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  • 51.
    Braunerhjelm, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Eklund, Johan
    En fungerande arbetsmarknad: nyckeln till innovation och kunskapsdriven tillväxt2014Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 52.
    Braunerhjelm, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Eklund, Johan E.
    Taxes, tax administrative burdens and new firm formation2014In: Kyklos (Basel), ISSN 0023-5962, E-ISSN 1467-6435, Vol. 67, no 1, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the tax administrative burden and its effect on new firm formation. It is well recognized that entrepreneurship and new firm formation are critical factors in determining economic growth and development. New firm entry into the marketplace enhances welfare in two distinct ways: 1) by promoting innovation, productivity and economic growth and 2) by increasing competition, which lowers prices and expands output. It is also well documented that barriers to entry reduce the likelihood that new firms will enter various sectors. We argue that the burden imposed by tax codes and tax compliance constitutes a barrier to entry that has been neglected in the previous literature. We use data from the World Bank to measure the administrative burden that the complexity of tax policy imposes on new firms. Additionally, we use a measure of new firm formation - entry density. Our data cover 118 countries over a period of six years. We find that the entry rate is significantly reduced by the tax administrative burden and that this effect is unrelated to general taxes on corporate profits and is robust to the inclusion of several important control variables.

  • 53.
    Braunerhjelm, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Henrekson, Magnus
    Entrepreneurship, institutions, and economic dynamism: lessons from a comparison of the United States and Sweden2013In: Industrial and Corporate Change, ISSN 0960-6491, E-ISSN 1464-3650, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 107-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the research endeavor published in this Special Section is to further our understanding of the extent, character, and orientation of entrepreneurial activity in today's wealthy countries. This is done by means of several detailed studies of institutions of particular importance for entrepreneurship and innovation-based firm growth, and its impact on the economy. All coauthors are renowned specialists in the area with deep knowledge of the pertinent institutions in Sweden and the United States, the two countries compared.

  • 54.
    Braunerhjelm, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Henrekson, Magnus
    Ett ramverk för innovationspolitiken: Hur göra Sverige mer entreprenöriellt?2012Book (Refereed)
  • 55.
    Braunerhjelm, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Larsson, Marcus
    Har 1900-talets politik bidragit till en större social rörlighet?: En internationell jämförelse2015In: Klassresan / [ed] Torbjörn Krantz, Bertil Ohlins förlag , 2015Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 56.
    Brodde, Joel
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Business Model Innovation Barriers for Farming Companies in Skåne2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish farmers are facing pressure from an international market and find it hard to differentiate their business when much is driven by large players in the value chain, both from the supplier and customer. The adoption and implementation of business model innovation practices can be an interesting alternative to those farmers to thrive this competitive and challenging environment. However, the implementation of business model innovation in the farming industry might face some challenges, due to the traditional and conservative character of the farm owners and managers. Thus, this study aims to understand the barriers to business model change in the perspective of the farmers in Skåne region, Sweden. As methodology, focus groups has been used with nine participating farmers where three of those farming companies has been selected as unit of analysis. In the focus group, they were first asked to define current business model by using business model canvas as a tool. Thereafter they used the business model canvas to improve the current business model and later were ask what barriers they could see in the process to improve their business model.

    The findings from the focus groups revealed many barriers that, according to the farmers, could challenge the implementation of changes in their current business model. Those are  mostly external barriers, which are hard to control (e.g. weather, governmental laws).  nother kind of external barrier is the position of farming in the whole value chain, at the very beginning. Relevant internal barriers were also identified, such as farming and farmers overall mind-set, traditions, low business knowledge and lack of knowledge about the end user. The results supports action research as a suitable way to work with business model innovation in the farming industry.

  • 57.
    Brodde, Joel
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Business Model Innovation Barriers forFarming Companies in Skåne2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish farmers are facing pressure from an international market and find it hard to differentiatetheir business when much is driven by large players in the value chain, both from the supplier andcustomer. The adoption and implementation of business model innovation practices can be aninteresting alternative to those farmers to thrive this competitive and challenging environment.However, the implementation of business model innovation in the farming industry might facesome challenges, due to the traditional and conservative character of the farm owners andmanagers. Thus, this study aims to understand the barriers to business model change in theperspective of the farmers in Skåne region, Sweden. As methodology, focus groups has been usedwith nine participating farmers where three of those farming companies has been selected as unitof analysis. In the focus group, they were first asked to define current business model by usingbusiness model canvas as a tool. Thereafter they used the business model canvas to improve thecurrent business model and later were ask what barriers they could see in the process to improvetheir business model.The findings from the focus groups revealed many barriers that, according to the farmers, wouldchallenge the implementation of changes in their current business model. Those are mostlyexternal barriers, which are hard to control (e.g. weather, governmental laws). Another kind ofexternal barrier is the position of farming in the whole value chain, at the very beginning.Relevant internal barriers were also identified, such as farming and farmers overall mind-set,traditions, low business knowledge and lack of knowledge about the end user. The resultssupports action research as a suitable way to work with business model innovation in the farmingindustry.

  • 58.
    Broström, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Från forskare till företagare: en lönsam karriärväxling?2013In: Institutioner och incitament för innovation: entreprenöriella vägval för svensk tillväxt / [ed] Pontus Braunerhjelm, Stockholm: Entreprenörskapsforum , 2013, p. 73-82Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 59.
    Broström, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Interaction with science: In what sense a case of learning by doing?2014In: Science and Public Policy, ISSN 0302-3427, E-ISSN 1471-5430, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 141-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the contribution of Cohen et al. (Management Science, 2002, 48: 1-23), it is well established that linkages between engineering firms and public research organisations serve to both suggest new R&D projects and comple existing projects. However, the literature has little to say about whether these two types of outcomes are linked or independent effects. Drawing on theories of organisational learning and empirical analysis of data on Swedish engineering firms, this paper establishes that the occurrence of useful impulses to further R& D is inherently linked to the achievement of objectives related to a firm's ongoing R& D projects. This connection is, however, mediated by the character of the project objective. Compared to linkages where objectives of exploration and exploitation are balanced, the connection between serendipitous learning and the achievement of established R& D objectives is stronger when these objectives are oriented towards exploration and weaker when objectives are oriented towards exploitation.

  • 60.
    Broström, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Lougui, Monica
    Johansson, Fredrik
    Mergers and acquisitions in the coming-to-age phase of the Swedish ICT services industry2015In: Small and beautiful: The ICT success of Finland and Sweden / [ed] E. Giertz, A. Rickne & P. Rouvinen, VINNOVA , 2015, p. 147-155Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial consolidation through mergers and acquisitions has been important for development of the IT sector. M&As constituted a force of creative destruction parallel to the mechanism of exit through bankruptcy. Drawing on new empiricalevidence, we argue that M&As also provided new impulses and opportunities for entrepreneurship and stimulated between-firm job mobility of key persons in the sector. We conclude that the intensive M&A-activity of the period contributed to renewal and growth of the ICT software and services industry at large, but did not lead to the creation of new Swedish-based multinationals in the sector.

