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  • 51.
    Gómez, Maria F.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Rural electrification of the Brazilian Amazon - Achievements and lessons2010In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 38, no 10, p. 6251-6260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Brazilian government has the ambition to provide complete electricity coverage for all citizens as a means to promote development and reduce inequalities. Full coverage implies the provision of electricity to 15 million people in the country by the end of 2010 through the program Luz para Todos (LPT - light for all) launched in 2003. So far, 11 million people have benefited, 2 million of which live in the Amazon. In this paper, we analyze the linkages between development and rural electrification through the Human Development Index (HDI) and within the context of the Amazon. We examine the suitability of the HDI as a planning and monitoring tool for improving energy access and development. We show that the recognition of electricity access as a driver for development has led to concrete goals for electrification, actual action and welfare improvement. Our study serves to highlight the role of LPT in the development of the Amazon region, and the specific features and achievements of the Brazilian policy for universal electrification. We conclude that some challenges related to the electrification of isolated areas still lie ahead. We finalize with a discussion on the relevance of the Brazilian experience to other developing countries.

  • 52.
    Gómez, Maria F.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    The Brazilian electrification program LPT (Light for All) – what lessons have been learnt?2010In: Renewable Energy for Development, ISSN 1101-8267, Vol. 23, no 1-2, p. 1-2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Brazilian government aims to provide complete electricity coverage for all citizens as a means to promote development. Between 2003 and 2009, 11 million people have benefited from the electrification program Light for All (LPT). The success of policies for electricity access cannot be measured only in terms of the number of connections. Instead, the impact of electrification on development must be determined as a way to justify resource allocation and confirm welfare improvement. Although two million people have been connected through grid extension, one million inhabitants still lack electricity access in the Amazon. The results of LPT can be considered a great achievement for a nation that has recently been considered as a developing country. However, one million people still lack electricity in the Amazon. Other challenges ahead include concerns on the economic and social sustainability of the electrification system being put in place.

  • 53.
    Gómez, Maria F.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    The institutional dimension for off-grid rural electrification in the Amazon region2011In: World Renewable Energy Congress – Sweden, 8–13 May, 2011, Linköping, Sweden / [ed] Moshfegh, Bahram, Linköping University Electronic Press, Linköpings universitet , 2011, p. 3444-3451Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Brazilian government aims at providing complete electricity coverage for all citizens as a means to achieve development and reduce poverty. More than 2 million people living in the Amazon have benefited from the rural electrification program Luz Para Todos (LPT – Light for all), mainly through a grid-extension approach. Yet, there is general agreement on the need for an off-grid scheme in order to supply isolated areas. How can the actual institutional framework support the process of supplying electricity to these communities so that the trend of improving electricity access and quality of life continues? We aim at exploring the existing institutional dimension connected to LPT and identifying potential forms of organization for decentralized solutions in the Amazon region. Our analysis is based on current energy policy in Brazil, existing institutional framework, achievements of LPT and potentialities of the isolated areas in terms of resources. Our conclusions draw attention to potential approaches for the next step within LPT context. We argue that the off-grid approach must be based on the uniqueness of the isolated areas in the Amazon. We emphasize the relevance of renewable energy sources in the process of supplying electricity and securing inclusion of isolated areas in universal access.

  • 54.
    Gómez, Maria F.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    The last mile in the Brazilian Amazon - A potential pathway for universal electricity access2015In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 82, p. 23-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Brazilian rural electrification initiative Luz Para Todos - LPT (Light for All) has attracted attention internationally due to its ambitious targets and significant achievements in the last decade. The initiative has proved effective in its first phase, which has been developed through the extension of the grid. Yet, there are still important challenges to provide the service to inhabitants of remote areas in the Brazilian Amazon. We identify these challenges within institutional, technology, and funding structures operating within LPT. In line with these challenges, we propose a pathway to facilitate the achievement of universal electricity access in remote areas of the region. The proposed pathway is based on three key leverage points: (i) rules guiding the relationship among new agents and communities; (ii) the implementation of small-scale power generation technologies based on local resources; and (iii) optimized subsidies. It has the potential to allow (i) a better dimensioning of off-grid solutions considering local resources and realities, (ii) the creation of adapted institutions capable of implementing and operating the required systems and, (iii) an effective operation of off-grid solutions.

  • 55.
    Gómez, Maria F
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    What is the role of renewable energy in the sustainable development of remote areas of the Amazon Region?2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 56.
    Gómez, Maria F
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Téllez, A.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Exploring the effect of subsidies on small-scale renewable energy solutions in the Brazilian Amazon2015In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 83, p. 1200-1214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Brazilian government aims at universal electricity access. The national rural electrification initiative has provided electricity services to more than 14 million people since 2003, mainly through grid extension. However, the initiative has not been able to reach remote areas in the Amazon, thus requiring a review of conditions for small scale off-grid power generation projects. As a result, new rules established under the national rural electrification program address the design and implementation of off-grid power generation projects with an installed capacity up to 100kW. The objective of this paper is to explore the effects of the new set of rules on the levelized cost of electricity for different power generation solutions in the Amazon. Our study shows that the new rules may be beneficial to isolated communities, as they reduce the levelized cost of electricity, favor renewable energy technologies and may contribute to reduce CO2 emissions. In addition, the new rules may help engage new actors to provide rural electrification of the Amazon region. To fully take advantage of the current scheme, action at local level is required to define the most appropriate model for small-scale power generation projects and establish synergies between concessionaires and local energy providers.

  • 57.
    Hajjar, Joseph
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    How to reach a better consideration of physical limits in energy policies design?2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     The energy system is today facing a major double issue: the shrinking of easily accessible and cheap fossil resources on the upstream side, and climate change on the downstream side. Energy policies must integrate this double physical constraint, as well as other physical limits, and have a long time and a global horizon, in order to anticipate and avoid a future energy and climate crisis that could be dramatic to society. However, politics tend to focus on other aspects (satisfying immediate social desires for instance).This report hence discusses options available to allow for a better consideration of physical constraints in energy policies design. As they strongly rely on energy scenarios, it appears that energy policy makers need a more transparent and didactic frame for scenario design and analysis. That is why The Shift Project has been developing an original, transparent and pedagogical energy scenario modeling tool, Rogeaulito, which is intended to highlight physical constraints. By developing narratives (quantified stories) and organizing and animating workshops with policy makers, using Rogeaulito, it is possible to convey messages and knowledge about the energy system and issues, and improve the policy making process. Nevertheless, policy makers remain subject to socio-political influences and to self-interest concerns, which can prevent them from making socially optimal choices on the long term. Therefore, the civil society as a whole must be included in a continuous and coherent debate to improve the common understanding of energy issues, of the (physical, cultural and psychological) obstacles to solving them and of concrete consequences of the possible choices. It will then be possible to give a democratic, legitimate and collaborative orientation to long term energy policies. At the end, it appears that a comprehensive and multidisciplinary approach, involving physics, environmental science, economics, technology, sociology, political science and psychology is required to finally produce energy policies appropriate in order to face the issues mentioned above.

  • 58.
    Hamwey, Robert
    et al.
    UNCTAD.
    Pacini, Henrique
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Assuncao, Lucas
    UNCTAD.
    Mapping Green Product Spaces of Nations2013In: Journal of Environment and Development, ISSN 1070-4965, E-ISSN 1552-5465, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 155-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As countries transition to a green economy, they will need to identify profitable entry points in which they can favorably compete with other nations in emerging green markets. Identifying and building supply capacity for commercially viable, competitive green product exports can be seen as a fundamental part of supporting green growth and sustainable development. Building on the product space model initially advanced by Hidalgo et al. in 2007, this article proposes a green product space methodology to map the export strengths of countries for a specified set of green products. The methodology does so by identifying green products for which a country is likely to be competitive in the world market based on export performance of related products. Results for Brazil are presented to illustrate the green product space methodology followed by a discussion of its limitations and potential contribution to industrial policy formulation to support emerging green sectors.

