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  • 51.
    ALLARD, FREDRIK
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    HÖGLUND WETTERWIK, MAX
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Product-service systems for suppliers of intermediate goods: An Empirical study in the Paper Industry2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Global competition has been making it harder for the European manufacturing sector to stay competitive and at the same time value for the customer is not only created by the product, but also from factors as technical knowledge, co-development and availability. Therefore, manufacturing companies are shifting their focus from selling products to selling integrated combinations of products and services. Paper companies operating in less commoditized segments that require a high technical know-how has so far resisted commoditization. But increased competition makes it hard for this kind of companies to maintain premium prices. Therefore the purpose of this study firstly is to explore what PSS (Product-service systems) strategies are used by suppliers of intermediate goods and secondly, determine how the case company could develop PSS in the future. To fulfill this purpose the following research questions have been formulated:

    Main research question:

    How can paper companies operating in less commoditized segments develop their product-service systems further?

    Sub-research questions:

    What kind of services should the case company offer?

    How should the case company package their service offering?

    In order to answer the research questions a qualitative approach has been applied. This has been done by conducting a case study on an international paper company operating in less commoditized segments, where two business units were selected to focus on. In total 19 employees from the case company were interviewed. To further support the findings and to get inspiration of possible PSS, employees from eight external companies were interviewed.

    The findings show that the case company has a relevant service portfolio but there are areas of improvement when looking at the execution of services and conceptualization of the PSS. Furthermore, the findings show that the PSS should be product oriented and that the two business units should focus on slightly different services even though they are both operating in less commoditized segments.

    The findings also show that the case company must have services that are bundled with the product in order to avoid that the customers’ purchasers makes cost-break-downs. At the same time the case company should define the value on as many services as possible in order for the customer to perceive the value added from services. Towards current customers this can be done by documenting the service that the customer has been receiving and the value that has given, and bring it to price negotiations. Moreover, adding a price on the service makes customer perceive the value of the service more and therefore some selected services should be charged for.

  • 52.
    Allmér, Gustaf
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Organization and management.
    Joakim, Svantesson
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Organization and management.
    How internal factors influence the work towards increased energy performance: A case study in a Swedish construction company2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    För  att  minska Europas klimatpåverkan ställer Sveriges regering och Europeiska Unionen allt högre krav på byggindustrin gällande energiprestandan i nybyggda flerbostadshus, då bostadssektorn idag står för en betydande del av Sveriges totala energiförbrukning. Byggföretagen jobbar numera för förbättrad energiprestanda i nybyggda bostäder, men skillnaden från projekt till projekt kan vara mycket stor. Man har i tidigare forskning studerat de externa faktorer som påverkar hur långt man är villig att gå energimässigt i bostadsprojekt, men lite forskning har bedrivits kring de interna faktorerna.

    Detta examensarbete har därför till syfte att identifiera dessa interna faktorer och även förklara varför de påverkar processen. För att studera detta har en fallstudie utförts på ett svenskt byggföretag där aktörer inom stora delar av den interna byggprocessen finns representerade. Semi strukturerade intervjuer genomfördes för att ge en så utförlig bild som  möjligt av processen och de faktorer som påverkar den. Intervjudatan sorterades, reducerades och analyserades genom stöd av ett teoretiskt ramverk. I detta ingår teorier från tidigare studier och olika Knowledge Managementteorier, vilka används för att tolka och förstå de faktorer som iakttagits. 

    Studiens resultat innefattar en redogörelse för viktiga observerade interna faktorer som påverkar processen i fallstudieföretaget mot mer energieffektiva flerbostadshus. Exempel på dessa är: individers kunskap och åsikt om ökad energiprestanda, tidpunkten i projektet då energifrågan lyfts upp, hur kunskap återvinns inom företaget, hur man följer upp energiberäkningar och val av medium för att dela kunskap. Många av de faktorer som identifierats är kopplade till vilken attityd och strategi  ledningen  väljer för energifrågan.  Den attityd som uppifrån förmedlas kommer också att antas av aktörerna i processen, och man har här möjligheten  att göra ett val i hur mycket man som företag vill satsa på fortsatt förbättrad energiprestanda.