  • 61.
    Broström, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    McKelvey, Maureen
    Universities and Public Research Institutes as Collaboration Partners2015In: Innovation and Entrepreneurship in the Global Economy: Knowledge, Technology and Internationalization / [ed] Karlsson, C., Gråsjö, U., Wixe, S., Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, p. 44-64Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine how firms assess the value of R & D partnerships with two types of public research organizations: public research institutes (PRIs) and universities. Survey data on Swedish engineering and manufacturing firms suggest that contacts with universities provide firms with impulses to innovation and offer opportunities to learn to a higher extent that contacts with PRIs. Guided by a view of institutes as more oriented towards applied R & D than universities, we also test whether managers perceive institute contacts as contributing more strongly to short-term R & D projects than universities. This hypothesis cannot, however, be verified. Our results suggest that, in terms of perceived effects of R & D managers, PRIs and universities are more similar as collaboration partners than would be expected, given the differing institutional set-ups. Implications for current discussions about the role of PRIs in national research and innovation systems are discussed.

  • 62. Brown, James
    et al.
    Martinsson, Gustav
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Petersen, Bruce
    Do financing constraints matter for R&D?2012In: European Economic Review, ISSN 0014-2921, E-ISSN 1873-572X, Vol. 56, no 8, p. 1512-1529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information problems and lack of collateral value should make R&D more susceptible to financing frictions than other investments, yet existing evidence on whether financing constraints limit R&D is decidedly mixed, particularly in the studies of non-U.S. firms. We study a large sample of European firms and also find little evidence of binding finance constraints when we estimate standard investment-cash flow regressions. However, we find strong evidence that the availability of finance matters for R&D once we directly control for: (i) firm efforts to smooth R&D with cash reserves and (ii) firm use of external equity finance. Our study provides a framework for evaluating financing constraints when firms rely extensively on external finance and endogenously manage buffer stocks of liquidity to keep investment smooth, and our findings show that controlling for this smoothing behavior is critical for uncovering the full effect of financing constraints. Our findings also indicate a major role for external equity in financing R&D, highlighting a causal channel through which stock market development and liberalization can promote economic growth by increasing firm-level innovative activity.

  • 63.
    Butvila, Sarunas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Temporary teams and their proactive approach to contingency: A case study of ANT teams2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Mature organizations must find ways to constantly innovate, if they want to survive or succeed in an ever competing manufacturing industry. One way to gain advantage over the competition is to work proactively in order to avoid contingencies. Contingencies are defined as unforeseen events with negative connotation that might occur, which by anticipating them it in time, the organization can avoid major disasters. There are two ways to approach contingency, reactively, where the organization tries to cope with the already done damage or proactively, where the organization works toward preventing incidents to happen.

    The thesis research performs an investigation on three temporary teams, introduced in a mature organization in the manufacturing industry, which work proactively towards avoiding contingencies. This type of team is not developed broadly in the academic literature, therefore it became the goal of this study to highlight the characteristics of this sort of temporary teams by means of a case study, to analyze them and to define them theoretically. By defining this type of team, the thesis will provide a deeper understanding about this empirical phenomenon and will fill a gap in the academic literature of groups in organizations.

  • 64.
    Bygren, Kathrine
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation. 1990.
    The digitalization impact on accounting firms business models2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Technological revolutions have occurred for markets and industries since the rise of organized communities and societies. In the past few years a technological revolution has been in process with the growth of digitalized markets. This has resulted in a shift of analog business becoming digitalized. Digitization is a structural change for industries and the Swedish economy is affected by it. This put a demand on many industries to adapt digitalized techniques, in order to stay competitive and survive this technical shift. Adapting to a technical revolution puts pressure on the business strategies and requires companies to model new ones. With the digitization, new requirements have arisen for companies to create new business models, value chains and ways of organizing activities, in order to manage the business strategies. Digitization has been seen to change innovation processes and some experts believe it will change whole markets. The accounting industry is one of the industries that has been seen to have a growth in digitalization and is expected to grow even more. The accounting industry is like many other industries are experiencing the need for a change due to digital technologies. Therefore, this study aims to investigate how digital accounting businesses could set up a general business model, in order to be a successfully digitalized business.

    This has been conducted through a multiple case study, with the aim to provide generalized findings of business model elements and barriers/facilitators for digitalization affecting the business model. The multiple case studies has been conducted through interviews with different accounting companies, that market themselves as digitalized actors.

    The findings of the research indicate that digitalization had a direct affect on how companies should strategically organize a business. Many of the implications on digitalized accounting will have direct impact on strategies, actions and processes. The digitalization will require company cultures, which are digitalization friendly. Some of the found results are: digitization will give accounting companies digital accounting tools, knowledge sharing and communication channels. It will put pressure on employees for having different knowledge than analogue businesses and more expertise skills. Digitalization it is estimated to affect the offerings provided to customers. The digitalization is also most likely to have key partners, targeted customer segment, cost structure and revenue streams specific for being digitalized. Digitalization of the accounting industry is likely to change the market from being a supplier driven to becoming demand driven and new actors with less accounting knowledge could get a opening for entering the market. And there are many barriers and a few facilitators for being a digitalized accounting business. This has been taken in consideration when mapping a general business model for a digital accounting firm in this report.

  • 65. Cagno, E.
    et al.
    Ramirez-Portilla, Andres
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation. Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Trianni, A.
    Linking energy efficiency and innovation practices: Empirical evidence from the foundry sector2015In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 83, p. 240-256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Europe 2020 strategy currently promotes energy efficiency and innovation through disconnected targets focusing on either energy or R&D. Similar policies indicate that in practice, these two concepts are usually perceived as mutually exclusive. Furthermore, evidence in the literature regarding the relationship between R&D and energy efficiency is still highly limited. This exploratory study aims to address this gap by investigating the link between innovation practices and energy efficiency through a multiple case study of 30 foundries in Northern Italy. We analysed the firms' innovativeness, measured by internal R&D and Open Innovation practices (inbound and outbound), and energy efficiency, measured by specific energy consumption, level of adoption of energy-efficient technologies and barriers to energy efficiency. The results seem to show that those foundries complementing internal R&D with inbound practices have a higher level of energy efficiency, a higher level of adoption of available technologies, and a lower perception of barriers to efficiency improvements. This finding suggests that diversifying innovation practices could lead to better performance with respect to all three indicators of energy efficiency analysed. This study contributes to understanding how more innovative firms can be more energy efficient, providing interesting highlights for managers and policymakers.