  • 59.
    Harahap, Fumi
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    An evaluation of biodiesel policies: The case of palm oil agro-industry in Indonesia2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Oil palm has flourished as an economically vital crop in Indonesia given its use in both food and non-food products (including biodiesel) for domestic and export markets. However, the expansion of oil palm plantations in Indonesia is controversial. While the crop generates fiscal earnings for the country, and regular income streams for farmers and companies, oil palm plantation expansion is claimed to cause deforestation, environmental degradation and biodiversity losses. At the same time, there is a national target to reduce GHG emissions from land use change and the production of palm oil. Climate change mitigation goals also include ambitious targets to blend biodiesel with fossil diesel in various economic sectors.

    This thesis looks at the palm oil agro-industry, from oil palm plantation to crude palm oil (CPO) production, and CPO based biodiesel production. It proposes a policy evaluation to verify policy implications in relation to the issue of land use allocation, and the poor profitability in palm oil biodiesel production. The overarching objective is to evaluate the effectiveness of prevailing policies used to promote the palm oil agro-industry for biodiesel production in Indonesia.

    The thesis is framed by policy research and ex-post policy evaluation. The focus is on the process of policy formulation and implementation, rather than outcome evaluation. Two specific analytical frameworks are used to answer the research questions while addressing the criteria of effectiveness in policy evaluation: (i) policy coherence analysis and (ii) life cycle cost analysis. Qualitative indicators are used to measure the coherence of biofuel policy with other sectoral policies (agriculture, climate and forestry) in relation to land allocation. Quantitative economic indicators are used to compare the costs and benefits of conventional palm oil biodiesel production with a biorefinery conceptual plant.

    There are valuable lessons to be learnt from this policy evaluation. The results indicate areas in which policy effectiveness can be improved. For land allocation, adjustments and improvements in policy formulation and implementation are crucial. Uncertainties when it comes to the allocation of land to meet multi sectoral policy goals are to be addressed by clarifying land use definitions and categories, which should be backed up by consistent land use definitions in various policy documents. The dual land classification presently applied should move towards a single land classification, linking actual landscape coverage and the legal status of the land. Policy information and guidance across sectoral policies should be compiled in a single database. Such a publicly available database would help enhance the efficiency of land allocation for multiple policy purposes. More importantly, the formulation of biodiesel policy has to engage various sectoral policies that compete for the same resources.

    The biorefinery conceptual plant allows the reduction of government subsidies, while also providing a pathway to enhance the use of renewable energy and reduce GHG emissions. Policies have been designed to enhance plant profits through the improved utilisation of biomass residues in the palm oil mill for energy generation and composting. However, the low implementation rate of policies indicates the need to improve the effectiveness of policy implementation, and therefore the need for better monitoring processes, and possibly more stringent consequences for non-compliance.

  • 60.
    Harahap, Fumi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA).
    Mesfun, Sennai
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Kraxner, Florian
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA).
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    The role of oil palm biomass to meet liquid biofuels target in Indonesia2019In: Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems / [ed] Wojciech Stanek, Paweł Gładysz, Sebastian Werle, Wojciech Adamczyk, Poland, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Indonesia aims at reducing the dependence on oil import by liquid biofuels consumption (i.e., biodiesel and bio-ethanol) in industry, transport and power sectors. The palm oil industry has played significant role in the development of biodiesel in the country producing crude palm oil (CPO) and palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) based biodiesel. Opportunity exists for the industry to contribute to the development of bio-ethanol program by utilising the lignocellulosic biomass such as the empty fruit bunches (EFB). This study evaluates the potential of liquid biofuels production from oil palm biomass and the domestic demand for biofuels as per biofuel blending target set by the Indonesian government. The existing infrastructures as well as the investment opportunity of each type of biofuel are analyzed. While technology for biodiesel production is proven at large scale, the bio-ethanol production from EFB is not commercialized yet. The study shows that meeting the biodiesel blending target is at risk if Indonesia continues to solely reliance on the production of CPO and PFAD based biodiesel. Palm oil industry can produce nearly 7 billion litres biodiesel from CPO and PFAD in 2025 but the biodiesel domestic demand is 30% higher. The bio-ethanol program faces higher risk. EFB based ethanol through gasification and synthesis of alcohol can contribute to around 13% of the target in 2025, however the infrastructure is not ready yet. Feedstock diversification to produce liquid biofuels should be prioritized. We recommend a review of the current plan to a more achievable targets or prolong the timeline in order to secure domestic biofuels demand while continuing export. The study provides database for future modelling exercise on multi-period optimization study of palm biofuels supply chain in Indonesia in a geographically explicit way.

  • 61.
    Harahap, Fumi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA).
    Sennai, Mesfun
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA).
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Kraxner, Florian
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA).
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Opportunities to Optimize the Palm Oil Supply Chain in Sumatra, Indonesia2019In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 3, article id 420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Significant amounts of biomass residues were generated in Indonesia. While untreated, residues emit greenhouse gases during the decomposition process. On the other hand, if efficiently utilized, these residues could be used to produce value-added products. This study investigates opportunities for harnessing the full potential of palm oil residues (i.e., empty fruit bunches, kernel shells, fiber, and mill effluent). As far as we are aware, the study is the first attempt to model the palm oil supply chain in a geographically explicit way while considering regional infrastructures in Sumatra Island, Indonesia. The BeWhere model, a mixed integer linear programming model for energy system optimization, was used to assess the costs and benefits of optimizing the regional palm oil supply chain. Different scenarios were investigated, considering current policies and new practices leading to improved yields in small-scale plantations and power grid connectivity. The study shows that a more efficient palm oil supply chain can pave the way for the country to meet up to 50% of its national bioenergy targets by 2025, and emission reductions of up to 40 MtCO2eq/year. As much as 50% of the electricity demand in Sumatra could be met if residues are efficiently used and grid connections are available. We recommend that system improvements be done in stages. In the short to medium term, improving the smallholder plantation yield is the most optimal way to maximize regional economic gains from the palm oil industry. In the medium to long term, improving electricity grid connection to palm oil mills could bring higher economic value as excess electricity is commercialized.

  • 62.
    Harahap, Fumi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Palmén, Carl
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Conditions for a sustainable development of palm-oil-based biodiesel in Indonesia2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The government of Indonesia sees bioenergy as an attractive option to promote socio-economic development and improve energy security. Modernization of bioenergy can add value to existing resources and serve to meet increasing energy demand, as well as create jobs and reduce poverty. Policy efforts have given direction to this development, promoting biodiesel production and use. Indonesia is the largest palm oil producer and exporter in the world. At the same time, palm oil is the basis for both food and biodiesel production in the country. A 30% mandatory biodiesel blending target has been set for 2025. To meet the target, palm oil production needs to increase or palm oil diverted from other uses to produce biodiesel. In addition, the development of biodiesel will have to address environmental impacts, particularly land use change, and the dynamics of palm oil trade. Land allocation affects the development of the agro-industrial sector, and the capacity to deliver the mandatory targets. We investigate the land issue through a cross-sectoral analysis of four policy areas, i.e. renewable energy/biofuel, agriculture, climate and forestry. Our study examines the potential land available for biodiesel feedstock production and the potential yields that can be obtained. Preliminary results indicate that the blending target could be met from palm oil obtained from 5-7 Mha land after meeting palm oil domestic demand for food production and other industrial non-food uses. Degraded land could be used and thus no threat needs to be posed to food security, deforestation and climate change. However, to guarantee the sustainability of the development process, inconsistencies need to be addressed in the sectoral policies, areas suitable for plantation expansion need to be clearly mapped, conditions for exploration more strictly defined, and complementary policy instruments need to be put in place to promote schemes with enhanced yields and upgrading technologies over time. This research is part of the on-going program INSISTs (Indonesian Swedish Initiative for Sustainable Energy Solutions), a joint research and innovation platform established between Sweden and Indonesia. 

