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  • 51.
    Halder, Dipti
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Biswas, Ashis
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Bhowmick, S.
    University of Kalyani, India.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Nriagu, Jerome O.
    University of Michigan, USA.
    Guha Mazumder, D.N.
    DNGM Research Foundation, India.
    Slejkovec, Z.
    Josef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Chatterjee, Debashis
    University of Kalyani, India.
    Assessment of arsenic exposure risk from drinking water and dietary component in West Bengal, India2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current status of arsenic (As) exposure risk from drinking water and different dietary components in rural Bengal has been compared in the present study. This study shows that the consumption of rice is the major source of dietary intake of inorganic As among the population when they are drinking As safe water. Consumption of vegetables does not pose a significant health threat to the population independently; it nevertheless can increase the total daily intake of inorganic As (TDI-iAs). The results indicate that when people are drinking water with As concentration <10 μg L-1, in 35% of the cases the total daily intake of inorganic As (TDI-iAs) exceeds the previous provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) value of 2.1 μg day-1 kg-1 BW, recommended by World Health Organization (WHO). It should be mention here that the joint FAO/WHO expert committee on food additives (JECFA) has withdrawn the previous PTDI value in their 72nd meeting because PTDI value was in the lower range of bench mark dose level for 0.5% increased of lung cancer. However, Codex Committee on Contaminants in Foods (CCCF) has argued that TDI-iAs below BMDL0.5 does not indicates that there is no risk and this motivated us to compare TDI-iAs of the participants with the previous PTDI value of 2.1 μg day-1 kg-1 bw. At the As concentration level <10 μg L-1in drinking water, the consumption of rice is the major source of daily intake of inorganic As. When As concentration in drinking water exceeds 10 μg L-1, drinking water and rice consumption contributes almost equally (~40% from rice, ~50% from drinking water, and 10% from vegetables according to median DI-iAs) and TDI-iAs exceeds previous PTDI for all the participants. The relative contribution of daily intake of iAs from drinking water (DI-iAs-DW) largely predominates over daily intake of iAs from rice (DI-iAs-R) when As concentration in drinking water exceeds 50 μg L-1. This study implies that when consumption of rice contributes significantly to the TDI-iAs, supply of drinking water to the population considering national drinking water standard of India and Bangladesh as a safety measure for As might compound the As exposure largely by increasing TDI-iAs. Thus it can be concluded that any effort to mitigate the As poisoning of rural villagers in Bengal must look beyond the drinking water and consider all the routes of exposure.

  • 52. Herbert, R.B.
    et al.
    Höckert, L.
    Von Brömssen, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology. Ramböll Sverige AB, Sweden .
    Friis, H.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Mine waste stabilisation with biosludge and Ca carbonate residues: column experiments2007In: Biohydrometallury: From the Single Cell to the Environment, Trans Tech Publications Inc., 2007, Vol. 20-21, p. 291-294Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Column experiments investigated the stabilization of waste rock from Ljusnarsberg mine in Kopparberg, Sweden. In order to inhibit the generation of acidic leachate from the waste rock, biosludge and a Ca carbonate - rich residue from the paper industry were mixed with the sulfidic mine waste. The results of the column experiments indicate that the stabilization of the waste rock with the reactive amendments succeeded in maintaining a near - neutral pH in the waste rock leachate, compared to a pH 3 leachate from untreated waste rock. Copper and Zn concentrations in leachate from the untreated waste exceeded 100 mg/L, while these metals were detected at concentrations less than 0.1 and 1 mg/L, respectively, in the leachate from the treated wastes. This study indicates that the stabilization of acid - generating waste rock with biosludge and Ca carbonate residues is effective in preventing the generation of acid mine drainage; the treatment is expected to continue until the reactive amendments are exhausted.

  • 53. Hollaender, H. M.
    et al.
    Blume, T.
    Bormann, H.
    Buytaert, W.
    Chirico, G. B.
    Exbrayat, J. F.
    Gustafsson, David
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Hoelzel, H.
    Kraft, P.
    Stamm, C.
    Stoll, S.
    Bloeschl, G.
    Fluehler, H.
    Comparative predictions of discharge from an artificial catchment (Chicken Creek) using sparse data2009In: Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, ISSN 1027-5606, E-ISSN 1607-7938, Vol. 13, no 11, p. 2069-2094Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ten conceptually different models in predicting discharge from the artificial Chicken Creek catchment in North-East Germany were used for this study. Soil texture and topography data were given to the modellers, but discharge data was withheld. We compare the predictions with the measurements from the 6 ha catchment and discuss the conceptualization and parameterization of the models. The predictions vary in a wide range, e.g. with the predicted actual evapotranspiration ranging from 88 to 579 mm/y and the discharge from 19 to 346 mm/y. The predicted components of the hydrological cycle deviated systematically from the observations, which were not known to the modellers. Discharge was mainly predicted as subsurface discharge with little direct runoff. In reality, surface runoff was a major flow component despite the fairly coarse soil texture. The actual evapotranspiration (AET) and the ratio between actual and potential ET was systematically overestimated by nine of the ten models. None of the model simulations came even close to the observed water balance for the entire 3-year study period. The comparison indicates that the personal judgement of the modellers was a major source of the differences between the model results. The most important parameters to be presumed were the soil parameters and the initial soil-water content while plant parameterization had, in this particular case of sparse vegetation, only a minor influence on the results.

  • 54. Hollesen, J.
    et al.
    Elberling, B.
    Jansson, Per-Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Modelling temperature-dependent heat production over decades in High Arctic coal waste rock piles2011In: Cold Regions Science and Technology, ISSN 0165-232X, E-ISSN 1872-7441, Vol. 65, no 2, p. 258-268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Subsurface heat production from oxidation of pyrite is an important process that may increase subsurface temperatures within coal waste rock piles and increase the release of acid mine drainage, AMD. Waste rock piles in the Arctic are especially vulnerable to changes in subsurface temperatures as the release of AMD normally is limited by permafrost. Here we show that temperatures within a 20 year old heat-producing waste rock pile in Svalbard (78 degrees N) can be modelled by the one-dimensional heat and water flow model (CoupModel) with a new temperature-dependent heat-production module that includes both biological and chemical oxidation processes and heat source depletion over time. Inputs to the model are meteorological measurements, physical properties of the waste rock material and measured subsurface heat-production rates. Measured mean annual subsurface temperatures within the waste rock pile are up to 10 C higher than the mean annual air temperature of -5.8 degrees C. Subsurface temperatures are currently decreasing with 0.5 degrees C per year due to decreasing heat production, which can be modelled using an exponential decay function corresponding to a half-life period of pyrite oxidation of 7 years. Simulations further suggest that subsurface temperatures two years after construction of the pile may have been up to 34.0 degrees C higher than in 2009 and that the release of AMD may have been more than 20 times higher. Sensitivity simulations show that maximum temperatures in the pile would have been up to 30.5-32.5 degrees C lower and that the pile would have been frozen 12-27 years earlier if the pile had been initially saturated with water, constructed with a thickness half of the original or a combination of both. Simulation show that the pile thickness and waste rock pyrite content are important factors controlling the internal build up of heat leading to potential self-incineration. However, site specific measurements of temperature-dependent heat production as well as simulation results show that the heat produced from pyrite oxidation alone cannot cause such a temperature increase and that processes such as heat production from coal oxidation may be equally important. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 55.
    Hossain, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Rahman, M.
    NGO Forum for Public Health, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Ahmed, Kazi Matin
    University of Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    von Brömssen, Mattias
    Ramböll Sweden AB.
    Uddin, M.R.
    NGO Forum for Public Health, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Alam, M.J.
    University of Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Haque, M.A.
    NGO Forum for Public Health, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Alam, M.S.
    NGO Forum for Public Health, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Rahman, M.M.
    University of Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Sarwar, S.G.
    NGO Forum for Public Health, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Kibria, M.G.
    NGO Forum for Public Health, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Hasan, R.
    NGO Forum for Public Health, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Rashid, Nazhat Shirin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Strategic approach for up-scaling safe water access considering hydrogeological suitability and social mapping in Matlab, southeastern Bangladesh2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, there has been a significant progress in understanding the source and mobilization process, sediment-water interactions, and distributions of arsenic in groundwater environment in Bangladesh. However, the impacts of arsenic mitigation are still very limited. A social survey conducted during 2009-2011 in 96 villages in Matlab revealed that only 18% of total tubewells provide As-safe water. The safe water access also varied between 0 and 90 percent in the region due to lack of knowledge about the local geology and unplanned tubewell development. SASMIT, an initiative of KTH-International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group has developed a method for safe tubewell installation considering hydrogeological suitability, safe water access and other relevant social and demographic information into account.

