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  • 51. Bakowska, A
    et al.
    Plaza, Elzbieta
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Water, Sewage and Waste technology.
    Medrzycka, K
    Influence of sulphanilamide in wastewater on Anammox process performance2006In: Water and Environmental Management Series / [ed] Stuetz, R., Teik-Thye, L., London: IWA Publishing, 2006, p. 69-76Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 52.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    A strategic discussion on future environmental challenges in Antarctica and its dependent and associated ecosystems2005In: The Antarctic Treaty, Committee for environmental protection, CEP VIII June 6-10, 2005, Stockholm, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 53.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Environmental Impact Assessment in Restorations of Eutrophic Lakes: Case Study of Lake Angarn, Sweden.1993In: Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 39, p. 13-26Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 54.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Practical experiences of appropriate assessment in Swedish road planning2007In: Habitat assessments: Natura 2000 sites, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 55.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Tools for reliable and transparent predictions in environmental assessment2007In: Habitat modelling: A tool for managing landscapes? / [ed] Brainerd, S.M., Seiler A. and Kastdalen, L, Norsk Institut for Naturforskning , 2007, p. 13-16Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 56.
    Balfors, Berit
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Andersson, Kim
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Azcarate, Juan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    SEA and Ramsar Convention in a Developing Nation Context: A Case Study in Colombia2005In: The 25th Annual Conference of the International Association for Impact Assessment, Theme: Ethics & Quality in Impact Assessment, May 31- June 3 2005, Boston, Massachusetts, USA., 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 57.
    Balfors, Berit
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Azcarate, Juan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Strategy for Sustainable Environmental Management of Antarctica2006In: The 26th Annual Conference of the International Association for Impact Assessment, Theme: Power, poverty and sustainability, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 58.
    Balfors, Berit
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Azcarate, Juan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Elmlund, Linn
    Strategic Environmental Assessment - a planning tool for ecological considerations in transport infrastructure: experiences on how ecological aspects listed in the Directive are assessed in EU2012In: Safeguarding Ecological Functions Across Transport Infrastructure, 2012 IENE International Conference, October 21-24, Potsdam Germany, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 59.
    Balfors, Berit
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Faith-Ell, Charlotta
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Bridging the gap between EIA and green procurement2007In: The 27th Annual Conference of the International Association of Impact Assessment,, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 60.
    Balfors, Berit
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Hammer, Monica
    Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Södertörns högskola.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Larsson, Malin
    Quin, Andrew
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    The role of strategic environmental assessment in the implementation of the Water Framework Directive: Example from Sweden2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 61.
    Balfors, Berit
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    SINGH, NANDITA
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Koku, John
    Dept. of Geography & Environment, University of Ghana.
    Contamination of water resources in Takwa mining area of Ghana: Linking technical, social-economic and gender dimensions2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ghana is Africa’s second largest producer of gold with gold deposits in western part of the country. There are seven large-scale mines and 168 small-scale mining concessions valid in the region. Wassa West District is an important mining area, with Tarkwa as administrative capital. In recent years, the area has been exposed to lead, cadmium, arsenic, mercury and cyanide. Both small and large-scale mining industries have reportedly contaminated rivers, streams, dug wells and boreholes with heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, arsenic, mercury and cyanide. There has been significant adverse impact upon health, economy, and social life that may be felt differently by women and men, raising the question of sustainable access to safe water as a millennium development goal (MDG) in the area.

    A multi-disciplinary approach was adopted in the project with distinct work components on the technical as well as on social, gender and policy aspects. It also aimed to suggest integrated strategies to address the problem so as to ensure achievement of the MDGs. Based upon a field study in 37 local communities coupled with water and sediment analysis from the area, the research indicated the existence of not only higher levels of metal contaminants in local water resources in Tarkwa area, particularlymanganese and iron, but also arsenic and aluminium in some wells. However, water resources, particularly groundwater is currently safe for human consumption but the spillages of cyanide and other effluents into surface streams have health and ecological implications. Levels of mercury in stream sediments are high with a clear risk of methylation of the mercury and transfer in the food chain via fish to humans.

    Regarding the impact of mining, it was found that for women who are the primary domestic water managers, contamination of local water sources has forced them to fetch water from greater distances, and livelihoods are hampered due to the fish loss through cyanide spillages in streams. Another finding was the lack of trust and rising water conflicts between mining authorities and the local communities. Regarding the policy aspects underlying the problem, it was found that there is a lack of coordination between the 3 policy areas, namely, rural water supply, mining, and environmental impact assessment (EIA) and environmental protection to the detriment of women as water users and domestic water managers. While impact of mining is increasingly seen as an issue of human rights violation, little is being done to strengthen participatory approaches especially involving women in rural water supply programs. The detailed analysis of the EIA regulations reveals that most mining have not undertaken any comprehensive EIA guiding their operations.

    A number of recommendations have emerged from the integrated perspective attempted to be developed through this research. These include a need for further in-depth explorations on the situation of contamination in groundwater and surface waters as well as stream sediments in the area; the need to resolve the situations of water conflicts between the local communities and the mining authorities by promoting greater public participation; and the need to minimize the gaps between the three related policy frameworks. Also, there is a necessity to strengthen environmental compliance on part of the mining companies so as to uphold the quality of water resources in the area.

  • 62.
    Balfors, Berit
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Landscape Ecological Assessment: A tool for prediction and assessment of impacts on biodiversity2006In: Ecological Impact Assessments: Science and Best Practice, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 63.
    Balfors, Berit
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Towards a climate resilient society: tools for impact assessment of infrastructure and urban development2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During recent years, climate change aspects have received increased attention in urban planning and infrastructure development. In order to effectively address impacts on climate change and measures towards energy efficiency, a strategic approach in the planning process is required. To enable an early appraisal of alternative climate change adaptation scenarios, SEA could provide a suitable framework. The application of SEA in urban planning and infrastructure development entail various challenges so as to address, e.g., cumulative impacts, transboundary and multi-scalar issues. The incorporation of strategic issues related to climate change, call for analytical tools and methodological approaches that facilitate the planning and decision-making process. In this study we focus on the development of prediction tools and decision support systems in order to assist a comprehensive comparison of alternative strategies and identify innovative energy efficient solutions for a climate resilient society.   

  • 64.
    Balfors, Berit
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Geneletti, Davide
    University of Trento, Italy.
    Landscape ecology for SEA: lessons learned2010In: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Meeting of the International Association for Impact Assessment, Geneva, 6-11 April 2010, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) calls for analysis of processes and patterns atlandscape scale, which gives the opportunity to include ecosystem services in decision‐making. In order to understand how planning decisions affect ecosystem services such asbiodiversity, it is necessary to analyse ecological processes on landscape and regionalscales. Landscape ecology provides methods and tools for addressing effects on landscapescale, such as effects of habitat loss and fragmentation, which are caused by a wide arrayof human‐induced changes and pose critical threats to biodiversity and other ecosystemservices. Thus, in order to be able to assess impacts on biodiversity, spatial methods andtools based on landscape ecological principles need to be developed. This paper addressesthe use of spatial methods and tools, scale problems, visualization and communication forincorporating landscape ecological methods in SEA. The study is based on lessons learnedfrom experiences in Sweden and Italy that refer to SEA for different levels of planning,from local to regional. This will lead to increased understanding and a discussion on keyissues on how planning processes can be improved through the use of effective tools foranalyzing landscape and its ecosystem services.