  • 63.
    Harahap, Fumi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Cost competitiveness of palm oil biodiesel production in Indonesia2019In: Energy Journal, ISSN 0195-6574, E-ISSN 1944-9089, Vol. 170, p. 62-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates opportunities to improve the cost competitiveness of the palm oil biodiesel industry in Indonesia. It compares costs and revenues of standalone conventional palm oil and biodiesel production with an integrated system that includes utilisation of biomass residues. Economic metrics, viz. net income, NPV, IRR, payback period and biodiesel breakeven price are evaluated. Sensitivity analyses are carried out to verify how parameter changes affect net income. The results show that the integrated concept with upgraded CPO and biodiesel processing plant (Biorefinery), which simultaneously produces biodiesel, electricity, heat and biofertiliser, can obtain an additional income of 14 USD/t-FFB compared to the Conventional System. The biorefinery system helps to reduce dependency on government subsidy for biodiesel production, and lowers the industry vulnerability to fluctuation of fossil diesel prices. The shift to modern facilities with value chain integration provides a pathway to enhance the share of renewable energy in Indonesia through increased biodiesel production and electricity generation from palm biomass residues. It may also promote resource efficiency and climate change mitigation through reduced emissions from untreated residues and fossil energy carriers. The analysis enhances understanding about potential gains and consequences of more stringent policy implementation in the country.

  • 64.
    Harahap, Fumi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Integrated biorefinery vs. stand alone biodieselproduction in Indonesia – an economic analysis2017In: European Biomass Conference and Exhibition Proceedings, 2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Biofuel policy instruments have largely steered the expansion of the biodiesel industry in Indonesia,promoting investments and creating fuel markets. Despite the growth, biodiesel use has not yet reached thedeployment targets set by the government. Low profitability and dysfunctional markets forces some plants to operatefar below the installed production capacity, which results in a deficit of biodiesel supply for domestic markets. At thesame time, biodiesel is being exported. The current production configuration of biodiesel in a standalone biodieselplant is perceived to be unprofitable without government subsidy. Therefore, we propose a comparative economicanalysis for biodiesel production in Indonesia using two configurations: the standalone production system typicallyused at present, and an integrated bio-refinery plant. The results show that the biodiesel production cost in thebiorefinery is 13% higher compared to the production cost in a standalone plant. However, due to higher revenuesgenerated in the biorefinery (16% higher than standalone system), biorefinery concept offers more profits to theindustry. Under current economic conditions, the integrated biorefinery concept brings advantages throughimprovement of efficiency in the biodiesel production system and higher production of other valuable products suchas electricity.

  • 65.
    Harahap, Fumi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Land allocation to meet sectoral goals in Indonesia – An analysis of policy coherence2017In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 61, p. 451-465Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Land is a scarce resource affecting the implementation of many sectoral policies. In Indonesia, the expansion of palm oil plantations has led to non-sustainable land use practices in past years, particularly deforestation. More recently, the government has set ambitious targets for the adoption of biodiesel which will require expansion of oil palm plantations, thus putting further pressure on land. Meanwhile, the need to guarantee food supply, forest conservation and climate change mitigation also imply challenges when it comes to land allocation and use. This paper examines the role that land plays in the implementation of sectoral policies in Indonesia, exploring the availability of land to satisfy the multiple goals defined in national policies. We explore land competition resulting from allocations made in official policy documents starting with biofuel policy. The analysis of policy goals and coherence when it comes to land allocation is made in relation to agriculture, climate and forestry policies. We conclude that adjustments need to be made in the policies to avoid overlappings and misinterpretations when it comes to land allocation. The area made available for meeting each sectoral policy goal when taking into account cross sectoral interactions is: 14.2 Mha for agriculture, 43 Mha for climate mitigation measures, 9.2 Mha for forestry, and 20.9 Mha for biofuels. A more uniform land classification and development of a common reference database will increase transparency on land allocation and use, and help to monitor land use change, ultimately supporting the achievement of multiple national goals.

  • 66.
    Henricot, Dorian
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Comparative analysis of marine current power and wave power in France and UK: how much support will be required to reach grid parity, and what rate of return can be expected?2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper begins with a comparative analysis of the different opportunities available to harness energies of the ocean. We select two of them – marine currents and wave energy – to calculate levelized costs of generation, and predict costs in 2050 using the learning rate method. These cost estimates are challenged with sensitivity analysis run on the different parameters, and benchmarked with comparable industries. We leverage our models to compute grid parity year for France and UK, and conclude it will be reached for all technologies in both countries between 2040 and 2050. Further, we assess the amount of financial support that will be required from both countries and for each technology to reach grid parity. Overall, France will need to invest €6bn and UK €9.7bn by 2050. Lastly, we estimate the return, in the broad sense of the term, which can be expected in each industry according to three dimensions: value of fuel replaced, value of emissions avoided, and value of job creation. This gives us a sense of how profitable it will be for both countries to subsidize these nascent industries. Wave energy is expected to bring 4.1% return by 2050 in UK, marine currents 1.7% return, wave energy -0.1% return in France, and marine currents -2.5%.

  • 67.
    Henricot, Dorian
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Comparative analysis of marine current power and wave power in France and UK: how much support will be required to reach grid parity, and what rate of return can be expected?2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper begins with a comparative analysis of the different opportunities available to harness energies of the ocean. We select two of them – marine currents and wave energy – to calculate levelized costs of generation, and predict costs in 2050 using the learning rate method. These cost estimates are challenged with sensitivity analysis run on the different parameters, and benchmarked with comparable industries. We leverage our models to compute grid parity year for France and UK, and conclude it will be reached for all technologies in both countries between 2040 and 2050. Further, we assess the amount of financial support that will be required from both countries and for each technology to reach grid parity. Overall, France will need to invest €6bn and UK €9.7bn by 2050. Lastly, we estimate the return, in the broad sense of the term, which can be expected in each industry according to three dimensions: value of fuel replaced, value of emissions avoided, and value of job creation. This gives us a sense of how profitable it will be for both countries to subsidize these nascent industries. Wave energy is expected to bring 4.1% return by 2050 in UK, marine currents 1.7% return, wave energy -0.1% return in France, and marine currents -2.5%.

  • 68.
    Henrique, Pacini
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Consumer choice between Ethanol and Gasoline: Lessons from the Cases of Brazil and Sweden2010In: Conference proceedings 3rd International Scientific Conference on “Energy systems with IT” / [ed] Erik Dahlquist, Jenny Palm, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 69.
    Howells, Mark
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Rogner, Holger
    Strachan, Neil
    Heaps, Charles
    Huntington, Hillard
    Kypreos, Socrates
    Hughes, Alison
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    DeCarolis, Joe
    Bazillian, Morgan
    Roehrl, Alexander
    OSeMOSYS: The Open Source Energy Modeling System An introduction to its ethos, structure and development2011In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 39, no 10, p. 5850-5870Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the design and development of the Open Source Energy Modeling System (OSeMOSYS). It describes the model's formulation in terms of a 'plain English' description, algebraic formulation, implementation-in terms of its full source code, as well as a detailed description of the model inputs, parameters, and outputs. A key feature of the OSeMOSYS implementation is that it is contained in less than five pages of documented, easily accessible code. Other existing energy system models that do not have this emphasis on compactness and openness makes the barrier to entry by new users much higher, as well as making the addition of innovative new functionality very difficult. The paper begins by describing the rationale for the development of OSeMOSYS and its structure. The current preliminary implementation of the model is then demonstrated for a discrete example. Next, we explain how new development efforts will build on the existing OSeMOSYS codebase. The paper closes with thoughts regarding the organization of the OSeMOSYS community, associated capacity development efforts, and linkages to other open source efforts including adding functionality to the LEAP model.