  • 66.
    CAI, YING
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Crude Oil Price Shocks and Chinese Industrial Stock Prices: New Evidence from Fama-French Three-Factor Model2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    So far, numerous researchers (Blanchard and Gali, 2007) have offered   empiricalevidence on the relationship between crude oil prices and macroeconomic variables. However, it is remarkable that only few researchers have ever conducted research on the impact of crude oil price on financial market, especially for developing nations, such as China. This thesis attempts to investigate the impact of crude oil returns on industrial stock returns and its volatilities of twelve different industries in Chinese financial market during the time span of 5th January 2010 and 31th December 2014. “Terrorist attacks”  is used as an instrumental variable for the volatility of crude oil returns in order to estimate the causal effect. Based on the GARCH model, the estimation result reveals that the impact of the fluctuation of crude oil price on Chinese industrial stock market will significantly affect five out of twelve industries. The indirectly related crude oil industries (such as Retail, IT, Finance, Real Estate and Media industry) have a long persistency (more than 19 days) of volatility during the examined period. In addition, with two-step IV model, the findings imply that only the Mining industry has a strong significant causal connection to oil fluctuation. Most sectors benefit from the ascending of crude oil price except Transportation, IT, Real Estate and Media industry. Similarly, the positive volatility oil return also creates positive effect on major industries except Manufacturing, Electricity and IT industry. The research findings of this thesis are very important since there are only limited similar studies that analyze the causal effect between these variables using “terrorist attacks” as an instrument variable on Chinese financial market. The research provides useful information to economists, investors and policymakers for further study on relevant issues.

  • 67. Carlsson, Bo
    et al.
    Braunerhjelm, Pontus
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    McKelvey, Maureen
    Olofsson, Christer
    Persson, Lars
    Ylinenpää, Håkan
    The evolving domain of entrepreneurship research2013In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 913-930Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on entrepreneurship has flourished in recent years and is evolving rapidly. This article explores the history of entrepreneurship research, how the research domain has evolved, and its current status as an academic field. The need to concretize these issues stems partly from a general interest in defining the current research domain and partly from the more specific tasks confronting the prize committee of the Global Award for Entrepreneurship Research. Entrepreneurship has developed in many sub-fields within several disciplines-primarily economics, management/business administration, sociology, psychology, economic and cultural anthropology, business history, strategy, marketing, finance, and geography-representing a variety of research traditions, perspectives, and methods. We present an analytical framework that organizes our thinking about the domain of entrepreneurship research by specifying elements, levels of analysis, and the process/context. An overview is provided of where the field stands today and how it is positioned relative to the existing disciplines and new research fields upon which it draws. Areas needed for future progress are highlighted, particularly the need for a rigorous dynamic theory of entrepreneurship that relates entrepreneurial activity to economic growth and human welfare. Moreover, applied work based on more careful design as well as on theoretical models yielding more credible and robust estimates seems also highly warranted.

  • 68.
    CARTER, SABRINA
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    LARSSON, JOHANNA
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Index-Linked Mortgages in Sweden: A Study of an Alternative Mortgage Structure2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Households generally have little or no possibility to unload their real estate risk, which constitutes a large part of  their total portfolio risk. The aim of this study is to analyze a way for households to unload this risk through a socalled index-linked mortgage financed by a fund. The study examines how such a mortgage could be structured, and how it will affect  he bank, the borrower and the fund investor compared to a conventional mortgage. The ominal loan value and therefore also the interest payments of the studied index-linked  ortgage will vary according to the HOX Flats Stockholm Index. Through linear optimization, the structure is optimized from a borrower’s perspective but is subject to a set of constraints on the bank’s and the fund’s profitability and risk levels. The optimal structure is tested through a scenario analysis for different outcomes of apartment price developments and also  hrough a sensitivity analysis to test the effect of shifting conventional mortgage rates. The esults show that the interest rate payment burden will consistently be lower for the index-linked mortgage than for the conventional mortgage. The borrower is insured against house price drops but have to give up some of the upside potential on the property investment if house prices increase. The fund gets a satisfactory payoff in relation to the real estate  arket movement while it is somewhat protected when house prices decline. The bank issuing the mortgages will always experience a profit, but the conventional mortgage is more profitable  or negative index scenarios. Furthermore, the probability of default decreases for the index- inked mortgage holder when prices drop as the loan to value ratio (LTV) always remains  elow 100 percent for index decreases up to 40 percent. The structure is appropriate for  owincome households who will have difficulties paying back the loan when apartment prices  rops. This study contributes to theory in hedging of real estate risk, mortgage risk and  inancial innovation.

  • 69.
    Castillo, Jason
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Owino, Maryanne
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Conveying value in new corporateventures: The case of Telia CompanyCDN unit2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The transition of businesses to the digital marketplace has presented many opportunities andchallenges for e-commerce and ICT services providers. This research was carried out during theongoing diffusion of a technological innovation, at Telia Company's Content Delivery Network(CDN) unit, in a bid to understand the technology adoption process. The researchers' approachwas to get insights from different stakeholders in the Swedish e-commerce industry and tocompare the qualitative research findings with theoretical secondary data and definitions. Sixinterviews were performed, constituting the empirical data. After the analysis and discussion ofthe results and frameworks, the researchers propose a merged theoretical framework thatcould be used for designing compelling value propositions, and as such improve the conveyingof the value of an offering. The thesis concludes with recommendations to further validate theproposed framework through further research.

  • 70.
    Cavallin, Robert
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Ankarberg, Jesper
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Energy Analysis of a Powder Plant: A study at Sandvik in Coventry2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to perform an energy analysis. From that energy analysis areas where improvements can be made are selected. In these improvement areas measures are suggested to reduce energy inefficiencies. Where it is appropriate, replacement equipment are looked at and there are suggestions on which equipment is the most suitable substitute. Some of the new equipment has a calculated payback time and a life cycle cost analysis. In some areas environmental impacts are estimated and a carbon footprint calculated.

    The energy analysis is carried out at the factory of an industrial company. The thesis describes what you need to consider before starting an energy analysis and what is a good way to present the data the analysis yields. Information and data comes from actual readings on site, calculations and estimates, interviews with engineers and other personnel as well as manuals and data sheets collected from archives and the internet. The site is visited once every fortnight for collection of data and to do interviews with the staff. To facilitate calculating the heat demand of the powder factory, the software called Energycalc is used but for most other calculations Excel is sufficient. The thesis furthermore describes how to find and evaluate measures that reduces the number of energy inefficient components. It also discusses barriers to why companies do not implement the suggested measures. The suggested measures with a payback time of less than three years are seen as successful. Special attention is given to replacing the chillers. The chillers are old, outdated and running on the soon to be banned R22. They have to be replaced and it is one of Sandvik’s top priorities.

    Results from the energy analysis show that the steam boiler is the biggest energy consumer but the chillers are the most costly energy consumer. The steam boiler runs on gas and the chillers run on electricity. Since natural gas is a fifth of the electricity price the chillers are more costly to run. The cooling of the mill and the heat losses in the dryer is where most energy disappears. The basement compressors are too big and spend most of the energy idling and leaking. The building has an over dimensioned extraction fan system and poor insulation. The steam boilers are old, over-dimensioned and inefficient. The chillers are inefficient and a lot could be saved in repair and maintenance costs if they were replaced. By adding a free cooler the energy consumption could also be reduced and the carbon footprint lowered.