  • 65.
    Balfors, Berit
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Gontier, Mikael
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Brokking, Peter
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Impacts of region-wide urban development on biodiversity in strategic environmental assessment2005In: Journal of Environmental Assessment Policy and Management, ISSN 1464-3332, E-ISSN 1757-5605, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 229-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In urbanising regions, urban sprawl and infrastructure cause profound alterations of natural habitats. Initial decisions on urban expansion and major infrastructure investments are often made on a strategic level where the long-term development of a region is determined. For these types of decisions a strategic environmental assessment can be prepared. However, the lack of an adequate conceptual and methodological framework can pose a major problem for the prediction of impacts, not least concerning biodiversity. This paper will highlight the need for effective methods for biodiversity analysis at landscape and regional levels, with reference to the long-term urban development of the Stockholm and Mälaren regions. Problems of habitat loss, fragmentation and other impacts related to large-scale urbanisation and infrastructure developments will be addressed. GIS-based methods focusing on predictive ecological modelling will be discussed in a scenario context. The implementation of such methodologies in the strategic environmental assessment process would allow a better integration of biodiversity in planning and decision-making, further promoting a sustainable planning system.

  • 66.
    Balfors, Berit
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Wang, Lan
    Stockholm University.
    Strategic Environmental Assessment of Energy Plans in Sweden2012In: Proceeding of the 32nd Annual Conference of the International Association for Impact Assessment. Energy Future The Role of Impact Assessment, Porto, Portugal, 27 May - 1 June 2012, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 67.
    Baresel, Christian
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Environmental management of water systems under uncertainty2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrological drainage/river basins constitute highly heterogeneous systems of coupled natural and anthropogenic water and pollutant flows across political, national and international boundaries. These flows need to be appropriately understood, quantified and communicated to stakeholders, in order to appropriately guide environmental water system management. In this thesis, various uncertainties about water and pollutant flows in drainage/river basins and their implications for effective and efficient water pollution abatement are investigated, in particular for mine-related heavy metal loadings in the Swedish Dalälven River basin and for nitrogen loadings in the Swedish Norrström drainage basin. Economic cost-minimization modeling is used to investigate the implications of pollutant load uncertainties for the cost-efficiency of catchment-scale abatement of water pollution.

    Results indicate that effective and efficient pollution abatement requires explicit consideration of uncertainties about pollution sources, diffuse contributions of the subsurface water system to downstream pollutant observations in surface waters, and downstream effects of different possible measures to reduce water pollution. In many cases, downstream load abatement measures must be used, in addition to source abatement, in order to reduce not only expected, but also uncertainties around expected pollutant loads. Effective and efficient environmental management of water systems must generally also consider the entire catchments of these systems, rather than focusing only on discrete pollutant sources. The thesis presents some relatively simple, catchment-scale pollutant flow analysis tools that may be used to decrease uncertainties about unmonitored water and pollutant flows and subsurface pollutant accumulation-depletion and diffuse loading to downstream waters.

  • 68.
    Baresel, Christian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Diffuse subsurface zinc loads from mining areas in the Dalälven River Basin, Sweden2009In: Hydrology Research, ISSN 1998-9563, Vol. 40, no 5, p. 445-453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The zinc load from the Dalalven River to the Baltic Sea is greater than for any other watercourse in Sweden. This paper investigates zinc mass flows into and through the Dalalven River from major mining areas within its drainage basin. Reported zinc mass flow data for this river are re-analyzed using an input-output flow analysis approach. Results show major inconsistencies in previous data interpretations which totally neglected possible zinc mass load contributions from the groundwater system to the river. This paper quantifies significant subsurface zinc load contributions that are consistent with all independently available data. Furthermore, a possible explanation for why these subsurface contributions may have been missed in previous studies and by the prevailing Swedish environmental monitoring system is provided. The study indicates that the input-output flow analysis approach may be generally useful for identifying and quantifying diffuse, unmonitored and uncertain pollutant load contributions from ground- to surface water systems.

  • 69.
    Baresel, Christian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Estimating subsurface nitrogen accumulation–depletion in catchments by input–output flow analysis2006In: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, ISSN 1474-7065, E-ISSN 1873-5193, Vol. 31, no 17, p. 1030-1037Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use input-output analysis of nitrogen flows between various sources-sectors and natural waters in the Swedish Norrstrom drainage basin for investigating and bounding the implication range of some uncertainty sources for results of subsurface nitrogen accumulation-depletion in this basin. We quantify different possible base and extreme assumptions of nitrogen discharges and transport pathways from agriculture to surface and groundwater in the basin. The results are robust in showing considerable nitrogen accumulation-depletion flow interactions taking place between the basin's mobile water and accumulated nitrogen pools in soils, sediments and/or relatively immobile subsurface water zones for all different scenario assumptions. Similar scenario robustness is also found in resulting relative contributions of different active nitrogen source-sectors to nitrogen flows in natural water systems. In the Norrstrom basin, and possibly more generally, nitrogen accumulation-depletion flows to and from accumulated legacies for the future or from the past appear therefore to be more important for water quality than current nitrogen discharges from active source-sectors.

  • 70.
    Baresel, Christian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Novel Quantification of Coupled Natural and Cross-Sectoral Water and Nutrient/Pollutant Flows for Environmental Management.2005In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 39, no 16, p. 6182-6190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human water use and anthropogenic water pollution and ecosystem deterioration have increased so much that it is now a strategic challenge to maximize benefits from various possible water uses, while ensuring that basic human needs are met and the environment is protected. We propose and develop a novel use of input-output flow analysis as a relatively simple, compact and powerful tool for quantification of coupled natural and cross-sectoral flows of water, nutrients, and pollutants in catchments. The tool quantifies implications of various environmental regulation and management scenarios for both natural water systems and engineered-economic systems and sectors that use and impact natural waters for meeting human needs. Specific case study application to water and nitrogen flows in the Swedish Norrstrom drainage basin indicates considerable nitrogen load contributions to surface and coastal waters from slow groundwater flow paths and legacies of accumulated nitrogen in subsurface and immobile water pools. This implies that effective nitrogen load abatement cannot focus only on active sources but must also include downstream measures, which can capture and abate nitrogen/pollutant loading from different types of known and yet unknown point and diffuse sources within associated catchments.

  • 71.
    Baresel, Christian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Subsurface Water System Contributions to Surface Water Zinc Loads in Mining AreasManuscript (Other academic)
  • 72.
    Baresel, Christian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Uncertainty-Accounting Environmental Policy and Management of Water Systems2007In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 41, no 10, p. 3635-3659Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental policies for water quality and ecosystem management do not commonly require explicit stochastic accounts of uncertainty and risk associated with the quantification and prediction of waterborne pollutant loads and abatement effects. In this study, we formulate and investigate a possible environmental policy that does require an explicit stochastic uncertainty account. We compare both the environmental and economic resource allocation performance of such an uncertainty-accounting environmental policy with that of deterministic, risk-prone and risk-averse environmental policies under a range of different hypothetical, yet still possible, scenarios. The comparison indicates that a stochastic uncertainty-accounting policy may perform better than deterministic policies over a range of different scenarios. Even in the absence of reliable site-specific data, reported literature values appear to be useful for such a stochastic account of uncertainty.

  • 73.
    Baresel, Christian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Destouni, Georgia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Gren, Ing-Marie
    The influence of metal source uncertainty on cost-effective allocation of mine water pollution abatement in catchments2006In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 78, no 2, p. 138-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In mine water pollution abatement, it is commonly assumed that known mine waste sites are the major pollution sources, thus neglecting the possibility of significant contribution from other old and diffuse sources within a catchment. We investigate the influence of different types of pollution source uncertainty on cost-effective allocation of abatement measures for mine water pollution. A catchment-scale cost-minimization model is developed and applied to the catchment of the river Dalalven, Sweden, in order to exemplify important effects of such source uncertainty. Results indicate that, if the pollution distribution between point and diffuse sources is partly unknown, downstream abatement measures, such as constructed wetlands, at given compliance boundaries are often cost-effective. If downstream abatement measures are not practically feasible, the pollution source distribution between point and diffuse mine water sources is critical for cost-effective solutions to abatement measure allocation in catchments. In contrast, cost-effective solutions are relatively insensitive to uncertainty in total pollutant discharge from mine water sources.

