameter selection. This is especially true for model applications at the event scale where the prevailing catchment conditions can have a strong impact on apparent model performance and suitability. In this study, two lumped models (CoupModel and HBV) and two physically-based distributed models (LISEM and MIKE SHE) were applied to a small catchment upstream of a road in south-eastern Norway. All models were calibrated to a single event representing typical winter conditions in the region and then applied to various other winter events to investigate the potential impact of calibration period and methodology on model performance. Peak flow and event-based hydrographs were simulated differently by all models leading to differences in apparent model performance under this application. In this case study, the lumped models appeared to be better suited for hydrological events that differed from the calibration event (i.e., events when runoff was generated from rain on non-frozen soils rather than from rain and snowmelt on frozen soil) while the more physical-based approaches appeared better suited during snowmelt and frozen soil conditions more consistent with the event-specific calibration. This was due to the combination of variations in subsurface conditions over the eight events considered, the subsequent ability of the models to represent the impact of the conditions (particularly when subsurface conditions varied greatly from the calibration event), and the different approaches adopted to calibrate the models. These results indicate that hydrologic models may not only need to be selected on a case-by-case basis but also have their performance evaluated on an application-by-application basis since how a model is applied can be equally important as inherent model structure.

  • 66.
    Karlén, Camilla
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Heijerick, D.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Janssen, C. R.
    Runoff rates and ecotoxicity of zinc induced by atmospheric corrosion2001In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 277, no 1-3, p. 169-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Initiated by regulatory restrictions on the use of zinc for various building and construction applications, together with a lack of knowledge related to the release of zinc induced by atmospheric corrosion, a major interdisciplinary research project was implemented to generate data to be used in future risk assessment. Runoff rates from a large number of commercially available zinc-based materials have been determined on panels inclined 45 degrees from the horizon, facing south, during a 1-year atmospheric exposure in an urban environment in Sweden. Possible environmental effects of runoff water immediately after leaving the surface of the various materials have been evaluated during two different sampling periods of varying season and zinc concentration, using the standard growth inhibition test with algae, Raphidocelis subcapitata (formerly Selenastnim capricornutum), Zinc-specific biosensors with the bacterial strain of Alcaligenes cutrophus. and computer modeling using the water-ligand model MINTEQA2 and the humic aquatic model WHAM, have been used to assess the bioavailability and chemical speciation of zinc in the runoff water. An excellent consistency between the different methods was observed. The results show considerably lower runoff rates of zinc (0.07-3.5 gm(-2) year(-1)) than previously being used for regulatory restrictions, and the concentration of zinc to be predominantly responsible for the observed toxicity of the runoff water towards the green algae. The majority of the released zinc quantity was found to be present as free hydrated zinc ions and, hence, bioavailable. The data do not consider changes in bioavailability and chemical speciation or dilution effects during entry into the environment. and should therefore only be used as an initial assessment of the potential environmental effect of zinc runoff from building applications. This interdisciplinary approach has the potential for studies on the environmental fate of zinc in soil or aquatic systems.

  • 67. Keesstra, S.
    et al.
    Nunes, J.
    Novara, A.
    Finger, D.
    Avelar, D.
    Kalantari, Z.
    Cerdà, A.
    The superior effect of nature based solutions in land management for enhancing ecosystem services2018In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 610-611, p. 997-1009Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 68.
    Khan, Khalid M.
    et al.
    Indiana Univ, Dept Environm & Occupat Hlth, Sch Publ Hlth, Bloomington, IN USA..
    Chakraborty, Rishika
    Indiana Univ, Dept Environm & Occupat Hlth, Sch Publ Hlth, Bloomington, IN USA..
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    Univ Southern Queensland, Sch Civil Engn & Surveying, West St, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia.;Univ Southern Queensland, UNESCO Chair Groundwater Arsen Agenda Sustainable, West St, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia..
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering.
    Parvez, Faruque
    Columbia Univ, Mailman Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Environm Hlth Sci, New York, NY 10027 USA..
    Health effects of arsenic exposure in Latin America: An overview of the past eight years of research2020In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 710, article id 136071Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies conducted over the past eight years in Latin America (IA) have continued to produce new knowledge regarding health impacts of arsenic (As) in drinking water. We conducted a systematic review of 92 peer-reviewed English articles published between 2011 and 2018 to expand our understanding on these health effects. Majority of the LA studies on As have been conducted in Chile and Mexico. Additional data have emerged from As-exposed populations in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Uruguay. The present review has documented recent data on the biomarkers of As exposure, genetic susceptibility and genotoxicity, and risk assessment to further characterize the health effects and exposed populations. Some recent findings on the associations of As with bladder and lung cancers, reproductive outcomes, and declined cognitive performance have been consistent with what we reported in our previous systematic review article. We have found highly convincing evidence of in utero As exposure as a significant risk factor for several health outcomes, particularly for bladder cancer, even at moderate level. New data have emerged regarding the associations of As with breast and laryngeal cancers as well as type 2 diabetes. We observed early life As exposure to be associated with kidney injury, carotid intima-media thickness, and various pulmonary outcomes in children. Other childhood effects such as low birth weight, low gestational age, anemia, increased apoptosis, and decreased cognitive functions were also reported. Studies identified genetic variants of As methyltransferase that could determine susceptibility to As related health outcomes. Arsenic-induced DNA damage and alteration of gene and protein expression have been reported. While the scope of research is still vast, the substantial work done on As exposure and its health effects in LA will help direct further large-scale studies for more comprehensive knowledge and plan appropriate mitigation strategies.

  • 69.
    Kirschbaum, Miko U.F.
    et al.
    Manaaki Whenua - Landcare Research, Private Bag 11052, Palmerston North, New Zealand.
    Cowie, Annette L.
    NSW Department of Primary Industries/University of New England, Armidale, Australia.
    Peñuelas, Josep
    CSIC, Global Ecology Unit, CREAF-CSIC-UAB, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain; CREAF, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
    Smith, Pete
    Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, 23 St Machar Drive, Aberdeen, AB24 3UU, UK.
    Conant, Richard T.
    Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, 80523, USA.
    Sage, Rowan F.
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, 25 Willcocks Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3B2, Canada.
    Brandão, Miguel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Cotrufo, M. Francesca
    Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA.
    Luo, Yiqi
    School of Integrative Plant Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA.
    Way, Danielle A.
    Division of Plant Sciences, Research School of Biology, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, 2601, Australia; Department of Biology, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada; Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA.
    Robinson, Sharon A.
    Securing Antarctica'’s Environmental Future & Centre for Sustainable Ecosystem Solutions, School of Earth, Atmospheric and Life Sciences, University of Wollongong, Australia.
    Is tree planting an effective strategy for climate change mitigation?2024In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 909, article id 168479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The world's forests store large amounts of carbon (C), and growing forests can reduce atmospheric CO2 by storing C in their biomass. This has provided the impetus for world-wide tree planting initiatives to offset fossil-fuel emissions. However, forests interact with their environment in complex and multifaceted ways that must be considered for a balanced assessment of the value of planting trees. First, one needs to consider the potential reversibility of C sequestration in trees through either harvesting or tree death from natural factors. If carbon storage is only temporary, future temperatures will actually be higher than without tree plantings, but cumulative warming will be reduced, contributing both positively and negatively to future climate-change impacts. Alternatively, forests could be used for bioenergy or wood products to replace fossil-fuel use which would obviate the need to consider the possible reversibility of any benefits. Forests also affect the Earth's energy balance through either absorbing or reflecting incoming solar radiation. As forests generally absorb more incoming radiation than bare ground or grasslands, this constitutes an important warming effect that substantially reduces the benefit of C storage, especially in snow-covered regions. Forests also affect other local ecosystem services, such as conserving biodiversity, modifying water and nutrient cycles, and preventing erosion that could be either beneficial or harmful depending on specific circumstances. Considering all these factors, tree plantings may be beneficial or detrimental for mitigating climate-change impacts, but the range of possibilities makes generalisations difficult. Their net benefit depends on many factors that differ between specific circumstances. One can, therefore, neither uncritically endorse tree planting everywhere, nor condemn it as counter-productive. Our aim is to provide key information to enable appropriate assessments to be made under specific circumstances. We conclude our discussion by providing a step-by-step guide for assessing the merit of tree plantings under specific circumstances.

  • 70.
    Kotta, Jonne
    et al.
    Univ Tartu, Estonian Marine Inst, Maealuse 14, EE-12618 Tallinn, Estonia.;Tallinn Univ Technol, Estonian Maritime Acad, Kopli 101, EE-11712 Tallinn, Estonia..
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering.
    Barboza, Francisco R.
    Univ Tartu, Estonian Marine Inst, Maealuse 14, EE-12618 Tallinn, Estonia..
    Assessing the potential for sea-based macroalgae cultivation and its application for nutrient removal in the Baltic Sea2022In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 839, p. 156230-, article id 156230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Marine eutrophication is a pervasive and growing threat to global sustainability. Macroalgal cultivation is a promising circular economy solution to achieve nutrient reduction and food security. However, the location of production hotspots is not well known. In this paper the production potential of macroalgae of high commercial value was predicted across the Baltic Sea region. In addition, the nutrient limitation within and adjacent to macroalgal farms was investigated to suggest optimal site-specific configuration of farms. The production potential of Saccharina latissima was largely driven by salinity and the highest production yields are expected in the westernmost Baltic Sea areas where salinity is > 23. The direct and interactive effects of light availability, temperature, salinity and nutrient concentrations regulated the predicted changes in the production of Ulva intestinalis and Fucus vesiculosus. The western and southern Baltic Sea exhibited the highest farming potential for these species, with promising areas also in the eastern Baltic Sea. Macroalgal farming did not induce significant nutrient limitation. The expected spatial propagation of nutrient limitation caused by macroalgal farming was less than 100-250 m. Higher propagation distances were found in areas of low nutrient and low water exchange (e.g. offshore areas in the Baltic Proper) and smaller distances in areas of high nutrient and high water exchange (e.g. western Baltic Sea and Gulf of Riga). The generated maps provide the most sought-after input to support blue growth initiatives that foster the sustainable development of macroalgal cultivation and reduction of in situ nutrient loads in the Baltic Sea.

