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  • 51.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Public transport experienced service reliability: Integrating travel time and travel conditions2018In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 117, p. 275-291Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper proposes a generalization of public transport service reliability, incorporating both travel times and travel conditions based on passengers’ perceived journey time. Time is partitioned into waiting and transfer time as well as in-vehicle time under different travel conditions (crowding and seat availability), which may vary along a journey and between days. The experienced service reliability gap (ESRG) index is introduced, defined as the difference between an upper percentile (e.g., the 95th) and the median perceived journey time across days for a particular OD pair and departure time. The metric is evaluated by tracing virtual trips from origin to destination with journey times and travel conditions based on automated vehicle location (AVL) and automated passenger count (APC) data and seated status modelled probabilistically. A study of a high-frequency bus line in Stockholm, Sweden shows that travel conditions co-vary only weakly with nominal journey time, and the ESRG index display patterns across the day not evident in existing reliability measures, such as a wider and later afternoon peak. The ESRG displays significant variation between OD pairs along the line. Correlation with headway variability suggests that measures improving bus regularity have additional positive effects on experienced service reliability.

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  • 52.
    Jenelius, Erik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Mattsson, Lars-Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Road network vulnerability analysis of area-covering disruptions: A grid-based approach with case study2012In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 46, no 5, p. 746-760Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an approach to systematically analysing the vulnerability of road networks under disruptions covering extended areas. Since various kinds of events including floods, heavy snowfall, storms and wildfires can cause such spatially spread degradations, the analysis method is an important complement to the existing studies of single link failures. The methodology involves covering the study area with grids of uniformly shaped and sized cells, where each cell represents the extent of an event disrupting any intersecting links. We apply the approach to the Swedish road network using travel demand and network data from the Swedish national transport modelling system Sampers. The study shows that the impacts of area-covering disruptions are largely determined by the level of internal, outbound and inbound travel demand of the affected area itself. This is unlike single link failures, where the link flow and the redundancy in the surrounding network determine the impacts. As a result, the vulnerability to spatially spread events shows a markedly different geographical distribution. These findings, which should be universal for most road networks of similar scale, are important in the planning process of resource allocation for mitigation and recovery.

  • 53.
    Jenelius, Erik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Petersen, Tom
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Mattsson, Lars-Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Importance and exposure in road network vulnerability analysis2006In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 40, no 7, p. 537-560Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The reliability and vulnerability of critical infrastructures have attracted a lot of attention recently. In order to assess these issues quantitatively, operational measures are needed. Such measures can also be used as guidance to road administrations in their prioritisation of maintenance and repair of roads, as well as for avoiding causing unnecessary disturbances in the planning of roadwork. The concepts of link importance and site exposure are introduced. In this paper, several link importance indices and site exposure indices are derived, based on the increase in generalised travel cost when links are closed. These measures are divided into two groups: one reflecting an "equal opportunities perspective", and the other a "social efficiency perspective". The measures are calculated for the road network of northern Sweden. Results are collected in a GIs for visualisation, and are presented per link and municipality. In view of the recent great interest in complex networks, some topological measures of the road network are also presented.

  • 54.
    Karlström, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Franklin, Joel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Behavioral Adjustments and Equity Effects of Congestion Pricing: Analysis of morning commutes during the Stockholm Trial2009In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 283-296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper assesses the horizontal and vertical equity effects of the Stockholm Trial with Congestion Pricing for morning commuters, in terms of both travel behavioral adjustments and welfare effects, as a result of the toll's direct effects and the behavioral adjustments. We consider specifically two behavioral adjustments: mode choice and departure time choice. Initial car drivers crossing the toll cordon had a 15 percentage-points higher rate of switching to public transit as compared with those not crossing the cordon. We also find some evidence of peak spreading. in particular toward a later departure time, as a result of the charging scheme, but most people choose a departure time within 15 min both before and during the trial. In the welfare analysis, we found no clear pattern of increasing burden by either increasing income or decreasing income, and the increase in the Gini Coefficient was insignificant. We also found no significant difference in either the mode-switching behavior or the average welfare effect for women versus for men.

  • 55. Kitamura, Ryuichi
    et al.
    Yamamoto, Toshiyuki
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Axhausen, Kay
    How routine is a routine?: An analysis of the day-to-day variability in prism vertex location2006In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 259-279Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is concerned with how routine an individual's routine really can be. This question is addressed by examining the day-to-day variability of the time co-ordinate of the vertex of a time-space prism; in other words, by examining how the timeframe which governs the individual's daily schedule varies from day to day. When the timeframe varies, it is likely that the individual's behavior also varies. When the timeframe is stable, on the other hand, a routine can be maintained. The analysis presented in this paper attempts to determine how much of the variation in travel is due to the variation in the timeframe. The origin vertices of workers' morning prisms, which determine how early they can leave home in the morning, are examined in this study, along with the departure times of the first trips in the prisms, which are mostly supposedly routine commute trips. The results indicate that the vertices are located with a much smaller variance, but vary more systematically than do the departure times of the first trips in the prisms. This implies that a large degree of variability is introduced when a trip is made within the timeframe as determined by a prism vertex. It is also shown that the departure time varies from worker to worker according to unobserved heterogeneity-i.e., unexplained differences across individuals-much more than does the prism vertex. The study results indicate that large degrees of flexibility are associated with trip making, and suggest the presence of room for behavioral modification with respect to workers' first trips in the morning.