  • 53.
    Allmér, Gustaf
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Organization and management.
    Svantesson, Joakim
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Organization and management.
    How Internal Factors Influence the WorkTowards Increased Energy Performance: A case study in a Swedish construction company2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In order to reduce the climate impact of Europe, the Swedish government and the European Union present increasingly stricter requirements for the construction industry regarding energy performance of newly built apartment buildings. The housing sector ccounts fora  considerablepart  of the energy demand in Sweden. While construction companies work withimprovements  of the energy performance, the difference from one project to another can very significantly. Earlier studies have examined external factors influencing  how far companies are prepared  to go regarding  energy performance, but little has been researched   regarding the internal factors.

    The purpose  of this thesis is therefore to identify these internal factors  but also to explain  why they influence the process. To examine this, a case study was conducted on a Swedish construction company where large parts of the actors within  the internal construction process were represented. Semi structured interviews  were conducted in order to get a  detailed picture of the process and the factors influencing it. The interview data was  sorted, reduced and analyzed  through support of a theoretical framework. In this framework,  theories from earlier studies were included, together with different Knowledge Management-theories, which were used to facilitate the interpreting and understanding of the factors that  had been observed.

    The results of the study suggest  that there are internal factors influencing the process, in the case company, towards  increased energy performance in apartment buildings. Examples of the factors are:  individual interest and opinion, point in time when the energy issue was lifted, how knowledge is reused, follow up of calculations and choice of medium for knowledge transfer. Many of these identified factors are connected to the attitude and strategy regarding energy questions that the upper management choses to communicate. Actors in the process will adopt the attitude that is communicated, and this creates a possibility for the company  to make a choice regarding how much effort should be put into continued improved energy  performance.

  • 54.
    ALLMÉR, KATARINA
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    FEYCHTING, SOFIA
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Off-Peak Deliveries from a Business Model Perspective2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With an increasing urban population around the world, the need for urban freight distribution is constantly growing. Many cities face problems with traffic congestion, especially during eak hours in the morning and afternoon. At the same time, the roads are often nearly empty during nighttime. In some cities, like Stockholm, heavy haulage is not permitted to enter the city during the night. This means that carriers are forced to perform these deliveries during the day, which leads to inefficient distribution.

    To investigate the possibilities to use nighttime hours for deliveries, which could lead to a more efficient distribution system and increased sustainability of the city, a pilot project has been initiated by the City of Stockholm to test off-peak deliveries. Other similar trial projects have encountered difficulties with getting businesses to participate, and the incentives to shift to offpeak deliveries have been unclear. Therefore, this thesis aims to investigate what incentives there are for actors within a supply chain to make this shift and the key factors that enable the supply chain to benefit.

    The thesis is performed as a case study on the pilot project in Stockholm, and uses a business model perspective to analyze how value is created and captured throughout the supply chain. The results show that there is potential for supply chains to increase its total value through offpeak deliveries as a result of increased efficiency, improved delivery reliability and increased utilization of trucks. Pricing models and relative negotiation power between actors have a large effect on how the value is distributed. The main contributors to creating increased value are sufficient delivery volume, compatible processes, and full utilization of trucks. The possibility to use off-peak deliveries for marketing is relatively unexploited and could potentially create more value.