    Piezometers installed at 15 locations over an area of 410 km2, using local boring techniques allowed to delineate the hydrostratigraphy, characterize the aquifers in terms of sediment characteristics, water chemistry and hydraulic head distribution, which ultimately led to the identification of the suitable aquifers for tapping safe water. The piezometer locations with safe drinking water quality were then targeted for safe well installation based on the determination of safe buffer distances in a cluster of a few villages (mouzas). Social mapping of all the villages within the mauzas were done using GIS to evaluate the availability of safe water options for a cluster of households (bari). For safe well installations, priority was given to regions with safe water access, greater number of beneficiaries especially in poor households, and easy access to the site from a cluster of households. Through this approach, it was thus possible to make 95% of the newly installed wells As-safe thus scaled up the safe water access upto 40% in some mauzas. Thus the as a strategy to improve safe water access, the SASMIT study recommends investigating the hydrogeological suitability through installation of few piezometers with a minimum effort and based on the results the implementation plan can be made using GIS based social mappings for relatively uniform distribution and to maximize the safe water access.

  • 56. Hårleman, C.
    et al.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Rybeck, B.
    Clinoptilolite in water purification in emergency situations2008In: In Water and Sanitation in International Development and Disaster Relief: proceedings of International Workshop, 2008, p. 135-143Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 57. Hårleman, C.
    et al.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Rybeck, B.
    The use of a clinoptilolite-based filter in emergency situations2009In: Desalination, ISSN 0011-9164, E-ISSN 1873-4464, Vol. 248, no 1-3, p. 629-635Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Clinoptilolite is a natural zeolite with exceptional adsorption capacity. Integrated into an appropriate technical Set-Lip it has been tested with raw-water mimicking the situation in emergencies where the requirement of safe drinking water has been critical for the public health. These results have been verified in practice in Chechenya and in Belgrade during the Balkan conflict. More recently the units have been used in Thailand in the aftermath of the tsunami and in Sudan. Future developments in treating water affected by radioactive fallout and arsenic are promising.

  • 58. Jacks, Birgitta
    et al.
    Sall, M.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    L´importance de zinc dans la nutrition au Mali2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 59. Jacks, G.
    et al.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Chaudhary, V.
    Singh, K. P.
    Controls on the genesis of some high-fluoride groundwaters in India2005In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 221-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    India has an increasing incidence of fluorosis, dental and skeletal, with some 62 million people at risk. High fluoride groundwaters are present especially in the hard rock areas south of the Ganges valley and in the and north-western part of the country. The phenomenon is related to groundwater with residual alkalinity (Ca2+ < HCO3-). Fluoride concentrations are governed by adsorption equilibria and by fluorite solubility. Evapotranspiration leads to a precipitation of calcite, a lowering of Ca activity and increase in Na/Ca ratios, and this allows an increase in F- levels. In southern India, Mg seems to be controlled by dolomite, while sepiolite and palygorskite are Mg sinks in Rajasthan but may then release F- under alkaline conditions. The latter two minerals are probably also important sources and sinks for F- in the hydroxy-positions. The increase in the extent of sodic soils as a result of irrigation is a contributing factor to the increasing incidence of fluorosis. Remedial measures including addition of gypsum and rainwater harvesting are needed even in areas where the sodicity does not cause structural problems in the soil.

  • 60.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Ahmed, K. M.
    Maxe, Lena
    Local water supply and sanitation2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 61.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Harikumar, P. S.
    Irrigated agriculture and the formation of high fluoride groundwaters in India2005In: Abstract Volume The 15th Stockholm Water Symposium,: Drainage Basin Management- Hard and Soft Solutions in Regional Development, 2005, p. 325-326Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 62.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Nilsson, I.
    Soil degradation caused by human water management2008In: Water for food: FORMAS publication issued for Stockholm Water Week, 2008, p. 111-118Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 63.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Nilsson, Ingvar
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Soil degradation caused by human water maagement2008In: Water for Food: Formas-publikation, ISSN 1653-3003, p. 113-118Article, review/survey (Other academic)
  • 64.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Sall, Moussa
    Jacks, Birgitta
    Beast-feeding and weaning in a village in the niger Inland Delta, Mali2011In: African Journal of Midwifery, ISSN 2052-4293, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 141-146Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 65.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Traoré, M.
    Groundwater recharge at Timbuktu, Mali, West Africa2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 66. Jakariya, M.
    et al.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Hassan, M.M.
    Ahmed, K.M.
    Hasan, M.A.
    Nahar, S.
    Temporal variations of groundwater arsenic contrations in Southwest Bangladesh2009In: Natural Arsenic in Groundwater of Latin America: Occurrence, health impact and remediation, The Netherlands: CRC Press/Balkema , 2009, p. 225-233Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 67. Jakariya, Md.
    et al.
    Rahman, Mizanur
    Chowdhury, A. M. R.
    Rahman, Mahfuzar
    Yunus, Md.
    Bhiuya, Abbas
    Wahed, M. A.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Vahter, Marie
    Persson, Lars-Ake
    Sustainable safe water options in Bangladesh: experiences from the Arsenic Project at Matlab (AsMat)2005In: Natural Arsenic in Groundwater: Occurrence, Remediation and Management, LEIDEN: A A BALKEMA PUBLISHERS , 2005, p. 319-330Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of elevated levels of naturally occurring arsenic in groundwater of Bangladesh, has severely impaired the decade long effort of providing safe water to nearly 98% of its population and putting an estimated 3 5 million people-nearly one fourth of the total population at risk. In order to address this problem, a project titled "Arsenic in tubewell (TW) water and health consequences in Matlab Upazila of Chandpur district (AsMat)" is being implemented jointly by ICDDR,B and BRAC. During this study. all the TWs in Matlab have been assigned unique identification numbers, with marked GPS coordinates, depth, and age. It is estimated that nearly 65% of the about 13,000 TWs in Matlab have As concentrations above the Bangladesh drinking water standard (50 mu g/L). In order to minimize arsenic exposure, a work to provide various alternate safe drinking water options to the exposed population has been initiated. As of March 2004, about 1047 different alternate safe water options, such as Pond Sand Filter (PSF), Rainwater Harvester (RWH) and different filters to remove arsenic as well as pathogenic bacteria, were distributed among the targeted exposed population in Matlab. To ensure sustainable use, the provided options were assessed based on community acceptability, technical viability, and financial viability.

  • 68.
    Jansson, Christer
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Almkvist, E.
    Jansson, Per-Erik.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Heat balance of an asphalt surface: observations and physically-based simulations2006In: Meteorological Applications, ISSN 1350-4827, E-ISSN 1469-8080, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 203-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A physically-based 1-D beat and mass transfer model was tested to estimate the beat fluxes of an asphalt surface. The model was run for two summer months for a road test site in southwest Sweden. Parameters for thermal properties, surface runoff, radiation and turbulent transfer were obtained from a description of the road stratification and from the literature. Coefficients of determination (r(2)) 0.94, 0.93 and 0.97 were obtained when simulated results were compared with observations of net radiation, beat flow below the surface and surface temperature respectively, all with slope coefficients close to unity. In addition, simulation results elucidated the robe of water vapour transport through the asphalt-soil profile and its effect on the latent beat flow from the surface. Problems were identified with closure of the beat balance in measurements based on discrepancy between simulated and observed sensible heat flux.

  • 69.
    Jonsson, Patrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden Univ, Östersund, Sweden.
    Riehm, Mats
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Infrared Thermometry in Winter Road Maintenance2012In: Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, ISSN 0739-0572, E-ISSN 1520-0426, Vol. 29, no 6, p. 846-856Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is significant interest among road authorities in measuring pavement conditions to perform appropriate winter road maintenance. The most common monitoring methods are based on pavement-mounted sensors. This study's hypothesis is that the temperature distribution in a pavement can be measured by means of a nonintrusive method to retrieve the topmost pavement temperature values. By utilizing the latest infrared (IR) technology, it is possible to retrieve additional information concerning both road temperatures and road conditions. The authors discovered that surface temperature readings from IR sensors are more reliable than data retrieved from traditional surface-mounted sensors during wet, snowy, or icy road conditions. It was also possible to detect changes in the road condition by examining how the temperatures in wheel tracks and in between the wheel tracks differ from a reference dry road condition. The conclusion was that nonintrusive measurement of the road temperature is able to provide an increase in relation to the knowledge about both the road temperature and the road condition. Another conclusion was that the surface temperature should not be considered as being equal to the ground temperatures retrieved from traditional surface-mounted sensors except under conditions of dry, stable roadways.