  • 56.
    Kottenhoff, Karl
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics, Traffic and Logistics.
    Freij, Karin Brundell
    The role of public transport for feasibility and acceptability of congestion charging - The case of Stockholm2009In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 297-305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Stockholm Trial, congestion charges and the expansion of public transport services were closely linked together in marketing efforts, as well as in political decisions. In this paper, we analyse the role that public transport may have played in increasing acceptability and feasibility of the scheme. We study four aspects of the relationship between charging and public transport provision: (i) the initial modal share, (ii) contribution to modal shift (iii) compensation to losers (iv) revenue hypothecation. Our analyses, based on a combination of primary and secondary data, support the hypothesis that public transport contributed to the successful implementation of congestion charging in Stockholm through all those four mechanisms.

  • 57.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Engelson, Leonid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Alternative Congestion Charging Schemes and their Equity Effects: Results of Simulations for Stockholm2011In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 58.
    Kruger, Niclas A.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. VTI, Swedish Natl Rd & Transport Res Inst, SE-10215 Stockholm, Sweden.;Univ Orebro, Swedish Business Sch, Orebro, Sweden..
    To kill a real option - Incomplete contracts, real options and PPP2012In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 46, no 8, p. 1359-1371Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is concerned with the implications of public-private partnership agreements for the execution of expansion options in road infrastructure. More specifically, it analyzes the expansion of an existing two-lane road in Sweden, and examines the real options created by an intermediate type of road with three lanes. Interpreting the results from real option analysis in the light of incomplete contract theory, this paper finds that external congestion costs might necessitate public ownership to ensure a social optimal outcome in public-private partnerships.

  • 59.
    Liu, Chengxi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Karlstrom, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Investigating the impacts of weather variability on individual's daily activity-travel patterns: A comparison between commuters and non-commuters in Sweden2015In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 82, p. 47-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding travel behaviour change under various weather conditions can help analysts and policy makers incorporate the uniqueness of local weather and climate within their policy design, especially given the fact that future climate and weather will become more unpredictable and adverse. Using datasets from the Swedish National Travel Survey and the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute that spans a period of thirteen years, this study explores the impacts of weather variability on individual activity-travel patterns. In doing so, this study uses an alternative representation of weather from that of directly applying observed weather parameters. Furthermore, this study employs a holistic model structure. The model structure is able to analyse the simultaneous effects of weather on a wide range of interrelated travel behavioural aspects, which has not been investigated in previous weather studies. Structural equation models (SEM) are applied for this purpose. The models for commuters and non-commuters are constructed separately. The analysis results show that the effects of weather can be even more extreme when considering indirect effects from other travel behaviour indicators involved in the decision-making processes. Commuters are shown to be much less sensitive to weather changes than non-commuters. Variation of monthly average temperature is shown to play a more important role in influencing individual travel behaviour than variation of daily temperature relative to its monthly mean, whilst in the short term, individual activity-travel choices are shown to be more sensitive to the daily variation of the relative humidity and wind speed relative to the month mean. Poor visibility and heavy rain are shown to strongly discourage the intention to travel, leading to a reduction in non-work activity duration, travel time and the number of trips on the given day. These findings depict a more comprehensive picture of weather impact compared to previous studies and highlight the importance of considering interdependencies of activity travel indicators when evaluating weather impacts.

  • 60.
    Liu, Chengxi
    et al.
    VTI Swedish Natl Rd & Transport Res Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Tapani, Andreas
    VTI Swedish Natl Rd & Transport Res Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    VTI Swedish Natl Rd & Transport Res Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Rydergren, Clas
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Sci & Technol, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Jonsson, R. Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Development of a large-scale transport model with focus on cycling2020In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 134, p. 164-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents a transport model to better model cycling demand. The model improves modelling of cycling in several ways compared to a conventional transport model. First, it uses a detailed bicycle network containing information about existing bicycle infrastructure. Second, generalised cost measures based on different bicycle route choice models are calculated and compared to evaluate how to best represent the impact of bicycle infrastructure in the model. Third, the model utilizes a refined zone system with smaller zones of size 250 m x 250 m. Using these smaller zones, more short-distance tours are included in the model, and these are predominantly walking and cycling trips. Fourth, the model considers cycling also as an access mode choice to public transport. Therefore, the model treats cycling and public transport as both competing and complementary modes. Results show that the model captures detailed individual heterogeneity in cycling demand for different trip purposes. Impacts of bicycle infrastructure, land use characteristics and individual/household socio-demographics are investigated. Detailed individual level travel time and generalised cost are derived for cyclists of different socio-demographics. The result highlights the importance of choosing a good measure of generalised cost, given that different bicycle route choice models result in different effects of bicycle infrastructure. In future applications, the model can be used to evaluate proposed bicycle investments regarding their impact on link flow, bicycle route choice, modal shift and generation of completely new tours. The model can also be a powerful tool in a cost-benefit analysis of bicycle investments.