  • 70.
    Johnson, Francis X
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Bioenergy and the Sustainability Transition: from local resource to global commodity2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 71.
    Johnson, Francis X
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Exploiting cross-level linkages to steer the bioenergy transition2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis develops the notion of the bioenergy transition as the long-term transformation of biomass from a local resource into a global commodity. An historical assessment is combined with interdisciplinary analysis that focuses especially on liquid biofuels and highlights the environmentally innovative case of bioethanol. The bioenergy transition is investigated from several different perspectives: technical-economic, socio-economic, socio-technical and political-economic. Linkages across different levels from household to global are analysed in relation to the effectiveness of bioenergy policies. In addition to studies at household and national levels, a North-South perspective is taken by including two major regions: the European Union (EU) and the Southern African Development Community (SADC). The relation of EU biofuels policy to international climate and trade regimes is assessed to show how regional-global linkages affect policy design and implementation.

    Household bioenergy markets in developing countries are poorly articulated and difficult to link to other sectors; a detailed choice model in Ethiopia showed that product-specific factors should be evaluated to inform design of programmes and policies. Municipal and sub-national markets for bioenergy have been successfully linked to national policies to coordinate supply and demand in Brazil and Sweden. Regional market development for biofuels has great potential in southern Africa but regional-national linkages currently remain unexploited. National level efforts remain quite important in terms of energy security and environmental innovation, as evidenced in Brazil, Malawi and Sweden. Biofuels sustainability criteria in the EU Renewable Energy Directive (EU-RED) were evaluated in relation to the international climate and trade regimes and were found to shift some costs onto developing countries. One of the mechanisms for assuring biofuels sustainability is bilateral agreements, which remain untested but potentially effective.

    Cross-level linkages were often unexploited in the cases studied; national approaches cannot easily capture complementarities across sectors and scales in biophysical and economic terms. Linking biofuels markets across different levels from household to global through regional development policies and specialised governance mechanisms could help to steer the bioenergy transition towards sustainability.

  • 72.
    Johnson, Francis X
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Regional-global Linkages in the Energy-Climate-Development Policy Nexus: The Case of Biofuels in the EU Renewable Energy Directive2011In: Renewable Energy Law and Policy Review, ISSN 2190-8265, no 2, p. 91-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Union’s Renewable Energy Directive aims to accelerate the transition to renewable energy in the Community to support the EU energy policy goals of energy security, sustainability, and competitiveness. At the same time, the Directive – especially in its biofuels components – must also recognise the need for convergence between global and regional policy objectives. Such convergence is seen as necessary in order to align regional energy-economic objectives with global environment and development policies in general and climate policy in particular. In this paper, the biofuels components of the Directive are evaluated – particularly the sustainability criteria – in terms of their relation to the EU energy strategy and the resulting effects on energy, climate, and development policy objectives. It is found that the design and implementation of the sustainability criteria weaken the effect of the Directive’s potential impacts on global energy markets and international development objectives, while somewhat strengthening the internal EU market and technology objectives.

  • 73.
    Johnson, Francis X
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Diaz-Chavez, Rocio
    Imperial College London.
    Israilava, Alesia
    Swedish Energy Agency.
    Rosillo-Calle, Frank
    Imperial College London.
    Takama, Takeshi
    Japan International Cooperation Agency.
    Tella, Patricia
    Stockholm Environment Institute.
    The Achievable Potential of Wood Fuels for Climate Mitigation at Regional and Global Levels: Reviewing the Scope for Technical, Economic and Financial Implementation2010In: Proceedings of the 18th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition / [ed] WIP/ETA, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioenergy from wood is the oldest energy source but at the same time there are new opportunities for wood energy to make substantial contributions to climate mitigation while also helping to improve the quality of energy services and contribute to development and energy security objectives. The potential for wood fuels for climate mitigation in the near-term are probably concentrated in the area of biomass co-firing with coal, due to the low cost and the major growth in coal-fired generation in countries such as China. There are also options for climate mitigation in the traditional biomass sector, through improved stoves and through more efficient charcoal production. Other options include substitution for coal in steel-making. The socio-economic implications are somewhat complex compared to other energy sources, since they relate closely to rural development but also create new allied industries, such as the wood pellets industry. Financial aspects in terms of carbon finance can be distinguished by the relatively straightforward case of larger-scale substitution projects vs. the complex small projects that are more difficult to measure and monitor.

  • 74.
    Johnson, Francis X
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Matsika, Emmanuel
    University of Zambia.
    Bio-energy trade and regional development: the case of bio-ethanol in southern Africa2006In: Energy for Sustainable Development, ISSN 0973-0826, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 42-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses the prospects for international bio-energy trade within the context of regional integration and sustainable development in the region of southern Africa, focusing on the particular case of bio-ethanol made from sugar cane and sweet sorghum. A number of options are considered for expanded production of and trade in bio-ethanol as a transport fuel for blending with petrol. The implications for alternative development paths and regional cooperation strategies are discussed and compared. Transportation costs appear to be small compared to production costs, although the higher cost of shipment by land implies a need for regional coordination strategies. The availability of suitable feedstocks in the region would have to increase significantly in order to achieve economies of scale. There appear to be valuable opportunities for creating new export markets, although international cooperation will be needed for reducing import tariffs and addressing non-tariff trade barriers as well as promoting technology transfer and capacity-building.

  • 75.
    Johnson, Francis X.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Seebaluck, Vikram
    Bioenergy for Sustainable Development and International Competitiveness: The Role of Sugar Cane in Africa2012Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Growing concerns about the impacts of climate change and dependence on fossil fuels have intensified interest in bioenergy from sugar cane and other crops, highlighting important links between energy, environment and development goals. Southern and Eastern Africa are characterized by severe poverty; the possibility to exploit a renewable energy resource offers valuable avenues for sustainable development and could support a more dynamic and competitive economy. This book describes how the bioenergy expansion will improve rural livelihoods, reduce costly energy imports, reduce GHG emissions, and offer new development paths.

    Drawing on international experience, particularly from Brazil and India, it is shown that harnessing this potential will require significant increases in investment, technology transfer, and international cooperation. Because of its high efficiency, the authors argue that sugar cane should be viewed as a global resource for sustainable development and should command much greater focus and concerted policy action. Through an analysis of the agronomy, land suitability and industrial processing of sugar cane and its co-products, along with an assessment of the energy, economic and environmental implications, this volume demonstrates that sugar cane offers a competitive and environmentally beneficial resource for Africa's economic development and energy security.

    With fourty-four authors representing thirty organisations in sixteen countries, the book offers a truly international and interdisciplinary perspective by combining technical and economic principles with social, political and environmental assessment and policy analysis.

  • 76.
    Johnson, Francis X
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    The transition to modern bioenergy: historical dimensions and strategic perspectives2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomass is the oldest form of energy used by mankind, but in some ways it is also the newest, due to the tremendous diversity of applications that have emerged for deploying modern bioenergy systems around the world. Bioenergy can be explored in multiple scales, but carries a local dimension that links it to livelihoods and patterns of social organization. At the same time, other demands on biomass resources—food, feed and fibre—have been growing rapidly due to population and resource pressures. The historical evolution of biomass for energy therefore will differ from future paths based on the structural changes in end-uses in combination with the shift to biomass as a multidimensional resource. The role of biomass as a carbon sink also becomes a fundamental element of future biomass energy resource development.

    In this paper the strategic elements of bioenergy are examined by reference to the historical shifts in the way that biomass has been used for energy since the industrial revolution. The factors driving the shifts away from (traditional) bioenergy can then be considered in relation to the factors behind the shift towards (modern) bioenergy. The variables of special interest include the timeframe, changes in energy density and changes in carriers and markets. The approach is based on analysis of quantitative energy data sets for several countries and regions together with some key qualitative indicators. The transformative nature of biomass resources and their variation in scale and scope are also important elements in the transition process. The historical shift away from traditional biomass can offer clues as to how the return to biomass as an energy source will unfold in different world regions.