  • 71.
    Kourtit, Karima
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Center for the Future of Places.
    Nijkamp, Peter
    JADS, Sint Janssingel 92, NL-5211 DA sHertogenbosch, Netherlands.;Alexandru Loan Univ, Iasi, Romania.;Polytecn Univ, Benguerir, Morocco.;Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Poznan, Poland.;Tinbergen Inst, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Suzuki, Soushi
    Hokkai Gakuen Univ, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan..
    Are global cities sustainability champions?: A double delinking analysis of environmental performance of urban agglomerations2020In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 709, article id 134963Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban agglomerations - irrespective of their size or location - may act not only as engines of economic growth, but also as vehicles of environmental and climate sustainability that may stimulate both socioeconomic achievements and environmentally-benign outcomes. Clearly, the efficiency of these outcomes may differ for different types of urban agglomeration in the world. This paper aims to present and test an advanced methodology for assessing economic and sustainability-oriented performance strategies for global cities, by developing and applying a super-efficient Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model. We compare 40 global cities - included in the Global Power City Index (GPCI) database - in a benchmark study in order to trace the highest-performing urban regions from both an economic and environmental-climatological efficiency perspective, by applying relevant quantitative GPCI indicators to these 40 cities. Our ultimate goal is to test what is termed the 'delinking' hypothesis, from the viewpoint of both economic prosperity and urban size externalities. This approach will be applied empirically by examining the GPCI data set comprised of various multidimensional and empirically verified indicators on economic performance and climatological-environmental conditions for the 40 global cities concerned. We regard both the size of these agglomerations and their economic welfare position as critical parameters for assessing their economic and environmental efficiency performance. In the framework of our original DEA approach, these urban areas are categorised according to 2x2 dimensions, viz. in terms of both agglomeration size (big or medium-sized) and the economic development level of the area (highly developed or developing/emerging). Our contribution serves to assess - by means of regression techniques - the highest performing agglomerations among the urban sustainability champions on the basis of the two above-mentioned assessment criteria. This approach provides the opportunity to test the so-called Kuznets sustainability curve under two different conditions, viz. agglomeration size and economic development. The study presents and interprets the empirical findings for these four classes of global cities. (C) 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 72.
    Krecl, Patricia
    et al.
    Fed Univ Technol, Grad Program Environm Engn, Londrina, Parana, Brazil..
    Cipoli, Yago Alonso
    Fed Univ Technol, Dept Environm Engn, Londrina, Parana, Brazil..
    Targino, Admir Creso
    Fed Univ Technol, Grad Program Environm Engn, Londrina, Parana, Brazil..
    Castro, Lizeth Bibiana
    Fed Univ Technol, Grad Program Environm Engn, Londrina, Parana, Brazil..
    Gidhagen, Lars
    Swedish Meteorol & Hydrol Inst, Norrköping, Sweden..
    Malucelli, Francisco
    KTH. Inst Res & Urban Planning Curitiba IPPUC, Curitiba Municipality, Brazil..
    Wolf, Alyson
    Curitiba Urbanizat URBS, Curitiba Municipality, Brazil..
    Cyclists' exposure to air pollution under different traffic management strategies2020In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 723, article id 138043Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We characterized the air pollution exposure of cyclists in the city center of Curitiba (Brazil) and then systematically analyzed the influence of several traffic management strategies (bus lanes, bicycle lanes, traffic calming area, traffic lights, and cleaner vehicle technologies) on the exposure. We focused on concentrations of particulates monitored on-board bicycles: PM2.5, black carbon mass (BC) and particle number concentration (PNC), and also reported on total volatile organic compound concentrations (TVOC). Overall, mean (+/- standard deviation) exposure was moderate compared to other cities around the world (BC: 6.98 +/- 11.53 mu g m(-3), PM2.5: 33.22 +/- 25.64 mu g m(-3), PNC: 3.93 x 10(4) +/- 4.17 x 10(4) cm(-3), TVOC: 361 +/- 99 ppb). Concentrations were higher in the morning rush hour than in the afternoon traffic peak, and exhibited a large spatial variability. Bus stops and signalized traffic intersections emerged as hotspots when compared to the rest of the journey, increasing all particulate concentrations. Lower exposure was found on streets with low traffic (particularly, small number of heavy-duty vehicles) and within shallow canyon structures. The impact of traffic calming areas on cyclists' exposure is still inconclusive and further experimental and modelling studies are needed. Simple emission calculations based on traffic activity and real-world emission factors suggested that replacing the diesel bus fleet with hybrid electric buses might largely decrease (64%) the exposure to BC in the city center. Urban planners could use this valuable information to project new cycleways, which would lead to healthier active transportation. Synchronizing traffic signals might further reduce exposure at intersections.

  • 73.
    Krishan, Gopal
    et al.
    Natl Inst Hydrol NIH, Roorkee, Uttarakhand, India..
    Kumar, Bhishm
    Natl Inst Hydrol NIH, Roorkee, Uttarakhand, India.;IAEA, Vienna, Austria..
    Sudarsan, Natarajan
    Natl Inst Hydrol NIH, Roorkee, Uttarakhand, India..
    Rao, Mavidanam Someshwar
    Natl Inst Hydrol NIH, Roorkee, Uttarakhand, India..
    Ghosh, Narayan Chandra
    Bengal Inst Technol, Kolkata, India..
    Taloor, Ajay Kumar
    Univ Jammu, Dept Remote Sensing & GIS, Jammu, India..
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering.
    Singh, Surjeet
    Natl Inst Hydrol NIH, Roorkee, Uttarakhand, India..
    Kumar, Chander Prakash
    Natl Inst Hydrol NIH, Roorkee, Uttarakhand, India..
    Sharma, Anupma
    Natl Inst Hydrol NIH, Roorkee, Uttarakhand, India..
    Jain, Sharad Kumar
    Natl Inst Hydrol NIH, Roorkee, Uttarakhand, India.;Indian Inst Technol, Roorkee, Uttarakhand, India..
    Sidhu, Balwinder Singh
    Punjab State Farmers & Farm Workers Commiss, Mohali, Punjab, India..
    Kumar, Sumant
    Natl Inst Hydrol NIH, Roorkee, Uttarakhand, India..
    Vasisht, Rajesh
    Dept Agr & Farmers Welf, Mohali, Punjab, India.;Dept Soil & Water Conservat, Mohali, Punjab, India..
    Isotopes (6(18)O,6D and H-3) variations in groundwater with emphasis on salinization in the state of Punjab, India2021In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 789, article id 148051Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The state of Punjab has a dominant agrarian economy and is considered India's bread basket. However, it is now under the problem of falling agro-economy primarily because of pervasive depletion of groundwater levels and deteriorating groundwater quality in south-west Punjab, but increasing salinity is a major concern. The irrigation requirements of crops are fulfilled by groundwater and canal water but the introduction of canal irrigation has led to waterlogging and subsequent salinization rendering large fertile-land areas becoming unproductive mainly in the south-western part of Punjab. There was an apprehension that excessive withdrawal of groundwater might have caused a reversal of natural groundwater flow pattern that might have caused ingress of saline water into fresh groundwater region of central Punjab. To address the apprehension related to the rise in groundwater salinity and its subsequent ingression in the fresh-water zone and suggest suitable management solutions, a study was undertaken to analyse the data related to salinity, isotopes, land-use and land cover (LULC) along with field and laboratory experimental results. The depth-wise isotope analysis shows that there is a large variation in isotopic signatures of shallow and intermediate aquifers and it decreases with the depth of aquifers (150-250 m). It appears that very deep groundwater (>250 m) is relatively isolated and does not show a large variation or mixing effect. Tritium analysis shows that dynamic groundwater is actively recharged through canal, river, and/or rain. The presence of modern groundwater at deeper depth indicates a good interconnection between shallow and deep groundwater. Interpretations of the results show that the canal is the main source of groundwater recharge in south-west Punjab and the evaporation process is responsible for increasing the salinity hazard. In the central parts of Punjab, groundwater and rain are the main sources of groundwater recharge, while rain is the main source of groundwater recharge in the Kandi area. In the south-west Punjab, some primary salinity has formed as a result of mineral dissolution which has further increased due to evaporative enrichment.