  • 70. Kapaj, Simon
    et al.
    Peterson, Hans
    Liber, Karsten
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Human health effects from chronic arsenic poisoning- A review2006In: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A: Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering, ISSN 1093-4529, E-ISSN 1532-4117, Vol. 41, no 10, p. 2399-2428Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ill effects of human exposure to arsenic (As) have recently been reevaluated by government agencies around the world. This has lead to a lowering of As guidelines in drinking water, with Canada decreasing the maximum allowable level from 50 to 25 mu g/L and the U.S. from 50 to 10 mu g/L. Canada is currently contemplating a further decrease to 5 mu g/L. The reason for these regulatory changes is the realization that As can cause deleterious effects at lower concentrations than was previously thought. There is a strong relationship between chronic ingestion of As and deleterious human health effects and here we provide an overview of some of the major effects documented in the scientific literature. As regulatory levels of As have been decreased, an increasing number of water supplies will now require removal of As before the water can be used for human consumption. While As exposure can occur from food, air and water, all major chronic As poisonings have stemmed from water and this is usually the predominant exposure route. Exposure to As leads to an accumulation of As in tissues such as skin, hair and nails, resulting in various clinical symptoms such as hyperpigmentation and keratosis. There is also an increased risk of skin, internal organ, and lung cancers. Cardiovascular disease and neuropathy have also been linked to As consumption. Verbal IQ and long term memory can also be affected, and As can suppress hormone regulation and hormone mediated gene transcription. Increases in fetal loss and premature delivery, and decreased birth weights of infants, can occur even at low (< 10 mu g/L) exposure levels. Malnourished people have been shown to be more predisposed to As-related skin lesions. A large percentage of the population (30-40%) that is using As-contaminated drinking water can have elevated As levels in urine, hair and nails, while showing no noticeable clinical symptoms, such as skin lesions. It is therefore important to carry out clinical tests of As exposure. Factors combining to increase/decrease the ill effects of As include duration and magnitude of As exposure, source of As exposure, nutrition, age and general health status. Analytical determinations of As poisoning can be made by examining As levels in urine, hair and toenails. Communities and individuals relying on groundwater sources for drinking water need to measure As levels to ensure that their supplies are safe. Communities with water As levels greater than 5 mu g/L should consider a program to document As levels in the population.

  • 71.
    Karczmarczyk, Agnieszka
    et al.
    Warsaw University of Life Sciences-SGGW.
    Renman, Gunno
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Phosphorus Accumulation Pattern in a Subsurface Constructed Wetland Treating Residential Wastewater2011In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 146-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland was investigated after eight years of residential wastewater discharge (150 person equivalents). Twenty core samples distributed over the entire wetland were taken from the soil matrix. The distribution pattern of phosphorus (P) accumulation in the substrate of the wetland was determined using kriging technique and P sorption was related to the content of aluminum (Al), calcium (Ca) and iron (Fe). The correlations found between Al, Ca and Fe content and P accumulation in the bed substrate were weak: R2 = 0.09, R2 = 0.21 and R2 = 0.28, respectively. Great heterogeneity was observed in the distribution of Ca, P and organic matter in the superficial and deeper layers of the bed. Hydraulic problems associated with wastewater discharge and conductivity of the bed substrate were suggested to have negative effects on the wetland performance.

  • 72. Karlberg, Louise
    et al.
    Gustafsson, David
    Jansson, Per-Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Modeling carbon turnover in five terrestrial ecosystems in the boreal zone using multiple criteria of acceptance2006In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 35, no 8, p. 448-458Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Estimates of carbon fluxes and turnover in ecosystems are key elements in the understanding of climate change and in predicting the accumulation of trace elements in the biosphere. In this paper we present estimates of carbon fluxes and turnover times for five terrestrial ecosystems using a modeling approach. Multiple criteria of acceptance were used to parameterize the model, thus incorporating large amounts of multi-faceted empirical data in the simulations in a standardized manner. Mean turnover times of carbon were found to be rather similar between systems with a few exceptions, even though the size of both the pools and the fluxes varied substantially. Depending on the route of the carbon through the ecosystem, turnover times varied from less than one year to more than one hundred, which may be of importance when considering trace element transport and retention. The parameterization method was useful both in the estimation of unknown parameters, and to identify variability in carbon turnover in the selected ecosystems.

  • 73.
    Karlberg, Louise
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Jansson, Per-Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Gustafsson, David
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Model-based evaluation of low-cost drip-irrigation systems and management strategies using saline water2007In: Irrigation science, ISSN 0342-7188, E-ISSN 1432-1319, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 387-399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A drip-irrigation module was developed and included in an ecosystem model and tested on two independent datasets, spring and autumn, on field-grown tomato. Simulated soil evaporation correlated well with measurements for spring (2.62 mm d(-1) compared to 2.60 mm d(-1)). Changes in soil water content were less well portrayed by the model (spring r(2) = 0.27; autumn r(2) = 0.45). More independent data is needed for further model testing in combination with developments of the spatial representation of below-ground variables. In a fresh-water drip-irrigated system, about 30% of the incoming water was transpired, 40% was lost as non-productive evaporative flows, and the remainder left the system as surface runoff or drainage. Simulations showed that saline water irrigation (6 dS m(-1)) caused reduced transpiration, which led to higher drainage and soil evaporation, compared with fresh water. Covering the soil with plastic mulch resulted in an increase in yield and transpiration. Finally, two different drip-irrigation discharge rates (0.2 and 2.5 l h(-1)) were compared; however the simulations indicated that the discharge rate did not have any impact on the partitioning of the incoming water to the system. The model proved to be a useful tool for evaluating the importance of specific management options.

  • 74. Katterer, T.
    et al.
    Andren, O.
    Jansson, Per-Erik.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Pedotransfer functions for estimating plant available water and bulk density in Swedish agricultural soils2006In: Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica - Section B, ISSN 0906-4710, E-ISSN 1651-1913, Vol. 56, no 4, p. 263-276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pedotransfer functions (PTFs) to estimate plant available water were developed from a database of arable soils in Sweden. The PTFs were developed to fulfil the minimum requirements of any agro-hydrological application, i.e., soil water content at wilting point (theta(wp)) and field capacity (theta(fc)),from information that frequently is available from soil surveys such as texture and soil organic carbon content (SOC). From the same variables we also estimated bulk density (rho) and porosity (epsilon), which seldom are included in surveys, but are needed for calculating element mass balances. The seven particle-size classes given in the data set were aggregated in different ways to match information commonly gained from surveys. Analysis of covariance and stepwise multiple linear regression were used for quantifying the influence of depth, particle size class, textural class and soil organic carbon on the characteristic variables. PTFs developed from other data sets were also tested and their goodness-of-fit and bias was evaluated. These functions and those developed for the Swedish database were also tested on an independent data set and finally ranked according to their goodness of fit. Among single independent variables, clay was the best predictor for theta(wp), sand ( or the sum of clay and silt) for theta(fc) and SOC for rho and epsilon. A large fraction of the variation in theta(wp) and theta(fc) is explained by soil texture and SOC ( up to 90%) and root mean square errors (RMSEs) were as small as 0.03 m(3) water m(-3) soil in the best models. For the prediction of rho and epsilon in the test data set, the best PTF could only explain 40-43% of the total variance with corresponding RMSEs of 0.14 g cm(-3) and 5.3% by volume, respectively. Recently presented PTFs derived from a North American database performed very well for estimating theta(wp) ( low error and bias) and could be recommended for Swedish soils if measurements of clay, sand and SOC were available. Although somewhat less accurately, also theta(fc) could be estimated satisfactorily. This indicates that the determination of plant available water by texture and SOC is rather independent of soil genesis and that certain PTFs are transferable between continents.