  • 55. Allvin, M.
    et al.
    Karrbom Gustavsson, Tina
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Economics and Management (Div.) (closed (20130101).
    Zika-Viktorsson, Annika
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Project Overload: A study on work situation in complex industrial organizations2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 56.
    ALM, RAGNAR
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Marketing and Entrepreneurship.
    KYRÖNLAHTI, RUDY
    Take time to make time: What to consider when managing multi-channel sales systems with the objective to increase sales efficiency2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional sales systems have been disrupted by technological developments. In order to  adapt, companies are changing the way they interact with their customers in business-to-business markets. In the last three decades, multi-channel strategies have spurred the proliferation of different sales channels and new ways of managing sales systems. The purpose of this research was to investigate what should be considered when managing multi-channel sales systems with the objective of increasing sales efficiency. The study has investigated current utilisation of multi-channel sales systems in the context of a business-to-business setting in industrial companies that are involved in the Swedish automotive industry. Multi-channel sales systems can be utilised to achieve many different objectives. However, this research pays specific attention on how to improve sales efficiency by utilising multi-channel sales systems in the context of a business-to-business setting. The research employed an explorative case study, where semi-structured and structured interviews were conducted at a case company and at companies that are first or second tier suppliers in the Swedish automotive industry. The qualitative data were analysed using thematic analysis. The empirical findings indicate that the most prevalent measure for increasing sales efficiency is to prioritise and allocate customers based on economic attractiveness. Furthermore, the key issues that impede sales efficiency in multi-channels sales system are misaligned sales activities, deficient prioritisation procedures, insufficient promotion of customer value and inadequate focus on customers. The findings highlight key areas to address and may provide guidelines for the design and management of multi-channel sales systems with the specific purpose of obtaining sales efficiency. The implications of this research are mainly practical and are aimed at supporting sales managers, or individuals in similar positions engaged in multi-channel sales system design and management, in obtaining sales efficiency. Managers should focus on aligning sales activities across the whole  sales system, allocate customers according to prioritisation and stay in line with market developments by understanding customer behaviours and perceptions.

  • 57.
    Almehdi Österman, Sami
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Lundberg, Carl
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Development of performance indicators through cost driver identification: an IT department case study2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The costs of information technology (IT) in large multinational companies (MNCs) often constitute a significant portion of the company’s total yearly turnover. IT departments are on one hand expected to return value to business, but are on the other hand often prone to cost reductions. Thus, it is not unusual that IT management chooses to focus on cost cutting rather than cost control in order to meet the company’s financial targets. Understanding cost drivers in IT is not always evident, making it difficult for managers to know what performance indicators that should be tracked. This study addresses the issue of cost control and performance measurement in IT departments, in the form of a case study carried out at the IT department of a large Swedish MNC in the telecommunications industry. The case company is divided into two parts: Enterprise and Engineering, where Enterprise provides the organization with IT in form of printers, personal computers, applications, IT support and communication services through network infrastructure and voice. Engineering provides research and development units with software development infrastructure and testing environments for products. The testing environments comprise of both software testing through simulations and hardware testing in physical labs. By carrying out interviews with managers and key people responsible for large budget items, 130 cost drivers were identified. After reducing recurring cost drivers and merging similar ones, the cost drivers were filtered according to quantifyability. In a second step, performance indicators were developed using the SMART model and then scored with respect to cost impact and ease of implementation. This resulted in a recommendation of 49 performance indicators to be tracked across the entire IT department. A sample of recommended performance indicators is total cost of wages / number of employees, number of virtualized servers / total number of servers and amount of video related traffic / total capacity of bandwidth. The ambition of this study is to provide a holistic way of controlling cost drivers through prioritized performance indicators. Even though this case is specific to an IT department, the approach in this research may well be applied in other departments and industries.

  • 58. Alsanius, B. W.
    et al.
    Löfkvist, K.
    Kritz, G.
    Ratkic, Adrian
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Skills and Technology.
    Reflection on reflection in action: A case study of growers conception of irrigation strategies in pot plant production2009In: AI & Society: The Journal of Human-Centred Systems and Machine Intelligence, ISSN 0951-5666, E-ISSN 1435-5655, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 545-558Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A case study of growers conception of irrigation strategies indicates that pot plant growers in Scandinavia base their management approaches on experientially based art. The study also indicates that there is a gap between experientially based art and available greenhouse technology. In order to standardize production and produce quality, both the grower's experience and available technology should be taken into account. In order to achieve this, the present study proposes to arrange reflection on reflection in action with a group of growers by means of the dialogue seminar method. The concept of reflection on reflection in action is novel to horticultural practice. Therefore, we suggest future inter- and multidisciplinary research within this domain.