  • 74.
    Kulabako, N. R.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Nalubega, M.
    Thunvik, Roger
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Study of the impact of land use and hydrogeological settings on the shallow groundwater quality in a peri-urban area of Kampala, Uganda2007In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 381, no 03-jan, p. 180-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A study to assess the impacts of land use and hydrogeological characteristics on the shallow groundwater in one of Kampala's peri-urban areas (Bwaise III Parish) was undertaken for a period of 19 months. Water quality monitoring was carried out for 16 installed wells and one operational protected spring to ascertain the seasonal variation. The aspects of hydrogeological setting investigated in the study were the subsurface unconsolidated material characteristics (stratigraphy, lithology, hydraulic conductivity, porosity and chemical content), seasonal groundwater depths and spring discharge, topography and rainfall of the area. Both laboratory and field measurements were carried out to determine the soil and water characteristics. Field surveys were also undertaken to identify and locate the various land use activities that may potentially pollute. The results demonstrate that the water table in the area responds rapidly to short rains (48 h) due to the pervious (10(-5)-10(-3) ms(-1)) and shallow (< 1 mbgl) vadose zone, which consists of foreign material (due to reclamation). This anthropogenically influenced vadose zone has a limited contaminant attenuation capacity resulting in water quality deterioration following the rains. There is widespread contamination of the groundwater with high organic (up to 370 mgTKN/l and 779 mgNO(3)(-)/l), thermotolerant coliforms (TTCs) and faecal streptococci (FS) (median values as high as 126E3 cfu/100 ml and 154E3 cfu/100 ml respectively) and total phosphorus (up to 13 mg/l) levels originating from multiple sources of contamination. These include animal rearing, solid waste dumping, pit latrine construction and greywater/stormwater disposal in unlined channels leading to increased localised microbial (faecal) and organic (TKNNO3-) contamination during the rains. The spring discharge (range 1.22-1.48 m(3)/h) with high nitrate levels (median values of 117 and 129 mg/l in the wet and dry seasons) did not vary significantly with season (p=0.087) suggesting that this source is fed by regional base flow. However, the microbial quality deterioration observed in the spring discharge after a rain event (median values of 815TTCs cftr/100ml and 433 FS cfa/100ml) was attributed to the poor maintenance of the protection structure. Identification and selection of appropriate management solutions for the protection of shallow groundwater in informal settlements should not only be based on water quality problems and the causal physical characteristics as demonstrated by this study, but also institutional and socio-economic factors.

  • 75.
    Kumar, Manish
    et al.
    Discipline of Earth Science, Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382 355, India b Kiran C Patel Centre for Sustainable Development, Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India.
    Kuroda, Keisuke
    Department of Environmental and Civil Engineering, Toyama Prefectural University, Toyama, 9390398, Japan.
    Patel, Arbind Kumar
    Discipline of Earth Science, Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382 355, India.
    Patel, Nidhi
    Gujarat Biotechnology Research Centre (GBRC), Sector-11, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382 011, India.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering.
    Joshi, Mavdi
    Gujarat Biotechnology Research Centre (GBRC), Sector-11, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382 011, India.
    Joshi, Chaitanya G.
    Gujarat Biotechnology Research Centre (GBRC), Sector-11, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382 011, India.
    Decay of SARS-CoV-2 RNA along the wastewater treatment outfitted with Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) system evaluated through two sample concentration techniques2021In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 754, article id 142329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For the first time, we present, i) an account of decay in the genetic material loading of SARS-CoV-2 during Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) treatment of wastewater, and ii) comparative evaluation of polyethylene glycol (PEG), and ultrafiltration as virus concentration methods from wastewater for the quantification of SARS-CoV-2 genes. The objectives were achieved through tracking of SARS-CoV-2 genetic loadings i.e. ORF1ab, N and S protein genes on 8th and 27th May 2020 along the wastewater treatment plant (106000 m3 million liters per day) equipped with UASB system in Ahmedabad, India. PEG method performed better in removing materials inhibiting RT-qPCR for SARS-CoV-2 gene detection from the samples, as evident from constant and lower CT values of control (MS2). Using the PEG method, we found a reduction &gt;1.3 log10 reduction in SARS-CoV-2 RNA abundance during UASB treatment, and the RNA was not detected at all in the final effluent. The study implies that i) conventional wastewater treatment systems is effective in SARS-CoV-2 RNA removal, and ii) UASB system significantly reduces SARS-CoV-2 genetic loadings. Finally, PEG method is recommended for better sensitivity and inhibition removal during SARS-CoV-2 RNA quantification in wastewater. 

  • 76.
    Kåresdotter, Elisie
    et al.
    DepartmentofPhysicalGeographyandBolinCentreforClimateResearch,StockholmUniversity,Stockholm,Sweden b.
    Skoog, Gustav
    DepartmentofPhysicalGeographyandBolinCentreforClimateResearch,StockholmUniversity,Stockholm,Sweden b.
    Pan, Haozhi
    SchoolofInternationalandPublicAffairs,ChinaInstituteforUrbanGovernance,ShanghaiJiaoTongUniversity,China.
    Kalantari, Zahra
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering.
    Water-related conflict and cooperation events worldwide: A new dataset on historical and change trends with potential drivers2023In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 868, p. 161555-161555, article id 161555Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite strong interest and conflict research spanning multiple disciplines, connections between water flows and conflicts remain unclear, due to incomplete datasets on water-related conflict-cooperation events and poor understanding of socioeconomic and biophysical causes of such conflicts. The dataset on water-related conflict-cooperation events compiled in this study extends to 2019, updating previous datasets that covered only up to 2008, yielding important new insights on cooperation-conflict trends. Global and regional trends were analyzed using the new events dataset, together with changes in hydroclimatic variables and population density. The analysis revealed that water-related cooperation was far more common than conflicts across all regions, in both drier and wetter climates, indicating that abundance and lack of water can both promote cooperation. However, conflict events were more common in drier climates where water is scarcer. This cooperation-conflict balance shifted in the 2000s, with conflict events increasing, to outnumber cooperation events in 2017. The main shift occurred in Africa and Asia, where increased conflicts in Africa coincided with a prolonged period of below-average precipitation and severe drought, while the shift in Asia coincided with increased evapotranspiration caused by human activities and increased population density. Differences between regions were confirmed by event descriptions, with events in Africa relating to water access and farmer-herder conflicts, and events in Asia relating to irrigation and dam construction. These differences highlight the need for regional-scale analysis of water-related conflict-cooperation trends and pathways. With climate change and human activities expected to increase, the increasing trend in conflict events could persist, with water resources becoming a more frequent cause of future conflict. Identifying these complex cooperation-conflict changes is vital in determining future actions required to reduce conflict events and promote cooperation on water.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 77.
    Lai, Dayi
    et al.
    Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Sch Design, Dept Architecture, Shanghai 200240, Peoples R China..
    Lian, Zhiwei
    Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Sch Design, Dept Architecture, Shanghai 200240, Peoples R China..
    Liu, Weiwei
    Guo, Chaoran
    Tianjin Univ, Sch Architecture, Tianjin 300072, Peoples R China..
    Liu, Wei
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Sustainable Buildings.
    Liu, Kuixing
    Tianjin Univ, Sch Architecture, Tianjin 300072, Peoples R China..
    Chen, Qingyan
    Purdue Univ, Sch Mech Engn, W Lafayette, IN 47907 USA..
    A comprehensive review of thermal comfort studies in urban open spaces2020In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 742, article id 140092Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban open spaces provide various benefits to large populations in cities. Since thermally comfortable urban open spaces improve the quality of urban living, an increasing number of studies have been conducted to extend the existing knowledge of outdoor thermal comfort. This paper comprehensively reviews current outdoor thermal comfort studies, including benchmarks, data collection methods, and models of outdoor thermal comfort. Because outdoor thermal comfort is a complex issue influenced by various factors, a conceptual framework is proposed which includes physical, physiological and psychological factors as direct influences: and behavioral, personal, social, cultural factors, as well as thermal history, site, and alliesthesia, as indirect influences. These direct and indirect factors are further decomposed and reviewed, and the interactions among various factors are discussed. This review provides researchers with a systematic and comprehensive understanding of outdoor thermal comfort, and can also guide designers and planners in creating thermally comfortable urban open spaces.

  • 78.
    Laurenti, Rafael
    et al.
    Tecnol Monterrey, Sch Engn & Sci, Ave Eugenio Garza Sada 2501, Monterrey 64849, NL, Mexico..
    Demir, Deniz Demirer
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. Luxembourg Inst Sci & Technol, Environm Sustainabil Assessment & Circular, 5 Ave Hauts Forneaux, L-4362 Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg..
    Analyzing the relationship between product waste footprints and environmental damage - A life cycle analysis of 1,400+products2023In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 859, article id 160405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A major problem for the circular economy is monitoring improvements in environmental sustainability. Measuring how much waste reduction efforts contribute to the decrease of environmental impact is difficult, because knowledge on whether life cycle waste amounts correlate with environmental damage is limited. In this article, product waste footprints are used to explore structural similarities and differences in associations with environmental damage. Using the waste flows linked to the production system of 1487 reference products from the Ecoinvent database, we found significant regression equations with R2 of 0.75-0.89 between product waste footprints and potential impact on ecosystem diversity, human health and resource availability using log-transformed variables. For each 1 % increase in solid waste, potential impact on the environment increased by 0.75-0.84 %. This strong association between preconsumer waste and environmental damage is particularly important for advocating for circular economy efforts at the point of consumption, where life cycle waste is invisible to consumers.