  • 75. Khai, Nguyen Manh
    et al.
    Oborn, Ingrid
    Hillier, Steve
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Modeling of metal binding in tropical Fluvisols and Acrisols treated with biosolids and wastewater2008In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 70, no 8, p. 1338-1346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is growing concern about the accumulation of metals in tropical agricultural soils. In this study, experimental results from batch studies were used to test whether multi-surface geochemical models could describe metal binding in selected Vietnamese soils. The multi-surface models considered metal binding to iron hydroxides (using the diffuse layer model), organic matter (Stockholm Humic model and NICA-Donnan model), and phyllosilicate clay (Gaines-Thomas equation) as well as complexation to dissolved organic and inorganic ligands in the solution phase. We found that for total dissolved Cd, Cu and Zn the two multi-surface models being tested provided very good model fits for all soils, as evidenced by low root-mean square errors between model predictions and observations. These results suggest that organic matter is an important sorbent for many metals in these soils. However, poor fits were obtained for Cr(III), Mn and Pb for all soils. The study also suggests that the pH is the main factor that controls the solubility of metals in tropical Fluvisols and Acrisols subjected to application of biosolids and wastewater, and that advanced multi-surface models can be used to simulate the binding and release of many trace metals.

  • 76. Kleja, D. B.
    et al.
    Standring, W.
    Oughton, D. H.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Fifield, K.
    Fraser, A. R.
    Assessment of isotopically exchangeable Al in soil materials using Al-26 tracer2005In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 69, no 22, p. 5263-5277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The solubility of aluminium (Al) in many acidic soils is controlled by complexation reactions with soil organic matter. In such soils, Al solubility is theoretically a function of the pool size of active Al, i.e., the total amount of Al that equilibrates with the sod solution within a defined period of time. To date, no reliable measurements of active Al in soil materials exist. In this study, we determined the isotopically exchangeable pool of Al (E-A1) as an operationally defined assessment of active Al in acidic mineral soils. The suitability of CuCl2 and pyrophosphate (Na4P2O7) as extractants for active Al was also evaluated. Eleven samples, mostly from spodic B horizons, were spiked with carrier-free Al-26 and equilibrated for different time periods (1-756 h). The size of the Al pool with which the Al-26 tracer exchanged increased with time during the whole experimental period. Thus, contact time between solid and solution phases needs to be defined when assessing the active Al pool. Values of E-A1 obtained after I to 5 d of equilibration were equal to the amount of CuCl2 extractable Al, but considerably smaller than the Na4P2O7-extractable pool. Equilibration times greater than 5 d resulted in CuCl2 extractable Al concentrations that under-estimated the active Al pool. Three of the investigated samples were rich in imogolite-type materials (ITM). In these samples, 30-50 % of the added Al-26 rapidly became associated with soil constituents in forms that could not be extracted by Na4P2O7, indicating that a part of ITM may be in a dynamic state.

  • 77. Kleja, Dan B.
    et al.
    Van Schaik, Joris
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Acid-base and copper binding properties of three organic matter fractions isolated from a soil solution2009In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 73, no 13, p. A667-A667Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 78.
    Kleja, Dan Berggren
    et al.
    SGI.
    Shibutani, Satomi
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Persson, Ingmar
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology. Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet. Institutionen för mark och miljö.
    Binding of Ag(I) by organic soil Materials and isolated humic substances: XANES Spectroscopy and modeling2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The binding of silver(I) by organic matter was investigated in batch equilibrations with Suwannee River Fulvic Acid (SRFA), mor (Oe) and peat materials. For the SRFA systems, binding isotherms were determined at pH 4 and 8 using potentiometric titrations, with 0.05 M NaNO3 as background electrolyte. The binding showed a strong pH dependency and was about one order of magnitude stronger at pH 8 compared to pH 4. The data set was consistent with published data sets for isolated fulvic and humic acids. The binding of silver(I) by mor and peat materials was studied as a function of pH in the range 2.5-5.0 in dilute NaNO3 solutions (ca. 0.01 M), at a wide range of silver-to-soil ratios (10-2 – 10-4.5 mol kg-1). The silver(I) binding properties of the two materials were similar, with increasing binding strength with pH. The slope of sorption isotherms determined at pH 2.5 and 4.0 was significantly less than one, indicating heterogeneous binding sites. Ion competition experiments with added 1 mM iron(III) or 1 mM aluminium(III) at pH 2.5 and 4.0 showed no interaction between these ions and the silver(I) ion, indicating highly specific silver(I) binding sites.

    Silver K-edge XANES in the region 25280-26080 eV was used to characterize the binding mode of silver(I) in the mor and peat materials. A silver-to-soil ratio >10-2.5 mol kg-1 was needed to obtain a significant absorption edge. Comparison of spectra with oxygen, sulfur and nitrogen containing model compounds, indicated that the silver(I) ions, on average, was bound to one oxygen and one nitrogen donor ligand in an approximately linear fashion in both samples. Speciation of sulfur in the mor and peat materials using sulfur K-edge XANES, suggested that thiol groups could contribute to maximum about 20% of the silver binding at the conditions used in the Ag K-edge XANES measurements.

    The Stockholm Humic Model (SHM) was used as a tool to make a unified interpretation of SRFA and soil data. First, the model was calibrated using SFRA data together with published data on silver binding to isolated fulvic and humic substances, in order to obtain a consistent generic silver binding parameter set. Second, the calibrated SHM was used to predict the experimental silver(I) binding data obtained with the mor and peat materials. Taking this approach the model largely underestimated the silver(I) binding by the mor and peat materials; roughly by a factor of 10-100, dependent on experimental conditions. Thus, our data suggest that silver(I) binding properties of isolated fulvic and humic acids are very different from those of intact soil and peat materials. This will have great implications for how to calibrate and apply geochemical models describing the behavior of silver(I) in soils and natural waters.

  • 79. Klemedtsson, Leif
    et al.
    Jansson, Per-Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Gustafsson, David
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Karlberg, Louise
    Weslien, Per
    von Arnold, Karin
    Ernfors, Maria
    Langvall, Ola
    Lindroth, Anders
    Bayesian calibration method used to elucidate carbon turnover in forest on drained organic soil2008In: Biogeochemistry, ISSN 0168-2563, E-ISSN 1573-515X, Vol. 89, no 1, p. 61-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Depending on the balance between sink and source processes for C, drained organic forest soil ecosystems can be in balance or act as net sinks or sources of CO2 to the atmosphere. In order to study the effect of groundwater level and soil temperature on C-flux, the CoupModel was calibrated (climate data, groundwater levels, soil CO2 flux, net ecosystem fluxes of CO2-exchange, sensible heat flux and latent heat flux, forest production etc.) for a drained forest in Sweden. Bayesian calibration techniques were used to elucidate how different parameters and variables were interlinked in C-circulation. The calibrated model reproduced abiotic and biotic variables reasonably well except for root respiration, which was largely underestimated. Bayesian calibration reduced the uncertainties in the model and highlighted the fact that calibrations should be performed with a high number of parameters instead of specific parameter values.

  • 80. Kumar, Manish
    et al.
    Kumar, Pankaj
    Ramanathan, A. L.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Thunvik, Roger
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Singh, Umesh K.
    Tsujimura, M.
    Sracek, Ondra
    Arsenic enrichment in groundwater in the middle Gangetic Plain of Ghazipur District in Uttar Pradesh, India2010In: Journal of Geochemical Exploration, ISSN 0375-6742, E-ISSN 1879-1689, Vol. 105, no 3, p. 83-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwater with high geogenic arsenic (As) is extensively present in the Holocene alluvial aquifers of Ghazipur District in the middle Gangetic Plain, India. A shift in the climatic conditions, weathering of carbonate and silicate minerals, surface water interactions, ion exchange, redox processes, and anthropogenic activities are responsible for high concentrations of cations, anions and As in the groundwater. The spatial and temporal variations for As concentrations were greater in the pre-monsoon (6.4-259.5 mu g/L) when compared to the post-monsoon period (5.1-205.5 mu g/L). The As enrichment was encountered in the sampling sites that were close to the Ganges River (i.e. south and southeast part of Ghazipur district). The depth profile of As revealed that low concentrations of NO3- are associated with high concentration of As and that As depleted with increasing depth. The poor relationship between As and Fe indicates the As release into the groundwater, depends on several processes such as mineral weathering, O-2 consumption, and NO3- reduction and is de-coupled from Fe cycling. Correlation matrix and factor analysis were used to identify various factors influencing the gradual As enrichment in the middle Gangetic Plain. Groundwater is generally supersaturated with respect to calcite and dolomite in post-monsoon period, but not in pre-monsoon period. Saturation in both periods is reached for crystalline Fe phases such as goethite, but not with respect to poorly crystalline Fe phases and any As-bearing phase. The results indicate release of arsenic in redox processes in dry period and dilution of arsenic concentration by recharge during monsoon. Increased concentrations of bicarbonate after monsoon are caused by intense flushing of unsaturated zone, where CO2 is formed by decomposition of organic matter and reactions with carbonate minerals in solid phase. The present study is vital considering the fact that groundwater is an exclusive source of drinking water in the region which not only makes situation alarming but also calls for the immediate attention.