  • 77.
    Johnson, Francis X
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Takama, Takeshi
    Japanese International Development Agency.
    Economics of Modern and Traditional Bioenergy in African Households: Consumer Choices for Cook Stoves2012In: Bioenergy for Sustainable Development in Africa / [ed] Janssen, R. and Rutz, D., Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2012, p. 375-388Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overwhelming majority of African households use traditional biomass in the form of wood fuel or charcoal to meet their daily cooking needs. Modern options such as LPG or ethanol can provide considerable benefits for health and environment. The case of ethanol is interesting as a renewable source with lower GHG emissions and also having the potential to be a locally produced resource. The purchase cost of such stoves is considerably higher while the fuel costs will generally be lower for those households that purchase fuel. Previous research on household adoption of new cook stoves has tended to focus on demographic or socio-economic factors such as education and income in trying to explain consumer choice. Such variables change only slowly and thus generally cannot support rapid introduction of improved stoves. We have developed a discrete choice model aimed at focusing more on the characteristics of the cook stoves themselves and the way in which they are used, which we refer to as “product-specific” attributes. The methodology is outlined here followed by a brief summary of the model applications in three countries: Ethiopia, Mozambique and Tanzania. Our approach could improve the understanding of the underlying economic issues and thereby contribute to better design of cook stove programmes and help stimulate a market transformation towards cleaner and more efficient cook stoves.

  • 78.
    Johnson, Francis X.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Virgin, Ivar
    Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Future Trends in markets for food, feed, fibre and fuel2010In: Food versus Fuel: An informed introduction to biofuels / [ed] Frank Rosillo-Calle and Francis X. Johnson, London: Zed Books, 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A fundamental transformation is underway in the use of biomass resources for food, feed, fuel, fibre and many other uses. This transformation arises from the combination of three key drivers over the coming decades: the need to substitute renewable resources for the non-renewable ones on which economic growth has been predicated; the need to adapt to a changing climate by using resources more wisely and investing in the technology for biofuels that are carbon-negative; and the resource requirements of a growing world population with increasing demands for food, feed and fuel. There is wide scope for reconciling expanded biofuel production with food security and even for deploying biofuels in a way that support sustainable development and helps to revive rural economies. In order to realise the potential for synergies rather than conflicts between food and fuel, substantial investment in research and development is needed, as is a rejection of subsidies for unsustainable agricultural practices and a wide adoption of policies that support integrated and highly productive biomass platforms. Future trends in demand and supply reveal the importance of avoiding the view that food security and biofuel development are competing objectives: the biomass resources that support food and fuel—as well as feed, fibre, fertiliser and other uses—can and must be used synergistically to address the energy and climate challenge of the coming decades.

  • 79.
    Johnson, Francis Xavier
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Seebaluck, V.
    Bioenergy for sustainable development and international competitiveness: The role of sugar cane in Africa2013Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Growing concerns about the impacts of climate change and dependence on fossil fuels have intensified interest in bioenergy from sugar cane and other crops, highlighting important links between energy, environment and development goals. Sub-Saharan Africa is characterized by severe poverty; the possibility to exploit a renewable energy resource offers valuable avenues for sustainable development and could support a more dynamic and competitive economy. This book describes how the bioenergy expansion will improve rural livelihoods, reduce costly energy imports, reduce GHG emissions, and offer new development paths. Drawing on international experience, it is shown that harnessing this potential will require significant increases in investment, technology transfer, and international cooperation. Because of its high efficiency, the authors argue that sugar cane should be viewed as a global resource for sustainable development and should command much greater focus and concerted policy action. Through an analysis of the agronomy, land suitability and industrial processing of sugar cane and its co-products, along with an assessment of the energy, economic and environmental implications, this volume demonstrates that sugar cane offers a competitive and environmentally beneficial resource for Africa’s economic development and energy security. With forty-four authors representing thirty organisations in sixteen countries, the book offers a truly international and interdisciplinary perspective by combining technical and economic principles with social, political and environmental assessment and policy analysis.

  • 80.
    Johnson, Francis Xavier
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS. Stockholm Environment Institute, Sweden .
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Pioneer countries in the transition to alternative transport fuels: comparison of ethanol programmes and policies in Brazil, Malawi and Sweden2014In: Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, ISSN 2210-4224, E-ISSN 2210-4232, Vol. 11, p. 1-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Efforts to develop alternative transport fuels and vehicles are found in countries varying tremendously in their level of economic development. In this paper, we compare the alternative fuels transition, focusing on ethanol, in three countries: Brazil, Malawi and Sweden. Each can be described as a pioneer in developing the physical and institutional infrastructure and stimulating innovation towards alternative transport fuels. We assess the transition in these pioneer countries based on niche formation and interaction with regime and landscape levels. Particular reference is made to spatial and temporal path dependencies and to the significance of cross-scale and cross-sector effects that impact the innovation process. As other countries and regions develop programmes to address the twin challenges of energy security and climate change, they can benefit from a better understanding of linkages between techno-economic and socio-technical factors in transition paths of pioneer countries, across different scales and different stages of economic development.

  • 81.
    Khan, Ershad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Techno-Economic Analysis of Small Scale Biogas Based Poly generation Systems in Bangladesh2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Access to electricity, clean drinking water andclean cooking gas services are genuine needs of the rural poor in order to improvetheir living conditions. One can think of addressing these needs individually orinstead use an integrated approach. Looking for solutions using a holisticapproach should always have a better impact. A small scale and distributedbiogas based poly generation system could be an effective solution to bringsustainable development to remote and rural areas of Bangladesh. Biogasdigesters are a popular and promising rural energy technology and the integrationof biogas production with power generation and water purification is aninnovative approach. This paper discusses such an integrated poly generationsystem and analyzes the techno-economic performance of the scheme for meetingthe demand of electricity, cooking energy and safe drinking water of 30households in a rural village of Bangladesh. The mass flows and energy balance,life cycle cost (levelized cost) of producing electricity, cooking gas and safedrinking water as well as the payback period of such a poly generation system wereestimated. In this study, it has been found that this poly generation system ismuch more competitive and promising than other available technologies whenattempting to solve the energy and arsenic-related problems in Bangladesh. Thedeterminant factors influencing the performance of the system and their impacton the cost have been looked at under different conditions. This paper willserve as a background paper in order to expand research further in thedirection of making biogas based poly generation system as a successfulbusiness solution in rural areas.

  • 82.
    Khan, Ershad Ullah
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Martin, Andrew
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Techno-economic analysis of small scale biogas based polygeneration systems: Bangladesh case study2014In: Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, ISSN 2213-1388, E-ISSN 2213-1396, Vol. 7, p. 68-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Access to electricity, clean energy, and safe drinking water services are genuine needs of the rural poor for their welfare. These needs can be addressed either individually or in an integrated approach. Biogas digesters are promising in the rural setting and integration of biogas production with power generation and water purification is an innovative concept that could be applied in remote areas of Bangladesh. This paper presents a new concept for integrated biogas based polygeneration and analyzes the techno-economic performance of the scheme for meeting the demand of electricity, cooking energy and safe drinking water of 30 households in a rural village of Bangladesh. The specific technologies chosen for the key energy conversion steps are as follows: plug-flow digester; internal combustion engine; and air-gap membrane distillation. Mass flows and energy balance, levelized cost of producing electricity, cooking gas and safe drinking water as well as the payback period of such a polygeneration system were analyzed. The results indicate that this polygeneration system is much more competitive and promising (in terms of levelized cost) than other available technologies when attempting to solve the energy and arsenic-related problems in Bangladesh. The payback period of such system is between 2.6 and 4 years.