  • 59. Alsanius, B. W.
    et al.
    Ratkic, Adrian
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Skills and Technology.
    Persson, E.
    Löfkvist, K.
    Prospects of dialogue-inspired methods as tools for knowledge transfer: Technology for sustainable horticulture meets experiential knowledge communities2009In: Acta Horticulturae, International Society for Horticultural Science , 2009, p. 27-32Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Horticultural production systems have a large environmental impact. Legislation, ordinances and quality assurance systems provide guidelines for implementing sustainable production technologies in horticulture at a higher level. Horticultural research has compiled solutions to improve sustainable production. Despite of regulations, hands-on information, solid scientific data on sustainable strategies for horticulture and a general environmental awareness, there is reluctance in considering sustainable technology and reorganizing horticultural production lines. Knowledge within commercial horticulture is situated knowledge; this means experience consolidated within the branch is a precondition for application. However, knowledge on sustainable technology follows the tradition of natural sciences and technology. Another crucial aspect concerns the path from understanding sustainable technology to putting it into action. Reflection on reflection in action as an activity aims at producing a good verbal description of reflection in action, which can be shared with other people. While reflection in or on action is primarily private the notion of reflection on reflection in action is tied to the fact that learning and experience exchange are social activities that proceed in different communities of practice. Dialogue-inspired methods may act as a tool. In the present paper we discuss the dialogue seminar and Socratic dialog methods to bridge the gap between scientific and technological progress in horticulture and horticultural practice to be employed in horticultural extension.

  • 60.
    ALTERSBERGER, STEFAN
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    The Impact of Venture Capital Financing on Lean Startups2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis deals with the problem statement of how venture capital financing influences the processes and the outcome of a lean startup. Hence, the thesis focuses on the lean methodology and its implementation in startups. The literature review shows that lean is a well-established term and a concept used in various different areas. Nevertheless, in the field of young and emerging ventures, it is fairly new approach. Thus, in combination with VC funding, where also a shift towards less capital and faster cycle times is seen, a research gap can be identified. In other words, the research aims to investigate how the two concepts influence and interact with each other. Moreover, the focus is on measuring if and how the startup's lean operations are affected by the investment. Hence, the thesis concentrates on the entrepreneur's point of view. Empirical data for the research project was gained through five expert interviews with startup founders that evolved an idea and built a company that received venture capital funding at some point. The outcome of the study showed that not the VC firm itself but the vast investment affected the processes and the outcome of the lean startup. Hence, the sudden impact can destabilize the learning circle. Furthermore, part of the startups investigated had to reposition themselves because of changing objectives. In conclusion, the findings imply that certain aspects determine how a cooperation of this two concepts will look. Also, there are factors such time of funding, size of investment and the details of the partnership agreement that will have an impact on the lean concept applied by the startup.

  • 61.
    Alves Ojeda, Lauro Fabiano
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Lapwanich, Ponlawat
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Business Development and Entrepreneurship.
    Viable options of financing a new venture on entrepreneur’s point of view in Brazil and Thailand2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is fact that one of the main reasons why a country is considered developed or developing lies on its industry development level. A nation without a well-developed industry does not create jobs enough, thus wealth to keep its population on high standards. It is critical to a nation have its national enterprises boosting employment and developing internal technologies, which is the driving force behind innovation. Thus, small companies pose a tremendous opportunity to allow expansion and development; however one of the main constraints avoiding it is due to the difficulty in providing financial funds to entrepreneurial ventures, which is the main track of this study. This thesis was based in two “newly industrialized countries” (Bozyk) (Brazil and Thailand) by analysing entrepreneurs in terms of how they have got seed funds to start their business, what they think about other options of start-up financing and if they would open a new company, would they choose a different source of funding? Moreover, a comparison between the two countries is assessed showing commonalities and differences between them, demonstrating the most viable seed funding options in the entrepreneur’s perspectiveas the completion of this study.