  • 81.
    Kumar, Rajender
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Development and potential applications of nanomaterials for arsenic removal from contaminated groundwater.2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a magnetic nanomaterial was used for the binding of anionic arsenic species from contaminated groundwater. Iron oxide (Fe3O4) magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) and the surface modified Fe3O4 NPs with 3-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane (3-APTES), Trisodium citrare (TSC) and Chitosan were synthesized with the co-precipitation method. Structural characterizations showed that the four kinds of NPs had different sizes an average particle range size of 15-20 nm was observed with Transmission Electron Microscopy. X-ray diffraction was used to identify the crystalline structure of synthesized Fe3O4 and surface modified NPs. Molecular structure and functional groups present in synthesized magnetic NPs Fe3O4 were identify with infrared analysis. The synthesized Fe3O4 NPs and surface coated NPs were used for determine the binding capacity of Arsenic ions from the synthetic groundwater. The binding of As(III) increased as the dissolved As(III) concentration increased in the solution. From the experiments it was found chitosan-coated NPs are best than other coated and uncoated NPs for arsenite removal from the solution. It was found that if only As(III) ions were present in the water without other anions and cations the binding capacity of the magnetic NPs is very high. The binding capacity of As ions was decreased with presence of other anions and cations in the groundwater because they interfere with arsenic binding sites which presence on the magnetic NPs.

  • 82. Lehning, Michael
    et al.
    Voelksch, Ingo
    Gustafsson, David
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Nguyen, Tuan Anh
    Staehli, Manfred
    Zappa, Massimiliano
    ALPINE3D: a detailed model of mountain surface processes and its application to snow hydrology2006In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 20, no 10, p. 2111-2128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current models of snow cover distribution, soil moisture. surface runoff and river discharge typically have very simple parameterizations of surface processes, such as degree-day factors or single-layer snow cover representation. For the purpose of reproducing catchment runoff, simple snowmelt routines have proven to be accurate, provided that they are carefully calibrated specifically for the catchment they are applied to. The use of more detailed models is, however. useful to understand and quantify the role of individual surface processes for catchment hydrology, snow cover status and soil moisture distribution. We introduce ALPINE3D, a model for the high-resolution simulation of alpine surface processes. in particular snow processes. The model can be driven by measurements from automatic weather stations or by meteorological model outputs. As a preprocessing alternative, specific high-resolution meteorological fields can be created by running a meteorological model. The core three-dimensional ALPINE3D modules consist of a radiation balance model (which uses a view-factor approach and includes shortwave scattering and Ion-wave emission from terrain and tall vegetation) and a drifting snow model solving a diffusion equation for suspended snow and a saltation transport equation. The processes in the atmosphere are thus treated in three dimensions and are coupled to a distributed (in the hydrological sense of having a spatial representation of the catchment properties) one-dimensional model of vegetation, snow and soil (SNOWPACK) using the assumption that lateral exchange is small in these media. The model is completed by a conceptual runoff module. The model can be run with a choice of modules, thus generating more or less detailed surface forcing data as input for runoff generation simulations. The model modules can be run in a parallel (distributed) mode using a GRID infrastructure to allow computationally demanding tasks. In a case study from the Dischma Valley in eastern Switzerland, we demonstrate that the model is able to simulate snow distribution as seen from a NOAA advanced very high-resolution radiometer image. We then analyse the sensitivity of simulated snow cover distribution and catchment runoff to the use of different surface process descriptions. We compare model runoff simulations with runoff data from 10 consecutive years. The quantitative analysis shows that terrain influence on the radiation processes has a significant influence on catchment hydrology dynamics. Neglecting the role of vegetation and the spatial variability of the soil, on the other hand, had a much smaller influence on the runoff generation dynamics. We conclude that ALPINE3D is a valuable tool to investigate surface dynamics in mountains. It is currently used to investigate snow cover dynamics for avalanche warning and permafrost development and vegetation changes under climate change scenarios. It could also serve to test the output of simpler soil - vegetation - atmosphere transfer schemes used in larger scale climate or meteorological models and to create accurate soil moisture assessments for meteorological and flood forecasting.

  • 83.
    Lind, Bo
    et al.
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute, SGI.
    Larsson, L.
    Gustafsson, Jon-Petter
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Gustafsson, David
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Physics.
    Ohlsson, Susanna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Norrman, J.
    Arvidsson, O.
    Arm, M.
    Energiaska som vägbyggnadsmaterial - utlakning och miljöbelastning från en provväg2005Report (Other academic)
  • 84. Linde, Mats
    et al.
    Oborn, Ingrid
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Effects of changed soil conditions on the mobility of trace metals in moderately contaminated urban soils2007In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 183, no 04-jan, p. 69-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in the soil chemical environment can be expected to increase the leaching of trace metals bound in soils. In this study the mobility of trace metals was monitored in a column experiment for two contaminated urban soils. Four different treatments were used (i.e. rain, acid rain, salt and bark). Leachates were analysed for pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and for seven trace metals (cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn)). The salt treatment produced the lowest pH values (between 5 and 6) in the effluent whereas the DOC concentration was largest in the bark treatment (40-140 mg L-1) and smallest in the salt and acid treatments (7-40 mg L-1). Cadmium, Ni and Zn were mainly mobilised in the salt treatment, whereas the bark treatments produced the highest concentrations of Cu and Pb. The concentrations of Cu, Cr, and Hg were strongly correlated with DOC (r(2) = 0.90, 0.91 and 0.96, respectively). A multi-surface geochemical model (SHM-DLM) produced values for metal dissolution that were usually of the correct magnitude. For Pb, however, the model was not successful indicating that the retention of this metal was stronger than assumed in the model. For all metals, the SHM-DLM model predicted that soil organic matter was the most important sorbent, although for Pb and Cr(III) ferrihydrite was also important and accounted for between 15 and 50% of the binding. The results confirm the central role of DOC for the mobilization of Cu, Cr, Hg and Pb in contaminated soils.

  • 85. Löfgren, Stefan
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Bringmark, Lage
    Decreasing DOC trends in soil solution along the hillslopes at two IM sites in southern Sweden: Geochemical modeling of organic matter solubility during acidification recovery2010In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 409, no 1, p. 201-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous studies report increased concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) during the last two decades in boreal lakes and streams in Europe and North America Recently a hypothesis was presented on how various spatial and temporal factors affect the DOC dynamics It was concluded that declining sulphur deposition and thereby increased DOC solubility is the most important driver for the long-term DOC concentration trends in surface waters If this recovery hypothesis is correct the DOC levels should increase both in the soil solution as well as in the surrounding surface waters as soil pH rises and the ionic strength declines due to the reduced input of SO42- ions In this project a geochemical model was set up to calculate the net humic charge and DOC solubility trends in soils during the period 1996-2007 at two integrated monitoring sites in southern Sweden showing clear signs of acidification recovery The Stockholm Humic Model was used to investigate whether the observed DOC solubility is related to the humic charge and to examine how pH and ionic strength influence it Soil water data from recharge and discharge areas covering both podzols and riparian soils were used The model exercise showed that the increased net charge following the pH increase was in many cases counteracted by a decreased ionic strength, which acted to decrease the net charge and hence the DOC solubility Thus the recovery from acidification does not necessarily have to generate increasing DOC trends in soil solution Depending on changes in pH ionic strength and soil Al pools the trends might be positive negative or indifferent Due to the high hydraulic connectivity with the streams the explanations to the DOC trends in surface waters should be searched for in discharge areas and peat lands.