  • 74.
    Barkels, David
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
    Åberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
    Mapping leachates and subsurface structures using different geophysical methods.2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The enrichment of ore produces large amounts of sulfur and metal-rich residual waste called tailings, which need to be deposited and stored for a long time. When the tailing is oxidized, large amounts of protons and metals are dissolved and diffuse to the groundwater. This poses a major environmental threat to biological life forms in the downstream ecosystem (Karltorp, 2008). In this study, leachate plumes and geological structures surrounding the tailings impoundment at the Kringelgruvan mine in northern Sweden have been successfully mapped using geophysical methods. Three methods have been used in parallel, slingram, ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistivity measurements, known as continuous vertical electrical sounding (CVES). The resulting data from GPR and CVES have been co-analyzed using Matlab. Algorithms have been produced that plots underground structures from CVES and compares them with interpreted structures from GPR. Studies have shown that the GPR is more sensitive than CVES to local variations of substructures when used in shallow soil cover, while CVES gives considerably more information regarding localization of the leachates and other electrically conductive materials, such as ore. Slingram EM31 has been shown to be the most time-efficient method to localize groundwater flow.

  • 75.
    Basirat, Farzad
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Hydraulic Engineering.
    CO2 leakage in a Geological Carbon Sequestration system: Scenario development and analysis.2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this project was to study the leakage of CO2 in a Geological Carbon Sequestration (GCS) system. To define the GCS system, a tool that is known as an FEP database was used. FEPs are the features, processes and events that develop scenarios for the goal of the study. Combinations of these FEPs can produce thousands of scenarios. However, among all of these scenarios, some are more important than others for leakage. The FEPs that were used as scenario developers were the formation of the liquid flow, the salinity of the formation liquid, diffusion as a process for gas bubble transport and the depth of the reservoir layer. In this study, the leakage path is considered as the presence of a fracture in sealed caprock. The fractures can be modeled using various approaches. Here, I represented the influence of fracture modeling by applying the Equivalent Continuum Method (ECM) and the Dual-Porosity and Multi-continuum methods to leakage. This study suggests that considering groundwater in the aquifer would reduce the leakage of CO2 and that a shallower formation leads to higher leakage. This study can be expanded to future studies by including external FEPs that are related to the FEPs that were used in this study.

  • 76. Battaleb-Looie, S.
    et al.
    Moore, F.
    Jafari, H.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Ozsvath, D.
    Hydrogeochemical evolution of groundwaters with excess fluoride concentrations from Dashtestan, South of Iran2012In: Environmental Earth Sciences, ISSN 1866-6280, Vol. 67, no 4, p. 1173-1182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrogeochemical investigations were carried out in the Dashtestan, the eastern part of Borazjan, with a focus on fluoride content. The study area is underlain by a complex geology that is dominated by three lithological units, namely marl, alluvial sediments, and carbonate rocks. To assess the major geochemical factors controlling the fluoride enrichment in water, 37 groundwater and 12 surface water samples were collected from the three lithological units. Fluoride concentrations ranged up to 3 mg/L, and average concentrations varied from 1.12 (in carbonate aquifers) to 1.73 (in alluvial aquifers) to 1.82 mg/L (in marl aquifers). To study the influence of rocks and soils on groundwater quality, an additional 41 soil and rock samples were also taken and analyzed for fluoride. The order of average fluoride content in both rocks and soils is: marl > alluvial sediments > limestone, which confirms that marl is a likely source of fluoride.

  • 77. Battaleb-Looie, S.
    et al.
    Moore, F.
    Malde, M. K.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Fluoride in groundwater, dates and wheat: Estimated exposure dose in the population of Bushehr, Iran2013In: Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, ISSN 0889-1575, E-ISSN 1096-0481, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 94-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this study was to estimate the daily fluoride intake for residents of Bushehr province in southern Iran by determining their exposure to fluoride through consumption of drinking water, dates and wheat. The fluoride concentration of drinking water in this region varies between 0.5 and 3.0mg/L, with an average of 1.6mg/L; and 44.4% of the drinking water exceed the guideline value of 1.5mg/L recommended by WHO. The average fluoride content of dates is 10.0mg/kg; whereas wheat roots and shoots contain an average of 30.0 and 19.0mgF-/kg, respectively. The estimated intake from drinking water is 0.12mg/kg/d for children (20kg body weight) and 0.05mg/kg/d for adults (70kg body weight). The total estimated fluoride intake (from drinking water and dates) for children is 0.17mg/kg/d. Thus, dates contribute an average 30% to the daily fluoride intake in the population. The maximum estimated fluoride intake (from dates and drinking water) for children and adults are 3.4 and 1.6 times higher, respectively, than the minimum risk level of 0.05mg/kg/d calculated by Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.

  • 78. Battaleb-Looie, Sedigheh
    et al.
    Moore, Farid
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Ketabdari, Mohammad Reza
    Geological sources of fluoride and acceptable intake of fluoride in an endemic fluorosis area, southern Iran2012In: Environmental Geochemistry and Health, ISSN 0269-4042, E-ISSN 1573-2983, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 641-650Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study is the first attempt to put forward possible source(s) of fluoride in the Dashtestan area, Bushehr Province, southern Iran. In response to reports on the high incidence of dental fluorosis, 35 surface and groundwater samples were collected and analysed for fluoride. The results indicate that dissolved fluoride in the study area is above the maximum permissible limit recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). An additional 35 soil and rock samples were also collected and analysed for fluoride, and rock samples were subjected to petrographic investigations and X-ray diffraction. The results of these analyses show that the most likely source for fluoride in the groundwater is from clay minerals (chlorite) and micas (muscovite, sericite, and biotite) in the soils and rocks in the area. We also note that due to the high average temperatures all year round and excessive water consumption in the area, the optimum fluoride dose level should be lower than that recommended by the WHO.

  • 79.
    Bauer, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
    Modeling additional waterflows in sewage systems in Sweden – An outlook on the impact of climate change.2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study assesses the phenomenon of additional water intruding into sewage sys-tems in different areas of Sweden. Additional water means in this case the non-foul water that can originate from storm water runoff, which is either supposed to be con-veyed into the pipe system or intrudes it by wrongly connected drains. It can also re-sult from in-seepage of groundwater due to imperfections of the pipe system itself. It is intended to analyze how different features of the areas have an impact on the extent of this phenomenon. Further, an estimation of the conditions in future scenarios will be obtained. This includes an indication about the potential risk of a sewage system overflow, the expected volume of inflow at treatment plants and thus about the sys-tem´s suitability for the future.

    Numerical, hydrological compartment models for 19 cities in Sweden were set-up. The used parameters were obtained from previous studies by the Swedish Environ-mental Protection Agency. In these models present and future climate data were ap-plied. For future scenarios three different climate change projections were used which contain bias corrected climate data timeseries for each study area. The climate change scenarios were supposed to represent an "optimistic", "average" and "pessimistic" outlook. By assessing the outputs of the climate models, it was concluded that signifi-cant differences can occur, depending on exact geographical location and chosen cli-mate models. A sensitivity analysis was conducted of how geology, climate and status of the pipe system have an impact on the extent of additional water flows. It revealed that the status of the sewage system has by far the biggest impact. Finally a discharge analysis showed a potential outlook of future development of additional water flows for the chosen study sites, yielding highest increase for the sewage systems of Kiruna, Karlskoga and Sundsvall.