  • 83.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    A Comparative Environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of Ethanol Blended Fuel (E10) and Conventional Petrol Fuel Car: a Case Study in Nepal2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 84.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Assessing the sustainability of bioethanol production in different development contexts: A systems approach2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The continuous depletion of fossil fuel reserves, the global agenda on climate change and threats to energy security have led to increased global interest in the exploration, production and utilisation of bioenergy and biofuels. Access to modern bioenergy carriers derived from the efficient conversion of locally available biomass resources is indispensable for economic growth, rural development and sustainable development in developing countries. Deployment of bioenergy/biofuels technologies has significantly varied across the globe. The least developed countries (LDCs) and developing countries are still highly dependent on traditional biomass technologies with low conversion efficiency, which are typically associated with significant environmental and health impacts. Meanwhile, emerging economies and developed countries are progressively promoting biofuel industries and international trade. They are also engaged in making biofuels a sustainable proposition by developing sustainability criteria. The goal of this thesis is to address the sustainability of bioethanol production derived from one of the key feedstocks/energy crops: sugarcane. This will be done by analysing different development contexts and environmental constraints in terms of geopolitical situation, economic development and state-of-the-art technologies in agro-industrial development. Life cycle assessment (LCA), system studies, and techno-economic optimisation are the main methodological approaches applied in the thesis. The thesis primarily addresses three key questions for analysing the sustainability of bioethanol production.

    The first research question investigates the key parameters affecting the sustainability of bioethanol production and use in a low-income country using the case of Nepal. The net energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) balances are identified to be the main sustainability criteria of the sugarcane-molasses bioethanol (Paper I and II). Results of the lifecycle studies show that the production of bioethanol is energy-efficient in terms of the fossil fuel inputs required to produce the renewable fuel. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the production and combustion of ethanol are also lower than those from gasoline. The study also evaluates the socio-economic and environmental benefits of ethanol production and use in Nepal, concluding that the major sustainability indicators are in line with the goals of sustainable development (Paper III). Assessment of the biofuel (molasses-bioethanol) sustainability in Nepal is the first of its kind in low-income countries, and serves also the purpose of motivating the assessment of ethanol production potential in other LDCs, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa.

    The second question critically evaluates methodologies for accounting the lifecycle GHG emissions of Brazilian sugarcane ethanol in European and American regulations, depicting commonalities and differences among them (Paper IV). GHG emissions are becoming increasingly important as part of sustainability criteria in the context of the expansion of biofuel production and international trade. However, different methodologies still lead to quite different results and interpretation. To make this an operational criterion for international comparisons, it is necessary to establish unified methodological procedures for accounting GHG emissions. The thesis identifies the major issues as  N2O emissions from agricultural practices, bioelectricity credits in fuel production, and modelling approaches in estimating emissions related to direct and indirect land use change (LUC & iLUC), that need to be addressed for establishing methodological coherences.

    The third research question investigates how the sugarcane bioethanol industry can be developed in terms of energy security and the diversification of energy sources. The case of complementarity between bioelectricity and hydropower is evaluated in the cases of Nepal and Brazil and presented in Paper V. Bioelectricity could offer a significant share of electricity supply in both countries provided that favourable political and institutional conditions are applied. Finally, in order to find the choice of technological options for the production of second generation (2G) bioethanol and/or of bioelectricity, a techno-economic optimisation study on the bulk of sugarcane bio-refineries in Brazil is carried out in Paper VI, taking into account the entire lifecycle costs, emissions, and international trade. The study shows that it is worthwhile to upgrade sugarcane bio-refineries. Energy prices, type of power generation systems, biofuel support and carbon tax, and conversion efficiencies are the major factors influencing the technological choice and potential bioethanol trade.

    In short, this dissertation provides insights on the sustainability of the bioethanol production/industry and its potential role in the mitigation of climate change, improved energy security and sustainable development in different country contexts, as well as methodological contributions for assessing the sustainability of biofuels production in connection with energy and climate policies.

  • 85.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Assessing the sustainability of bioethanol production in Nepal2010Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Access to modern energy services derived from renewable sources is a prerequisite, not only for economic growth, rural development and sustainable development, but also for energy security and climate change mitigation. The least developed countries (LDCs) primarily use traditional biomass and have little access to commercial energy sources. They are more vulnerable to problems relating to energy security, air pollution, and the need for hard-cash currency to import fossil fuels. This thesis evaluates sugarcane-molasses bioethanol, a renewable energy source with the potential to be used as a transport fuel in Nepal.

    Sustainability aspects of molasses-based ethanol have been analyzed. Two important indicators for sustainability, viz. net energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) balances have been used to assess the appropriateness of bioethanol in the life cycle assessment (LCA) framework. This thesis has found that the production of bioethanol is energy-efficient in terms of the fossil fuel inputs required to produce it. Life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from production and combustion are also lower than those of gasoline. The impacts of important physical and market parameters, such as sugar cane productivity, the use of fertilizers, energy consumption in different processes, and price have been observed in evaluating the sustainability aspects of bioethanol production.

    The production potential of bioethanol has been assessed. Concerns relating to the fuel vs. food debate, energy security, and air pollution have also been discussed. The thesis concludes that the major sustainability indicators for molasses ethanol in Nepal are in line with the goals of sustainable development. Thus, Nepal could be a good example for other LDCs when favorable governmental policy, institutional set-ups, and developmental cooperation from donor partners are in place to strengthen the development of renewable energy technologies.

  • 86.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Fuel options for the transport sector in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Given the present adverse situation of energy security, flow of hard cash in importingscarce fossil fuels and deteriorating air quality of congested urban cities of developingcountries, it is important to evaluate available renewable energy options for the transport sector. This thesis examines and reviews the appropriateness of available fuel options- ethanol blendedgasoline and electricity- in the transport sector of the capital city of Nepal, Kathmandu Valley.First, the study estimates the net energy value (NEV) and energy yield ratio of molasses basedethanol from cradle to grave approach. Second, performance of ethanol blended gasoline vehicle isreviewed. Potential of ethanol production and subsequent gasoline savings are scrutinized. Third,energy efficiency of battery operated three-wheeler electric vehicle (EV) is examined and comparedwith conventional fossil fuel powered three-wheelers.

    Preliminary finding shows that fossil fuel consumption to produce one litre of anhydrous ethanol (EtOH) is 2.799 MJ, which gives the energy yield ratio of 7.573 at present conditions. This ratiobecomes lower when the use of fertilizers/chemicals and rate of irrigation are increased. Price ofmolasses contributes a big role since economic allocation is used to partition the energy valuesassociated with sugar and molasses. The study also depicts that total energy inputs (fossil plusrenewable) are higher that the net energy content of EtOH. At present, E10 (blend of 10% EtOH and90% gasoline in volume by volume) can substitute 5,485 m3 of the imported gasoline annually.Besides, local air pollutants like CO, HC are greatly reduced. Three-wheeler battery operatedelectric vehicle (EV) has lower well to wheel (WtW) and tank to wheel (TtW) efficiency than theirLPG, gasoline and diesel operated counterparts in terms of fuel consumption per kilometre. WtW efficiency of the EV is 1.789 MJ/km while diesel and gasoline three wheelers have 3.587 MJ/km and 3.712 MJ/km respectively, considering 99% of electricity in the grid issupplied by hydropower and the rest 1% by diesel power plants.

  • 87.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Future of Fuel2014In: The Kathmandu Post, Vol. 24 Sept., p. 6-Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Pursuing engergy generation from biomass is crucial to complementing investments in seasonal hydropower.

  • 88.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Garbage to gas2014In: The Kathmandu Post, Vol. 11 May, p. 6-Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Converting waste to biogas could be a solution to Kathmandu's mounting energy problems.