  • 79.
    Levi, Lea
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Resources, Energy and Infrastructure.
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Resources, Energy and Infrastructure.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Data-driven analysis of nutrient inputs and transfers through nested catchments2018In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 610, p. 482-494Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 80.
    Li, Ji
    et al.
    School of Oceanography, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030, China.
    Bergman, Kristina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering.
    Thomas, Jean-Baptiste
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering.
    Gao, Yonghui
    School of Oceanography, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030, China.
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering.
    Life Cycle Assessment of a large commercial kelp farm in Shandong, China2023In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 903, article id 166861Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental benefits of seaweed cultivation have gained a lot of attention, both in policy strategies and by private companies. Sustainability evaluations of seaweed farming have however focused on a very small part of global production of seaweed - on European cultivations at research and pilot-scales although Asia stands for 99 % of global production with China alone producing 60 %. In this study, we use Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to evaluate the environmental performance of a 400-hectare Chinese kelp farm with a yearly harvest of 60,000 tons. Primary data from the farm was used to assess impacts up until harvest for the functional unit of 1 ton of fresh-weight kelp. Included in the LCA were impact on climate change, acidification terrestrial and marine eutrophication, and use of land water and energy. In addition, we calculated nutrient uptake. Further, we extracted inventory data of four published LCA studies of farmed kelp and recalculated environmental impacts, applying the same background data and method choices with the aim to compare the effects of scale and cultivation system. The results of the hotspot analysis showed that the plastic ropes and buoys dominated impacts on climate change, freshwater and marine eutrophication, and energy consumption. Consequently, the most effective improvement action was recycling after use. The yearly harvest of the Chinese farm was 1000–4000 times larger than previously evaluated farms compared. Results suggest that streamlined and mature production in the large-scale Chinese kelp farm led to lower electricity and fuel consumption compared to small-scale production, thus placing the Chinese farm with a climate impact of 57.5 kg CO2 eq. per ton fresh-weight kelp on the lower end when comparing the carbon footprint. There was a large variation in carbon footprints, which implies that the kelp cultivation sector has considerable room for optimization.

  • 81.
    Li, Shuo
    et al.
    School of Life Science, Institute of Life Science and Green Development, Hebei University, Baoding, Hebei, 071002, China. College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University, Yangling, Shaanxi, 712100, China.
    Hu, Mengjun
    International Joint Research Laboratory for Global Change Ecology, School of Life Sciences, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004, China.
    Shi, Jianglan
    College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University, Yangling, Shaanxi, 712100, China.
    Tian, Xiaohong
    College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University, Yangling, Shaanxi, 712100, China.
    Wu, Jiechen
    College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, National Academy of Agriculture Green Development, Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, China Agricultural University, 100193 Beijing, China.Luleå tekniska universitet, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Integrated wheat-maize straw and tillage management strategies influence economic profit and carbon footprint in the Guanzhong Plain of China2021In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 767, article id 145347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Appropriate straw and tillage management strategies increase grain yields, and promote atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) mitigation through soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration. However, little is known about economic parameters and carbon footprint (CF, defined as total greenhouse gases emission from the whole life cycle perspective) of intensive wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-maize (Zea mays L.) double cropping production under different integrated strategies of straw-return and tillage. To quantify the differences of straw-return and tillage integrated strategies in economic parameters and carbon sustainability, a field experiment was established in 2008 in which six integrated strategies were evaluated: straw return of both maize and wheat (MR-WR), MR-WR with subsoiling to ~40 cm depth after maize harvest (MS-WR), single straw return of wheat (MN-WR), single straw return of maize (MR-WN), MR-WN with subsoiling to ~40 cm depth after maize harvest (MS-WN) and no straw return (MN-WN). Results showed that the MS-WR had the greatest grain yields of both wheat and maize, gross revenue and economic profit with increases of 45.5%, 35.6%, 26.5%, and 79.7% relative to the MN-WN, respectively. Compared with the initial SOC level, the SOC stock increased by 22.9% under MS-WR, following by MR-WR (16.0%), MS-WN (11.6%), MR-WN (8.0%), MN-WR (5.1%), and MN-WN (-3.8%). The MS-WR reduced the net CF and net CF per economic profit by 35.4% and 64.1% relative to the MN-WN although it elevated the CF by 25.3%. Therefore, adopting the integrated strategies of both maize and wheat straw return with subsoiling to ~40 cm depth after maize harvest represented an economically and C-friendly optimal field management practice for intensive wheat-maize double cropping production in the Guanzhong Plain or other regions with similar environmental conditions in the world.

  • 82. Litter, M. I.
    et al.
    Ingallinella, A. M.
    Olmos, V.
    Savio, M.
    Difeo, G.
    Botto, L.
    Farfán Torres, E. M.
    Taylor, S.
    Frangie, S.
    Herkovits, J.
    Schalamuk, I.
    González, M. J.
    Berardozzi, E.
    García Einschlag, F. S.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Ahmad, A.
    Arsenic in Argentina: Occurrence, human health, legislation and determination2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 676, p. 756-766Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An overview about the presence of arsenic (As) in groundwaters of Argentina, made by a transdisciplinary group of experts is presented. Aspects on As occurrence, effects of As on human health, regulations regarding the maximum allowable amount of As in drinking water as well as bottled water, and analytical techniques for As determination are presented. The most affected region in Argentina is the Chaco-Pampean plain, covering around 10 million km 2 , where approximately 88% of 86 groundwater samples collected in 2007 exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline value. In the Salí river basin, As concentrations ranged from 11.4 to 1660 μg/L, with 100% of the samples above the WHO guideline value. In the Argentine Altiplano (Puna) and Subandean valleys, 61% of 62 samples collected from surface and groundwaters exceeded the WHO limit. Thus, it can be estimated that, at present, the population at risk in Argentina reaches around four million people. Pathologies derived from the chronic consumption of As, the metabolism of As in the human body and the effects of the different As chemical forms, gathered under the name HACRE (hidroarsenicismo crónico regional endémico in Spanish, for chronic regional endemic hydroarsenicism) are described. Regarding the regulations, the 10 μg/L limit recommended by the WHO and the United States Environmental Protection Agency has been incorporated in the Argentine Food Code, but the application is still on hold. In addition, there is disparity regarding the maximal admitted values in several provinces. Considerations about the As concentrations in bottled water are also presented. A survey indicates that there are several Argentine laboratories with the suitable equipment for As determination at 10 μg/L, although 66% of them are concentrated in Buenos Aires City, and in the Santa Fe, Córdoba and Buenos Aires provinces. Conclusions and recommendations of this first part are provided.

  • 83.
    Litter, Marta I.
    et al.
    Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn, Comis Nacl Energia Atom, Gerencia Quim, Av Gral Paz 1499, RA-1650 San Martin, Buenos Aires, Argentina.;Univ Nacl Gen San Martin, Inst Invest & Ingn Ambiental, Campus Miguelete,Av 25 Mayo & Francia, RA-1650 San Martin, Buenos Aires, Argentina.;Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn, Red Seguridad Alimentaria, Godoy Cruz 2290, RA-1425 Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina..
    Ingallinella, Ana M.
    Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn, Red Seguridad Alimentaria, Godoy Cruz 2290, RA-1425 Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.;Univ Nacl Rosario, Fac Ciencias Exactas Ingn & Agrimensura, Ctr Ingn Sanit, Riobamba 245 Bis, RA-2000 Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina..
    Olmos, Valentina
    Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn, Red Seguridad Alimentaria, Godoy Cruz 2290, RA-1425 Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.;Univ Buenos Aires, Fac Farm & Bioquim, Catedra Toxicol & Quim Legal, Junin 956,7th Floor, RA-1113 Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina..
    Savio, Marianela
    Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn, Red Seguridad Alimentaria, Godoy Cruz 2290, RA-1425 Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.;Univ Nacl La Pampa, Fac Ciencias Exactas & Nat, Av Uruguay 151, RA-6300 Santa Rosa, La Pampa, Argentina.;Inst Ciencias Tierra & Ambientales Pampa INCITAP, Mendoza 109, RA-6302 Santa Rosa, La Pampa, Argentina..
    Difeo, Gonzalo
    Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn, Red Seguridad Alimentaria, Godoy Cruz 2290, RA-1425 Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.;INTI Quim, Ave Gen Paz 5445, RA-1650 San Martin, Buenos Aires, Argentina..
    Botto, Lia
    Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn, Red Seguridad Alimentaria, Godoy Cruz 2290, RA-1425 Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.;UNLP, CICPBA, CCT La Plata, Ctr Quim Inorgan CEQUINOR, La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina.;Univ Nacl La Plata, CONICET La Plata, Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn, Comis Invest Cient Prov Buenos Aires, Bv 120 1465, RA-1900 La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina..
    Farfan Torres, Elsa Monica
    Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn, Red Seguridad Alimentaria, Godoy Cruz 2290, RA-1425 Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.;Univ Nacl Salta, Inst Invest Ind Quim INIQUI, Av Bolivia 5150, RA-4400 Salta, Argentina..
    Taylor, Sergio
    Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn, Red Seguridad Alimentaria, Godoy Cruz 2290, RA-1425 Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.;Autoridad Agua, Calle 5 366,B1902, La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina..
    Frangie, Sofia
    Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn, Red Seguridad Alimentaria, Godoy Cruz 2290, RA-1425 Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.;INTI Quim, Ave Gen Paz 5445, RA-1650 San Martin, Buenos Aires, Argentina..
    Herkovits, Jorge
    Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn, Red Seguridad Alimentaria, Godoy Cruz 2290, RA-1425 Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.;Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn, Fdn PROSAMA, Inst Ciencias Ambientales & Salud, Paysandu 752, RA-1405 Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina..
    Schalamuk, Isidoro
    Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn, Red Seguridad Alimentaria, Godoy Cruz 2290, RA-1425 Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.;Univ Nacl La Plata, Comis Invest Cient Prov Buenos Aires, Inst Recursos Minerales, 64 & 120, RA-1900 La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina..
    Jose Gonzalez, Maria
    Univ Nacl La Plata, Comis Invest Cient Prov Buenos Aires, Inst Recursos Minerales, 64 & 120, RA-1900 La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina..
    Berardozzi, Eliana
    Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn, Red Seguridad Alimentaria, Godoy Cruz 2290, RA-1425 Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.;Univ Nacl La Plata, Fac Ingn, Dept Hidraul, INIFTA CCT La Plata, Calle 47 200, RA-1900 La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina..
    Garcia Einschlag, Fernando S.
    Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn, Red Seguridad Alimentaria, Godoy Cruz 2290, RA-1425 Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.;UNLP, CONICET, CCT La Plata, Inst Invest Fisicoquim Teor & Aplicadas,INIFTA, Diagonal 113 & 64,Sucursal 4,Casilla Correo 16, RA-1900 La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina..
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. Univ Southern Queensland, West St, Darling Hts, Qld 4350, Australia..
    Ahmad, Arslan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. KWR Water Cycle Res Inst, Groningenhaven 7, NL-3433 PE Nieuwegein, Netherlands.;WUR, Dept Environm Technol, NL-6708 PB Wageningen, Netherlands..
    Arsenic in Argentina: Technologies for arsenic removal from groundwater sources, investment costs and waste management practices2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 690, p. 778-789Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An overview about the presence of arsenic (As) in groundwaters of Argentina, made by a transdisciplinary group of experts is presented. In this second part, the conventional and emerging technologies for As removal, management of wastes, and the initial investment costs of the proposed technologies, with emphasis on developments of local groups are described. Successful examples of real application of conventional and emerging technologies for As removal in waters for human consumption, for medium, small and rural and periurban communities are reported. In the country, the two most applied technologies for arsenic removal at a real scale are reverse osmosis and coagulation-adsorption-filtration processes using iron or aluminum salts or polyelectrolytes as coagulants. A decision tree to evaluate the possible technologies to be applied, based on the population size, the quality of the water and its intended use, is presented, including preliminary and indicative investment costs. Finally, a section discussing the treatment and final disposal of the liquid, semiliquid and solid wastes, generated by the application of the most used technologies, is included. Conclusions and recommendations, especially for isolated rural and periurban regions, have been added.