  • 62.
    Alves Ojeda, Lauro Fabiano
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Lapwanich, Ponlawat
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Viable options of financing a new venture on entrepreneur’s point of view in Brazil and Thailand2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 63. Alvizos, Emmanuel
    et al.
    Angelis, Jannis
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Economics and Management (Div.).
    Servitized capital goods offerings: Why should the customer accept?2012In: Proceedings of the 4th World Conference Production and Operations Management, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 64.
    Alzate, David
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Business Development and Entrepreneurship.
    Alzate, Marcell
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Business Development and Entrepreneurship.
    CORPORATE ENTREPRENEURSHIP In Colombian Manufacturing Industry2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Motivated by the environment of their country, Colombia, the co-authors present in this paper a research and analysis about the Manufacturing Industry (MI) and its relation to the growth of the economy in the different sectors of their country.

    Industrial innovation is key to competitiveness and development of economies; therefore, Corporate Entrepreneurship (CE) is seen by the co-authors as an answer for the Manufacturing Industry in order to keep on bringing value to the society and its related sectors.

    To have an approach to this CE analysis, theoretical framework used in the research is based in the Four Models of CE presented by Wolcott and Lippitz (Wolcott, 2010). Within the paper, it will be introduced the Opportunist, Enable, Advocate and Producer Model as conceived by them.

    No surprises were found when looking to the actual state of the companies in the MI, those with more budgets are the ones that invest more in innovation and the small ones are more conservatives in the topic.

    As part of the response to the research question, the co-authors established the path for the different company types in order for them to have an easy way to build CE.

  • 65.
    Amel Zabihi, Ghazal
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Culture and management style:: A study of differences of Chinese and Swedish management style from Swedish perception2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to find out how the cultural dimensions effects on management style. In more detailed way this research would like to reveal the differences between the Chinese and Swedish management style based on the Swedish employee viewpoint. Hofstede work-related cultural dimensions and Denison model of organizational culture to high-tech multicultural company has been applied. It is concluded that obvious differences exist between Chinese and Swedish management style and culture has influence on management style. However, since the results are limited in the scope of study cannot be generalized but worth to investigate and validate in future research.

  • 66. Ammenberg, J.
    et al.
    Anderberg, S.
    Lönnqvist, Tomas
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Sandberg, Thomas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Biogas in the transport sector—actor and policy analysis focusing on the demand side in the Stockholm region2018In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 129, p. 70-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has ambitions to phase out fossil fuels and significantly increase the share of biofuels it uses. This article focuses on Stockholm County and biogas, with the aim to increase the knowledge about regional preconditions. Biogas-related actors have been interviewed, focusing on the demand side. Biogas solutions play an essential role, especially regarding bus transports and taxis. Long-term development has created well-functioning socio-technical systems involving collaboration. However, uncertainties about demand and policy cause hesitation and signs of stagnating development. Public organizations are key actors regarding renewables. For example, Stockholm Public Transport procures biogas matching the production at municipal wastewater treatment plants, the state-owned company Swedavia steers via a queuing system for taxis, and the municipalities have shifted to “environmental cars”. There is a large interest in electric vehicles, which is expected to increase significantly, partially due to suggested national policy support. The future role of biogas will be affected by how such an expansion comes about. There might be a risk of electricity replacing biogas, making it more challenging to reach a fossil-free vehicle fleet. Policy issues strongly influence the development. The environmental car definition is of importance, but its limited focus fails to account for several different types of relevant effects. The dynamic policy landscape with uncertainties about decision makers’ views on biogas seems to be one important reason behind the decreased pace of development. A national, long-term strategy is missing. Both the European Union and Sweden have high ambitions regarding a bio-based and circular economy, which should favor biogas solutions.