  • 89.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Optimizing ethanol and bioelectricity production in sugarcane biorefineries in Brazil2012Report (Other academic)
  • 90.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Drabik, Dusan
    Agricultural Economics and Rural Policy Group, Wageningen University, the Netherlands.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Harahap, Fumi
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Analyzing the economics of palm oil biodiesel production in Indonesia2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Indonesia is the largest palm oil producer and exporter in the world and the palm oil industry has contributed significantly to the national economy and socioeconomic development. Of the total palm oil production, 69% is exported (the third most important traded commodity in the country), 17% is used in the domestic food industry, and 11% is used in biodiesel production. Aiming at reducing fossil oil dependency, diversifying energy sources, and promoting socioeconomic development, the country has enacted several rules and regulations for biofuel production. The most important is the 30% biodiesel target for transportation by 2025. The government of Indonesia also provides subsidies to palm oil feedstock producers, processing industries, and consumers. Other regulations include a new funding mechanism for biofuel subsidies, a levy on palm oil exports, and the creation of a ‘plantation fund’. Despite increased amount of palm oil feedstock production, the stipulated biodiesel mandates have not been achieved due to a lack of competitiveness and ineffective policies. Volatile international prices of petroleum, international trade/exports of palm oil, and fossil fuel subsidies have hindered the development of a domestic market for biodiesel. This study examines the economics of palm oil biodiesel production and use in Indonesia in connection with government policies, production costs, fossil fuel substitution, and market prices of liquid fuels (i.e., biodiesel and diesel). We develop a novel biofuel economic model that captures the complexities of the palm oil-biodiesel sector in Indonesia.

  • 91.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Austria.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    Ecosystems Services & Management (ESM) program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Austria.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    McCallum, Ian
    Ecosystems Services & Management (ESM) program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Austria.
    Optimizing ethanol and bioelectricity production in sugarcane biorefineries in Brazil2016In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 85, p. 371-386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In sugarcane biorefineries, the lignocellulosic portion of the sugarcane biomass (i.e. bagasse and cane trash) can be used as fuel for electricity production and/or feedstock for second generation (2G) ethanol. This study presents a techno-economic analysis of upgraded sugarcane biorefineries in Brazil, aiming at utilizing surplus bagasse and cane trash for electricity and/or ethanol production. The study investigates the trade-off on sugarcane biomass use for energy production: bioelectricity versus 2G ethanol production. The BeWhere mixed integer and spatially explicit model is used for evaluating the choice of technological options. Different scenarios are developed to find the optimal utilization of sugarcane biomass. The study finds that energy prices, type of electricity substituted, biofuel support and carbon tax, investment costs, and conversion efficiencies are the major factors influencing the technological choice. At the existing market and technological conditions applied in the upgraded biorefineries, 300 PJ y-1 2G ethanol could be optimally produced and exported to the EU, which corresponds to 2.5% of total transport fuel demand in the EU. This study provides a methodological framework on how to optimize the alternative use of agricultural residues and industrial co-products for energy production in agro-industries considering biomass supply chains, the pattern of domestic energy demand, and biofuel trade.

  • 92.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Palmén, Carl
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Evaluating the palm oil demand in Indonesia: Production trends, yields, and emerging issues2018In: Biofuels, ISSN 1759-7269, E-ISSN 1759-7277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the development of domestic and international demand for Indonesian palm oil, in line with national biofuel mandates and established export markets. Domestic demand for palm oil for (i) achieving biodiesel targets and (ii) meeting food and industrial uses reaches 20 million tonnes by 2025, equivalent to 61% of Indonesian production in 2014. Thus, it is possible for Indonesia to be self-sufficient, reaching the biodiesel targets without increasing plantation areas. However, to meet both domestic and international demand, a total 51 million tonnes of crude palm oil will be needed in 2025. This requires additional land up to 6 million hectares with current yields. The expansion of oil palm plantations in Indonesia has led to debates related to deforestation, threatened biodiversity, and greenhouse gas emissions. We show that increasing agricultural yields could serve the purpose, benefiting biodiesel production while reducing the need for new land. Therefore, we recommend that the ambitious Indonesian biodiesel mandates are pursued in combination with a strategy for increased productivity in palm oil production, utilization of degraded land to contain greenhouse gas emissions, and use of palm oil biomass residues for energy production.

  • 93.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Scheer, Jannik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Egeskog, Ylva
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Analyzing the lifecycle energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) balances of palm oil biodiesel production in Indonesia2016In: 15th World Renewable Energy Congress, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study performs sustainability analysis of palm oil biodiesel production systems in Indonesia. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach is used to evaluate the net GHG emissions (climate change impact) and energy inputs (resource consumption) in the entire production chain. The main aim of the study is to investigate the energy and environmental aspects of the palm oil biodiesel production chain. The worthiness of biodiesel production and use in terms of GHG emissions is compared with conventional diesel. The system boundary includes the mass and energy flows during the cultivation, harvesting, palm oil milling, and bio-refining phases. Energy inputs and emissions due to agricultural activities such land preparation, seedling, application of fertilizers/chemicals, and planting are considered in the analysis. The scope of the study also includes collection and transport of palm oil feedstock, fresh fruit brunch (FFB) and crude palm oil (CPO) for biodiesel production. Assessment of climate change impact is also performed when it comes to improvements of agricultural practices and alternation of soil carbon stocks due to land use change.

    The study examines the utilization of co-products (e.g. kernel oil, glycerol), palm oil residues, and waste water (effluents) generated during the palm biodiesel production system. Palm kernel and glycerol are important commodities/products which have high market values. The use of biomass residues (e.g. fibres and shells) for energy production in efficient cogeneration, and different waste management options for the treatment of palm oil milling effluent (POME) are also explored. Sensitivity analysis is performed for the most influencing parameters such as palm oil yield, the rate of fertilizer application, plant conversion efficiencies while determining the environmental and energy gains. Since the palm oil biodiesel production systems involve multiple co-products and services, it is of utmost importance to use appropriate allocation methods in order to divide environmental burdens and resource inputs. We use allocation by energy content and economic values, and system expansion considering the substitution of fossil based power by bioelectricity derived from biomass cogeneration plants and/or electricity generation using biogas produced from POME treatment. The study finds that bioelectricity generation from surplus biomass residues and biogas from POME, and their use for fossil fuel substitution can significantly help improve energy and environmental gains. The study also compares important results with other relevant international LCA studies and discusses issues related to land use on climate change impact. Recommendations are made for the appropriate utilization of palm oil, its co-products, and residues for the both energy and climate benefits.  

  • 94.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS. Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory, Brazil.
    Seabra, Joaquim
    Faculdade de Engenharia Mecânica, UNICAMP, and Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory (CTBE), Campinas, SP, Brazil.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Walter, Arnaldo
    Faculdade de Engenharia Mecânica, UNICAMP, and Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory (CTBE), Campinas, SP, Brazil.
    Accounting greenhouse gas emissions in the lifecycle of Brazilian sugarcane bioethanol: Methodological references in European and American regulations2012In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 47, p. 384-397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study discusses four European and American regulatory schemes designed for accounting lifecycle GHG emissions in relation to the Brazilian sugarcane ethanol. The objective is to critically examine the methodologies and associated parameters used in existing regulatory schemes for calculating GHG emissions, and to explore methodological convergences. The issues related to direct lifecycle and indirect land use change emissions have been addressed. It is found that there are commonalities between the European Renewable Energy Directive (EU-RED) and the UK's Renewable Transport Fuels Obligation (UK-RTFO), but the US-EPA's Renewable Fuel Standard (US-EPA) and the Low Carbon Fuel Standard of the California Air Resources Board (CA-CARB) vary greatly not only among themselves, but also in relation to the European regulations. Agricultural practices (especially soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics), co-product credits from surplus electricity and uncertainties around economic modeling approaches for indirect land use change are the major areas where methodological divergences exist. Incorporation of domestic agricultural practices, sugarcane mills operations, and realistic modeling of indirect impacts of land use change using regional models could provide more coherence in estimations of GHG emissions. Furthermore, the Brazilian trend of novelty in all phases of sugarcane bioenergy systems should be considered when projecting GHG emissions.