  • 84.
    Liu, Zhenzhong
    et al.
    Univ South China, Sch Resource Environm & Safety Engn, Hengyang 421001, Peoples R China..
    Li, Chunguang
    Univ South China, Sch Resource Environm & Safety Engn, Hengyang 421001, Peoples R China.;China Inst Atom Energy, Beiing 102413, Peoples R China.;Univ South China, R&D Ctr Radioact Waste Treatment Disposal & Modeli, Hengyang 421001, Peoples R China..
    Tan, Kaixuan
    Univ South China, Sch Resource Environm & Safety Engn, Hengyang 421001, Peoples R China..
    Li, Yongmei
    Univ South China, Sch Resource Environm & Safety Engn, Hengyang 421001, Peoples R China..
    Tan, Wanyu
    Hunan City Univ, Yiyang 413000, Peoples R China..
    Li, Xiqi
    Univ South China, Sch Resource Environm & Safety Engn, Hengyang 421001, Peoples R China..
    Zhang, Chong
    Univ South China, Sch Resource Environm & Safety Engn, Hengyang 421001, Peoples R China.;Beijing Res Inst Chem Engn Met, Beijing 101149, Peoples R China..
    Meng, Shuo
    Univ South China, R&D Ctr Radioact Waste Treatment Disposal & Modeli, Hengyang 421001, Peoples R China..
    Liu, Longcheng
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering. China Inst Atom Energy, Beiing 102413, Peoples R China.;Univ South China, R&D Ctr Radioact Waste Treatment Disposal & Modeli, Hengyang 421001, Peoples R China..
    Study of natural attenuation after acid in situ leaching of uranium mines using isotope fractionation and geochemical data2023In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 865, p. 161033-, article id 161033Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Acid in situ leaching (AISL) is a subsurface mining approach suitable for low-grade ores which does not generate tail-ings, and has been adopted widely in uranium mining. However, this technique causes an extremely high concentra-tion of contaminants at post-mining sites and in the surroundings soon after the mining ceases. As a potential AISL remediation strategy, natural attenuation has not been studied in detail. To address this problem, groundwater collected from 26 wells located within, adjacent, upgradient, and downgradient of a post-mining site were chosen to analyze the fate of U(VI), SO42-, delta 34S, and delta 238U, to reveal the main mechanisms governing the migration and atten-uation of the dominant contaminants and the spatio-temporal evolutions of contaminants in the confined aquifer of the post-mining site. The delta 238U values vary from -0.07 %o to 0.09 %o in the post-mining site and from -1.43 %o to 0.03 %o around the post-mining site. The delta 34S values were found to vary from 3.3 %o to 6.2 %o in the post-mining site and from 6.0 %o to 11.0 %o around the post-mining site. Detailed analysis suggests that there are large differences between the range of isotopic composition variation and the range of pollutants concentration distribution, and the es-timated Rayleigh isotope fractionation factor is 0.9994-0.9997 for uranium and 1.0032-1.0061 for sulfur. The isotope ratio of uranium and sulfur can be used to deduce the migration history of the contaminants and the irreversibility of the natural attenuation process in the anoxic confined aquifer. Combining the isotopic fractionation data for U and S with the concentrations of uranium and sulfate improved the accuracy of understanding of reducing conditions along the flow path. The study also indicated that as long as the geological conditions are favorable for redox reactions, natural attenuation could be used as a cost-effective remediation scheme.

  • 85. Ljung, K.
    et al.
    Torin, Andreas
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry. Lung Institute of Western Australia, Australia.
    Smirk, M.
    Maley, F.
    Cook, A.
    Weinstein, P.
    Extracting dust from soil: A simple solution to a tricky task2008In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 407, no 1, p. 589-593Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Air quality is commonly assessed by the ambient concentration of airborne particles sized smaller than 10 μm (PM10). However, in addition to concentration, particle shape as well as the type and bioaccessibility of elements adsorbed to this particulate fraction are likely to be related to subsequent respiratory health effects. In order to investigate this relationship, a relatively large mass of the relevant size fraction is needed since sample preparation is necessary prior to analysis. Most existing methods for sampling dust have been developed for analysing the dust directly, without prior handling or digestion. In order to provide sufficient material to be used for subsequent bioaccessibility analysis, these methods require repetitive and time consuming sampling as well as special equipment and procedures which are high in both cost and maintenance. This paper describes an inexpensive and relatively simple procedure for extracting the PM10 fraction from soil to be used for lung bioaccessibility studies. The method described involves dry and wet sieving in order to exclude larger size fractions as far as possible. Vacuum filtering of the wet-sieved soil solution through a 10 μm mesh was then employed to extract the required fraction. In order to avoid frequent blocking of the mesh, Stokes's law was applied in the construction of a tube which enables separation of the solution holding the smallest fraction.

  • 86. Lopez, Dina L.
    et al.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Birkle, Peter
    Aurora Armienta, Maria
    Cumbal, Luis
    Sracek, Ondra
    Cornejo, Lorena
    Ormachea, Mauricio
    Arsenic in volcanic geothermal fluids of Latin America2012In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 429, p. 57-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous volcanoes, hot springs, fumaroles, and geothermal wells occur in the Pacific region of Latin America. These systems are characterized by high As concentrations and other typical geothermal elements such as Li and B. This paper presents a review of the available data on As concentrations in geothermal systems and their surficial discharges and As data on volcanic gases of Latin America. Data for geothermal systems in Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Chile are presented. Two sources of As can be recognized in the investigated sites: Arsenic partitioned into volcanic gases and emitted in plumes and fumaroles, and arsenic in rocks of volcanic edifices that are leached by groundwaters enriched in volcanic gases. Water containing the most elevated concentrations of As are mature Ma-Cl fluids with relatively low sulfate content and As concentrations reaching up to 73.6 mg L-1 (Los Humeros geothermal field in Mexico), but more commonly ranging from a few mg L-1 to tens of mg L-1. Fluids derived from Na-Cl enriched waters formed through evaporation and condensation at shallower depths have As levels of only a few mu g L-1. Mixing of Na-Cl waters with shallower meteoric waters results in low to intermediate As concentrations (up to a few mg L-1). After the waters are discharged at the ground surface, As(III) oxidizes to As(V) and attenuation of As concentration can occur due to sorption and co-precipitation processes with iron minerals and organic matter present in sediments. Understanding the mechanisms of As enrichment in geothermal waters and their fate upon mixing with shallower groundwater and surface waters is important for the protection of water resources in Latin America.