  • 80.
    Beereddy, Dinesh Reddy
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
    Waste Water Treatment and Optimal Utilization for Irrigation and Biogas Production.2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is about the studies carried out to analyze the feasibility of using an innovative treatment system in the primary treatment process for municipal waste water. Furthermore, experiments are conducted to analyze the optimal parameters for utilizing the treated waters for irrigation purposes and for biogas production from the recovered sludge. The work is carried on the incoming municipal wastewater from Hammarby locality with around 30,000 inhabitants. Chemicals used in this process are, a metal salt namely polymerized aluminum chloride (PAX XL36) and two flocculation chemicals namely, a high molecular weight polymer (HM) (SNF Nordfloc C-192) and a low molecular weight polymer (LM) (Purfix 120). The choice of these chemicals was based on the recommendations made by previous studies on flocculation chemicals. These chemicals aid in flock formation and the DAF unit which provides compressed air, aids in flock flotation. The study is focused on optimizing parameters which implies minimal usage of chemicals and aimed to attain maximum sludge production with best possible treated water quality. All the experiments have been carried out on a pilot scale unit, designed with required specifications and with the foresight to scale up into a large scale unit based on the results. These are obtained by performing a series of analysis specifically formulated for this study. In laboratory experiments were carried out to analyze COD (chemical oxygen demand), Ammonium, Nitrate, Total nitrogen and phosphorus using Dr. Lange cuvettes. As the prime focus is on reuse of the treated water for irrigation purpose and biogas production, all the parameters are modulated in accordance with the standard water quality prescriptions for the water to be used for irrigation. In accordance with the climatic conditions of the region, various parameters are modulated in such a way that in summers the outcome water quality is emphasized and maximization of sludge/organic matter is emphasized during winter season.

  • 81.
    Berggren Kleja, Dan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Elert, Mark
    Kemakta Konsult AB.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Jarvis, las
    Markvetenskap, SLU.
    Norrström, Ann-Catrine
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Metallers mobilitet i mark2006Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I rapporten beskrivs nuvarande kunskapsläge när det gäller metallers uppträdande imark. Riskbedömningar för metaller i förorenad mark diskuteras.De flesta metaller binds i viss utsträckning i marken, oftast genom olika ytreaktioner med markens organiska material eller med järn- och aluminiumoxider, ochibland även genom utfällningsreaktioner. I vilken omfattning detta sker beror avfaktorer som t.ex. pH, redoxförhållanden, löst organiskt material (DOC) i markvattnet, samt förekomst av konkurrerande joner. Det är också viktigt att beaktavilka former metallerna förekommer som i markvattnet. Komplexbildning medt.ex. DOC minskar i regel toxiciteten. För att bättre ta hänsyn till markkemiskaförhållanden i riskbedömningen bör geokemiska modeller komma till ökad användning.Metaller lösta i vattnet följer med när vattnet strömmar och kan transporterastill grund- och ytvatten eller tas upp av växter. Hur snabbt detta går beror, förutomkemiska och biologiska processer, även på en rad olika jordegenskaper. Till exempel innehåller vissa jordar s.k. makroporer vilka ger upphov till preferentiellt flöde.Detta innebär att en del av metallerna snabbare kan transporteras genom marken,förbi jordpartiklar där metallerna annars skulle bindas.De olika modeller som används för att beskriva påverkan av markförorening pågrundvatten kan delas in i två grupper: stationära modeller antar att källtermen ärkonstant och tar enbart hänsyn till den utspädning som sker i grundvattnet. Exempel på sådana modeller är den svenska riktvärdesmodellen, JAGG och RBCA. I detvå senare modellerna finns möjlighet att ta hänsyn till nedbrytning av organiskaämnen. Tidsberoende modeller antar en avklingande källterm och en tidsberoendetransport i grundvattnet, exempelvis RISC och TAC-modellen. För beräkning avtransport i grundvattnet tas hänsyn till flödes- och fastläggningsmekanismer somadvektion, dispersion och linjär sorption.Med hjälp av laktester kan man uppskatta den andel av metallföroreningen somär löslig i vatten. Denna information kan sedan användas för att beräkna adsorptionsparametrar (Kd-värden, m.m.) för spridningsmodeller. Laktester kan ibland gemissvisande resultat eftersom de orsakar utspädning av provet, bl.a. blir DOCkoncentrationerna alltför låga. Dessutom bör de inte användas för sulfidjordar.Geokemiska modeller kan användas för att förbättra tolkningen av laktester för attfå till stånd realistiska uppskattningar av Kd-värden.Det finns ett antal spridningsmodeller som kan användas för att bedöma riskenför spridning till grundvatten och ytvatten. De är kraftfulla verktyg som dock ännuinte använts i någon större utsträckning i Sverige. Detta beror på flera orsaker, bl.a.de hydrogeologiska förhållandena i Sverige, behovet av anpassningen av de modeller som är allmänt tillgängliga, svårigheter att ta fram bra dataunderlag samt ensvag tradition i att använda modeller och förstå modellresultat.Ett par angelägna forsknings- och utvecklingsinsatser är att ta fram bättre uppskattningar av metalladsorption i svensk mark, och att anpassa existerande spridningsmodeller för användning i riskbedömningar.

  • 82. Berggren Kleja, Dan
    et al.
    Svensson, Magnus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Majdi, Hooshang
    Jansson, Per-Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Langvall, Ola
    Bergkvist, Bo
    Johansson, Maj-Britt
    Weslien, Per
    Lindroth, Anders
    Pools and fluxes of carbon in three Norway spruce ecosystems along a climatic gradient in Sweden.2008In: Biogeochemistry, ISSN 0168-2563, E-ISSN 1573-515X, Vol. 89, no 1, p. 7-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an integrated analysis of organic carbon (C) pools in soils and vegetation, within-ecosystem fluxes and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) in three 40-year old Norway spruce stands along a north-south climatic gradient in Sweden, measured 2001-2004. A process-orientated ecosystem model (CoupModel), previously parameterised on a regional dataset, was used for the analysis. Pools of soil organic carbon (SOC) and tree growth rates were highest at the southernmost site (1.6 and 2.0-fold, respectively). Tree litter production (litterfall and root litter) was also highest in the south, with about half coming from fine roots (< 1 mm) at all sites. However, when the litter input from the forest floor vegetation was included, the difference in total litter input rate between the sites almost disappeared (190-233 g C m(-2) year(-1)). We propose that a higher N deposition and N availability in the south result in a slower turnover of soil organic matter than in the north. This effect seems to overshadow the effect of temperature. At the southern site, 19% of the total litter input to the O horizon was leached to the mineral soil as dissolved organic carbon, while at the two northern sites the corresponding figure was approx. 9%. The CoupModel accurately described general C cycling behaviour in these ecosystems, reproducing the differences between north and south. The simulated changes in SOC pools during the measurement period were small, ranging from -8 g C m(-2) year(-1) in the north to +9 g C m(-2) year(-1) in the south. In contrast, NEE and tree growth measurements at the northernmost site suggest that the soil lost about 90 g C m(-2) year(-1).