  • 61.
    Lorenzo Varela, Juan Manuel
    et al.
    KTH.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH. VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Daly, A.
    Public transport: One mode or several?2018In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 113, p. 137-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper develops a methodology for testing and implementing differences in preferences for a set of public transport modes, relating to observed and unobserved attributes, in state-of-practice large-scale travel demand models. Results of a case study for commuters in the Stockholm public transport system suggest that there are preference differences among public transport modes. We found that the value of time for train is lower than for bus and metro, and that it is higher for auxiliary modes than for the main mode. Surprisingly, we found no evidence for differences proportional to the in-vehicle time between bus and metro, suggesting that characteristics of in-vehicle time in these two modes are valued equally by the travellers. Nevertheless, unobserved preference for metro is higher than the preference for bus. Regarding the existence of a rail factor, we find evidence to support the hypothesis that rail-based modes have in fact a smaller time parameter (train) or higher alternative specific constant (metro), indicating that rail modes are preferable to bus, ceteris paribus.

  • 62.
    Ma, Xinwei
    et al.
    Southeast Univ, Sch Transportat, Dongnandaxue Rd 2, Nanjing, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    Ji, Yanjie
    Southeast Univ, Jiangsu Key Lab Urban ITS, Ctr Modern Urban Traff Technol,Sch Transportat, Jiangsu Prov Collaborat Innovat Ctr Modern Urban, Dongnandaxue Rd 2, Nanjing, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    Yuan, Yufei
    Delft Univ Technol, Fac Civil Engn & Geosci, Dept Transport & Planning, Stevinweg 1,POB 5048, Delft, Netherlands..
    Oort, Niels Van
    Delft Univ Technol, Fac Civil Engn & Geosci, Dept Transport & Planning, Stevinweg 1,POB 5048, Delft, Netherlands..
    Jin, Yuchuan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Hoogendoorn, Serge
    Delft Univ Technol, Fac Civil Engn & Geosci, Dept Transport & Planning, Stevinweg 1,POB 5048, Delft, Netherlands..
    A comparison in travel patterns and determinants of user demand between docked and dockless bike-sharing systems using multi-sourced data2020In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 139, p. 148-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The co-existence of traditional docked bike-sharing and emerging dockless systems presents new opportunities for sustainable transportation in cities all over the world, both serving door to door trips and accessing/egressing to/from public transport systems. However, most of the previous studies have separately examined the travel patterns of docked and dockless bike-sharing schemes, whereas the difference in travel patterns and the determinants of user demand for both systems have not been fully understood. To fill this gap, this study firstly compares the travel characteristics, including travel distance, travel time, usage frequency and spatio-temporal travel patterns by exploring the smart card data from a docked bike-sharing scheme and trip origi-n & ndash;destination (OD) data from a dockless bike-sharing scheme in the city of Nanjing, China over the same spatio-temporal dimension. Next, this study examines the influence of the bike-sharing fleets, socio-demographic factors and land use factors on user demand of both bike-sharing systems using multi-sourced data (e.g., trip OD information, smart card, survey, land use in-formation, and housing prices data). To this end, geographically and temporally weighted re-gression (GTWR) models are built to examine the determinants of user demand over space and time. Comparative analysis shows that dockless bike-sharing systems have a shorter average travel distance and travel time, but a higher use frequency and hourly usage volume compared to docked bike-sharing systems. Trips of docked and dockless bike-sharing on workdays are more frequent than those on weekends, especially during the morning and evening rush hours. Significant differences in the spatial distribution between docked and dockless bike-sharing systems are observed in different city areas. The results of the GTWR models reveal that hourly docked bike-sharing trips and dockless bike-share trips influence each other throughout the week. The density of Entertainment points of interest (POIs) is positively correlated with the usage of dockless bike-sharing, but negatively correlated with docked bike-sharing usage. On the contrary, the proportion of the elderly has a positive association with the usage of docked bike -sharing, but a negative association with the usage of dockless bike-sharing. Finally, policy im-plications and suggestions are proposed to improve the performance of docked and dockless bike- sharing systems, such as increasing the flexibility of docked bike-sharing, designing and pro-moting mobile applications (APP) for docked bike-sharing, improving the quality of dockless shared bikes, and implementing dynamic time-based pricing strategies for dockless bike-sharing.