  • 86.
    Löv, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    MODELING THE AQUEOUS CHEMISTRY OF URANIUM – ON A NATIONAL LEVEL IN SWEDEN2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden 1.2 million people rely on private wells; 800 000 of these use drilled wells. Elevated concentrations of radionuclides in the drinking water have been a long-term problem in Sweden. The well owners are not aware of the risk of elevated concentrations of radionuclides, nor do they have knowledge concerning if their particular well has elevated concentrations. In the survey initiated in 2001 by the

    Swedish Geological Survey (SGU) and Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) it was discovered that 17 % of the private drilled wells exceeded the Swedish guideline value of uranium; which is 15 μg/l, and 2 % had a uranium concentration beyond 100 μg/l. There are several methods available to reduce the uranium content in drinking water, though many of these methods are based on the charge of the uranium species. Knowing the speciation of uranium will rationalize the treatment for uranium, thus justifies the goal of this study, which is; to model the chemistry of uranium in private drilled wells, using Visual MINTEQ 3.0 and attempt to find a correlation of the bedrock source of water, using ArcGIS 10.0. It was discovered that the U-DOM species predominates in the acidic waters (pH < 7) and Ca-carbonates in the alkaline waters (pH > 7). Hydroxides are also a major species formed; these complexes predominate around pH ≈ 7. It was also affirmed that the physical parameters such as pH, pCO2 and the introduction of DOM, affects the outcome of the model noticeably. The pH value is the only parameter which has a correlation to all the species formed. The other factor acknowledged to influence it is the pCO2 applied. The outcome of the model can be regarded as reliable, and is in agreement with what previous studies has shown. No correlation could be interpreted between the results and the bedrock source nor was any spatial trend observed.

  • 87.
    Mahanta, C.
    et al.
    Indian Inst Technol, Dept Civil Engn, Gauhati 781039, India..
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology. KTH, Royal Inst Technol, Dept Land & Water Resources Engn, KTH Int Groundwater Arsen Res Grp, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Nath, Bibhas
    Univ Sydney, Sch Geosci, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia..
    Sailo, L.
    Indian Inst Technol, Dept Civil Engn, Gauhati 781039, India..
    Geochemical evidences in the release processes of Arsenic into the groundwater in a part of Brahmaputra Floodplains2012In: METALS AND RELATED SUBSTANCES IN DRINKING WATER / [ed] Bhattacharya, P Rosborg, I Sandhi, A Hayes, C Benoliel, MJ, IWA PUBLISHING , 2012, p. 268-271Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To understand the sources and mobilization processes responsible for arsenic enrichment in groundwater in the Brahmaputra Basin where higher arsenic concentration have been reported, the geochemical features of the aquifer sediments were studied. Six boreholes were drilled near the tubewells (1 and 2) where aqueous arsenic concentration varies between 250 - 350 mu g/l. The soil sediment was collected at 3 m (10 ft) interval and it was drilled to the depth of 45 m (150 ft) which is the common depth of the tubewell installed in the study area. The bulk chemical studies on the sediments show that the pH of soils varies from 4.2 to 5.2 with a mean value of 4.75. The groundwater composition in the study area is of Na-HCO3-. The major anions HCO3- is likely from the decomposition of organic matter and originates from weathering of silicate and calcite minerals by atmospheric or respired CO2. Selective sequential extraction (SSE) method proposed by Wenzel et al., (2001) for extraction of arsenic from soil was used. Results of sequential extraction experiment show that solid-phase arsenic is present predominantly in the reducible fraction (Ext_5 and Ext_6), and residual fraction (Ext_7) contributes to highest fraction in many soil sediment. The major processes of arsenic mobilization probably linked to desorption of As from Fe oxides/oxyhydroxides and the reductive dissolution of Fe rich phases in the aquifers sediments under reducing and alkaline conditions.

  • 88.
    Maity, Jyoti Prakash
    et al.
    Natl Chung Cheng Univ, Dept Earth & Environm Sci, Chiayi 621, Taiwan..
    Chen, Chien-Yen
    Natl Chung Cheng Univ, Dept Earth & Environm Sci, Chiayi 621, Taiwan..
    Nath, Bibhash
    Univ Sydney, Sch Geosci, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    Natl Cheng Kung Univ, Dept Earth Sci, Tainan, Taiwan..
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology. Royal Inst Technol KTH, Dept Land & Water Resources Engn, KTH Int Groundwater Arsen Res Grp, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Geothermal arsenic in Taiwan: Geochemistry and microbial diversity2012In: UNDERSTANDING THE GEOLOGICAL AND MEDICAL INTERFACE OF ARSENIC, AS 2012 / [ed] Ng, JC Noller, BN Naidu, R Bundschuh, J Bhattacharya, P, CRC PRESS-TAYLOR & FRANCIS GROUP , 2012, p. 483-485Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study describes the fluid chemical compositions and related microbial diversity in geothermal systems of Taiwan. The fluid samples were collected from several geothermal springs located in northern and southern Taiwan. The pH values of the fluids showed diverse character of the geothermal systems, some are acidic in nature while few showed alkaline in nature. The fluids also contain high arsenic concentrations with As(III) as the dominant species. Yang-Ming-Shan and Beitou hot springs in northern Taiwan were characterized by sulfur spring type (contains H-SO4). The 16S rRNA gene sequence of microbial community indicated the presence of thiosulfate-oxidizing, alkaliphilic, psychrotolerant and chemo-organoheterotrophy bacterium such as Limnobacter thiooxidans, Clostridium sulfidigenes and Desulfovibrio psychrotolerans, respectively.

  • 89. Maity, Jyoti Prakash
    et al.
    Nath, Bibhash
    Chen, Chien-Yen
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Sracek, Ondra
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Kar, Sandeep
    Thunvik, Roger
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Chatterjee, Debashis
    Ahmed, Kazi Matin
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Mukherjee, Arun B.
    Jean, Jiin-Shuh
    Arsenic-enriched groundwaters of India, Bangladesh and Taiwan-Comparison of hydrochemical characteristics and mobility constraints2011In: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A: Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering, ISSN 1093-4529, E-ISSN 1532-4117, Vol. 46, no 11, p. 1163-1176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Arsenic (As) enrichment in groundwater has become a major global environmental disaster. Groundwater samples were collected from 64 sites located in the districts of 24-Parganas (S), and Nadia in West Bengal, India (Bhagirathi sub-basin), and 51 sites located in the districts of Comilla, Noakhali, Magura, Brahman baria, Laxmipur, Munshiganj, Faridpur and Jhenaida in Bangladesh (Padma-Meghna sub-basin). Groundwater samples were also collected from two As-affected areas (Chianan and Lanyang plains) of Taiwan (n = 26). The concentrations of major solutes in groundwater of the Padma-Meghna sub-basin are more variable than the Bhagirathi sub-basin, suggesting variations in the depositional and hydrological settings. Arsenic concentrations in groundwaters of the studied areas showed large variations, with mean As concentrations of 125 mu g/L (range: 0.20 to 1,301 mu g/L) in Bhagirathi sub-basin, 145 mu g/L (range: 0.20 to 891 mu g/L) in Padma-Meghna sub-basin, 209 mu g/L (range: 1.3 to 575 mu g/L) in Chianan plain, and 102 mu g/L (range: 2.5 to 348 mu g/L) in Lanyang plain groundwater. The concentrations of Fe, and Mn are also highly variable, and are mostly above the WHO-recommended guideline values and local (Indian and Bangladeshi) drinking water standard. Piper plot shows that groundwaters of both Bhagirathi and Padma-Meghna sub-basins are of Ca-HCO(3) type. The Chianan plain groundwaters are of Na-Cl type, suggesting seawater intrusion, whereas Lanyang plain groundwaters are mostly of Na-HCO(3) type. The study shows that reductive dissolution of Fe(III)-oxyhydroxides is the dominant geochemical process releasing As from sediment to groundwater in all studied areas.