  • 87.
    Lu, Chunyang
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Ferrometallurgy, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, 99 Shangda Rd, Shanghai 200444, China, 99 Shangda Rd.
    Zhang, Dengwei
    State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Ferrometallurgy, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, 99 Shangda Rd, Shanghai 200444, China, 99 Shangda Rd.
    Ren, Jie
    State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Ferrometallurgy, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, 99 Shangda Rd, Shanghai 200444, China, 99 Shangda Rd.
    Wang, Kai
    State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Ferrometallurgy, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, 99 Shangda Rd, Shanghai 200444, China, 99 Shangda Rd.
    Li, Manqing
    State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Ferrometallurgy, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, 99 Shangda Rd, Shanghai 200444, China, 99 Shangda Rd.
    Wang, Chuan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Process. Swerim AB, SE-971 25, Luleå, Sweden.
    Wang, Guangwei
    School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China.
    Xiong, Lin
    China Baowu Steel Group Corporation Limited, Shanghai 201900, PR China.
    Yu, Yaowei
    State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Ferrometallurgy, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, 99 Shangda Rd, Shanghai 200444, China, 99 Shangda Rd.
    Life cycle assessment of carbonaceous pellets used in blast furnaces in the context of “double carbon”2024In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 935, article id 173274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the sole carbonaceous renewable energy source, biomass is distinguished by its abundant yield, widespread distribution, and carbon neutrality. It is integral to the achievement of zero and negative carbon production via conventional carbonaceous pellet technology. This study introduces a cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment methodology for biomass preparation in carbonaceous pellets. We prepare high-quality biochar through a process combining hydrothermal carbonization and pyrolytic carbonization. Biomass high molecular weight extracts are obtained via organic pyrolytic extraction, while biomass high-temperature binders result from the modification and treatment of biochar. Biomass carbonaceous pellets are then formed using hot press technology. The ReCiPe model facilitates a comprehensive life cycle assessment of biomass carbonaceous pellets used in blast furnace production. The study leverages two comprehensive evaluation indicators - renewability, and environmental performance - to enhance the environmental performance of the process system and to maximize energy-saving and emission reduction potential.

  • 88. Löfgren, Stefan
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Bringmark, Lage
    Decreasing DOC trends in soil solution along the hillslopes at two IM sites in southern Sweden: Geochemical modeling of organic matter solubility during acidification recovery2010In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 409, no 1, p. 201-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous studies report increased concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) during the last two decades in boreal lakes and streams in Europe and North America Recently a hypothesis was presented on how various spatial and temporal factors affect the DOC dynamics It was concluded that declining sulphur deposition and thereby increased DOC solubility is the most important driver for the long-term DOC concentration trends in surface waters If this recovery hypothesis is correct the DOC levels should increase both in the soil solution as well as in the surrounding surface waters as soil pH rises and the ionic strength declines due to the reduced input of SO42- ions In this project a geochemical model was set up to calculate the net humic charge and DOC solubility trends in soils during the period 1996-2007 at two integrated monitoring sites in southern Sweden showing clear signs of acidification recovery The Stockholm Humic Model was used to investigate whether the observed DOC solubility is related to the humic charge and to examine how pH and ionic strength influence it Soil water data from recharge and discharge areas covering both podzols and riparian soils were used The model exercise showed that the increased net charge following the pH increase was in many cases counteracted by a decreased ionic strength, which acted to decrease the net charge and hence the DOC solubility Thus the recovery from acidification does not necessarily have to generate increasing DOC trends in soil solution Depending on changes in pH ionic strength and soil Al pools the trends might be positive negative or indifferent Due to the high hydraulic connectivity with the streams the explanations to the DOC trends in surface waters should be searched for in discharge areas and peat lands.

  • 89.
    Mahmud, F. M. Ashik
    et al.
    Department of Microbiology, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Noakhali 3814, Bangladesh.
    Islam, Md Aminul
    Advanced Molecular Lab, Department of Microbiology, President Abdul Hamid Medical College, Karimganj, Kishoreganj-2310, Bangladesh, Kishoreganj; COVID-19 Diagnostic Lab, Department of Microbiology, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Noakhali-3814, Bangladesh.
    Rubel, Mehede Hassan
    Department of Agriculture, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Noakhali 3814, Bangladesh.
    Mukharjee, Sanjoy Kumar
    Department of Microbiology, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Noakhali 3814, Bangladesh; Department of Microbiology, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi 6205, Bangladesh.
    Kumar, Manish
    Sustainability Cluster, University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India, Uttarakhand; Escuela de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Tecnologico de Monterrey, Campus Monterrey, Eugenio Garza Sada 2501, Monterrey, NL 64849, Mexico, Campus Monterrey, Eugenio Garza Sada 2501, NL.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Ahmed, Firoz
    Department of Microbiology, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Noakhali 3814, Bangladesh.
    Effects of halotolerant rhizobacteria on rice seedlings under salinity stress2023In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 892, article id 163774Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Avirulent halotolerant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (HPGPR) located on the roots' periphery can reduce abiotic stressors (such as salinity and drought), enhance plant productivity. Salinity poses a significant challenge for growing agricultural products, like rice, in the coastal regions. It is crucial to enhance production because of limited arable land and the high growth rate of the population. This study targeted to identify HPGPR from legume root nodules and assessed their effects on rice plants experiencing salt stress in coastal regions of Bangladesh. Based on the culture morphology, biochemical, salt, pH, and temperature tolerance traits, sixteen bacteria were isolated from the root nodules of leguminous plants (Common bean, Yardlong bean, Dhaincha, and Shameplant). All the bacterial strains can tolerate 3 % salt concentration, and capable to survive at the highest 45 °C temperature and pH 11 (without isolate 1). Three preeminent bacteria, Agrobacterium tumefaciens (B1), Bacillus subtilis (B2), and Lysinibacillus fusiformis (B3) were specified through morpho-biochemical and molecular (16S rRNA gene sequence) exploration for inoculation. To assess the plant growth-promoting activities, germination tests are applied where bacterial inoculation increased germination in saline and non-saline conditions. Control group (C) showed 89.47 % and bacterial treated groups (C + B1, C + B2, and C + B3) 95 %, 90 %, and 75 % germination after 2 days of inoculation. In (1 % NaCl) saline condition control group revealed 40 % whereas three groups with bacteria showed 60 %, 40 %, and 70 % germination after 3 days, which increased 70 %, 90 %, 85 %, and 95 % respectively after 4 days of inoculation. The HPGPR significantly improved plant development metrics such as root length, shoot length, fresh and arid biomass yield, chlorophyll content, etc. Our results suggest that the salt-resistant bacteria (Halotolerant) have a great potential role in recuperating plant growth and would be cost-effective as a bio-inoculant in saline conditions to be used as a prospective bio-fertilizer for rice production. These findings indicate that the HPGPR has a substantially promising function in reviving plant development in an eco-friendly manner.

  • 90. McClintock, Tyler R.
    et al.
    Chen, Yu
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Oliver, John T.
    Navoni, Julio
    Olmos, Valentina
    Lepori, Edda Villaamil
    Ahsan, Habibul
    Parvez, Faruque
    Arsenic exposure in Latin America: Biomarkers, risk assessments and related health effects2012In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 429, p. 76-91Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Latin America, several regions have a long history of widespread arsenic (As) contamination from both natural and anthropological sources. Yet, relatively little is known about the extent of As exposure from drinking water and its related health consequences in these countries. It has been estimated that at least 4.5 million people in Latin America are chronically exposed to high levels of As (>50 mu g/L), some to as high as 2000 mu g/L - 200 times higher than the World Health Organization (WHO) provisional standard for drinking water. We conducted a systematic review of 82 peer reviewed papers and reports to fully explore the current understanding of As exposure and its health effects, as well as the influence of genetic factors that modulate those effects in the populations of Latin America. Despite some methodological limitations, these studies suggested important links between the high levels of chronic As exposure and elevated risks of numerous adverse health outcomes in Latin America - including internal and external cancers, reproductive outcomes, and childhood cognitive function. Several studies demonstrated genetic polymorphisms that influence susceptibility to these and other disease states through their modulation of As metabolism, with As methyltransferase (AS3MT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and genes of one-carbon metabolism being specifically implicated. While the full extent and nature of the health burden are yet to be known in Latin America, these studies have significantly enriched knowledge of As toxicity and led to subsequent research. Targeted future studies will not only yield a better understanding of the public health impact of As in Latin America populations, but also allow for effective and timely mitigation efforts.

  • 91.
    Midander, Klara
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Elihn, K.
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden .
    Wallén, A.
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden .
    Belova, Liubov
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Engineering Material Physics.
    Borg-Karlsson, Anna Karin
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Characterisation of nano- and micron-sized airborne and collected subway particles, a multi-analytical approach2012In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 427, p. 390-400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Continuous daily measurements of airborne particles were conducted during specific periods at an underground platform within the subway system of the city center of Stockholm, Sweden. Main emphasis was placed on number concentration, particle size distribution, soot content (analyzed as elemental and black carbon) and surface area concentration. Conventional measurements of mass concentrations were conducted in parallel as well as analysis of particle morphology, bulk- and surface composition. In addition, the presence of volatile and semi volatile organic compounds within freshly collected particle fractions of PM 10 and PM 2.5 were investigated and grouped according to functional groups. Similar periodic measurements were conducted at street level for comparison.The investigation clearly demonstrates a large dominance in number concentration of airborne nano-sized particles compared to coarse particles in the subway. Out of a mean particle number concentration of 12000 particles/cm 3 (7500 to 20000 particles/cm 3), only 190 particles/cm 3 were larger than 250nm. Soot particles from diesel exhaust, and metal-containing particles, primarily iron, were observed in the subway aerosol. Unique measurements on freshly collected subway particle size fractions of PM 10 and PM 2.5 identified several volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds, the presence of carcinogenic aromatic compounds and traces of flame retardants.This interdisciplinary and multi-analytical investigation aims to provide an improved understanding of reported adverse health effects induced by subway aerosols.