  • 63.
    Mattsson, Lars-Göran
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Vulnerability and resilience of transport systems: A discussion of recent research2015In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 81, p. 16-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The transport system is critical to the welfare of modern societies. This article provides an overview of recent research on vulnerability and resilience of transport systems. Definitions of vulnerability and resilience are formulated and discussed together with related concepts. In the increasing and extensive literature of transport vulnerability studies, two distinct traditions are identified. One tradition with roots in graph theory studies the vulnerability of transport networks based on their topological properties. The other tradition also represents the demand and supply side of the transport systems to allow for a more complete assessment of the consequences of disruptions or disasters for the users and society. The merits and drawbacks of the approaches are discussed. The concept of resilience offers a broader socio-technical perspective on the transport system's capacity to maintain or quickly recover its function after a disruption or a disaster. The transport resilience literature is less abundant, especially concerning the post-disaster phases of response and recovery. The research on transport system vulnerability and resilience is now a mature field with a developed methodology and a large amount of research findings with large potential practical usefulness. The authors argue that more cross-disciplinary collaborations between authorities, operators and researchers would be desirable to transform this knowledge into practical strategies to strengthen the resilience of the transport system.

  • 64. McArthur, Jenny
    et al.
    Robin, Enora
    Smeds, Emilia
    Socio-spatial and temporal dimensions of transport equity for London’s night time economy2019In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 121, p. 433-443Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sustainable mobility paradigm has dominated the urban transport research agenda for more than a decade. This paradigm focuses on the environmental impacts of travel and the imperative for climate change mitigation, however the specific outcomes of transport in terms of trip type and purpose are not robustly conceptualised, with limited intellectual foundations to understand the ethical considerations of transport service provision. This paper critically considers transport strategies recently developed for London's Night Time Economy, including policy discourse and technical approaches that shape of transport services provision at night. The case study evaluates the spatiotemporal dimensions of equity. Analysis of policy discourses revealed how night time transport are conceived as an instrumental means to grow the 'Night Time Economy', drawing from the conventional wisdom linking accessibility improvements with economic expansion. This strategy viewed 'London at night'€™ as a vehicle for economic development, focusing on the consumption-side of the economy and improving individuals’ access to entertainment and recreation. Policy discourse recognised the existence of night-time workers in sectors outside arts and recreation, however, attempts to broaden the 'Night Time Economy' agenda to accommodate the travel needs of night-time workers were lost through the narrow selection of accessibility metrics used in transport planning practice. This case demonstrates a missed opportunity to improve transport equity across spatial and temporal dimensions, as night-time workers face severe accessibility barriers, often relying on low-frequency bus services that have inadequate service coverage across Greater London. Scrutinising socio-spatial and temporal dimensions of transport provision can advance more systematic critical perspectives on transport equity by integrating a variety of distributional issues and linking more closely to the practical barriers faced by night-time workers to access transport.

  • 65.
    Naqavi, Fatemeh
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Transport and Systems Analysis.
    Sundberg, Marcus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Transport and Systems Analysis.
    Västberg, Oskar Blom
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Transport and Systems Analysis.
    Karlström, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Transport and Systems Analysis.
    Beser Hugosson, Muriel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Transport and Systems Analysis.
    Mobility constraints and accessibility to work: Application to Stockholm2023In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 175, p. 103790-103790, article id 103790Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 66. Peer, S.
    et al.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH. VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Temporal framing of stated preference experiments: does it affect valuations?2018In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 117, p. 319-333Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we explore how valuations of trip attributes by train commuters differ between a short-run (departure time choice) and a long-run (travel routine choice) context using a unique SP experiment explicitly designed for this purpose. In the short-run version of the SP experiment, the respondents receive information about available travel options shortly before they had planned to travel. In the long-run version, the respondents receive information about available travel options one month ahead of the planned travel. The short-run context concerns temporary changes in available travel options, while the long-run context concerns permanent changes. We find significantly higher valuations of trip attributes in the long-run context. Moreover, our results indicate that the usual arrival time at work as well as the intrinsically preferred arrival time at work serve as reference points in the short-run as well as the long-run choice context, with the former dominating in the short-run context and the latter in the long-run context. 

  • 67.
    Peftitsi, Soumela
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning. Delft Univ Technol, Dept Transport & Planning, Delft, Netherlands..
    Modeling the effect of real-time crowding information (RTCI) on passenger distribution in trains2022In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 166, p. 354-368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Overcrowding has become a big challenge for public transport systems, affecting passengers' travel experience. At the same time, service supply is often underutilized due to large variations in crowding across services, vehicle trips on the same service and different compartments of the same vehicle. Real-time operational measures, such as information provision, can potentially reduce on-board crowding unevenness and its negative effects. In this study, we extend a dynamic public transport simulation model to provide passengers with predictive real-time crowding information (RTCI) concerning individual train cars. Passengers utilize this information when choosing a specific train car to board. It is demonstrated through a case study for the Stockholm metro network area that in the presence of car-specific crowding information, passengers alter their car boarding choices to avoid on-board crowding, leading to a more even passenger distribution inside trains. We find that passengers' travel experience improves with the provisioning of RTCI, which is a result of the lower on-board crowding unevenness. Moreover, this improvement increases with increased demand levels but only up to a certain point beyond which passengers do not gain from switching train cars.