  • 83.
    Bergström, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
    Artificial groundwater recharge in wetlands: pre modelling for a pilot study in Forsmark, Sweden.2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company, SKB, is planning to construct a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark, Sweden. Leakage of groundwater into the repository during the construction and operational phases might cause a groundwater drawdown that in turn may affect the hydrological conditions in sensitive habitats in the area. The sensitive habitats in question are wetlands, home to several protected species. SKB has planned to take mitigation measures in the case variations of the surface-water elevation are identified for the concerned wetlands. The mitigations measures consists in infiltrating water in the ground in the direct vicinity to the wetland to create a higher groundwater pressure that then will propagate to the surface-water. This study describes the modelling of a pilot-study of such a measure and aims at serving as one of the background materials for the planning and design of the pilot study. The aims of the pilot study are to show that the surface-water level in a wetland can be controlled and to gain knowledge and experiences regarding artificial groundwater recharge for this purpose. The pilot study would take place before the construction of the repository so the undisturbed case is considered. The results show that an infiltration facility can control the surface-water level in a wetland. It is also shown that an infiltration rate of 0.5 L/s is enough to manipulate the surface-water level in the undisturbed condition.

  • 84.
    Bertino, Andrea
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Water, Sewage and Waste technology.
    Study on one-stage Partial Nitritation-Anammox process in Moving Bed Biofilm Reactors: a sustainable nitrogen removal.2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the last decade, several novel and cost-effective biological nitrogen removal technologies have been developed. The discovery of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox), about 15 years ago, has resulted in new opportunities for research and development of sustainable nitrogen removal systems. Compared to conventional nitrification/denitrification, Anammox eliminates necessity of external organic carbon source, has a smaller production of excess sludge, reduces energy demand for aeration (up to 60-90%) and CO2 emissions (up to 90%). Systems based on Anammox can be of great help to comply with stricter wastewater discharge regulations and reduce environmental problems caused by nutrients discharges (e.g. eutrophication).

    This thesis investigates the partial nitritation/Anammox in one stage system under oxygen limited condi-tions (also called CANON or Deammonification) and with the Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR™) technology. Anammox process coupled with partial nitritation can be particularly suitable to treat ammo-nium-rich wastewater with low content of biodegradable organic matter, such as the reject water from dewatering of digested sludge, which is usually recirculated back to the main stream of wastewater treat-ment plants, accounting for the 15-20% of the total nitrogen load.

    Partial nitritation/Anammox process was successfully tested on a pilot plant scale for four months at 25°C, in a 200 L Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR), filled with 40% of Kaldnes media (model K1). At an Ammonium Surface Load (ASL) of 3.45 gN m-2d-1, the removal rate was about 2.85 gN m-2d-1. Removal efficiencies of 95%, 85% and 83% were respectively achieved for NH4+-N, inorganic nitrogen, and Total Nitrogen (TN). Bacteria activity was followed by batch tests such as Specific Anammox Activity (SAA), Oxygen Uptake Rate (OUR) and Nitrate Uptake Rate (NUR), which revealed an increase in activi-ty for Nitrosomonas and Anammox bacteria within the biofilm. Dissolved oxygen concentration in the bulk liquid was a crucial parameter, whereas pH and conductivity turned out to be two useful monitoring tools.

    Two laboratory-scale reactors were previously run for two months each, in order to evaluate the one-stage partial nitritation/Anammox process with a lower ASL. One reactor was fed with diluted reject water, whereas the other one treated the effluent from UASB (Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket) reactor after sand filtration. Fairly good efficiency (>75%) were reached but, however, in the last case the low ammo-nium nitrogen load could represent a problem for a stable full-scale installation and long-term growth of Anammox bacteria.

    Some suggestions for full-scale implementation and further research are proposed in the last chapter of this master thesis.

  • 85.
    Bhale, Vilas
    et al.
    Department of Agronomy, Dr. PDKV, Akola-444 101 (MS), India.
    Tupe, Arvind
    Department of Agronomy, Dr. PDKV, Akola-444 101 (MS), India.
    Karmore, Jayashri
    Department of Agronomy, Dr. PDKV, Akola-444 101 (MS), India.
    Kale, Manoj
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Crop planning in relation to climate change in rain fed regions2012In: Journal of Agricultural Technology, ISSN 1686-9141, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 443-452Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Uncertainty and variability of rains both space and time is the major constraints affecting agricultural production in rain fed farming. Scientific study on the quantum and distribution of rainfall would enable to farming community and researcher to adjust or modify the cropping pattern as well as the cultural operation to utilize the actual moisture available in the field for profitable crop production. The daily rainfall data for last 39 year were analyzed to study its variability and probability. In rain fed farming rainfall is the primary and most important factor affecting productivity and it is mostly uncertain and erratic. Thus, the change in the rainfall pattern and amount suggests adjusting or modifying the cropping pattern and cultural practices of agricultural crops in the region for achieving the sustainable productivity. Under short break of monsoon, repeated hoeing to prevent soil moisture loss and under long dry spell, agronomic management like mulching, relay cropping or re-sowing are advocated.

  • 86. Bhattacharya, Aparajita
    et al.
    Routh, Joyanto
    Jacks, Gunnar
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Morth, Magnus
    Environmental assessment of abandoned mine tailings in Adak, Vasterbotten district (northern Sweden)2006In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 21, no 10, p. 1760-1780Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sulfide-rich mine tailings in Adak that are exposed to weathering cause acid mine drainage characterized by low PH (2-4) and high SO4 (UP to 800 mg L-1). Surface water, sediment and soil samples collected in this study contain higher concentrations of As, Cu, Fe and Zn, compared to the target and/or intervention limits set by international regulatory agencies. In particular, high As concentrations in water (up to 2900 mu g L- 1) and sediment (up to 900 mg kg(-1)) are of concern. There is large variability in trace element concentrations, implying that both physical (grain size) and chemical factors (pH, secondary phases as sulfides, Al-oxides or clay minerals) play an important role in their distribution. The low PH keeps the trace elements dissolved, and they are transported farther downstream. Trace element partition coefficients are low (log K-d = 0.3-4.3), and saturation indices calculated with PHREEQC are < 0 for common oxide and sulfidic minerals. The sediment and soil samples indicate an enhanced pollution index (up to 17), and high enrichment factors for trace elements (As up to 38,300; Zn up to 800). Finally, leaves collected from different plant types indicate bioaccumulation of several elements (As, Al, Cu, Fe and Zn). However, some of the plants growing in this area (e.g., Salix, Equisetum) are generally resistant to metal toxicity, and hence, liming and phytoremediation could be considered as potential on-site remediation methods.

  • 87.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Ahmed, K.M.
    Hasan, M.A.
    Broms, S.
    Fogelström, J.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Sracek, O.
    von Brömssen, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Routh, J.
    Mobility of arsenic in groundwater in a part of Brahmanbaria district, NE Bangladesh2006In: Managing Arsenic in the Environment: From soil to human health / [ed] Naidu, R., Smith, E., Owens, G., Bhattacharya, P. Nadebaum. P., Melbourne, Australia: CSIRO Publishing , 2006, p. 95-115Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 88.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
    Biswas, Ashis
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
    Halder, Dipti
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
    Nath, B.
    Chatterjee, D.
    Mukherjee, A.
    Tubewell platform color: Assessment of a tool for rapid screening of arsenic and manganese in well water2012In: Understanding the Geological and Medical Interface of Arsenic, As 2012 - 4th International Congress: Arsenic in the Environment, Taylor & Francis Group, 2012, p. 515-518Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study attempts to make a statistical comparison between Tubewell (TW) platform color and the level of Arsenic (As) and Manganese (Mn) concentration in groundwater abstracted from a set of 423 Tubewells (TWs) in Chakdaha Block of Nadia District, West Bengal, India to validate platform color as a screening tool for both As and Mn in groundwater. The results indicate that water extracted from TWs with black colored platform in 93% cases was safe for As while water extracted from TWs with red colored platform is contaminated with As with 38% certainty, compared to drinking water standard of India (50 ÎŒg/L). At this standard the respective efficiency, sensitivity and specificity of the tool are 65, 85 and 59%. If WHO drinking water guideline (10 ÎŒg/L) is considered, the certainty increases to 73% and 84% respectively for black and red colored platform with respective efficiency, sensitivity and specificity values of 79, 77 and 81%. Furthermore, the black colored platform with 78% certainty indicates well water is enriched with Manganese (Mn), while red colored platform indicates water is low in Mn with 64% certainty evaluated against Indian national standard of 300 ÎŒg/L. This study demonstrates that platform color can be potentially used as an initial screening tool for As and Mn, to assess the safe water acess for drinking purposes.