  • 95.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Seabra, Joaquim
    Faculdade de Engenharia Mecânica, UNICAMP, and Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory (CTBE), Campinas, SP, Brazil.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Walter, Arnaldo
    Faculdade de Engenharia Mecânica, UNICAMP, and Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory (CTBE), Campinas, SP, Brazil.
    Methodologies for accounting greenhouse gas emissions of bioethanol production in Brazil2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many studies have performed life cycle assessment for evaluating GHG balances of biofuels. However, the result of life-cycle GHG emissions varies significantly, depending on LCA approach used, type and characteristics of biomass feedstocks, system boundaries, functional unit, reference energy systems, conversion technologies, treatment of co-products, direct/indirect land-use change, among others. This study shows how these issues have been addressed in the regulatory schemes for accounting GHG emissions. The objective is to review and critically discuss the methodologies and associated parameters used in existing regulatory schemes in the context of developing a unified methodology for calculating GHG emissions. Four regulatory schemes on biofuels are scrutinized in order to compare the GHG calculation methodologies. The European Commission’s Renewable Energy Directive (RED) and the Renewable Transport Fuels Obligation (RTFO) of UK describe methodologies for calculation of life-cycle GHG emissions of biofuels, including common biofuel production pathways such as the Brazilian sugarcane ethanol. In the US, the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) program under the Energy Independence and Security Act has introduced the threshold of life-cycle GHG emissions of different biofuels in transport, while the California Air Resource Board has enacted the Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) to increase the share of low carbon fuels. European (e.g. RED and RTFO) and US (e.g. RFS and LCFS) regulatory schemes have proposed different methodologies for estimating GHG balances. This paper provides an overview of these four accounting methodologies, depicting commonalities and differences among them. We use the Brazilian sugarcane ethanol pathway as reference for the comparison. The comparative analysis helps identify common ground for the development of a unified methodology for sugarcane bioethanol.

  • 96.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Seabra, Joaquim
    Faculdade de Engenharia Mecânica, UNICAMP, and Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory (CTBE), Campinas, SP, Brazil.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Walter, Arnaldo
    Faculdade de Engenharia Mecânica, UNICAMP, and Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory (CTBE), Campinas, SP, Brazil.
    Power generation from sugarcane biomass - A complementary option to hydroelectricity in Nepal and Brazil2012In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 241-254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the complementarity between hydroelectricity and surplus electricity from sugarcane biomass based cogeneration plants in sugarcane mills. The paper investigates opportunities and barriers in the context of governments' initiatives, institutions and prevailing regulatory frameworks in Brazil and Nepal. The paper finds that bioelectricity from cogeneration can be a good complementary option for hydroelectric power, helping foster diversification on the generation side and enhance security of electricity supply based on local resources. Bioelectricity potential from sugarcane biomass is estimated to be in the range of 209 - 313 GWh for Nepal and 62 -93 TWh for Brazil. In Nepal, the grid connected bioelectricity can provide power for operating industries, and support local development through rural electrification. In Brazil, the biomass potential can be further enhanced through a better utilization of the biomass in the sugar-ethanol industry to balance hydropower availability. This comparative study offers a reflection on the need for better planning and policies to address the barriers which are hindering the development of bioelectricity even in places where the potential is large.

  • 97.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Seabra, Joaquim
    Faculdade de Engenharia Mecânica, UNICAMP, and Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory (CTBE), Campinas, SP, Brazil.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Walter, Arnaldo
    Faculdade de Engenharia Mecânica, UNICAMP, and Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory (CTBE), Campinas, SP, Brazil.
    Power generation from sugarcane biomass: a complementary option to hydroelectricity in Nepal and Brazil2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the complementarity between hydroelectricity and surplus electricity from sugarcane biomass based cogeneration plants in sugarcane mills. The paper investigates opportunities and barriers in the context of governments’ initiatives, institutions and prevailing regulatory frameworks in Brazil and Nepal. The paper finds that bioelectricity from cogeneration can be a good complementary option for hydroelectric power, helping foster diversification on the generation side and enhance security of electricity supply based on local resources. Bioelectricity potential from sugarcane biomass is estimated to be in the range of 209 – 313 GWh for Nepal and 62 – 93 TWh for Brazil. In Nepal, the grid connected bioelectricity can provide power for operating industries, and support local development through rural electrification. In Brazil, the biomass potential can be further enhanced through a better utilization of the biomass in the sugar-ethanol industry to balance hydropower availability. This comparative study offers a reflection on the need for better planning and policies to address the barriers which are hindering the development of bioelectricity even in places where the potential is large.

  • 98.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Assessing the sustainability of bioethanol production: Key criteria and methodological improvements2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 99.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Greenhouse gas balances of molasses based ethanol in Nepal2011In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 19, no 13, p. 1471-1485Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper evaluates life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) balances in production and use of molasses-based ethanol (EtOH) in Nepal. The total life cycle emissions of EtOH is estimated at 432.5 kgCO(2eq) m(-3) ethanol (i.e. 20.4 gCO(2eq) MJ(-1)). Avoided emissions are 76.6% when conventional gasoline is replaced by molasses derived ethanol. A sensitivity analysis was performed to verify the impact of variations in material and energy flows, and allocation ratios in the GHG balances. Market prices of sugar and molasses, amount of nitrogen-fertilizers used in sugarcane production, and sugarcane yield per hectare turn out to be important parameters for the GHG balances estimation. Sales of the surplus electricity derived from bagasse could reduce emissions by replacing electricity produced in diesel power plants. Scenario analysis on two wastewater processes for treatment of effluents obtained from ethanol conversion has also been carried out. If wastewater generated from ethanol conversion unit is treated in pond stabilization (PS) treatment process, GHG emissions alarmingly increase to a level of 4032 kgCO(2eq) m(-3) ethanol. Results also show that the anaerobic digestion process (ADP) and biogas recovery without leakages can significantly avoid GHG emissions, and improve the overall emissions balance of EtOH in Nepal. At a 10% biogas leakage, life cycle emissions is 1038 kgCO(2eq) m(-3) ethanol which corresponds to 44% avoided emissions compared to gasoline. On the other hand, total emissions surpass the level of its counterpart (i.e. gasoline) when the leakage of biogas exceeds 23.4%.

  • 100.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Net energy balance of molasses based ethanol: The case of Nepal2009In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 13, no 9, p. 2515-2524Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper evaluates life cycle energy analysis of molasses based ethanol (MOE) in Nepal. Net energy value (NEV), net renewable energy value (NREV) and energy yield ratio are used to evaluate the energy balance of MOE in Nepal. Total energy requirements in sugarcane farming, cane milling and ethanol conversion processes are estimated and energy allocation is made between co-products (molasses and sugar) as per their market prices. The result shows negative NEV (−13.05 MJ/L), positive NREV (18.36 MJ/L) and energy yield ratio (7.47). The higher positive value of NREV and energy yield ratio reveal that a low amount of fossil fuels are required to produce 1 L of MOE. However, negative NEV reveals that the total energy consumption (both fossil and renewables) to produce the ethanol is higher than its final energy content. Nevertheless, the renewable energy contribution amounts to 91.7% of total energy requirements. The effect of the increased price of molasses and reduced energy consumption in the sugarcane milling and ethanol conversion are found to be significant in determining the energy values and yield ratio of MOE. In addition, there are clear measures that can be taken to improve efficiency along the production chain. Finally, energy security, scarcity of hard currency for importing fossil fuels and opportunities for regional development are also strong reasons for considering local renewable energy options in developing countries.

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