  • 68.
    Ridderstedt, Ivan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Accounting, finance, economics and organization (AFEO). Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Jan Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Economies of scale versus the costs of bundling: Evidence from procurements of highway pavement replacement2023In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 173, article id 103701Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although most public procurements involve decisions concerning bundling, only a limited body of empirical research guides policy on this matter. In this paper, we examine the cost effects of bundling in the competitive tendering of highway pavement replacement with hot-mix asphalt. For this we use linear regression on data from a comprehensive sample of such contracts procured by the Swedish infrastructure manager (IM) during the 2012–2015 period. We find that bundling affects the procurer's cost in multiple and partly counteracting ways. Our results show that economies of scale are strong but diminishing and counteracted by the costs of bundling and bundling-related factors. Overall, the findings support the Swedish IM's current bundle design but also suggest that most of the contracts are still inefficiently small. While not perfectly generalizable to other markets, the findings provide some support for the increased promotion and use of the bundling of small-scale road rehabilitation projects in the USA. Two main implications of the results are that bundling policy should emphasize proximity and similarity rather than whether the work is small in scale and that the scope for efficient bundling should be accounted for when optimizing the timing of pavement replacement.

  • 69.
    Rosencrantz, Holger
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Edvardsson, Karin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Vision Zero - Is it irrational?2007In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 41, no 6, p. 559-567Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vision Zero, the Swedish road safety policy goal, states that in the long run, no person should be killed or seriously injured as a consequence of road traffic. Since its adoption in 1997, the goal has been seriously criticised. In 2007, performance of the first interim target will be evaluated and a new interim target will be set. In this paper, we summarise the experiences from working with the goal and analyse the criticism that has been put forward against it. The most common criticism is that Vision Zero is an irrational goal. In order to evaluate this criticism, we compare Vision Zero with an independently developed list of adequacy criteria for rational goal-setting. We conclude that according to these criteria, Vision Zero is not irrational.

  • 70.
    Sochor, Jana
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Wester, Misse
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Bülow, William
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Privacy in the Eighteen-Wheel WorkplaceIn: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to investigate the situation of professional Heavy Goods Vehicle (HGV) drivers in the mobile workplace; in particular the drivers’ perceptions of privacy regarding the positioning services in their vehicles in contrast to the perceptions of their employers (road haulage companies).  Although mobile technologies are increasingly blurring the distinctions between places of work and non-work, most research on workplace privacy has focused on the traditional office setting.  The empirical interview results indicate that most respondents are pro-technology and trust the employer to protect driver privacy and HGV data.  However, the results also reveal significant gaps in knowledge about what HGV data is collected, in communication between employers and employees regarding data gathering and handling practices, and in expected versus actual behavior modification as a result of workplace monitoring.  The employers are perceived as the greatest beneficiaries of the in-vehicle positioning systems and services, which could be linked to the systematic lack of feedback to the drivers.  As employees are not normally able to provide informed consent due to their dependent position, recommendations for organizations include performing comprehensive impact assessments, engaging in an ongoing dialogue with employees, and providing an opt-out option in order to move towards a more informed consent.

  • 71.
    Susilo, Yusak
    et al.
    Department of Urban Management, Kyoto University.
    Kitamura, Ryuichi
    Structural changes in commuters’ daily travel: The case of auto and transit commuters in the Osaka metropolitan area of Japan, 1980 through 20002008In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 95-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Structural changes over time in commuters' travel patterns are examined by formulating and estimating simultaneous equations model systems of activity engagement and travel. Results of large-scale household travel surveys conducted in the Osaka metropolitan area of Japan in 1980, 1990 and 2000 are used with matching demographic, land use, and network data. Statistical examinations of the model systems indicate that the structural relationships underlying travel behavior have not been stable over the 20 years. Overall, expanding tendencies in out-of-home activity engagement and travel are exhibited by both auto and transit commuters, but in different ways. The study results challenge the conventional wisdom that auto travelers tend to chain trips; transit commuters make more stops and chain trips more often than do auto commuters in the Osaka area, suggesting that travel patterns are heavily influenced by transportation networks and land use developments.

  • 72.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Exploring key determinants of travel satisfaction for multi-modal trips by different traveler groups2014In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 67, p. 366-380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a primary dataset from an experimental survey in eight European cities, this study identified the key determinants of satisfaction with individual trip stages as well as overall journey experience for different travel modes and traveler groups. Multivariate statistical analyses were used to examine the relationships between overall satisfaction and travel experience variables, trip complexity, subjective well-being indices, travel-related attitudes as well as individual- and trip-specific attributes. The results indicate that for certain traveler groups, such as women, young and low-income or unemployed travelers, there are distinctive determinants of satisfaction with trip stages for various travel modes. The results also indicate that satisfaction with the primary trip stage is strongly linked to overall trip satisfaction, while satisfaction levels with access and egress trip stages are strongly related to satisfaction with the primary trip stage. Past experience, traveler expectations and attitudes, and the emotional state of travelers are also significant explanatory variables for travel satisfaction. The results indicate that when an individual consciously chooses a particular travel mode, they will report a higher level of satisfaction with that chosen mode. Notwithstanding, while past experience highly influences an individual's current travel satisfaction, the more they travel with the current mode, the less satisfied they are with their choice. The results of this study highlight the importance of gaining a better understanding of the interaction between instrumental variables and non-instrumental variables at different trip stages and the influence on user preferences, satisfaction and decision-making processes.