    This thesis will contribute to a better environment due to reduced carbon dioxide emissions. It will help reduce the amount of energy used per product thus decreasing cost per product and therefore increasing profit. It will also increase awareness of how much energy and money that can be saved by looking over old systems and constantly looking for ways to reduce the amount of energy used. It will increase consciousness of both managers and employees about how and where they use energy. It will make a difference.

  • 71.
    CHRISTENSEN, MARSHALL
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Lockup Expirations in Brazilian IPOs2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we conducted an event study of 100 Brazilian IPO’s from 2004 to 2010 to detect if there was any significant abnormal returns after the expiration of the IPO lockup period, during which pre-IPO shareholders are prevented from selling their shares. We found no significant abnormal returns for all companies during all event dates examined, though we did detect significant negative abnormal returns around lockup for high- volatility firms. We also find that after the lockup expiration, there is a higher frequency of days with a higher-than-average trading volume.

  • 72.
    Cian, Healy
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    LI, ZHE
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    The Role Decentralised Non-Regulated Virtual Currencies Play in Facilitating Unlawful Financial Transactions.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As consumer payment services have been developed at a rapid rate in recent years, the introduction to the market of decentralised, non-regulated cryptocurrencies has enabled a significant increase in acts of criminality in the cyber environment. Efforts to combat and curb the continued growth of such illicit activities have included the development, implementation and enforcement of legislation and regulations by governing authorities on a global scale. For the purpose of this thesis, interviews were conducted with several industry experts and governmental officials specializing in the use of virtual currencies for illicit financial transactions, namely fraud, money laundering and tax evasion. While the extent to which decentralised, non-regulated payment services actually contributes to illicit financial transactions remains unclear, it can certainly be said that as the use of new and emerging virtual currencies increases, so too will acts of criminality in the cyber world. 

  • 73.
    CINDY DIANA GÓMEZ ALDER, CINDY DIANA
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Innovation Strategy, Accessibility to Knowledge Intensive Producers of Services and Productivity: An Evaluation Method Approach2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study tests the hypothesis that firms productivity varies with the degree of internal knowledge (innovation status) and the proximity to external knowledge. We apply an evaluation method approach which consists on the estimation of average treatment effects on labour productivity with data from the Swedish Community Innovation Survey from the period 2006-2008. The estimation of the treatment effects is based on the estimation of propensity scores and "Nearest Neighbour Matching" estimator. The treatment variable is a combination of a firm´s innovation strategy and their knowledge-density location. The results obtained are partly in line with the theory on innovative firms´ internal capabilities, access to external knowledge sources, and firm productivity. On the one hand, the results follow the theory showing that firms that are persistently innovative and are located in high knowledge-density areas have greater labour productivity compared to all other firms. On the other hand, the estimate for labour productivity for non-innovative firms located in a high knowledge-density area is found to be greater than the estimate for persistently innovative firms located in low knowledge-density areas. The latter goes against the theory which proposes that only innovative firms can benefit, and perform better, from proximity to external generation of complex knowledge. Moreover, we test for the significance of the assumptions behind the methodology of treatment effect analysis, and we perform a sensitivity analysis on the results obtained in order to find the level of influence of hidden bias in the propensity score model used in this study.

  • 74.
    Clausén, Gabriella
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Do profitable banks with a solid capital base have a higher ratio of capital buffer?: Reviewing the impact of regulation, the previous financial crisis and banks own incentives of having excess capital.2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The financial crisis starting in mid-2007 is still affecting us, and with increased regulation banks and institutions are supposed to get more solvent and the industry to become more stable. The Basel Committee is working towards more unified regulation across countries, but the question is how the increased regulation is affecting banks financials. Do profitable banks with a solid capital base have a higher ratio of capital buffer? Looking at banks in 16 OECD countries during the period 1993-2009, with country-level panel-data displayed in two simultaneous equation estimations illustrating how profit and capital buffer has changed during these years, and the relation between them. To get an understanding of how the crisis affected these variables the regressions are also done for a pre-crisis period of 1993-2006. Internal funding variables and other economic control variables are explanatory variables and results show the internal funding variables have a large effect on profit and for capital buffer profit have the largest impact. Results imply that profitable banks with a solid capital base do have a higher ratio of capital buffer. The results coincide with the franchise value theory which is applied in the paper. 

  • 75. Colombo, Massimo G.
    et al.
    Mohammadi, Ali
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Rossi-Lamastra, Cristina
    Innovative Business Models in High-Tech Entrepreneurial Ventures: The Organizational Design Challenges2015In: In Business Model Innovation: The Organizational Dimension / [ed] Nicolai Foss and Tina Saebi, Oxford University Press, 2015, p. 169-190Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 76.
    Coman, Alin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation. Stockholm School of Entrepreneurship.
    Sustainable value creation through corporate entrepreneurship: A case study of Univan Ship Management Limited in Hong Kong2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to rapid and major economic change in recent years, the need for more flexible, dynamic and innovative companies is widely recognized. Firms must clearly understand and translate customers’ needs in order to foster value creation. Many scholars have focused their attention on the entrepreneurial behavior of owners or top managers and their actions that encourage innovation, venturing and strategic renewal. However, rigorous empirical research examining the factors that support corporate entrepreneurship and lead to sustainable value creation is scarce.

    The purpose of this study is to identify the factors that support corporate entrepreneurship and lead to sustainable value creation in a ship management company, using a case study approach.

    In this context, the following research question is addressed:

    -What factors support corporate entrepreneurship and lead to sustainable value creation in a ship management company?

    This research uses an interpretive paradigm and utilizes three methods for collecting data, consisting of observational technique, surveys and semi-structured interviews. Findings reveal the factors that support corporate entrepreneurship and lead to sustainable value creation in ship management. These are analyzed in relation to the literature and the ship management sector. The study concludes that corporate entrepreneurship, when conducted effectively, can be a significant contributor of sustainable value creation. However, this may or may not be applicable to other sectors.

     

  • 77.
    Coman, Alin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Sustainable value creation through corporate entrepreneurship: AcasestudyofUnivanShipManagementLimitedinHongKong2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to rapid and major economic  change in recent years, the need for more flexible, dynamic and innovative companies is widely recognized. Firms must clearly understand and translate customers needs  in order to foster value creation.  Many scholars have focused their attention on the entrepreneurial behavior of owners or top managers and their actions that encourage innovation, venturing and strategic renewal. However, rigorous empirical research examining  the factors that support corporate  entrepreneurship and lead to sustainable value creation is scarce.

     

    The purpose of this study is to identify the factors that support corporate entrepreneurship and lead to sustainable  value creation in a ship management company, using a case study approach.

    In this context, the following research question is addressed.   What  factors support corporate entrepreneurship and lead to sustainable value creation in a ship management company?