  • 89.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology. Royal Inst Technol KTH, Dept Land & Water Resources Engn, KTH Int Groundwater Arsen Res Grp, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Biswas, Ashis
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Halder, Dipti
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology. Royal Inst Technol KTH, Dept Land & Water Resources Engn, KTH Int Groundwater Arsen Res Grp, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Nath, B.
    Univ Sydney, Sch Geosci, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Chatterjee, D.
    Univ Kalyani, Dept Chem, Kalyani, W Bengal, India..
    Mukherjee, A.
    Indian Inst Technol, Dept Geol & Geophys, Kharagpur, W Bengal, India..
    Tubewell platform color: Assessment of a tool for rapid screening of arsenic and manganese in well water2012In: UNDERSTANDING THE GEOLOGICAL AND MEDICAL INTERFACE OF ARSENIC, AS 2012 / [ed] Ng, JC Noller, BN Naidu, R Bundschuh, J Bhattacharya, P, CRC PRESS-TAYLOR & FRANCIS GROUP , 2012, p. 515-518Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study attempts to make a statistical comparison between Tubewell (TW) platform color and the level of Arsenic (As) and Manganese (Mn) concentration in groundwater abstracted from a set of 423 Tubewells (TWs) in Chakdaha Block of Nadia District, West Bengal, India to validate platform color as a screening tool for both As and Mn in groundwater. The results indicate that water extracted from TWs with black colored platform in 93% cases was safe for As while water extracted from TWs with red colored platform is contaminated with As with 38% certainty, compared to drinking water standard of India (50 mu g/L). At this standard the respective efficiency, sensitivity and specificity of the tool are 65, 85 and 59%. If WHO drinking water guideline (10 mu g/L) is considered, the certainty increases to 73% and 84% respectively for black and red colored platform with respective efficiency, sensitivity and specificity values of 79, 77 and 81%. Furthermore, the black colored platform with 78% certainty indicates well water is enriched with Manganese (Mn), while red colored platform indicates water is low in Mn with 64% certainty evaluated against Indian national standard of 300 mu g/L. This study demonstrates that platform color can be potentially used as an initial screening tool for As and Mn, to assess the safe water acess for drinking purposes.

  • 90.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
    Chatterjee, Debashis
    Department of Chemistry, University of Kalyani, Kalyani-741 235, India.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
    Occurrence of arsenic-contaminated groundwater in alluvial aquifers from delta plains, eastern India: Options for safe drinking water supply1997In: International Journal of Water Resources Development, ISSN 0790-0627, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 79-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Arsenic contamination in groundwater used for drinking purposes has been envisaged as a problem of global concern. Exploitation of groundwater contaminated with arsenic within the delta plains in West Bengal has caused adverse health effects among the population within a span of 8-10 years. The sources of arsenic in natural water are a function of the local geology, hydrology and geochemical characteristics of the aquifers. The retention and mobility of different arsenic species are sensitive to varying redox conditions. The delta plains in West Bengal are characterized by a series of meander belts formed by the fluvial processes comprising different cycles of complete or truncated fining upward sequences (sand-silt-clay). The arseniferous groundwater belts are mainly located in the upper delta plain and in abandoned meander channels. Mineralogical investigations have established that arsenic in the silty day as well as in the sandy layers occurs as coatings on mineral grains. Clayey sediments intercalated with sandy aquifers at depths between 20 and 80 m are reported as a major source of arsenic in groundwater. Integrated knowledge on geological, hydrological and geochemical characteristics of the multi-level aquifer system of the upper delta plain is therefore necessary in predicting the origin, occurrence and mobility of arsenic in groundwater in West Bengal. This would also provide a basis for developing suitable low-cost techniques for safe drinking water supply in the region.

  • 91.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Claesson, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Bundschuh, J.
    Sracek, O.
    Fagerberg, Jens
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Martin, R. A.
    Storniolo, A. D.
    Thir, J. M.
    Distribution and mobility of arsenic in the Rio Dulce alluvial aquifers in Santiago del Estero Province, Argentina2006In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 358, no 1-3, p. 97-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Factors controlling arsenic (As) mobilization in the aquifers of the Rio Dulce alluvial cone were investigated. Groundwater analyses show severe As contamination (average concentration of 743 mu g/L) from geogenic sources, but spatial variability of As concentration is considerable. Sequential leaching of sediment samples from unsaturated zone using de-ionised water, bicarbonate, acetate, and oxalate extracted As to different extents. Sediment oxalate extraction showed that Al and Mn oxide and hydroxides are more abundant than Fe oxides and hydroxides, in spite of similar total Fe, Mn, and Al concentrations in the sediment. Speciation calculations performed for saturated zone samples indicated that Fe and Al oxides and hydroxides are stable in groundwater, suggesting that As adsorption processes may be to some extent controlled by the presence of Fe and Al mineral phases. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that As is related to F, V, Mo, B, Si, most likely due to their common origin in volcanic ash. This suggests the volcanic ash as the probable source of groundwater As. Locally, elevated pH values linked to carbonate dissolution, cation exchange, and dissolution of silicates promote release of adsorbed As. Another factor contributing to the release of As locally may be the input of organic matter from excessive irrigation. The conceptual model of As release includes: i) As influx from dissolution of volcanic glass in volcanic ash, ii) adsorption of As on the surface of Fe and Al mineral phases in relatively low pH zones, and iii) high mobility of As in high pH zones. Future work should be focused on the determination of mineralogical forms of As in volcanic ash and on detailed investigation on factors controlling As mobility.

  • 92.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
    Claesson, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
    Fagerberg, Jens
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    Storniolo, Angel del R.
    Martin, Raul A.
    Thir, Juan Martin
    Sracek, Ondra
    Natural arsenic in the groundwater of the alluvial aquifers of Santiago del Estero Province, Argentina2005In: Natural Arsenic in Groundwater: Occurrence, Remediation and Management / [ed] Bundschuh, J; Bhattacharya, P; Chandrasekharam, D, London: Balkema, 2005, p. 57-65Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural occurrences of arsenic has been documented in groundwater of the shallow aquifers of the Chaco-Pampean Plain, Argentina. The distribution of arsenic and mechanisms of its mobilization in the shallow alluvial aquifers was investigated around the city of Santiago del Estero in Northwestern Argentina in order to provide an insight into the complex hydrological and geochemical conditions that yields high As concentrations in groundwater. Significant spatial variations of total arsenic (As-tot) concentrations were observed with an average value of 743 mu g/L. Arsenate was a dominant species in most samples. Average concentrations of Al, Mn, and Fe were 360 mu g/L, 574 mu g/L, and 459 mu g/L, respectively. The 7M HNO3 extraction of sediments and volcanic ash-layer indicated AS(N03) concentrations ranging between 2.5-7.1 mg/kg. AS(N03) indicated a significant positive correlation with Mn-N03, Al-N03, and Fe-N03. Oxalate extractions revealed significant fractions of As (Aso(ox)) in the sediments (0.4-1.4mg/kg) and a dominance of oxalate extractable Al- and Mn. Speciation calculations indicate that Al oxide and hydroxides have the potential to precipitate in the groundwater, suggesting that As adsorption processes may be to some extent controlled by Al oxides and hydroxides. Mobility of As at local scale seems to depend on high pH values, related to the dissolution of carbonates driven by cation exchange, and dissolution of silicates. There is a clear relationship of As with F, V, B and Si, suggesting their common origin in volcanic ash layer. Preliminary conceptual model of arsenic input includes release of As and Al from dissolution of volcanic ash layer, precipitation of Al oxides and hydroxides followed by adsorption of As on Al and Fe phases in sediments, and release of As under high pH conditions.