  • 73. Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard
    et al.
    Isaksson, Karolina
    Macmillen, James
    Åkerman, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Kressler, Florian
    Strategies to manage barriers in policy formation and implementation of road pricing packages2014In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 60, p. 40-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the transport policy domain, as in other highly-contested spheres of public policy, it is commonplace for certain policy measures to emerge as promising only to then remain unimplemented. Road pricing is one example of a theoretically well-developed transport policy measure that has proven notoriously difficult to decide and implement. There are however lessons to learn from practice on how to manage barriers to policy formation and implementation also within this field. Drawing on the congestion charging schemes implemented in London in 2003 and Stockholm in 2006, and the Swiss Heavy Vehicle Fee scheme implemented in 2001, this paper identifies a selection of strategies which appear to have supported the policymakers' capacity to implement effective road pricing schemes. Together, these three examples offer a sound empirical basis from which to infer a set of strategies for the formulation and implementation of politically-contentious road pricing packages addressing issues of measure combination, flexibility, legitimacy, communication, timing and organisational dynamics. While acknowledging the primacy of broader external and contextual issues, the conclusion is that taking inspiration from the strategies identified in this paper may increase the likelihood of successful policy package processes.

  • 74.
    Tiong, Kah Yong
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Dept Technol & Soc, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Ma, Zhenliang
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Palmqvist, Carl-William
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning. Lund Univ, Dept Technol & Soc, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Analyzing factors contributing to real-time train arrival delays using seemingly unrelated regression models2023In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 174, article id 103751Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the impact of various factors on train arrival delays is a prerequisite for effective railway traffic operating control and management. Existing studies analyze the train delay factors using a single, generic regression equation, restricting their capability in accounting for heterogeneous impacts of spatiotemporal factors on arrival delays as the train travels along its route. The paper proposes a set of equations conditional on the train location for analyzing train arrival delay factors at stations. We develop a seemingly unrelated regression equation (SURE) model to estimate the coefficients simultaneously while considering potential correlations between regression residuals caused by shared unobserved variables among equations. The railway data from 2017 to 2020 in Sweden are used to validate the proposed model and explore the effects of various factors on train arrival delays. The results confirm the necessity of developing a set of station-specific train arrival delay models to understand the heterogeneous impact of explanatory variables. The results show that the significant factors impacting train arrival delays are primarily train operations, including dwell times, running times, and operation delays from previous trains and upstream stations. The factors of the calendar, weather, and maintenance are also significant in impacting delays. Importantly, different train operating management strategies should be targeted at different stations since the impacts of these factors could vary depending on where the station is.

  • 75.
    Tornberg, Patrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Odhage, John
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Making transport planning more collaborative?: The case of Strategic Choice of Measures in Swedish transport planning2018In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 118, p. 416-429Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2013, a new preparatory study was established in the Swedish national transport planning process: Strategic Choice of Measures (SCM). It constitutes an arena for early dialogue between main actors and stakeholders at local, regional and national level to jointly assess transport related problems and develop solutions. This paper explores the collaborative elements of this planning method, analysing the extent to which the introduction of SCM implies fundamental steps towards a planning approach based on communicative rationality in Swedish national transport planning. The article departs from the government's recognition of the need for more and deeper collaboration between actors, new approaches and measures for transport problem, and increasing attention to demand management and modal shift to meet transport policy goals more efficiently, asking whether SCM makes national transport planning in Sweden more collaborative, in the sense of primarily relying on communicative rationality. The focus of the analysis lies on collaborative elements in the official SCM guidelines produced by the Swedish Transport Administration (STA) as an expression of an “ideal” SCM process, and a case study of an SCM process considered by the STA to be a good example of SCM in practice. The article concludes that although traces of communicative rationality are visible in both “ideal” and in practice, a more fundamental shift from instrumental to communicative rationality in Swedish national transport planning through the introduction of SCM has not occurred, since collaborative practices of SCM mainly are framed in a wider institutional framework of instrumental rationality. 

  • 76.
    Urciuoli, Luca
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    The risk of standards proliferation – An analysis of differences between private and public transport standards2018In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 16, p. 591-602Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to explore differences between two institutional forms of standards: private and public. The research design is based on a survey study aiming to explore how security standards may impact differently on supply chain operations. The findings put in evidence main differences between standards in two different institutional forms: mandatory issued by governmental authorities and voluntary issued and disseminated through supply chains’ inter-organizational relationships. The analysis only focuses on two certifications representing in turn authorities and private standards. Research implications indicate distinctions between mandatory public certification standards and private ones. Findings may support transport and logistics managers in the analysis and comparison of private and public certifications or standards for decision-making. Previous research has not analyzed differences between public and private security standards. In addition, researchers claim that security certifications can improve both security and efficiency. This paper indicates that this claim could present controversial results and therefore more attention needs to be paid by managers, policy makers and researchers.