     

    This research uses an interpretive paradigm and utilizes three

    Methods for collecting data, consisting of observational technique, surveys and

    Semi structured interviews. Findings reveal the factors that support corporate entrepreneurship and lead  to sustainable value creation in ship  management. These are

    Analyzed in relation  to the literature and the ship management sector. The  study concludes that corporate entrepreneurship,  when conducted effectively, can be a significant contributor of sustainable value creation. However,  this may or may not be applicable to other sectors.

  • 78.
    Contreras Montero, Esther
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    The poorest internet users: A case study of Ensenada Baja California, Mexico 20112013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is becoming increasingly important as the technological development rapidly makes the tools of ICT more and more powerful. ICT has changed the way we conduct our lives. Furthermore, apart from the social aspects, it has made a significant impact on an economic, educational and political level. However, developing countries are lagging behind in their adoption of ICTs and are therefore not yet making use of the full potential of ICT. Therefore this study focuses on how the poorest internet users use the Internet in the poorest areas-neighborhood of Ensenada Baja California, México. Having as principal questions: What are the usages of the Internet to the poorest Internet users in Ensenada Baja California? and What role does the Internet have in the lives of the poorest Internet users in Ensenada Baja California? to collect data and to analyze the results of the investigation a qualitative and quantitative survey was performed on the Internet usage of persons in Ensenada B.C. The survey constituted questionnaires with a total of 138 respondents, interviews of the managers of the four cybercafés, eight interviews out of 138 questionnaire responders, as well as casual observations of the cybercafés’ visitors with respect to their use of the Internet. The results show that the users’ main activities were, listed in order of main usage, the use of social networks (Facebook and e-mail), school work, searching of diverse information and multimedia. The results also show that the users at least have a basic knowledge of using the computer. Furthermore, to some extent they do research information online as to further their personal education. The results were discussed with respect to three theories: Internet in everyday life, Technology Diffusion and Information and Communication Technology for Developing countries (ICT4D). In conclusion, the results indicate that there is a digital divide in the sense of differential Internet usage of developing regions as compared to early adopters of ICTs.

  • 79. Cook, G. A. S.
    et al.
    Pandit, N. R.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Johansson, B.
    Clustering, MNEs, and Innovation: Who Benefits and How?2013In: International Journal of the Economics of Business, ISSN 1357-1516, E-ISSN 1466-1829, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 203-227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores three under-researched questions in the literature on multinational enterprises (MNEs), clustering, and innovation. First, to what extent does multinationality lead to higher rates of innovation activity and performance? Second, what, if any, is the link between MNE cluster location and innovation inputs and outputs? Third, are there any significant differences between enterprises belonging to domestic and overseas MNEs in these regards? Evidence is based primarily on 11,775 firms derived from the UK Community Innovation Survey 2007. Diversity in the regional economy exerts the most consistent positive influence, followed by the scale of employment in the enterprise's own industry. Enterprises belonging to domestic MNEs appear to exert higher levels of innovation effort. However, evidence regarding their superiority in innovation outputs was weaker. Contrary to Michael Porter's work, it appears that enterprises belonging to overseas firms benefit more than domestic firms.

  • 80.
    Cronqvist, Ellen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Smed, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Affärsmodeller på den svenska bankmarknaden2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The recent financial crisis has emphasized the need for improved supervision of the actors on the financial market. One way to improve supervision is through better understanding of business models. The aim with this thesis is to find similarities in business models for Swedish credit institutions and for Swedish branches of foreign banks. More specific this study aims to find groups of companies, in this paper called clusters, with similar business models and identify existing business models in the banking market. The data used in this study are financial statements reported to the Swedish Financial Supervisory Authority for the years 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2013.

    In order to compare the companies’ data, ratios from the income statements and balance sheets have been created. To reduce the amount of data and arrive at a smaller set of uncorrelated variables, principal component analysis was used. The method used for finding the clusters was a hierarchical agglomerative clustering method called Ward’s method. The number of clusters was determined using Calinski-Harabasz index. Bootstrapping was used in order to test cluster stability.

    This study shows that patterns in the Swedish banking sector exist and that it is possible to find clusters of companies with similar business models. Swedish branches of foreign banks have been treated separately from Swedish credit institutions. For Swedish credit institutions a division into six clusters was found to be most suitable and in order to describe the business model the clusters are named: Universal banks, Savings banks, Leasing companies, Non-deposit funded credit institutions, Service-focused credit institutions and Other credit institutions. The most stable clusters, that are the clusters with highest similarity, are Savings banks and Leasing companies. The cluster with lowest stability is Universal banks and it could be considered as a pattern in the data rather than a cluster. For Swedish branches of foreign banks, three clusters were found to be most suitable and the clusters are named: Banks, Service-focused credit institutions and Other credit institutions. These clusters are stable.

  • 81.
    Daghbashyan, Zara
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Hårsman, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    University choice and entrepreneurship2014In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 42p. 729-746Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims at shedding light upon the impact of universities on graduates' entrepreneurial choice. Previous studies analyze the relationship between the choice of university and labor market success of graduates in terms of their subsequent wages, employability or over-education, whereas the possible link between the choice of university and entrepreneurial choice is neglected. Using 1998-2008 data on graduates from Swedish higher education institutions, the paper finds significant variation in the impact of universities on the career choice of graduates. The results suggest that graduates with degrees in the social sciences, natural sciences, medicine and teacher education from more prestigious universities systematically differ from others in their entrepreneurial choice. At the same time, no statistically significant difference is found for technical science graduates.

  • 82.
    DANILOVA, MARIA
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Switching costs in the Swedish bankingsector2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper elaborates on the topic of switching costs and investigates their influence on the Swedish market for loans. The Swedish banking sector is highly concentrated; customers are reluctant to alter banks. All together it raises the question of whether switching implies sufficiently high costs or not. The basis for the research is the model created by Kim (2003) who introduced transition probabilities incorporated into banks’ value maximization and applied them for the supply and demand functions. The empirical part of the paper is based on the data for 55 banks in total (commercial and saving, including the four major players) and analyzes whether high switching costs are the case for the market. The results of the research revealed that average switching costs on the market equal 0.148% which makes up only 2% of the average market interest rate and indicates low economic switching costs on the market on average. Therefore we may conclude that banking sector as a whole experiences merely psychological switching costs. However taking into account the existing bias in the sample towards the four main banks we eliminate them from the other observations by creating subsamples which are based on the number of branches. The results show significant switching costs for the banks with less than 100 branches: the value of costs is significantly higher in this case and equals 4.65% which makes up about 81% of the average interest rate in this subsample. Thus we may claim that small banks create the so called "lock-in" effect making it economically costly for the customers to alter bank.