  • 92.
    Molander, Linda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholm University.
    Andersson, Patrik L.
    Umeå University.
    Rybacka, Aleksandra
    Umeå University.
    Rudén, Christina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Are chemicals in articles an obstacle for reaching environmental goals? - Missing links in EU chemical management2012In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 435, p. 280-289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is widely acknowledged that the management of risks associated with chemicals in articles needs to be improved. The EU environmental policy states that environmental damage should be rectified at source. It is therefore motivated that the risk management of substances in articles also takes particular consideration to those substances identified as posing a risk in different environmental compartments. The primary aim of the present study was to empirically analyze to what extent the regulation of chemicals in articles under REACH is coherent with the rules concerning chemicals in the Sewage Sludge Directive (SSD) and the Water Framework Directive (WFD). We also analyzed the chemical variation of the organic substances regulated under these legislations in relation to the most heavily used chemicals. The results show that 16 of 24 substances used in or potentially present in articles and regulated by the SSD or the WFD are also identified under REACH either as a substance of very high concern (SVHC) or subject to some restrictions. However, for these substances we conclude that there is limited coherence between the legislations, since the identification as an SVHC does not in itself encompass any use restrictions, and the restrictions in REACH are in many cases limited to a particular use, and thus all other uses are allowed. Only a minor part of chemicals in commerce is regulated and these show a chemical variation that deviates from classical legacy pollutants. This warrants new tools to identify potentially hazardous chemicals in articles. We also noted that chemicals monitored in the environment under the WFD deviate in their chemistry from the ones regulated by REACH. In summary, we argue that to obtain improved resource efficiency and a sustainable development it is necessary to minimize the input of chemicals identified as hazardous to health or the environment into articles.

  • 93.
    Mousavi, Hossein
    et al.
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran 15875-4413, Iran.
    Moshir Panahi, Davood
    School of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran 16846-13114, Iran.
    Kalantari, Zahra
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering.
    Dust and climate interactions in the Middle East: Spatio-temporal analysis of aerosol optical depth and climatic variables2024In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 927, article id 172176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Middle East (ME) is grappling with an alarming increase in dust levels, measured as aerosol optical depth (AOD), which poses significant threats to air quality, human health, and ecological stability. This study aimed to investigate correlations between climate and non-climate driving factors and AOD in the ME over the last four-decade (1980–2020), based on analysis of three variables: actual evapotranspiration (AET), potential evapotranspiration (PET), and precipitation (P). A comprehensive analysis is conducted to discern patterns and trends, with a particular focus on regions such as Rub al-Khali, Ad-Dahna, An-Nafud Desert, and southern Iraq, where consistently high dust levels were observed. 77 % of the study area is classified as arid or semi-arid based on the aridity index. Our results indicate an upward trend in dust levels in Iraq, Iran, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia. We noted an increasing AET trend in regions such as the Euphrates and Tigris basin, northern-Iran, and the Nile region, along with rising PET levels in arid and semi-arid zones such as Iran, Iraq, and Syria. Conversely, P showed a notable decrease in northern-Iraq, Syria, southwestern Iran, and southern-Turkey. Comparison of long-term changes (10-year moving averages) of AOD and P showed a consistent increase in AOD with P levels decreasing in all climate regions. The Budyko space analysis indicates shifts in evaporation ratio across different climate classes from 1980 to 2020, with predominant movement patterns towards higher aridity indices in arid and semi-arid regions, while factors beyond long-term aridity changes influence shifts in evaporation ratio across various climatic zones. The Middle East experiences complex and intricate interactions between dust events and their drivers. To address this issue, a comprehensive and multi-system approach is necessary, which considers both climate and non-climate drivers. Moreover, an efficient dust control strategy should include soil and water conservation, advanced monitoring, and public awareness campaigns that involve regional and international collaboration.

  • 94.
    Mukherjee, Abhijit
    et al.
    Indian Inst Technol, Dept Geol & Geophys, Sch Environm Sci & Engn, Kharagpur 721302, W Bengal, India..
    Gupta, Saibal
    Indian Inst Technol, Dept Geol & Geophys, Sch Environm Sci & Engn, Kharagpur 721302, W Bengal, India..
    Coomar, Poulomee
    Indian Inst Technol, Dept Geol & Geophys, Sch Environm Sci & Engn, Kharagpur 721302, W Bengal, India..
    Fryar, Alan E.
    Univ Kentucky, Dept Earth & Environm Sci, Lexington, KY 40506 USA..
    Guillot, Stephane
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, IFSTTAR, CNRS,ISTerre,IRD, F-38000 Grenoble, France..
    Verma, Swati
    Indian Inst Technol, Dept Geol & Geophys, Sch Environm Sci & Engn, Kharagpur 721302, W Bengal, India..
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    USQ, Sch Civil Engn & Surveying, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia.;USQ, Int Ctr Appl Climate Sci, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia..
    Charlet, Laurent
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, IFSTTAR, CNRS,ISTerre,IRD, F-38000 Grenoble, France..
    Plate tectonics influence on geogenic arsenic cycling: From primary sources to global groundwater enrichment2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 683, p. 793-807Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    More than 100 million people around the world are endangered by geogenic arsenic (As) in groundwater, residing in sedimentary aquifers. However, not all sedimentary aquifers are groundwater As enriched, and the ultimate source of As in enriched aquifer sediments is yet-unknown, globally. A reconnaissance of the major aquifers suggests that major As enriched aquifers are predictably systematic on a global scale, existing in sedimentary foreland basins in the vicinity of modern or ancient orogenic systems. In conformity with the Principle of Uniformitarianism, we demonstrate that the groundwater As comes from magmatic arcs (primary source) in present (e.g. Andes) or ancient (e.g. Himalaya) continental convergent margins of some of the most prominent orogenic systems across the globe, and ends up in sediments (secondary source) in adjoining foreland or related basins that eventually act as aquifers. These arc magmas scavenge As while rising through the deep continental crust. Erosion of such orogens ultimately increases the bulk As content in sediments of adjoining basins, leading to groundwater As enrichment in downstream aquifers. Such As-polluted aquifers are eventually extensively used for groundwater exploitation, for drinking and other human purposes. Surface geological and biogeochemical processes, like redox reactions, are conducive to such groundwater As enrichment. We suggest this model by integrating our study of long-time observations in Himalayan and Andean basin aquifers, and generalizing 63 major aquifers across the globe, to demonstrate the source-to-sink transport of As, thereby delineating it's geogenic cycling in the subsurface. This work outlines the specifics of the mechanisms that would drive the processes of groundwater As enrichment across spatio-temporal scales, i.e. tectonic-scale taking place over millions of years on continental-scale and groundwater pollution taking place at human time-scales on village to household scale. Thus, in this work, we demonstrate a direct evidence of connectivity between global geological processes and individual human health.

  • 95.
    Mukherjee, Abhijit
    et al.
    Indian Inst Technol Kharagpur, Dept Geol & Geophys, Kharagpur, W Bengal, India.;Indian Inst Technol Kharagpur, Sch Environm Sci & Engn, Kharagpur, W Bengal, India..
    Sarkar, Soumyajit
    Indian Inst Technol Kharagpur, Sch Environm Sci & Engn, Kharagpur, W Bengal, India..
    Chakraborty, Madhumita
    Indian Inst Technol Kharagpur, Dept Geol & Geophys, Kharagpur, W Bengal, India..
    Duttagupta, Srimanti
    Indian Inst Technol Kharagpur, Sch Environm Sci & Engn, Kharagpur, W Bengal, India..
    Bhattacharya, Animesh
    Indian Inst Technol Kharagpur, Sch Environm Sci & Engn, Kharagpur, W Bengal, India..
    Saha, Dipankar
    Indian Inst Technol Kharagpur, Sch Water Resources, Kharagpur, W Bengal, India..
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Mitra, Adway
    Indian Inst Technol Kharagpur, Ctr Excellence Artificial Intelligence AI, Kharagpur, W Bengal, India..
    Gupta, Saibal
    Indian Inst Technol Kharagpur, Dept Geol & Geophys, Kharagpur, W Bengal, India..
    Occurrence, predictors and hazards of elevated groundwater arsenic across India through field observations and regional-scale AI-based modeling2021In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 759, article id 143511Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Existence of wide spread elevated concentrations of groundwater arsenic (As) across South Asia, including India, has endangered a huge groundwater-based drinking water dependent population. Here, using high-spatial resolution As field-observations (similar to 3 million groundwater sources) across India, we have delineated the regional-scale occurrence of elevated groundwater As (>= 10 mu g/L), along with the possible geologic-geomorphologic-hydrologic and human-sourced predictors that influence the spatial distribution of the contaminant. Using statistical and machine learning method, we also modeled the groundwater As concentrations probability at 1 Km resolution, along with probabilistic delineation of high As-hazard zones across India. The observed occurrence of groundwater As was found to be most strongly influenced by geology-tectonics, groundwater-fed irrigated area (%) and elevation. Pervasive As contamination is observed in major parts of the Himalayan mega-river Indus-Ganges-Brahmaputra basins, however it also occurs in several more-localized pockets, mostly related to ancient tectonic zones, igneous provinces, aquifers in modern delta and chalcophile mineralized regions. The model results suggest As-hazard potential in yet-undetected areas. Our model performed well in predicting groundwater arsenic, with accuracy: 82% and 84%; area under the curve (AUC): 0.89 and 0.88 for test data and validation datasets. An estimated similar to 90 million people across India are found to be exposed to high groundwater As from field-observed data, with the five states with highest hazard are West Bengal (28 million), Bihar (21 million), Uttar Pradesh (15 million), Assam(8.6 million) and Punjab (6 million). However it can be much more if the modeled hazard is considered (>250 million). Thus, our study provides a detailed, quantitative assessment of high groundwater As across India, with delineation of possible intrinsic influences and exogenous forcings. The predictive model is helpful in predicting As-hazard zones in the areas with limited measurements.