  • 77. Voltes-Dorta, Augusto
    et al.
    Rodríguez-Déniz, Héctor
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Suau-Sánchez, Pere
    Vulnerability of the European air transport network to major airport closures from the perspective of passenger delays: Ranking the most critical airports2017In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 96, p. 119-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the vulnerability of the European air transport network to major airport closures from the perspective of the delays imposed to disrupted airline passengers. Using an MIDT dataset on passenger itineraries flown during February 2013, full-day individual closures of the 25 busiest European airports are simulated and disrupted passengers then relocated to minimum-delay itineraries. Aggregate delays are used to rank the criticality of each airport to the network, with the possibility of disaggregating the impact across geographical markets. The results provide useful reference values for the development of policies aimed at improving the resilience of air transport networks.

  • 78. Waddell, Paul
    et al.
    Ulfarsson, Gudmundur Freyr
    Franklin, Joel
    Lobb, John
    Incorporating land use in metropolitan transportation planning2007In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 41, no 5, p. 382-410Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In current practice, very few Metropolitan Planning Agencies attempt to capture the effects of transportation system changes on land use, and the consequent feedback effects on transportation system performance, despite substantial evidence that these effects may be significant. In this paper, we present a case study on the application of UrbanSim, a detailed land use simulation model system, and its integration with a regional travel demand model in the Greater Wasatch Front area of Utah. Like several other metropolitan areas, this region has recently been confronted with legal challenges to proposed highway projects, drawing substantial scrutiny to the land use-transportation connection. We describe the UrbanSim model specification, results from model estimation, and sensitivity analyses conducted with the combined land use and travel model system. The results of the sensitivity analysis suggest that accounting for the land use effects of a regional transportation plan may produce significant shifts in key transportation evaluation measures such as vehicle miles traveled, vehicle hours traveled, and hours of congestion delay.

  • 79.
    West, Jens
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. SWECO, Sweden.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Engelson, Leonid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Accuracy of the Gothenburg congestion charges2016In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 94, p. 266-277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the accuracy of the transport model forecast of the Gothenburg congestion charges, implemented in 2013. The design of the charging system implies that the path disutility cannot be computed as a sum of link attributes. The route choice model is therefore implemented as a hierarchical algorithm, applying a continuous value of travel time (VTT) distribution. The VTT distribution was estimated from stated choice (SC) data. However, based on experience of impact forecasting with a similar model and of impact outcome of congestion charges in Stockholm, the estimated VTT distribution had to be stretched to the right. We find that the forecast traffic reductions across the cordon and travel time gains were close to those observed in the peak. However, the reduction in traffic across the cordon was underpredicted off-peak. The necessity to make the adjustment indicates that the VTT inferred from SC data does not reveal the travellers’ preferences, or that there are factors determining route choice other than those included in the model: travel distance, travel time and congestion charge.

  • 80.
    Westin, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science. Centre for Regional Science, Umeå University.
    Franklin, Joel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Proost, Stef
    KU Leuven.
    Basck, Pierre
    LET, Université de Lyon.
    Raux, Charles
    LET, Université de Lyon.
    Achieving political acceptability for new transport infrastructure in congested urban regions2016In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 88, p. 286-303Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 81.
    Whitehead, Jake
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. The Royal Institute of Technology and Queensland University of Technology.
    Franklin, Joel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Washington, Simon
    Queensland University of Technology.
    The impact of a congestion pricing exemption on the demand for new energy efficient vehicles in Stockholm2014In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 70, p. 24-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As governments seek to transition to more efficient vehicle fleets, one strategy has been to incentivize ‘green’ vehicle choice by exempting some of these vehicles from road user charges. As an example, to stimulate sales of energy efficient vehicles (EEVs) in Sweden, some of these automobiles were exempted from Stockholm’s congestion tax. In this paper the effect this policy had on the demand for new, privately-owned, exempt EEVs is assessed by first estimating a model of vehicle choice and then by applying this model to simulate vehicle alternative market shares under different policy scenarios. The database used to calibrate the model includes owner-specific demographics merged with vehicle registry data for all new private vehicles registered in Stockholm County during 2008. Characteristics of individuals with a higher propensity to purchase an exempt EEV were identified. The most significant factors included intra-cordon residency (positive), distance from home to the CBD (negative), and commuting across the cordon (positive). By calculating vehicle shares from the vehicle choice model and then comparing these estimates to a simulated scenario where the congestion tax exemption was inactive, the exemption was estimated to have substantially increased the share of newly purchased, private, exempt EEVs in Stockholm by 1.8% (±0.3%; 95% C.I.) to a total share of 18.8%. This amounts to an estimated 10.7% increase in private, exempt EEV purchases during 2008, i.e., 519 privately owned, exempt EEVs.