  • 83.
    Darmani, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Dwaikat, Nidal
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management. Technical University of Madrid, UPM.
    Ramirez Portilla, Andres
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Twelve Years of Scholary Research: Content and Trend Analysis of the Journal Creativity and Innovation Management2013In: IAMOT 2013 Proceedings, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the internationally recognized journals that publishes and spreads literature concerning the relation between organizations and innovation and how creativity and imagination is organized is ‘Creativity and Innovation Management’ (CAIM). To date there has been only one attempt to analyze the corpus of publications in this journal from 1992-2000. As no further historical analysis of CAIM has been done after it, the purpose of this paper is to present a content analysis and verify some of the trends within published articles for the last 12 years. This study is conducted by analyzing the content of latest 360 CAIM articles (published from 2000 to 2012). Data collection and analysis are performed by utilizing Publish-or-Perish software and also, Excel statistical analysis tools. This methodology uses a multi-approach to content analysis by interpreting the text in titles and abstracts to evaluate several elements, for instance the authorship characteristics, geographical contributions or the nine themes previously proposed and visible in the CAIM journal. The study outcomes in addition to the descriptive statistics that provide an overview of the research contributions, intend to gain insights in two important aspects. First, this study confirms how the articles categorized in the nine themes have behaved in the last 12 years. Second, the study reveals that some trends in the literature came from emerging markets economies (EME), which has not been raised so far, as the relation of author’s countries and the themes of their publications in the EME context.

  • 84. Deiaco, Enrico
    et al.
    Broström, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Geschwind, Lars
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning.
    Högskola och region - ett trevande förhållande: reflektioner över exemplet Västra Götalandsregionen2007Book (Other academic)
  • 85.
    Ding, Ding
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Braunerhjelm, Pontus
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Does Innovation Lead to Firm Growth?: Explorative versus Exploitative Innovations2016Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we examine the relationship between innovation and firm growth. Weimplement a classification of innovations based on whether they are explorative orexploitative, taking advantage of a unique Swedish dataset for the period 1997 to 2012.The data allow us to construct each firm’s innovation history. Panel regression estimations,together with an instrumental variable method, confirm a significant and positive effect ofboth exploitative and explorative innovation on firms’ employment growth. More radicalexplorative innovations are shown to have a more persistent growth effect, whereasexploitative innovation increases labour demand in the short run. We also provideempirical findings regarding the effect of innovations distributed on size classes anddifferent ownership structures.

  • 86.
    Eder, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Mutsaerts, Christopher
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Diffusion of innovation at the bottom of the pyramid: the impact of a payment system on the adoption of electricity in rural Uganda2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis analyses how a payment system affects the diffusion of renewable electricity in rural Uganda. A case study is used provided by a start-up company named Pamoja Cleantech. This company is about to sell electricity, which is generated by biomass-based gasification, to a low-income community. Several households are already connected to the established mini-grid while the majority is still not served. A chasm has been identified between the users in the rural village. The reason for this gap between adopters is the high connection fee and a lack of transparent communication. Therefore, diffusion theory has been used to analyse the impact of several payment-related solutions that could close this chasm. First of all, a set of critical factors have been identified concerning general electricity adoption in the case. Those are reliability, trust, transparent communication and satisfying the needs of the local people. Additionally, it has been shown that a payment system, tariffs, and investment costs must satisfy specific requirements in order to be effective, efficient, and positively affect the rate of adoption. These are requirements such as dealing with the cultural incompetence of people being able to save money and to overcome their understanding to have electricity as a status symbol. Therefore an existing technology with its infrastructure is proposed to use: mobile banking. Since this technology has already penetrated Uganda, its convenience to use and satisfaction is high. Additionally, it has advantages such as saving time, security, reliability, and not much space for fraud. This thesis is based on a theoretical framework that is empirically tested and will provide a description of this specific situation in Uganda. Also, it proposes several management recommendations for the company in order to convert adduced threats into opportunities and strengthen their current inclusive business model.

  • 87.
    EKLUND, JONATHAN
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    LAPI, SEBASTIAN
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Commodity hedge for a grocery retailer: Evaluation of financial hedge opportunities for agrocery retail company2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Macroeconomic factors have recently led to radical changes in the commodity markets worldwide. This has led to more volatile market conditions, which have affected purchase prices of e.g. grocery retailers. Incentives have thus emerged to review the price risk exposure entailed with commodity purchases. Given a grocery retailer's food assortment, this study has more deeply analyzed a cross-hedging strategy in hope to stabilize purchase prices of sunflower oil. To yield valid results a case study was conducted jointly with a grocery retail company since they could contribute with valuable quantitative and qualitative data. The study shows that soybean oil futures is a suitable instrument for hedging sunflower oil price risk for a grocery retailer even though their complex price risk situation. The effects of using this cross-hedge indicate that reduced standard deviation of the purchase prices between buying points could be yielded. Further, this can lead to more stable margins, despite volatile and uncertain commodity spot prices. Finally, the study evaluates whether these activities should be managed internally or externally. If suppliers can manage the price risk, this would be preferable since they are directly exposed to the risk, which is part of their core business. If the risk cannot be managed externally, internal systems, processes and skills must be reviewed to yield an effective hedge strategy. A concise framework of how to tackle price risk management issues as a grocery retailer is presented at the end of the report.

  • 88. Eliasson, G
    et al.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Heshmati, A
    Hultkrantz, Lars
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Stephan, A
    Westlund, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Ojnare kan bli ett svenskt exempel i FN2015In: Dagens OpinionArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 89.
    Ericksson, Hanna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Should we outsource it, or should we mess it up ourselves?: Factors affecting the make-or-buy decision in the sports retail industry: The case of Adidas Sailing2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Combining concepts regarding the make-or-buy decision, such as Williamson’s (1981) ideas on transaction costs in conjunction with theories of supply chain management, the thesis outlines what factors should be of importance to firms when deciding to make or buy certain processes within the supply chain. Using Porter’s (1985) division of the supply chain into 5 sections we analyze the make-or-buy decisions of Catamaran Sports/Adidas sailing, finding that while many decisions taken match the theory-based predictions, a lot of processes are handled the way they are because of external constraints faced by the firm. In the case of Adidas their main reason for taking certain strategic decisions are to maintain their competitive advantage in the market, which they build on a benefit leadership strategy. This has resulted in them often choosing a production method that has a relatively high accounting cost, compared to what could have been achieved, in order to maintain flexibility, reduce lead times and provide a higher level of service.  