  • 96. Nicolli, Hugo B.
    et al.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Blanco, Maria del C.
    Tujchneider, Ofelia C.
    Panarello, Hector O.
    Dapena, Cristina
    Rusansky, Jorge E.
    Arsenic and associated trace-elements in groundwater from the Chaco-Pampean plain, Argentina: Results from 100 years of research2012In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 429, p. 36-56Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Chaco-Pampean plain, Argentina, is a vast geographical unit (1,000,000 km(2)) affected by high arsenic (As) concentrations in universal oxidizing groundwater. The socio-economic development of the region is restricted by water availability and its low quality caused by high salinity and hardness. In addition, high As and associated trace-elements (F, U, V. B, Se, Sb, Mo) concentrations of geogenic origin turn waters unsuitable for human consumption. Shallow groundwater with high As and F concentrations (ranges: <10-5300 mu g As/L; 51-7,340 mu g F/L) exceeding the WHO guideline values (As: 10 mu g/L; F: 1,500 mu g/L) introduces a potential risk of hydroarsenicism disease in the entire region and fluorosis in some areas. The rural population is affected (2-8 million inhabitants). Calcareous loess-type sediments and/or intercalated volcanic ash layers in pedosedimentary sequences hosting the aquifers are the sources of contaminant trace-elements. Large intra and interbasin variabilities of trace-element concentrations, especially between shallow and deep aquifers have been observed. All areas of the Chaco-Pampean plain were affected in different grades: the Chaco-Saltena plain (in the NNE of the region) and the northern La Pampa plain (in the center-south) have been shown the highest concentrations. The ranges of As and F contents in loess-sediments are 6-25 and 534-3340 mg/kg, respectively in the Sali River basin. Three key processes render high As concentrations in shallow aquifers: i) volcanic glass dissolution and/or hydrolysis and leaching of silicates minerals hosted in loess; ii) desorption processes from the surface of Al-, Fe- and Mn-oxi-hydroxides (coating lithic fragments) at high pH and mobilization as complex oxyanions (As and trace elements)in Na-bicarbonate type groundwaters; and iii) evaporative concentration in areas with semiarid and arid climates. Local factors play also an important role in the control of high As concentrations, highly influenced by lithology-mineralogy, soils-geomorphology, actual climate and paleoclimates, hydraulic parameters, and residence time of groundwaters.

  • 97.
    Norrström, Ann-Catrine
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Concentration and fractionation of heavy metals inroadside soils receiving de-icing salts1998In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 218, p. 161-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil was sampled along two lines of a highway, 0.5 m and 2.5 m from the asphalt surface, and in an infiltration pond for highway runoff. The study area was located in the infiltration area of the reserve water supply for a community. The concentrations of Cd, Pb and Zn in soil samples from the highway 0.5 m. andror in the infiltration pond exceeded guideline values for less sensitive land-use with groundwater protection. The highest Pb concentration measured 542 mg kgy1. was 34 times the average Pb concentration in soils in Sweden, and exceeded the Swedish guideline value by a factor of almost two. Cadmium in the infiltration pond exceeded the guideline value almost three times. An increased concentration with soil depth for Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn and PAHs in the infiltration pond showed that downward transport had occurred. This was supported by a Pb concentration exceeding the limit for drinking water quality in the groundwater 4.5 m below the soil surface in the infiltration pond. The ESP exchangeable sodium percentage. in some samples was high enough 10]27%. for dispersion of soil colloids to occur. The Tessier’s sequential extraction scheme showed that Pb and Zn occurred mostly in association with the oxide bound fraction whereas Cu was mainly associated with the organic fraction, e.g. colloids. Another important fraction for Pb was the carbonate fraction. The study showed that a large part of the Pb, Cu and Zn in roadside soils is vulnerable to leaching when exposed to a high NaCl concentration, reducing conditions or to a lowering in pH. Regression analyses showed that a high concentration of Na predominately displaces Ca of the base cations from the exchange sites in the soil. The highly significant relationships observed between soil properties and chemical fractions of the metals make the result reliable for the fractions that predominate.

    Download full text (pdf)
    De-icing salt
  • 98.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Zhang, Xian
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Goidanich, Sara
    Le Bozec, Nathalie
    Herting, Gunilla
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Corrosion and runoff rates of Cu and three Cu-alloys in marine environments with increasing chloride deposition rate2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 472, p. 681-694Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bare copper sheet and three commercial Cu-based alloys, Cu15Zn, Cu4Sn and Cu5Al5Zn, have been exposed to four test sites in Brest, France, with strongly varying chloride deposition rates. The corrosion rates of all four materials decrease continuously with distance from the coast, i.e. with decreasing chloride load, and in the following order: Cu4Sn > Cu sheet > Cu15Zn > Cu5Al5Zn. The patina on all materials was composed of two main layers, Cu2O as the inner layer and Cu-2(OH)(3)Cl as the outer layer, and with a discontinuous presence of CuCl in between. Additional minor patina constituents are SnO2 (Cu4Sn), Zn-5(OH)(6)(CO3)(2) (Cu15Zn and Cu5Al5Zn) and Zn6Al2(OH)(16)CO3 center dot 4H(2)O/Zn2Al(OH)(6)Cl center dot 2H(2)O/Zn5Cl2(OH)8 center dot H2O and Al2O3 (Cu5Al5Zn). The observed Zn- and Zn/Al-containing corrosion products might be important factors for the lower sensitivity of Cu15Zn and Cu5Al5Zn against chloride-induced atmospheric corrosion compared with Cu sheet and Cu4Sn. Decreasing corrosion rates with exposure time were observed for all materials and chloride loads and attributed to an improved adherence with time of the outer patina to the underlying inner oxide. Flaking of the outer patina layer was mainly observed on Cu4Sn and Cu sheet and associated with the gradual transformation of CuCl to Cu-2(OH)(3)Cl of larger volume. After three years only Cu5Al5Zn remains lustrous because of a patina compared with the other materials that appeared brownish-reddish. Significantly lower release rates of metals compared with corresponding corrosion rates were observed for all materials. Very similar release rates of copper from all four materials were observed during the fifth year of marine exposure due to an outer surface patina that with time revealed similar constituents and solubility properties.

  • 99.
    Olsthoorn, Bart
    et al.
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA. Stockholm Univ, Hannes Alfvens Vag 12, S-11421 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ronnqvist, Tryggve
    Radonova Labs AB, Rapsgatan 25, S-75450 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Lau, Cheuk
    Swedish Radiat Safety Author, Katrineholm, Sweden..
    Rajasekaran, Sanguthevar
    Univ Connecticut, Dept Comp Sci & Engn, Storrs, CT 06269 USA..
    Persson, Tomas
    Swedish Radiat Safety Author, Katrineholm, Sweden..
    Månsson, Martin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Materials and Nanophysics.
    Balatsky, Alexander V.
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA. Stockholm Univ, Hannes Alfvens Vag 12, S-11421 Stockholm, Sweden.;Univ Connecticut, Dept Phys, Storrs, CT 06269 USA.;Univ Connecticut, Inst Mat Sci, Storrs, CT 06269 USA..
    Indoor radon exposure and its correlation with the radiometric map of uranium in Sweden2022In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 811, article id 151406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Indoor radon concentrations are controlled by both human factors and geological factors. It is important to separate the anthropogenic and geogenic contributions. We show that there is a positive correlation between the radiometric map of uranium in the ground and the measured radon in the household in Sweden. A map of gamma radiation is used to obtain an equivalent uranium concentration (ppm eU) for each postcode area. The aggregated uranium content is compared to the yearly average indoor radon concentration for different types of houses. Interestingly, modern households show reduced radon concentrations even in postcode areas with high average uranium concentrations. This shows that modern construction is effective at reducing the correlation with background uranium concentrations and minimizing the health risk associated with radon exposure. These correlations and predictive housing parameters could assist in monitoring higher risk areas.

  • 100.
    Ostman, Marcus
    et al.
    Umea Univ, Dept Chem, SE-90187 Umea, Sweden..
    Björlenius, Berndt
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Industrial Biotechnology.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umea Univ, Dept Chem, SE-90187 Umea, Sweden..
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umea Univ, Dept Chem, SE-90187 Umea, Sweden..
    Effect of full-scale ozonation and pilot-scale granular activated carbon on the removal of biocides, antimycotics and antibiotics in a sewage treatment plant2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 649, p. 1117-1123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several micropollutants show low removal efficiencies in conventional sewage treatment plants, and therefore enter the aquatic environment. To reduce the levels of micropollutants in sewage effluent, and thereby the effects on biota, a number of extra treatment steps are currently being evaluated. Two such techniques are ozonation and adsorption onto activated carbon. In this study, we investigated the efficiency of Sweden's first full-scale ozonation treatment plant at removing a number of antibiotics, antimycotics and biocides. The effect of adding granular activated carbon (GAC) on a pilot scale and pilot-scale ozonation were also evaluated. The conventional treatment (13,000 PE) with the add-on of full-scale ozonation (0.55 g O-3/g Total organic carbon (TOC)) was able to remove most of the studied compounds (>90%), except for benzotriazoles and fluconazole (<50%). Adsorption on GAC on a pilot scale showed a higher removal efficiency than ozonation (>80% for all studied compounds). Three types of GAC were evaluated and shown to have different removal efficiencies. In particular, the GAC with the smallest particle sizes exhibited the highest removal efficiency. The results demonstrate that it is important to select an appropriate type of carbon to achieve the removal goal for specific target compounds.

123 51 - 100 of 134
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf