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  • 51.
    Ljungqvist, Bengt
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Reinmüller, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Litteraturstudie avseende skyddsventilation: mikrobiologiska säkerhetsbänkar, Klass II2005Report (Other academic)
  • 52.
    Ljungqvist, Bengt
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Reinmüller, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Loading and unloading of freeze-dryers: Airborne contamination risks for aseptically manufactured sterile drug products2007In: PDA journal of pharmaceutical science and technology, ISSN 1079-7440, E-ISSN 1948-2124, Vol. 61, no 1, p. 44-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In pharmaceutical manufacturing, freeze-drying processes can be adversely affected by temperature differences relative to the surrounding air. Loading and unloading of freeze-dryers are performed either without or with temperature differences between the cleanroom and the chamber of the freeze-dryer. This operation can cause a flow of room air through the opening, creating a contamination risk, especially when manual handling of material is performed in this area. To minimize this risk, a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter unit should be installed above the opening to provide clean air and protect the opening. Here the theoretical relationships are discussed and design criteria are presented.

  • 53.
    Ljungqvist, Bengt
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Reinmüller, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Monitoring efficiency of microbiological impaction air samplers2008In: European Journal of Parenteral & Pharmaceutical Sciences, ISSN 0964-4679, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 93-97Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 54.
    Ljungqvist, Bengt
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Reinmüller, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    People as a contamination source: New results on clean room clothing systems2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 55.
    Ljungqvist, Bengt
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering (name changed to Building Service and Energy Systems 2012-03-01).
    Reinmüller, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering (name changed to Building Service and Energy Systems 2012-03-01).
    Practical Safety Ventilation in Pharmaceutical and Biotech Cleanrooms2006Book (Other academic)
  • 56.
    Ljungqvist, Bengt
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Reinmüller, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Predicted Contamination Levels in Cleanrooms, when Cleanroom-Dressed People are the Contamination Source2006In: Pharmaceutical Technology, Aseptic ProcessingArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 57.
    Ljungqvist, Bengt
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Reinmüller, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Vägledning: Riktlinjer och mätförfarande gällande mikrobiologiska säkerhetsbänkar, Klass II2005Report (Other academic)
  • 58.
    Ljungqvist, Bengt
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Reinmüller, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Löfgren, Anders
    Dewhurst, Eric
    Current Practice in the Operation and Validation of Aseptic Blow-Fill-Seal Processes2006In: PDA journal of pharmaceutical science and technology, ISSN 1079-7440, E-ISSN 1948-2124, Vol. 60, no 4, p. 254-258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to illustrate current practice in aseptic blow-fill-seal (BFS) technology, a worldwide survey was performed by the BFS International Operators Association. The results are summarized and compared to the media fill data from the Product Quality and Research Institute (PQRI) survey reported in 2003. The survey highlights the differences and shows the robustness of the BFS technology. Compared to the results from the PQRI survey, the BFS survey shows a tenfold lower frequency of contaminated media fills.

  • 59.
    Lu, Hai
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Energy Quality Management for New Building Clusters and Districts2013Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The level of concern regarding the total energy consumption in new building clusters and urban districts (BCDs) has increased recently. Rising living standards have led to a significant increase in building energy consumption over the past few decades. A great potential for energy savings exists through energy quality management (EQM) for new BCDs. Quality of energy measures the useful work potential of certain energy. EQM in this thesis is defined as reducing energy demand, applying distributed renewable energy sources, and utilizing energy technology in sustainable way. According to this definition, tasks of EQM include energy supply system optimization and energy demand prediction.

    Based on EQM, the optimization of BCDs’ energy supply systems aims to search for the most appropriate scenario, which is a trade-off between various aspects, such as energy performance and environmental impacts as well as system reliability. A novel multi-objective optimization approach for new BCDs is established in this thesis. Optimization algorithm is known as Genetic Algorithm (GA), which is used to address non-linear optimization problems. Two case studies are included in this thesis: the U.K. eco-town residential BCDs case and the Norway office BCDs case.

    The U.K. case examines the application possibility of the approach in practical design. Optimization objectives involved in this case are the life-cycle global warming potential of the system and the system exergy efficiency. The total life-cycle global warming potential is minimized while the exergy efficiency is maximized. Different types of energy supply system scenarios are recommended with different optimization objective combinations (equal-importance, slightly exergy efficiency-oriented and slightly environment-oriented). The results show that the proposed approach can feasibly be an optimal design tool in practical use.

    To provide deeper insights into the problem, the Norway case checks the expansibility of inserting additional objectives into the approach. Loss of Power Supply Probability (LPSP), which is one of the system reliability indicators, is additionally included in the optimization objectives. For this case, the approach guarantees the optimal scenarios that cannot exceed the desired LPSP with minimum life-cycle global warming potential and maximum exergy efficiency. Optimal scenarios with different desired LPSP values (0, 1%, and 5%) are compared. Comparison results demonstrate that optimal scenarios change significantly along with variations of the desired LPSP values. Therefore, system reliability is proven as one of the most important objectives for renewable energy system optimization. In the future, this approach can be applied to complex problems with more objectives.

    Besides energy supply system optimization, an effective and precise BCDs energy demand model is needed. This model should be capable of providing reliable inputs (energy demand and load profiles) for energy supply system optimization and reducing unnecessary energy consumption. In principle, energy demand in BCDs is a complex task because numerous design criteria influence energy performance, which is hard to plan and pre-calculate. Establishing such a model would require a thorough decision base that prioritizes these design criteria and generally distinguishes the more important criteria from the less important ones. The study uses general survey aims to collect and identify the design criteria that affect the BCDs energy demand model and to evaluate the priorities of each criterion using the fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Four main criteria – location, building characteristics, government, and outdoor surrounding characteristics – are established, along with 13 secondary criteria. The results show that the use of the AHP method can accurately guide the energy demand model and automatically rank significant criteria. The method can provide the weighting value for each criterion as well as the relative ranking for the energy demand model.

    This thesis aims to provide a systematic and holistic EQM method for BCDs energy system design at the beginning of the decision-making stage.

  • 60.
    Malmström, Tor-Göran
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering (name changed to Building Service and Energy Systems 2012-03-01).
    Andersson, Johnny
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering (name changed to Building Service and Energy Systems 2012-03-01).
    Classification of Buildings: Demands and Incentives2006In: HB 2006 - Healthy Buildings: Creating a Healthy Indoor Environment for People, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Government, four local authorities and a large number of companies have jointly signed agreements and commitments within the dialogue "Build, live and maintain for the future", which will lead to a sustainable development for the Swedish building industry and real estate business within the next twenty years. One of the prerequisites for this is that buildings in Sweden are voluntarily classified with respect to energy use, environmental impact and indoor environment and health. In order to get the system widely used the government, banks and insurance companies have planned to give incentives to those who fulfil the requirements in the classification system. The project is undertaken in close cooperation with different actors in the building sector. Practical tests will be done by property owners to make the requirements simple to use and to follow up.

  • 61.
    Mundt, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Air quality in the near zone of humans with different ventilation strategies2008In: Proceedings AIVC 2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concentration in the convection flows of resuspended particles from the floor area was experimentally investigated under laboratory conditions with different ventilation strategies. It was concluded that the number of small particles transported into the breathing zone was large with a forced resuspension; however there seemed to be little risk of resuspension of particles from the floor due to the air supply under normal conditions. The geometry of the simulators and the layout of the room had a big influence on the exposure. The particle concentration in the convection flows was much higher with displacement than with mixing ventilation indicating a higher exposure risk. In previous studies of particle exposure the concentrations are mostly presented in particle mass but here the results are presented in number concentration. As potential health problems are more closely associated with particle number or surface area than with particle mass this study can be of interest when designing a ventilation system.

  • 62.
    Mundt, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Non-buoyant pollutant sources and particles in displacement ventilation2001In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 36, no 7, p. 829-836Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Particle transportation and ventilation efficiency, with non-buoyant pollutant sources, in a displacement-ventilated room were evaluated. A resuspension of floor deposited particles caused by the influence of the supply air or people moving around may increase the number of particles in the convection flows. Particle concentrations at different positions under steady state and transient conditions were measured. The results indicate that there seem to be little risk of resuspension of particles, in the measured size interval, by the influence of the supply air. With a forced resuspension the particle concentrations in the convection flows differ from the concentration outside the convection flow. The contaminant removal effectiveness was much dependent on the position of the pollutant sources.

  • 63.
    Mundt, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Strategies for room air distribution and conditioning (Key-note lecture)2007In: Roomvent 2007: 10th International Conference on Air Distribution in Rooms / [ed] Olli Seppänen, Jorma Säteri, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The strategy to be chosen for room air distribution and room air conditioning depends onmany factors such as air quality requirements, thermal comfort requirements, size anddistribution of internal loads, geometry, stability requirements, flexibility demands etc. Thispaper gives an overview of different strategies and possible measures to evaluate the strategychosen as well as important factors to take into account when designing a system.

  • 64.
    Mundt, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Transportation of small particles in the near zone of humans2005In: Indoor Air 2005, Beijing, China, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Air change and contaminant distribution in a ventilated space and in particular in the near zone of a human being is essential for the air quality of the inhaled air. In order to use the ventilation air effectively it must be distributed to the parts of the room where people are present. This is important both from energy and health aspects. The increased frequency of allergy in the population has emphasised this even more.

    With a displacement ventilation system the air is supplied with a small undertemperature, compared to the room air, and with a low velocity at a low level in the occupied zone and enters the room like water in a bathtub. The air distribution in the room is then governed by the convection flows created in the room from people, computers and other heat sources.

    In displacement ventilation there is an open question whether the particles deposited on the floor are resuspended into the ventilation airflow and following the rising convection flows close to the human being.

    This paper will present experimental results of the contaminant distribution in the near zone of a human being and the occurrence of small particles in the inhaled air. A simulator of a human being is used in order to study the transportation of particles from the floor area without particles emitted from the human influencing the measurements. The influence of movements and activities in the room is studied. This paper will answer the questions whether there is a transport of particles (fraction of particles) from the floor to the breathing zone, which fractions and if this only is the case when there is a movement in the room.

  • 65.
    Mundt, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Ventilation in dwellings2006In: Partikuläre und molekulare Belastungen der Innenraum- und Außenluft / [ed] R. Keller, K. Senkpiel, R.A. Samson, E.S. Hoeckstra, Lübeck: Schmidt-Römhild, 2006, p. 149-162Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper gives an overview of ventilation systems in dwellings with advantages and disadvantages of different systems. The influence of building construction development on the demands on ventilation systems is discussed as well as health and energy aspects. New trends to improve the indoor climate and save energy are also presented

  • 66.
    Mundt, Elisabeth
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Mathisen, Hans Martin
    Nielsen, Peter V.
    Moser, Alfred
    Ventilation Effectiveness2004Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ventilation effectiveness is the common notion for the indices used to characterize the ability of a ventilation system to exchange the air in the room and the ability of a ventilation system to remove air-borne contaminants. Improving the ventilation effectiveness allows the indoor air quality to be significantly enhanced without the need for higher air changes in the building, thereby avoiding the higher capital costs and energy consumption associated with increasing the ventilation rates. This guidebook does not only present the practical research on ventilation effectiveness, but also illustrates its application with case studies. This guidebook is aimed at practicing, consulting and contracting engineers. It provides easy-to-understand descriptions of the indices used to measure the performance of a ventilation system and which indices to use in different cases. It also demonstrates how to measure ventilation effectiveness in practice. Use of tracer gases, measurement equipment and how to perform measurement and calculations are introduced. Eight practical case studies are also presented and discussed.

  • 67.
    Mundt, Elisabeth
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Petersson Blomberg, Tomas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Transportation of particles in convection flows2007In: Roomvent 2007: 10th International Conference on Air Distribution in Rooms / [ed] Olli Seppänen, Jorma Säteri, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experimental results of the particulate contaminant distribution of resuspended particles inconvection flows from different heat sources with different ventilation systems and layoutsare presented. It was concluded that the ventilation system did not resuspend particles fromthe floor, walking in a contaminated area however did resuspend particles and a large numberconcentration of fine and ultrafine particles was measured in the breathing zone of personsimulators (sitting on a chair, in a wheelchair or lying in a bed). The geometry of thesimulators and the layout of the room had a big influence on the exposure. The particleconcentration in the convection flows was much higher with displacement than with mixingventilation indicating a higher exposure risk. As potential health problems are more closelyassociated with particle number or surface area than with particle mass this study can be ofinterest when designing a ventilation system.

  • 68.
    Myrefelt, Sonny
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Functional Availability of Climate and Ventilation Systems2005In: The International Journal of Ventilation, ISSN 1473-3315, E-ISSN 2044-4044, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 133-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Functional availability is used to quantify the probability of a system's capability both to be in an operational state and, at the same time, maintain the intended levels of the functions. The purpose of the work described in this paper is to determine if functional availability can be used for the evaluation of performance procurement contracts. This study involved making measurements in an office building over eight consecutive periods during July and August. This monitoring showed that the HVAC-system did not perform as well as it should and that, in each case, the system functional availability was found to be below 0.7 (sometimes much less). This meant that the performance criteria studied were attained for less than 70% of the monitoring time. Although there was no contract regarding the level of functional availability, it is evident that the situation was not acceptable. In this building, only the operational staff handled the malfunctions and they were unable to secure desirable conditions. Using the functional availability as an active tool, during the whole building process, helps all of those involved to focus on functions. This, in turn, should increase co-operation to reach these aims. This study showed that the use of functional availability could form a basis for determining how well functions are maintained. However, there is still much work needed before it can be used for performance procurement contracts.

  • 69.
    Myrefelt, Sonny
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    The reliability and availability of heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems2004In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 36, no 10, p. 1035-1048Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reliability theory has been applied to building HVAC facilities. In order to do this, the type of probability distribution for "mean time to repair", "mean time between failures" and "decision time" was first studied, and it has been shown that the log-normal type of distribution applies here. This was evaluated from a large amount of data collected from buildings belonging to seven large real estate operators. Based on those results and assumptions, a "model" using standard reliability theory equations was deducted. The model has been used in a study of the seven large real estate operators. The study shows that the model can give a good picture of the reliability and availability of HVAC systems. The study also gave interesting results about the status of the studied HVAC systems: the operational availability is high, almost 100%; the decision time of the maintenance staff is large compared to repair time; the system reliability depends strongly on the technical solutions and the number of components; and the functional availability of the systems was low, partly because of malfunction of the ventilation systems. (Note: this depends, naturally, on the function criteria.) Values of functional availability depend strongly on the function criteria. In this study, criteria connected to the actual buildings were used and no evaluation of the criteria themselves was made. The measurements were taken from different buildings both connected and not connected to the seven studied organisation.

  • 70.
    Nordenadler, Johan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering (name changed to Building Service and Energy Systems 2012-03-01).
    Lufthastighetens betydelse för inblåsningssystem med parallellströmning i operationsrum2007In: Energi & Miljö, ISSN 1101-0568Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 71.
    Nordenadler, Johan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Något om skyddsventilation i operationsrum2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 72.
    Nordenadler, Johan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Skyddsventilation i operationsrum: inblåsningssystem med parallellströmning2008Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vid ny- och ombyggnad av operationsrum har under de senaste åren inblåsningssystem med parallellströmning installerats, där projekterade lufthastigheter varierar från 0,25 m/s till 0,5 m/s. Frågeställningar har härvid framförts huruvida skyddsverkan påverkas av storleken på parallellströmningens hastighet. Med skyddsverkan avses här luftföringens förmåga att förhindra att föroreningar når det kritiska området (t ex operationsområdet).

    Laboratorieprov enligt LR-metoden med partikelbelastning invid en person, som utfört relativt lugna armrörelser, visar att skyddsverkan i en parallellströmning påverkas av lufthastigheten. För att få en god skyddsverkan visar resultaten att parallellströmningens lufthastighet bör överskrida 0,4 m/s.