  • 67.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Anderberg, Stefan
    Linköping University.
    Lönnqvist, Tomas
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Sandberg, Thomas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Biogas in the transport sector - a regional actor and policy analysis focusing on the demand sideManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 68.
    Amnäs, Ulrika
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Marketing and Entrepreneurship.
    Gårdh, Moa
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Marketing and Entrepreneurship.
    Trading with digital ads: A possible future scenario2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 69.
    Anderberg, My
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Förbättrande av Punktlighet – ur ett Lean-perspektiv: Avgångspunktlighet för SJ AB Hagalund2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report is a study of departure punctuality at the SJ train depot in Hagalund. The purpose of the report has been to find underlying patterns and reasons behind late departures.

     

    The theoretical framework that has been used is a combination of Lean and Six Sigma, where the management tool Lean has its basis in optimal resource utilization and minimizing of waste. The Lean concepts that have primarily been used are Visualization and Standardization, this since those are areas in which SJ have been lacking.

     

    The practical work behind the report has been done using the Six Sigma method DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control), where a large focus has been put on Measuring and Analyzing.

     

    The quantitative data that’s been used has come directly from SJ’s own late departure reports, where trains departing 5 minutes or more past the scheduled time are considered to be late. This lateness is automatically registered, where the scheduled departure time is called Right Time (RT) and RT > 5 hence indicated a late departure.

     

    The reason behind the lateness is also noted for all departures, but this data is entered manually and the reason is chosen from a limited, predefined list of lateness codes (JDE codes).

     

    A data mining of the late departure statistics for the Timetable period 2012 (December 11th 2011 to December 8th 2012) revealed large flaws with the manual lateness reporting, where inconsistent usage of the JDE codes made it impossible to discern any underlying patterns in lateness factors. 

     

    To circumvent the data flaws an experiment was mad during November 2012, where all late departure reporting during the month was monitored to ensure proper JDE code usage. The result revealed a large previously unknown source of delay, “Human error”, which had hitherto been hidden in the catch-all code “Miscellaneous”. 

     

    A visualization of the automatically collected departure data, the RT data, in turn revealed clear issues during personal shift changes, and also concluded 1pm-6pm CET to be a late departure heavy time of the day. The visualization of departure data was also compared to the visualization of trains’ time spent at the depot, the so called turn time, where trains spending less than three hours at Depot Hagalund could be shown to affect the general departure punctuality to a higher degree than other trains. Through use of regression analysis it could also be shown that trains arriving late with a short turn time, to a higher degree also departed late, whilst trains with a longer turn time were seemingly statistically unaffected by delays in arrival. 

  • 70.
    ANDERSON, ERIC
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Secmaker–aR&D--‐focusedITsecuritycompany: Investigatingrisksassociatedwithoutsourcingthesalesfunction2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The emergence of the personal computer has had huge impact on society. Implications of which have been difficult to foresee. Following the arrival of the Internet, IT security has become an increasingly important aspect of business. If a firm does not take IT security seriously it may cause major financial loss, and reflect poorly on decision makers. To cater to the needs of businesses, and public sector organizations, the IT security industry has grown fast.

    Following this development, Secmaker has emerged as one of the leading IT security companies in Scandinavia. Secmaker AB was founded in 1994 in Stockholm. Their product NetID is a Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) system, which allows information to be exchanged securely in a normally insecure environment, for example the Internet. Today they have grown to a staff of 34, consisting mainly of developers and a handful of sales and   anagement employees.

    Due the nature of the industry Secmaker has taken the strategic decision to outsource the sales force. Previously when Secmaker’s clients consisted mainly of public sector organizations they have dealt with the sales process themselves. This did not prove to work all the time so when moving into the private sector they decided on using sales partners in order to reach new customers. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate and explore the potential risks in outsourcing a sales force. We limited us in investigating the sales process alone. This allowed us to leave the technical aspects of the product to the side, and focus on this phase in which they previously had issues.

    The method used in this thesis is a qualitative, inductive, case study. We have collected data  performing semi-­‐structured interviews with key figures in the industry both within Secmaker, and independent. Further this primary data will be analyzed with respect to our theoretical, secondary, data we have collected through a comprehensive literature study.