  • 93.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Hasan, Md Aziz
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Sracek, Ondra
    Smith, Euan
    Ahmed, K. Matin
    von Brömssen, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Huq, S. M. Imamul
    Naidu, Ravi
    Groundwater chemistry and arsenic mobilization in the Holocene flood plains in south-central Bangladesh2009In: Environmental Geochemistry and Health, ISSN 0269-4042, E-ISSN 1573-2983, Vol. 31, p. 23-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A comparative study of arsenic enrichment in the Bengal Delta (BD) was carried Out in three alluvial aquifers in south-central Bangladesh. Investigated sites included Sonargaon in Narayanganj, Chandina in Comilla and Sirajdikhan in Munshiganj districts. At all sites samples from different depths were collected, and water chemistry and redox status vs. depth trends were determined. The concentrations of DOC and HCO3- were highest at Sirajdikhan site, while at the Sonargaon and Chandina sites the concentrations were lower. On the contrary, the NH4+ concentration was high at the Chandina site as compared to the other sites. There was a good match between dissolved As and Fe at the Sirajdikhan and Sonargaon sites, but not at the Chandina site. The dissolved aqueous concentration of Mn was low at the Chandina site, which suggested that the Mn(IV) redox buffering step was missing. Speciation modeling indicated a possibility of siderite precipitation at all sites, but precipitation of rhodochrosite only at the Sonargaon and Sirajdikhan sites. At the Sirajdikhan site, the log P-CO2 values were very high (-1.37), which revealed the production Of CO2 in redox processes. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated an impact of sea water and redox status of different samples. These results suggest that the dissolved As is de-coupled from dissolved Mn because when released, As is re-adsorbed onto the Fe(Ill) minerals in solid phase, as well as from dissolved Fe when precipitation of Fe(II) minerals controls the aqueous concentrations of Fe. In addition, several other concurrent redox processes may exert kinetic constraints depending on refractory characteristics of Fe(II) minerals.

  • 94.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Hossain, Mohammed
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Rahman, Shamsun Naima
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Robinson, Clare
    Nath, Bibhash
    Rahman, Marina
    Islam, M. Mainul
    Von Brömssen, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Ahmed, Kazi Matin
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Chowdhury, Dulaly
    Rahman, Mahfuzar
    Jakariya, Mohammed
    Persson, Lars Ake
    Vahter, Marie
    Temporal and seasonal variability of arsenic in drinking water wells in Matlab, southeastern Bangladesh: A preliminary evaluation on the basis of a 4 year study2011In: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A: Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering, ISSN 1093-4529, E-ISSN 1532-4117, Vol. 46, no 11, p. 1177-1184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Temporal and seasonal variability of As concentrations in groundwater were evaluated in As-affected areas of Matlab, southeastern Bangladesh. Groundwater samples from 61 randomly selected tubewells were analyzed for As concentrations over a period of three years and four months (from July 2002 to November 2005) and monitored seasonally (three times a year). The mean As concentrations in the sampled tubewells decreased from 153 to 123 mu g/L during July 2002 to November 2005. Such changes were pronounced in tubewells with As concentration >50 mu g/L than those with As concentrations <50 mu g/L. Similarly, individual wells revealed temporal variability, for example some wells indicated a decreasing trend, while some other wells indicated stable As concentration during the monitoring period. The mean As concentrations were significantly higher in Matlab North compared with Matlab South. The spatial variations in the mean As concentrations may be due to the differences in local geological conditions and groundwater flow patterns. The variations in mean As concentrations were also observed in shallow (<40 m) and deep (>40 m) wells. However, to adequately evaluate temporal and seasonal variability of As concentration, it is imperative to monitor As concentrations in tubewells over a longer period of time. Such long-term monitoring will provide important information for the assessment of human health risk and the sustainability of safe drinking water supplies.

  • 95.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Brömssen, Mattias von
    Ramböll AB, 10462 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Arsenic in Swedish groundwater Mobility and risk for naturally elevated concentrations: Final Report2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Arsenic (As) in groundwater has become a serious global problem during the last few decades forseveral reasons. The chronic toxicity from drinking water has motivated the lowering of thehealth limit from 50 μg/L to 10 μg/L. Due to the rather complicated analytical chemistry of As ithas seldom been analysed in groundwater. Once the common occurrence of excess As ingroundwater has been discovered like in Bangladesh it has become evident that As in concentrationswell above the health limit can be easily mobilized from very moderate amounts in the aquifermaterial under specific conditions. There are essentially three mechanisms of mobilization: 1)oxidation of sulphides containing As; 2) reduction of ferric compounds releasing adsorbed Asand 3) high pH conditions leading to lowered adsorption capacity of ferric and aluminium compounds.

    This study has aimed at investigating the mobilization of As under the conditions existing in Precambrianrocks and the overlying tills in Sweden. As study area the north-eastern part of theVästerbotten county was chosen. The occurrence of sulphides both in mineralisations and insome of the country rocks may infer that the risk of elevated As concentrations in groundwatermay be a bit higher there than elsewhere in Sweden. The hypothesis was that the two firstmechanisms mentioned above would be responsible for any elevated groundwater As in groundwater,thus either oxidation of sulphides or reducing conditions leading the reduction of ferrichydroxides.

    Samples were collected from drilled wells, dug wells and springs. pH, Eh and temperature weremeasured in the field and the samples were filtered through 0.20 m filters in the field. As(II) wasseparated from As(V) in the field by ion-exchangers. As redox conditions are the determinantsfor the mobilization of As the groundwaters have been classified into five redox classes followinga classification developed by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. Dug wells with elevatedAs turned out to be in the oxidizing part of the classification while drilled wells were foundin all classes. This is reasonable as drilled wells often collect water from different environmentsthrough the different fracture systems the drilled wells contact. Wetland springs are found tohave moderately reducing water high in iron. While drilled wells and dug wells show a wide spectrumof As(III)/As(tot) ratios the As(III) is clearly dominant in wetland springs. Drilled wellsshowed the highest concentrations of As up to 300 μg/L and wells drilled in alkaline volcanicrocks had the highest median concentrations of As. Arsenic in wetland springs were strongly correlatedto iron. Another clear relationship was that groundwater with even low concentrations ofnitrate was low in As. Obviously the presence of nitrate indicates an oxidizing environmentwhere As is firmly adsorbed onto ferric hydroxides. There was no clear relationship with sulphateindicating that the drilled wells which made up the majority of the groundwaters often had waterof a mixed origin coming to the well via different fracture systems.

    The results indicate that As should in general be analysed in household wells as it is difficult topredict the presence of elevated concentrations from the major ion chemistry. High iron concentrationis a factor that indicates an elevated risk of As above the health limit. Nitrate on the otherhand indicates a low risk for elevated As concentration.