    Dessa resultat har bekräftats med fältmätningar i tre olika operationsrum. Resultaten visar, då lufthastigheten är lägre än 0,3 m/s, att luftrörelserna ovan operationsbord blir oordnade och antar ett utseende liknande omblandande strömning. Om däremot lufthastigheten överstiger 0,4 m/s antar strömningsbilden en mer parallellströmningsliknande form. Då de flesta inblåsningssystem med parallellströmning, som installerats i Sverige de senaste 10 åren, har lufthastigheter lägre än 0,3 m/s blir strömningsformen ovan operationsbord omblandande.

    Fyra landsting har medverkat med data från pågående operationer, där halten bakteriebärande partiklar även har angivits. Med dessa data och resultat från egna mätningar har ett enkelt samband framtagits för att skatta halten luftburna bakteriebärande partiklar i operationsrum under pågående operationer. Detta samband, som bygger på utspädningsprincipen, visar relativt god överensstämmelse med registrerade mätvärden.

  • 73.
    Nyberg, Thomas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Funktionskontroll av installationssystem via DHC med hjälp av Pia2004Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 74.
    Olander, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Do Train Tunnels Need Ventilation Systems?2010In: The International Journal of Ventilation, ISSN 1473-3315, E-ISSN 2044-4044, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 89-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A planned new train tunnel under the central parts of Stockholm was intended to be ventilated by natural ventilation and the movement of the trains. However, the amount of heat generated by the trains is so high that natural ventilation would give abnormal temperatures and velocities in the tunnel and at the stations. The heat adsorbed by the rock surrounding the tunnel can be neglected in comparison with the amount transported by air. Some of the problems with the ventilation system are described and also the problems with dust generation by the trains and the exposure to dust at the stations by the passengers. The final decision was to use glass walls at the stations to separate the ventilation for the tunnel from that for the stations.

  • 75.
    Olander, Lars
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Holmberg, Jan G.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Airborne particles in a large portrait collection2006In: Indoor Climate in Museums and Archives, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 76.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olander, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    On the identification of wear modes and transitions using airborne wear particles2013In: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 59, no SI, p. 104-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel test method was used to identify how contact conditions influence the wear modes and transitions for sliding steel-on-steel contacts. The test equipment was a pin-on-disc tribometer equipped with instruments for counting airborne particles. The results show that the dominant wear mode significantly influences the number of airborne particles generated from the contact. During mild wear few or no measurable airborne particles were generated. The transitional running-in process could also be identified by airborne particle measurement analysis.

  • 77.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi.
    Olander, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Jansson, Anders
    A Study of Airborne Wear Particles Generated From a Sliding Contact2009In: Journal of tribology, ISSN 0742-4787, E-ISSN 1528-8897, Vol. 131, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, much attention has been paid to the influence of airborne particles in the atmosphere on human health. Sliding contacts are a significant source of airborne particles in urban environments. In this study airborne particles generated from a sliding steel-on-steel combination are studied using a pin-on-disk tribometer equipped with airborne-particle counting instrumentation. The instrumentation measured particles in size intervals from 0.01 mu m to 32 mu m. The result shows three particle size regimes with distinct number peaks: ultrafine particles with a size distribution peak around 0.08 mu m, fine particles with a peak around 0.35 mu m, and coarse particles with a peak around 2 or 4 mu m. Both the particle generation rate and the wear rate increase with increasing sliding velocity and contact pressure.

  • 78.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi.
    Olander, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Jansson, Anders
    Towards a model for the number of airborne particles generated from a sliding contact2009In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 267, no 12, p. 2252-2256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, much attention has been given to the influence of airborne particles in the atmosphere on human health. Sliding contacts are a significant source of airborne particles in urban environments. Airborne particles may be generated by disc brakes and wheel-rail contacts. This paper presents a new model for determining the number of airborne particles generated by a sliding contact. Previously presented data from a pin-on-disc tribometer equipped with airborne particle counting instrumentation was used to verify the model. The derived particle rate is proportional to the load for the ball bearing steel material evaluated. Furthermore, the model incorporates three particle regimes with distinct number peaks; one with ultra fine particles with a peak around 0.08 mu m, one with fine particles with a peak around 0.35 mu m and one with coarse particles with a peak around 2 mu m, that can be used to rank the number of generated particles from different material combinations and contact conditions.