  • 90. Mazumder, D. N. G.
    et al.
    Steinmaus, C.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    von Ehrenstein, O. S.
    Ghosh, N.
    Gotway, M.
    Sil, A.
    Balmes, J. R.
    Haque, R.
    Hira-Smith, M. M.
    Smith, A. H.
    Bronchiectasis in persons with skin lesions resulting from arsenic in drinking water2005In: Epidemiology, ISSN 1044-3983, E-ISSN 1531-5487, Vol. 16, no 6, p. 760-765Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Arsenic is a unique human carcinogen in that it causes lung cancer by exposure through ingestion (in drinking water) as well as through inhalation. Less is known about nonmalignant pulmonary disease after exposure to arsenic in drinking water. Methods: We recruited 108 subjects with arsenic-caused skin lesions and 150 subjects without lesions from a population survey of over 7000 people in an arsenic-exposed region in West Bengal, India. Thirty-eight study participants who reported at least 2 years of chronic cough underwent high-resolution computed tomography (CT); these scans were read by investigators in India and the United States without knowledge of the presence or absence of skin lesions. Results: The mean ( +/- standard deviation) bronchiectasis severity score was 3.4 ( +/- 3.6) in the 27 participants with skin lesions and 0.9 ( +/- 1.6) in the 11 participants without these lesions. In subjects who reported chronic cough, CT evidence of bronchiectasis was found in 18 (67%) participants with skin lesions and 3 (27%) subjects without skin lesions. Overall, subjects with arsenic-caused skin lesions had a 10-fold increased prevalence of bronchiectasis compared with subjects who did not have skin lesions (adjusted odds ratio = 10; 95% confidence interval = 2.7-37). Conclusions: These results suggest that, in addition to being a cause of lung cancer, ingestion of high concentrations of arsenic in drinking water may be a cause of bronchiectasis.

  • 91. McConville, Jennifer
    et al.
    Kain, Jaan-Henrik
    Kvarnström, Elisabeth
    Renman, Gunno
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Bridging sanitation engineering and planning: theory and practice in Burkina Faso2011In: Journal of Water Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, ISSN 2043-9083, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 205-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The global challenge of providing sanitation services to the un-served underlines a need to change the way in which sanitation planning and service provision is approached. This paper offers a framework for categorizing sanitation projects planning processes based on planning steps and procedural planning theory to help engineers and sanitation planners gain a deeper understanding of the dynamics of these processes. The analysis identifies and discusses trends in both guidelines and actual sanitation programs. The results show that contemporary sanitation planning guidelines and field projects utilize patchwork processes of different planning modes, although the step of designing options is dominated by an expert-driven, rational-comprehensive approach. The use of planning theory can help engineers to ask critical questions about the objectives of the planning process and to develop context-appropriate planning processes that will make a difference for improving sanitation service provision.

  • 92. Mellander, P. E.
    et al.
    Stahli, M.
    Gustafsson, David
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Bishop, K.
    Modelling the effect of low soil temperatures on transpiration by Scots pine2006In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 20, no 9, p. 1929-1944Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For ecosystem modelling of the Boreal forest it is important to include processes associated with low soil temperature during spring-early summer, as these affect the tree water uptake. The COUP model, a physically based SVAT model, was tested with 2 years of soil and snow physical measurements and sap flow measurements in a 70-year-old Scots pine stand in the boreal zone of northern Sweden. During the first year the extent and duration of soil frost was manipulated in the field. The model was successful in reproducing the timing of the soil warming after the snowmelt and frost thaw. A delayed soil warming, into the growing season, severely reduced the transpiration. We demonstrated the potential for considerable overestimation of transpiration by the model if the reduction of the trees' capacity to transpire due to low soil temperatures is not taken into account. We also demonstrated that the accumulated effect of aboveground conditions could be included when simulating the relationship between soil temperature and tree water uptake. This improved the estimated transpiration for the control plot and when soil warming was delayed into the growing season. The study illustrates the need of including antecedent conditions on root growth in the model in order to catch these effects on transpiration. The COUP model is a promising tool for predicting transpiration in high-latitude stands.

  • 93.
    Miskovsky, Karel
    et al.
    Envix Nord AB.
    Löfgren, Ola
    Lövgren, Lars
    Umeå Universitet.
    Filipsson, Magnus
    Boliden AB.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    The resurrection of a biologically dead lake: a case study from northern Sweden2012In: Heavy Metals in the Environment: Selected Papers from the ICHMET-15 Conference / [ed] Jerome Nriagu, The Netherlands: Maralte Publishers , 2012Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A major release of heavy metals to surface water in Sweden is derived from oxidation of sulfidic waste sand and waste rock. The Lake Hornträsket in Northern Sweden has experienced a gradual loss of fish over the last three decades caused by leaching from abandoned zinc–copper mines. In 2002, a semi-quantitative budget was brought forward which indicated one of three abandoned zinc–copper mines as the major source of metals to the lake. Copper has been identified as the main toxicant and the proximity of the Hornträsk mine to the lake allows little retention of copper before the drainage water reaches the lake. Several remediation measures such as diversion of drainage from upstream unpolluted areas and neutralization of the coarse sulfidic waste rock by injection and sprinkling with mesa-chalk (a waste product from paper mills) have been tested and found to be partially successful. This has resulted in decreasing levels of heavy metals in the lake and notably of copper concentrations. It has been found necessary to remove sulfide ore from some hot spots that could be identified by groundwater analysis from a dense network of piezometers. It is expected that the fish population will recover in 5–6 years as a result of the remediation.

  • 94.
    Mkumbo, Stalin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Development of a Low Cost Remediation Method for Heavy Metal Polluted Soil2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    High concentrations of heavy metals in the soils have potential long-term environmental and health concerns because of their persistence and accumulation tendency in the environment and along the food chain. This study was aimed at studying the feasibility of heavy metals removal from the soil using plants naturally growing in the surroundings of selected polluted sites in Tanzania and soil application of the sorbent materials zeolite and autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC). The results showed that

    Sporobolus sp. is a hyperaccumulator of Cu. Four other species, Launea cornuta (Oliv & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Tagetes minuta (L.), Sporobolus sp. and Blotiella glabra (Bory) Tryon showed high potential for phytoextraction of Cu. No hyperaccumulators of Pb and Zn were identified in the area, but Tephrosia candida and Tagetes minuta (L.) were identified as potential plants for phytoextraction of Pb, while Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronquist, Launea cornuta (Oliv & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Tagetes minuta (L.), Blotiella glabra (Bory) Tryon, Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kulm and Polygonum setogulum A. Rich were identified as potential plants for phytoextraction of Zn. The result from sorbent experiments showed that both materials had a potential for remediating metal polluted soils. The AAC had a higher removal capacity for both Zn and Pb than zeolite. The removal capacity of zeolite and AAC in a mixed metal experiment (Pb and Zn) showed a little difference in the sorption capacity of AAC and Zeolite for Pb and Zn respectively. Speciation of the metal in soil shows that the major part of the metal was associated with firmly attached component of the metal in the soil. Compared with the total metal concentration analysed, the available component accounted for 13-39% for Zn and 31-39% for Pb. It can be suggested to co-remediate polluted soils using reactive sorbent nodules and hyper-accumulating plant species. Identification of the best combinations and designs remains the subject of future research.

  • 95.
    Mkumbo, Stalin
    et al.
    ARDHI University, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Mwegoha, W
    ARDHI University, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Renman, Gunno
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Assessment of the phytoremediation potential for Pb, Zn and Cu of indigenous plants growing in a gold mining area in Tanzania2012In: International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, ISSN 0377-015X, E-ISSN 2320-5199, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 2425-2434Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phytoremediation of soil has attracted much attention in recent years due to its multiple advantages such as maintaining the biological activity and physical structure of soils, being potentially inexpensive and visually unobtrusive, and providing the possibility of biorecovery of metals. Identification of native species for phytoremediation is a key to the success of the method. This study sought to identify plant species with potential for phytoremediation of soils polluted with lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu). Soil and plants were collected and analysed for total metal concentration. Soil metal content range (mg kg-1) was 29.64-3457 for Pb, 37.53-6544.2 for Zn and 30.7-3625 for Cu. Of 19 plant species analysed, Sporobolus sp. proved to be a hyperaccumulator of Cu, Launea cornuta (Oliv & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Tagetes minuta (L.) and Blotiella glabra (Bory) Tryon showed high potential for phytoextraction of Cu, and Dioscorea spp. (yam) and Stylochaeton natalensis Schott showed high potential for phytostabilisation of Cu. No hyperaccumulators of Pb and Zn were identified in the area, but Tephrosia candida and Tagetes minuta (L.) were identified as potential plants for phytoextraction of Pb and Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronquist, Launea cornuta (Oliv & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Tagetes minuta L.), Blotiella glabra (Bory) Tryon, Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kulm and Polygonum setogulum A. Rich as potential plants for phytoextraction of Zn. Sphaeranthus africanus (L.) and Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kulm showed potential for phytostabilisation of Pb and Stylochaeton natalensis Schott for phytostabilisation of Zn.