  • 90.
    Erlandsson, Alice
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Gaylong, Ruby
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Navigating Sustainability Oriented Innovation Processes2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is strong interest across industries and academia in exploring the potential of innovation to address global sustainability issues and hence assist in making a paradigm shift towardsmore sustainable practices. To overcome the challenges of sustainability it is not enough to inject incremental solutions but a paradigm shift should suggestively be aimed at. As a result Sustainability innovation is being approached more holistically as opposed to in the past when it mostly focused on process, product or organisational innovation. The concept ‘SustainabilityOriented Innovation’ (SOI) considers this holistic view and looks at innovation as a process or trajectory and considers sustainability from a both social, environmental as well as an economic perspective. For holistic solutions to arise it is evident that challenges need to be solved togetherin multi actor networks and not in an insular manner. Yet, researchers have in the past focused mostly on who should govern or be involved in sustainability innovation whilst there is a lack in understanding how it should be accomplished collectively. Understanding how different parties such as civil society, public authorities and industries can collaborate to create valuable solutions can be imperative for future sustainable development.By combining SOI with Actor Network Theory (ANT) this paper sheds light on how actors engage in SOI processes and form a multi-actor network. Actor Network Theory helps deciphering the innovation process, viewing it as non-linear and continuously evolving negotiation between multiple actors rather than as an insular and linear process. Two SOI cases are examined through the theoretical lens of ANT to investigate the innovation process through moments of translations rather than static stages. As the integration of SOI and ANT is under researched this paper makes a theoretical contribution by integrating the theories and thus enriching this area. Findings emphasise how the focal actor, in a SOI process, engages with other actors in the multi-actor network. The findings can hence assist actors in initiating or transitioning towards Systems building approach by shedding light on how to navigate the complexities of the process and engage with other actorsinvolved.

  • 91.
    Fahlén, Per
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    How can innovation frameworks for global technology intensive companies be modeled and formalized?: A case study of Saab AB2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In a seemingly ever faster moving world where global competition is rising, companies has to find their competitive advantage. This advantage could be by offering a lower price on similar products or for instance by offering a superior product. What makes a product superior in comparison with the competitor’s products and how can the company maintain its competitive advantage.

    One of the main solutions for this dilemma is to be more innovative than the competitors and thereby gaining the competitive advantage. Becoming innovative doesn’t mean relying on sheer luck; instead the company has to adapt the proper innovation management.

    This thesis aims to research and suggest how a conceptual innovation management framework could be modelled for a large technology heavy organization. The findings of applicable theories together with the empirical study clearly show that in order for a large technology heavy company to improve its innovativeness it has to act under an innovation management framework, where innovation strategy and designated roles are clearly stated. 

  • 92.
    FALAN, SANDRO
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Business Impact of Social Computing: Potential Benefits of Enterprise 2.02014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Social computing technologies have become an important of everyday life. They are rapidly

    changing the way we communicate, share information and interact with each other in general. Companies  are  also  becoming  aware  that  these  technologies  are  not  necessarily  limited  to personal use, but they can also create value from a business perspective if properly integrated within companies. Business use of these social computing (web 2.0) is referred to as Enterprise

    2.0.

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the impact of web 2.0 technologies on knowledge sharing within a business organization. The prerequisites for effective knowledge sharing and Enterprise 2.0 technologies are very similar, and as a result of implementing these required changes, the impact is significant in a mostly positive manner. In conducting this research, a comprehensive study of literature was performed; both from areas related to knowledge sharing and Enterprise 2.0 technologies. In addition, 4 interviews were conducted with companies using Enterprise 2.0 technologies and one with a company that has plans to implement it in the future in order to gain first-hand information on the impact of web 2.0 tools.

    As  a  result,  a  conceptual  model  representing  most  important  prerequisites  for  successful organizational knowledge sharing is suggested, which draws on both empirical findings and the analysis of existing literature. Successful knowledge sharing depends on organizational context and technology. Enterprise 2.0 technology can influence the organizational context in terms of creating a more open culture and reducing organizational boundaries which results in knowledge sharing benefits.

  • 93.
    FALK SUNDMAN, JONATHAN
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    HOLMSTRÖM, HENRIK
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Startups in Cleantech: Success Factors2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis we have explored what success factors that are considered important for cleantech startups. We define success as the stage when startups move from extreme uncertainty to a stable condition in the market leaving the imminent threat of failure behind. A success factor is therefore defined as a variable that has a positive impact on the performance against reaching success. To do this, a literature review of previous research that has looked at what factors are correlated to success was done. From this review the following factors were identified: Innovative solution, R&D investment size, protection of the innovation, low cost strategy, customer feedback, market conditions, internationalization, industry technical experience of the team, management & marketing experience of the team, personal network, financial resources, government as a partner, university partnership & external advisory board & network. These factors were then compared to our empirical findings and all factors except personal network & government as a partner were considered important by at least one interviewee. Furthermore, two other areas were considered important that didn´t came up in the literature review and these were quick time to market and other firms as partners. Since this was a thesis with limited resources, the empirical material was rather brief making the results only an indication and not conclusive.

  • 94.
    Fallgren, Karl
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Sundborg, Håkan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Future grocery: A study of the e-commerce grocery basket business in Sweden 2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The era of the Internet has become increasingly important in our daily life. Internet channels are rapidly growing into sophisticated businesses. This thesis purpose is therefore to conduct an initial study on a newly approaching e-commerce business, namely the grocery basket business. As there has not yet been much research in this field the overall aim is to contribute to the research in this business area. There are many who argue that in relation to the Internet and e-commerce fields there are two other important fields: business model and supply chain.

    A qualitative approach is used, based on triangulation methodology including a multiple case study and a survey. The cases are two different types of e-commerce companies: brick-and-clicks and pure-players. An empirical investigation covering twenty interviews and a questionnaire with one thousand respondents has been conducted.

    Findings supported by the interviews and the questionnaire reveal much knowledge about the grocery basket business. This are analyzed in relation to literature of business model and supply chain and according to the two cases of companies in the business.

    The study concludes that there is a great deal of challenges facing the grocery basket business in both fields of business model and supply chain. In both cases it is a challenge to retain customers, flexibility for customers, competition and supply chain development. Regarding brick-and-clicks a major challenge is to make their physical channel and online channel work together. Regarding pure-players a major challenge is their dependency of wholesalers. In addition, recommendations to these acknowledged challenges are benchmarking on other successful grocery companies and/or other successful e-commerce companies. Additional recommendation for pure-players is that they should cooperate with a brick-and-mortar company. Finally, the study shows some decent potential in the business to reduce emissions. This by providing eco-friendly products with pre planned recipes to fit with the products, and having fewer products in stock.

  • 95.
    FANT-ELDH, AXEL
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    KIRVESNIEMI, MATTIAS
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    IMPACT ANALYSIS OF LTE-A IMPLEMENTATION: FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF NORDICTELECOMMUNICATION OPERATORS2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The next major technological development in the ever changing mobile telecommunications market is going to be the implementation of LTE-A, a further development of what is currently known as 4G. How will such an implementation affect the market and the level of competition between the operators? This is what this thesis intends to answer.

    Primarily using Michael E. Porter’s Diamond Model to establish the major factors that affect the competition, the thesis analyses the impact of the implementation upon these factors. The thesis evaluates whether this case is an example where the Governmental factor is more important than generally defined by the model.

    Three studies were performed to gather the necessary empirical data; a spectrum study of the Nordic region, an offering study of the Swedish operator market, and interviews with key actors.