  • 79.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Wahlström, Jens
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Söderberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olander, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering (name changed to Building Service and Energy Systems 2012-03-01).
    Jansson, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering (name changed to Building Service and Energy Systems 2012-03-01).
    Airborne Wear Particles from Disc Brakes: A Comparison of Measurements from Cars, Test Stands and Material Tests2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 80.
    Olsson, Sofia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Simulering av frånluftsvärmepump2005Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 81.
    Palmquist, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Jämförelse mellan uppmätta och stimulerade temperaturer i tre bostäder sommartid2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 82.
    Perslow, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Skogberg, Peter
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Jämförelse av beräkningsmetodiker för komfortkyleanvändning2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 83.
    Petersson Blomberg, Tomas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Partikeltransporter i konvektionsströmmar2006Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 84.
    Romano, Francesco
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering (name changed to Building Service and Energy Systems 2012-03-01). Politecnico di Milano, Italy .
    Chapter 61: Theoretical aspects on environmental monitoring in pharmaceutical cleanrooms2006In: 37th R3-Nordic Contamination Control Symposium / [ed] Wirtanen, G; Salo, S, 2006, p. 441-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Airborne particles are present throughout our environment. Particles vary greatly in their ability to affect not only visibility and climate, but also human health, quality of life and of industrial processes. Airborne particles are all examples of aerosols. Due to the large diversity of chemical, physical and microbiological properties existing among airborne particles, the way of performing measurements can not be the same for all the airborne particles present in the air environment. The measurement readings from a certain kind of airborne particle type may be different depending on the techniques and instruments used to perform the measurements. In the years, different methods and techniques were implemented and many instruments constructed in order to have the right equipment able to detect and to measure perfectly different kinds of airborne particles in their own environment without altering the real chemical, physical and microbiological characteristics. The theoretical aspects of environmental monitoring in pharmaceutical cleanrooms will be treated giving attention to the main measurement techniques used. Particle counters and microbiological air samplers are discussed taking into consideration the characteristics and the limitations they have under different working conditions. Results from experimental tests of different instruments are used for discussing the limitations of different instruments. Regulatory Requirements and Guidelines discussion help to find the specific field in which each measurement technique best fits the requirements.

  • 85.
    Romano, Francesco
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Theoretical aspects on environmental monitoring in pharmaceutical cleanrooms2006Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 86.
    Ruud, Svein
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Houses without a traditional heating system: Results from two years of measurements2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 87.
    Said, Aras
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Energianvändningesskillnader - identiska hus2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 88.
    Sipilä, Davy
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering (name changed to Building Service and Energy Systems 2012-03-01).
    Chapter 63: Air movements and particle dispersion in unidirectional airflow with application to operating rooms2006In: 37th R3-Nordic Contamination Control Symposium / [ed] Wirtanen, G; Salo, S, 2006, Vol. 240, p. 449-449Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In view of the discussions during the past few years about the ability of air distribution systems with unidirectional air flow to remove airborne contaminants in operating rooms, the author has performed tests in a test chamber with a parallel flow field of adjustable velocity. With aid of both smoke visualization and computer simulation, at as well laminar as turbulent parallel flow, it has been shown that the air movements behind obstacles become disordered with wakes and vortex streets. In order to observe the particle dispersion in parallel flows the particle level is increased in the air close to a person, and at the same time, the particle concentration in the critical region is measured. With this challenge test (LR-Method), it has been shown that the velocity of the parallel air flow has a decisive significance to the protection efficiency. When a person performs arm movements in a calm manner, the protection efficiency seems to be significant when the velocity exceeds 0.35 m/s.