  • 96.
    Mozumder, Rajib Hassan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Aqueous Phase Geochemical Characterization and Delineation of Low Arsenic Aquifers in Matlab Upazila, SE Bangladesh.2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The fact that the former highstand whitish sediments of Plio-Pleistocene and lowstand off-white/red sediments of Late Pleistocene containing low As concentrations in the Bengal basin forms the premise for developing a color tool by the ‘Sustainable Arsenic Mitigation Project’ (SASMIT) to guide the local drillers of Matlab, SE Bangladesh, so that they can target low As aquifers. Groundwater samples collected from the black group of sediments representing a highly reducing environment contains very high concentrations of As, Fe2+ , NH4+, PO43-, HCO3–, and DOC and very low SO42- and Mn2+ concentrations; and vice-versa for the red/offwhite/white group of sediments, thus representing a less reducing condition. A very strong to good correlation between DOC with HCO3–, Astot, Fetot, NH4+, and PO43- and Astot with HCO3–, Fetot, and NH4+ within the black group of samples indicate that, oxidation of organic matter is driving all the redox reactions and thereby releasing As in solution. On the contrary, in the case of red/off-white groups of samples, all the aforementioned correlations are poor to negative, reflecting that water samples collected from these sediments are low in organic content, presumably due to weathering of these sediments during the last glacial lowstand and subsequent flushing. Furthermore, negative correlation between Astot with Mn2+ and SO42- in all groups of samples indicating that mobilization of As is neither related to dissolution of Mn-oxyhydroxides, nor to oxidation of sulfide minerals in the study site. Speciation modeling results show that water samples derived from the back sediments are supersaturated with respect to siderite and vivianite, while near-equilibrium for white and under-saturated for off-white/red groups of samples. Though all the four groups of samples are slightly under-saturated with respect to the mineral phase rhodochrosite, groundwater is supersaturated with respect to hydroxiapatite and MnHPO4. Three aquifers (Af1, Af2, Af3) intervened by two aquitards (At2, At3) have been identified in the study area. The shallow aquifer (Af1) extending up to a depth of about 40 to 50 meters b.g.l. consisting of black sediments is characterized by mainly Ca-Mg-HCO3 water-type and water-level fluctuation of about 3 – 4 meters. The intermediate aquifer (Af2) consisting of red/off-white/white sediments underlying At2 is characterized by primarily Na–Ca–Cl water-type and groundwater fluctuation of about ≈ 5 m, indicating water from this aquifer is used for irrigation also. Since well installation in the low As deep aquifer (Af3) consisted of mainly white sediments is costly, the intermediate aquifer (Af2) is the best option to be explored by the local drillers. The occurrence of the red/off-white sediments are primarily limited to the SE half of the study area because of low preservation potential of the red/off-white LST (Lowstand Systems Tracts) deposits, may be due to raivement erosion and aggradation of TST (Transgressive Systems Tracts) and recent HST (Highstand Systems Tracts) deposits. Depth-specific spatial distribution of lithofacies indicates that installation of wells at a depth of about 70 m b.g.l. anywhere in the SE half of the study area would most likely yield low As groundwater.

  • 97. Mukherjee, Abhijit
    et al.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Savage, Kaye
    Foster, Andrea
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    Distribution of geogenic arsenic in hydrologic systems: Controls and challenges2008In: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, ISSN 0169-7722, E-ISSN 1873-6009, Vol. 99, no 1-4, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of elevated concentration of arsenic (As) in natural hydrologic systems is regarded as the most formidable environmental crisis in the contemporary world. With its substantial presence in the drinking water of more than thirty countries worldwide, and with an affected population of more than 100 million, it has been termed as the largest mass poisoning in human history. In this special issue, we have tried to provide the most recent research advances on controls and challenges of this severe groundwater contaminant. The articles in this issue, originally presented in the 2006 Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, address the distribution of As in various geologic and geographic settings, the controls of redox and other geochemical parameters on its spatial and temporal variability, the influence of sedimentology and stratigraphy on its occurrence, and mechanisms controlling its mobility. The knowledge available from these studies should provide a roadmap for future research in arsenic contamination hydrology.

  • 98.
    Mukherjee, Abhijit,
    et al.
    Department of Geology and Geophysics, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Kharagpur, 721302, India.
    Fryar, Alan E.
    & Environmental Sciences, University of Kentucky, 101 Slone Building, Lexington, KY 40506-0053.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Regional to local-scale extent and controls on existence of deeper groundwater arsenic in western parts of the Bengal basin2010In: The Geological Society of America, Abstracts with Programs, 2010, p. 550-551Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 99. Mukherjee, Abhijit
    et al.
    von Broemssen, Mattias
    Scanlon, Bridget R.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Fryar, Alan E.
    Hasan, Md Aziz
    Ahmed, Kazi Matin
    Chatterjee, Debashis
    Jacks, Gunnar
    Sracek, Ondra
    Hydrogeochemical comparison and effects of overlapping redox zones on groundwater arsenic near the Western (Bhagirathi sub-basin, India) and Eastern (Meghna sub-basin, Bangladesh) margins of the Bengal Basin2008In: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, ISSN 0169-7722, E-ISSN 1873-6009, Vol. 99, no 1-4, p. 31-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although arsenic (As) contamination of groundwater in the Bengal Basin has received wide attention over the past decade, comparative studies of hydrogeochemistry in geologically different sub-basins within the basin have been lacking. Groundwater samples were collected from sub-basins in the western margin (River Bhagirathi sub-basin, Nadia, India; 90 samples) and eastern margin (River Meghna sub-basin; Brahmanbaria, Bangladesh; 35 samples) of the Bengal Basin. Groundwater in the western site (Nadia) has mostly Ca-HCO3 water while that in the eastern site (Brahmanbaria) is much more variable consisting of at least six different facies. The two sites show differences in major and minor solute trends indicating varying pathways of hydrogeochemical evolution However, both sites have similar reducing, postoxic environments, (p(e): +5 to -2) with high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon, indicating dominantly metal-reducing processes and similarity in As mobilization mechanism. The trends of SO42- various redox-sensitive solutes (e.g. As, CH4, Fe, Mn, NO3-, NH4+, SO42-) indicate overlapping redox zones, leading to partial redox equilibrium conditions where As, once liberated from source minerals, would tend to remain in solution because of the complex interplay among the electron acceptors.

  • 100. Mukherjee, Arun B.
    et al.
    Zevenhoven, Ron
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Sajwand, Kenneth S.
    Kikuchi, Ryunosuke
    Mercury flow via coal and coal utilization by-products: A global perspective2008In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 52, no 4, p. 571-591Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mercury (Hg) has been known to society and used since ancient times. The metal has drawn considerable attention and concern due to its toxicity, persistence, bioaccumulation and long range transport in the atmosphere after emission from coal-fired utilities as well various other high temperature processes. Coal is an important fuel for the production of heat and electricity and in recent years annual hard coal production has approached a level of around 5000 million metric tonnes (Mt, t = 1000 kg). Global Hg flows via coal and coal utilization by-products (CUBs) are presented in this paper, which are important in light of the regulations to limit the global emissions of Hg and its cycling as well as its circulation via coal and the CUBs. There are no detailed statistics on the global production and consumption of coal fly ash (FA) and in this study, we have estimated the total global FA production for the year 2003 based on ash content in coals and typical flue gas control technology for pulverized coal combustion. The mode of occurrence and concentration of Hg in coal and coal FA for different countries have been evaluated and presented in this study. The total Hg amount in coals processed worldwide was found to be 1534 t in 2003 based on a global average concentration of 0.3 mg/kg in coal. In addition, "hidden" flows of Hg through export and import of coal assessed during this study, add up to about 149 t. In this study, the economic uses of the FA in different sectors such as cement industry, agriculture, land reclamation, filers for asphalt, plastic and many others have been discussed in details. However, there is not much information on uses of coal FA in the developing countries. In the final part of the paper, a short survey has been focused on a few coal producing countries including Australia, China, EU-states, India, Japan, Korea, Russia, South Africa and South American countries, addressing the status of coal and coal FA use and the fate of the Hg that is mobilized.

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