  • 96.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
    Nath, Bibhas
    Chatterjee, Debashis
    Department of Chemistry, University of Kalyani, Kalyani-741 235, India.
    Biswas, Ashis
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
    Halder, Dipti
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
    Majumder, Santanu A.
    Bhowmick, Subhamoy K.
    Ramanathan, AL L.
    Natural Arsenic in Coastal Groundwaters in the Bengal Delta Region in West Bengal, India2010In: Management and Sustainable Development of Coastal Zone Environments / [ed] Ramanathan, A.; Bhattacharya, P.; Dittmar, T.; Prasad, B.; Neupane, B., Springer Netherlands, 2010, p. 146-160Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bengal Delta region is currently confronted with largest groundwater arsenic calamity in history of human kind (BGS-DPHE, 2001; Mukherjee and Bhattacharya, 2001; Bhattacharya et al., 2002a; McArthur et al., 2001; Smedley and Kinniburgh, 2002; Mukherjee et al., 2006; Nath et al., 2005, 2007, 2008). Concentrations of arsenic in drinking water wells in the region often exceed the WHO drinking water guideline value (10 μg L-1) and the national safe limit of both India and Bangladesh for arsenic in drinking water (Smedley and Kinniburgh, 2002; RGNDWM, 2002; CGWB, 1999; Bhattacharya et al., 2002a). About one third (35 million) population inhabiting in this region (West Bengal and Bangladesh), currently at risk of long-term arsenic exposure (Bhattacharya et al., 2001; RGNDWM, 2002; Chakraborti et al., 2004; Kapaj et al., 2006), are being diagnosed with a wide spectrum of adverse health impacts including skin disorders such as hyper/hypo-pigmentation, keratosis and melanosis and are also in hot-spot areas of BDP which is reflected in a rise in the number of cancer cases (Guha Mazumdar et al., 1988). The distribution pattern of arsenic occurrence in BDP is patchy and there are numerous hotspots of arsenic contamination in the semi-confined shallow Holocene aquifer (Bhattacharya et al., 1997; Smedley and Kinniburgh, 2002). The scale of the problem is serious both in terms of hotspots and geographic area coverage (173 × 10 3 km2, eastern part of Hoogly-Bhagirathi/Western part of Ganga-Padma-lower Meghna flood plains).

  • 97.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Svensson, M.
    von Bromssen, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Genesis of arsenic enriched groundwater and relationship with bedrock geology in northern Sweden2012In: Metals and related substances in drinking water: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference, METEAU, LONDON: IWA PUBLISHING , 2012, p. 242-246Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A growing concern over incidents of widespread human exposure to arsenic (As) from groundwater sources has been noticed during the past three decades. Vaasterbotten county in northern Sweden hosts a large number of sulphide ore deposits and a number of gold deposits are recently discovered. Both are accompanied by elevated arsenic contents. Proterozoic metasediments sandwiched in the bedrock and mixed into the till contains elevated amounts of arsenic as well. During the present study about 80 groundwater samples were collected from dug wells, bore-wells and springs in the Skellefte field in Vasterbotten County in northern Sweden. Data from community environmental offices were also collected and included in the study. Arsenic concentrations were elevated in borewells and wetland springs while none of the dug wells had arsenic contents above 10 mg/l. The highest content seen in borewells was 300 mg/l and in wetland springs 100 mg/l. The As(III)/As(tot) varied largely in borewells while it was mostly above 0.8 in wetland springs indicating more reducing contents in the latter. The use of a redox classification indicated that two nechanisms were involved in the mobilisation of he arsenic, oxidation of sulphides and reduction of ferric oxyhydroxides. In some cases the borewells showed a mixed pattern, indicating inflow from different environments.

  • 98.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    von Brömssen, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Ahmed, Kazi Matin
    DEpartment of Geology, UNiversity of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh.
    Arsenic in Groundwater of Bangladesh: Options for Safe Drinking Water2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The study was undertaken in order to find and scientifically validate the options for arsenic safewater in Bangladesh. The study has been carried out in a geological province where most of theshallow wells have arsenic above the allowable limit for drinking water according to Bangladeshstandard. The original study plan has been modified as newer information on arsenic mobilisationand mitigation was available. Accordingly the emphasis on dug well and arsenic removal filter hadbeen shifted to other options such as geologically targeted aquifers. Also at the same time therehas been collaboration with number of other projects been carried out in and around the studyarea. Eventually the main focus of the research was shifted to capacity development in order toenhance the local capability for finding safer sources drinking water in the study area and othersimilar environments in the country.

  • 99.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Maity, Jyoti Prakash
    Nath, Bibhash
    Chen, Chien-Yen
    Chatterjee, Debashis
    Mukherjee, Abhijit
    Groundwater arsenic in the Lower Ganges Delta Plain in West Bengal, India and Bangladesh: A hydrogeochemical comparison2010In: Geological Society of America: Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 42, No. 5, 2010, p. 653-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Arsenic contaminations in groundwater have been widely reported. The serious arsenic contamination of groundwater of Lower Ganga delta Plain (LGDP) in West Bengal, India and Bangladesh has emerged as a global natural environmental health disaster. The Bengal Delta Plain (BDP) is one of the largest deltas in the world, drained by the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna river (GBM) systems. Groundwater samples were collected from 67 different sites located in the districts of 24-Parganas (S), 24-Parganas (N) and Nadia in West Bengal, India along the western margin (Bhagirathi sub-basin), and 40 different sites located in the districts of Comilla, Laxmipur, Munshiganj, Faridpur and Jhenaida districts of Bangladesh along the eastern part of the Bengal Basin (Padma-Meghna sub-basin).

    Groundwater in the Nadia, West Bengal is mostly of Ca–HCO3 type while in the lower part of the delta, the groundwater is of Ca-Mg-SO4 type. The concentrations of major solutes (Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+, K+, HCO3-, SO42-, NO3- and PO43- in groundwater of Meghna sub-basin is more variable than Bhagirathi sub-basin that indicating different hydrological setting in the parts of the Bengal basin. The trace element concentrations such as As, Fe and Mn also show considerable variability in the two distinct parts of the Bengal basin. Most groundwaters of the LGDP contain arsenic above the WHO and the BIS standard of 0.01 mg/L as well as in many case above the Bangladesh drinking water standard (0.05 mg/L). Both sites have moderately reducing environment, with high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon, indicating dominantly metal-reducing processes and nearly similar mechanism in As mobilization. The occurrence of elevated arsenic in groundwater is generally associated with natural biogeochemical reactions (such as reductive dissolution of iron oxides/hydroxides) by altering groundwater redox state and releasing arsenic from sediment to aqueous phase. The various redox-sensitive solutes indicate overlapping redox zones, leading to partial redox equilibrium conditions where As, once liberated from minerals of sediments, would tend to remain in groundwater because of the complex interplay among the electron acceptors. Also, microbes in organic matter environment are acting as the major electron acceptor, in the Lower Ganges Delta Plain.

  • 100.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Mukherjee, Arun B.
    Helsinki University Environmental Research Centre, Finland.
    Zeevenhoven, Ron
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Åbo Akademi University, Åbo, Finland .
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Loeppert, Richard H.
    Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, Texas A & M University, College Station, TX, USA.
    Arsenic in Soil and Groundwater Environment: Biogeochemical Interactions, Health Effects and Remediation2007Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume presents the recent developments in the field of arsenic in soil and groundwater. Arranged into nine sections, the text emphasizes the global occurrences of arsenic in the environment, particularly on its source, pathways, behavior, and effects it has on soils, plants, water, animals, and humans. It also covers the diverse issues of arsenic in the mining environment, arsenic emanating from hydrothermal springs, and the geochemical modeling of arsenic adsorption to oxide surfaces. Finally, the text includes different cost effective removal mechanisms of arsenic from drinking water using natural red earth, solar oxidation, and arsenic oxidation by ferrrate.

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