  • 89.
    Sipilä, Davy
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Något om luftrörelser och partikelspridning i parallellströmning med tillämpning på operationsrum2006Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 90.
    Stellnert, Henrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Utvärdering av Frånluftsgardin2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 91.
    Sundh, Jon
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Olander, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering (name changed to Building Service and Energy Systems 2012-03-01).
    Jansson, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering (name changed to Building Service and Energy Systems 2012-03-01).
    Wear rate testing in relation with airborne particles generated in a wheel-rail contact2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 92.
    Sundström, Stefan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Airborne Contaminants in the Pharmaceutical Blow-Fill-Seal Environment2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 93.
    Sundström, Stefan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Luftburna partiklar i BFS-fyllningsrum2005Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 94.
    Sundström, Stefan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Ljungqvist, Bengt
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Reinmüller, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Particle conentrations in small volume parenterals produced by aspectic blow-fill-seal technology2010In: European Journal of Parenteral and Pharmaceutical Sciences, ISSN 0964-4679, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 87-92Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 95.
    Sundström, Stefan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Ljungqvist, Bengt
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Reinmüller, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Stallgård, Mikael
    Applied Mechanics, CTH.
    The use of computational fluid dynamics for the study of particle dispersion routes in the filling area of a blow-fill-seal process2010In: European Journal of Parenteral and Pharmaceutical Sciences, ISSN 0964-4679, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 5-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An important issue when producing sterile drugs or medicinal products by aseptic processing with blow-fill-seal technology is to achieve an airborne particle cleanliness of ISO Class 5 for particles ≥0.5 micron for US and EU, and ISO Class 4.8 for particles ≥5.0 micron for EU compliance in the critical area, which includes the filling zone. Most blow-fill-seal machines are equipped with a filling shroud in the filling area, above the ampoules. The shrouds are often pressurised using either HEPA-filtered air or sterile filtered air. The pressure inside the shroud results in a downwards directed airflow, which creates a cleaner environment around the open ampoules during the filling process than the immediate surroundings in the bowels of the machine. The clean environment within the shroud also provides protection for the fillingmandrel and nozzles. This paper describes the use of computational fluid dynamics to simulate air velocity magnitudes andmass flow rates as ameans of better understanding particle dispersion routes in the filling area of a blow-fill-seal process and the impact different parameter settings can have on airborne particle concentrations in the filling area. The results show that the movements of the mandrel, together with its nozzles, is the main cause of particles present in the filling shroud during the manufacturing process. The computational fluid dynamics results suggest that particle concentrations can be reduced by changing the mandrel velocity and the mandrel shape. It should be noted that results presented in this paper are limited to one type of BFSmachine.

  • 96.
    Svensson, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Inneklimat vid luftburen värme: Utvärdering av en kontorsbyggnad2010Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 97.
    Söderberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Wahlström, Jens
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Applied Mechanical Engineering (KTH Södertälje).
    Olander, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Jansson, Anders
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi.
    On Airborne Wear Particles Emissions ofCommercial Disc Brake Materials– A Pin on Disc Simulation2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel test method was used to study the concentration and size distribution of airborne wear particles from disc brake materials. A pin-on-disc tribometer equipped with particle counting instruments was used as test equipment. Four different nonasbestoses-organic (NAO) linings for the U.S. market and four different low metallic linings for the EU market were tested against material from gray cast iron rotors. The result indicates that the low metallic linings are more aggressive to the rotor material then the NAO linings, resulting in higher amount of wear and concentrations of airborne wear particles. But, although there are variations in the measured particle concentrations, similar size distributions were obtained regardless of lining material.

  • 98.
    Thorstenson, Johan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Hybridventilationssystem i Synergihuset2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 99.
    Ullman, Catinka
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Airborne contamination risks in autoclaves and freeze-dryers when chamber doors are open2011Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 100.
    Ullman, Catinka
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Ljungqvist, Bengt
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Reinmüller, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Design of HEPA-filter units in order to prevent airborne contamination of autoclaves and freeze dryers when doors are open2010In: European journal of parenteral & pharmaceutical sciences, ISSN 0964-4679, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 53-59Article in journal (Refereed)
123 51 - 100 of 112
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