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  • 82.
    Whitehead, Jake
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Franklin, Joel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Washington, Simon
    Queensland University of Technology, Australia .
    Transitioning to energy efficient vehicles: An analysis of the potential rebound effects and subsequent impact upon emissions2015In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 74, p. 250-267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given the shift toward energy efficient vehicles (EEVs) in recent years, it is important that the effects of this transition are properly examined. This paper investigates some of these effects by analyzing annual kilometers traveled (AKT) of private vehicle owners in Stockholm in 2008. The difference in emissions associated with EEV adoption is estimated, along with the effect of a congestion-pricing exemption for EEVs on vehicle usage. Propensity score matching is used to compare AKT rates of different vehicle owner groups based on the treatments of: EEV ownership and commuting across the cordon, controlling for confounding factors such as demographics. Through this procedure, rebound effects are identified, with some EEV owners found to have driven up to 12.2% further than non-EEV owners. Although some of these differences could be attributed to the congestion-pricing exemption, the results were not statistically significant. Overall, taking into account lifecycle emissions of each fuel type, average EEV emissions were 50.5% less than average non-EEV emissions, with this reduction in emissions offset by 2.0% due to rebound effects. Although it is important for policy-makers to consider the potential for unexpected negative effects in similar transitions, the overall benefit of greatly reduced emissions appears to outweigh any rebound effects present in this case study.

  • 83.
    Xylia, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    The role of charging technologies in upscaling the use of electric buses in public transport: Experiences from demonstration projects2018In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 118, p. 399-415Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrification of public bus transport services is currently being explored in various demonstration projects around the world. The objective of this paper is to (i) gather insights from electric bus demonstration projects with a focus on charging technologies (conductive, inductive) and strategies (slow, fast); and explore the role these factors may play as upscaling of electric bus deployment is considered. The focus is on the Nordic region. A survey with stakeholders involved with electric bus demonstration projects is performed for understanding the benefits and drawbacks of each solution, and identifying the main themes emerging from project implementation and upscaling. Advantages of the conductive charging include the maturity of the technology and its higher maximum charging power compared to currently available inductive alternatives. On the other hand, inductive technology entails other benefits, such as the lack of moving parts which could reduce the maintenance costs for infrastructure, as well as minimal visibility of the equipment. The main issues likely to impact the upscaling of electric bus use are related to the maturity, cost-effectiveness, compatibility, and charging efficiency of the available technologies.

  • 84.
    Xylia, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    The role of charging technologies in upscaling the use of electric buses in public transport: experiences from demonstration projectsIn: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Public transport is crucial for the functionality of urban systems. Electrification of public bus transport services is currently explored in various demonstration projects around the world. The aim of this paper is to discuss the main characteristics and differences between conductive and inductive charging technologies, and evaluate how charging infrastructure strategies could affect future upscaling of electric bus deployment in public transport. The focus is on the Nordic region. A survey with stakeholders involved with electric bus demonstration projects is performed for understanding the benefits and drawbacks of each solution, and identifying the main themes emerging from project implementation and upscaling. Advantages of the conductive charging include the maturity of the technology and its higher maximum charging power compared to currently available inductive alternatives. On the other hand, inductive technology entails other benefits, such as the lack of moving parts which could reduce the maintenance costs for infrastructure, as well as minimal visibility of the equipment. The main issues likely to impact the upscaling of electric bus use are related to the maturity, cost-effectiveness, compatibility, and charging efficiency of the available technologies.

  • 85.
    Zhao, Xiaoyun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    Univ Nat Resources & Life Sci BOKU, Inst Transport Studies, Vienna, Austria..
    Pernestål Brenden, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    The dynamic and long-term changes of automated bus service adoption2022In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 155, p. 450-463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Integrating automated buses (ABs) into the public transport system may have potentials of providing more environment-friendly and cost-efficient mobility solutions by improving travel safety, reducing cost and decreasing congestion. However, the realization of the potentials depends not only on innovative technologies but also on users' acceptance of the ABs service. Whilst there has been a number of studies exploring the acceptance and adoption of ABs services, hardly any longitudinal studies have analyzed the long-term changes of individuals' behavior in adopting AB services. This paper aims to add knowledge on user acceptance of ABs in public transport based on empirical evidence in a real-life deployment context. Three waves of surveys that investigated users' travel attitudes and behaviors towards the automated bus were conducted at three different time points (six months, 11 months, and 14 months after the launch). The relationship between socio-demographic variables, travel experience variables, and attitude variables is modeled using structural equation modelling (SEM). Factors that influence experienced users to continue using the service were found to dynamically change over time. Initially, people were attracted to use the service if they perceived the information of the service to be sufficient, but they were demotivated to continue using the service if the comfort was worse, frequency was lower, or travel time was longer than expected. The results show that previous experience of adopting the ABs has impacts on different attitude variables. In order to promote individuals' continued use of ABs, the public transport authorities and operators should work closely to increase the frequency of the services. It is also necessary to enhance the comfort of the ABs.

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