    The major conclusions drawn were that the LTE-A implementation should not heavily affect the competitive balance of the Nordic operator markets, and that Government has a big influence on the level of competitiveness within the markets.

  • 96.
    Faridoon, Zahra
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Torrötning vid Biogasproduktion ochRötresthantering från Matavfall: En Livscykelanalys2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose:

    AB Fortum Heat co-owned by Stockholms Stad (Fortum) is one of Sweden’s largest district heating company. The company hopes to expand its biomass-fuel production. The fuel-plant is currently in the planning phase where many different aspects are being evaluated.

    The aim of this project was to evaluate digestation techniques when producing biogas and waste management treatments for the remaining digestate. The techniques recommended as part of this master thesis should have the least possible negative impact on the environment but at the same time possess positive economical viability.

    Process:

    During the evaluation of different options a set of scenarios were conducted and evaluated through a life cycle assessment. The different scenarios combine one digestation technique with one waste management technique for the digestate. The alternatives were examined and compared to each other through LCA calculations, literature reviews and theoretical framework related to waste management.

    Logic:

    The result of this paper is presented in the form of specific recommendations for Fortum. Even though the outcome of this research is addressed to a specific problem and company the motivation and method used to provide a solution can be applied in similar cases. The conclusive factor for determining a better alternative for waste management is the total transportation needed for each scenarios. The impacts on the environment and economy followed by transportation have been viewed in previously made studies and is cohesive to the findings in this study.

    Outcome:

    The conclusion is that a process including dry digestation followed by using the digestation as a fertilizer is the best option. The amount of transports needed today are too great when delivering to croplands because wet digestation is applied in Sweden. A dry digestation allows production of the digestate to be reduced in volume. This means that less transportation to the croplands will be needed, meaning that both costs and environmental impacts can be reduced for this waste management. The fertilizer recycles phosphor from food waste and creates a recycling loop for the non-renewable resource phosphor.

  • 97.
    Foley, Jeffrey
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Shared Value and Competitive Advantage: A Tesla Motors Case Study2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, studies have demonstrated that consumers are becoming more and more health conscious as well as better aware of companies’ ethical practices. In response to this many firms around the globe have worked hard to appear more morally responsible and those who have failed to do so have often found their balance sheet suffering as a result. As people have begun to focus more on the origins and production process of goods, it has become more apparent that companies can no longer get away with behaving unethically and immorally.

    With this recent shift towards addressing societal concerns, an interesting question arises. Is the sole purpose of a company behaving ethically simply to appease the masses and protect their image/brand or can a company actually create economic value and competitive advantage as a direct outcome of addressing societal concerns?

  • 98.
    Fornaziere, Felipe
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Social Performance Standards in the Impact Investing Industry: Potential Consequences for Impact Investors2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the recent years, a new type of investments called Impact Investing has been growing rapidly. Those investments are made with the intention to improve social and/or environmental conditions in the world while generating financial returns. In this case, financial metrics are not enough to measure whether the investor objective was reached, and tools for measuring the social performance of the investments are needed. From that need, various measurement approaches were created, but the fragmentation of methods leads to a huge inefficiency in the impact investing industry. Efforts towards creating standards for measuring and reporting social performance are emerging, but there is still little  understanding among impact investors about the real benefits and possible challenges the standardization would bring. In this context, an important question arises, which is the subject of study in this research:

    What are the potential consequences of establishing social performance standards for the impact investing industry?

    The purpose of this research is to analyze the possible consequences of establishing social performance standards on the impact investing industry.

    Qualitative approach and interpretive paradigm were chosen to be followed in this research. Primary data was collected in the form of interviews with impact investors and specialists in social performance measurement. Secondary data comes from books, articles, journals and websites. The data was analyzed using the consequences of innovations framework presented by Rogers (2003).

    The results suggest that obviously there are potential desirable and undesirable direct consequences, but also indirect consequences that are not perceived without a thorough analysis.

  • 99.
    Fosse, Dennis
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Disruption in the Asset Management Industry: What are the implications of digital disruptors?2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, advances in technological innovations have increased the rate of digitalization and this has created digital disruption throughout many industries today. Now digital disruption is hitting the asset management industry as well and the big question for the established asset management firms is how they will react to this change. This transformation is already in progress and it has spawned the emergence of many different digital disruptors who are effective at attracting mass market consumers with their digital solutions. In order for the established asset managers to survive, or at least to not lose a large part of their market shares, they need to re-evaluate their business models so that they can remain competitive in the new digital landscape.This thesis is focused on which factors incumbent asset managers should turn their attention to when re-evaluating their business models in order to remain competitive when facing digital disruption. The topic of disruptive technologies has been discussed in many other industries; however this thesis aims to apply the concept of disruptive technologies to the asset management industry where only scarce amounts of research have been done. The research method used was a qualitative method with semi-structured interviews. The interviews were conducted with six different experts within the field of asset management and innovation in order to deduce the most important aspects to focus on when dealing with digitally disruptive firms in a digital landscape. As such, this thesis aims to provide insights regarding business model changes during a time of digitalization within the financial sector.The results from the research indicate that it is crucial for established asset managers to adapt to the digital disruption that is affecting this industry. More specifically, they should focus on factoring in aspects such as digitizing their own business, creating satisfactory complete digital customer experiences and using hybrid business models when re-evaluating their business models.

  • 100.
    Fredrik, Wollsén
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation. Neam AB.
    Market Opportunity Discovery for Early-Stage Startups2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the past decade’s increased adoption of scientific methodologies by startups, most still fail to scale into large companies. The paralyzing plethora of advice, theory and models recommended to startups is poorly matched by practical advice on the applicability and implications of actually following the recommendations.

    In this action-based research I, an IT consultant for twelve years and founder/co-founder of several startups, try out and evaluate the applicability of methodologies for applying scientific management principles to innovation in early-stage startups.

    In the first part of my research, I use an naive explorative hands-on approach which results in insights into the limited applicability of popular methodologies such as Growth Hacking and The Lean Startup. These limitations are especially pronounced for early-stage startups who are yet to launch a minimum viable product (MVP), as well as those that have trouble to decide which hypotheses are the riskiest. Most actionable insights during this part stemmed from the engagement in various thought-experiments and reflections, and not from external customer feedback.

    To remedy this, and to thoroughly evaluate the applicability of a pre-launch market assessment method, I engage in market opportunity discovery following the recommendations set forth by Outcome-Driven Innovation (ODI). This hands-on in-depth approach yielded seemingly high-quality actionable insights with direct implications for the product and marketing strategy of the studied early-stage startup.

    In the discussion part, I reflect over the applicability of the evaluated methodologies and argue that the main difference between applicable and non-applicable methodologies is whether they are manufacturing-based or needs-based.

    Finally, I reflect over possible implications and suggest that a startup community wide change of mindset from manufacturing-based methodologies such as The Lean Startup to needs-based methodologies such as Outcome-Driven Innovation will minimize the startup innovation-process variability and increase startup efficiency dramatically on a global scale.

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