  • 71. Andersson, A. E.
    et al.
    Andersson, D. E.
    Daghbashyan, Zara
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Hårsman, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Location and spatial clustering of artists2014In: Regional Science and Urban Economics, ISSN 0166-0462, E-ISSN 1879-2308, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 128-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surveys of artists' location choices show that they disproportionately reside in large cities. This paper introduces a model that attempts to explain this urban preference. The model includes four factors: access to other artists; access to consumer demand; access to service jobs; and housing affordability. These four factors are combined in a spatial equilibrium model. An equilibrium spatial distribution of artists is derived from the model and is correlated with the actual distribution among Swedish municipalities. Subsequently, the model is used for an econometric estimation of factor effects. The results show that access to other artists and local access to service jobs are important localization factors. Educated labor used as a proxy for consumer demand has a significant effect on artists' location choices.

  • 72. Andersson, Ake E.
    et al.
    Andersson, David Emanuel
    Harsman, Bjorn
    Daghbashyan, Zara
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Complexity, scientific creativity and clustering2015In: RISE OF THE CITY: SPATIAL DYNAMICS IN THE URBAN CENTURY, EDWARD ELGAR PUBLISHING LTD , 2015, p. 15-32Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 73.
    ANDERSSON, ALEXANDER
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    ESSUNGER, KARL
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Physical or Digital Payments: Towards a Dominant Design?2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid digitalisation development has been stampeding widely across today’s societies, and not least in the payment industry. Though, the digitalisation in the payment industry has been very deviating, even between similar well-developed countries, and while there are positive and negative effects with both digital- and physical payment means, there is little knowledge that highlights the influencing factors and accompanied problems. This study therefore explore swhich, and how, different factors influence a country’s degree of digital payments, and creates further understanding of where the payment markets are heading in the future. It is done through a case study of four different industrialised countries, Sweden, Italy, Canada, and Switzerland which involves mapping the countries’ payment markets, as well as potential factors influencing a population’s payment habits, through a perspective of innovation theory in terms of dominant designs and technological discontinuities. Theory of network externalities and two-sided platforms are further used to explain and discuss how a two-sided market, likethe payment market, is affected by changes and other circumstances in different ways.Conclusions are then drawn from the used theories together with a comparison of the findings,and identifies certain influencers to a country’s distribution of payments, as well as provides indications of where the different payments markets are heading in the future. Data is mainly gathered through written material and credible databases, but also from semi-structured interviews.

  • 74.
    Andersson, Dan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Economics and Management (Div.).
    Bernhardsson, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Economics and Management (Div.).
    Offshore outsourcing to China: The suppliers' perspective on competitive priorities and the role of buyer-supplier interaction mechanisms2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    In the global business environment, outsourcing and offshore outsourcing are strategies forfirms to handle the increasing competition in their specific market segments by utilizing thecapabilities of other firms in order to gain competitive advantages. China has become animportant player on the global market and is an attractive country for Western firms’offshore outsourcing initiatives. Even though outsourcing and offshore outsourcing havebeen discussed in the literature for a long period of time, firms are still not able to reach andfulfill their strategic goals and many offshore outsourcing projects fail. The purpose of thisthesis is to deepen the existing literature regarding offshore outsourcing to China byconsidering the Chinese suppliers’ perspective on competitive priorities, which are thepriorities that firms organize the production by, in order to understand how the buying firmscan be more successful in the Chinese context and reach their strategic goals.

  • 75.
    Andersson, Daniela
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Granhed, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Återvinning och återtillverkning inom den svenska stålindustrin2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, the Swedish steel industry faces a number of challenges. Increasing global competition and ongoing climate change has caused a shift in the demand of the industry and the requirements to maintain competitive steel manufacturing. The steel industry directly affects the Swedish economy in a number of ways including job opportunities and a majorityof the country’s exports. In order to manage the threats currently faced by the steel industry, a change in the traditional way of thinking must take place and the industry must move towards becoming more sustainable. Shifting to a circular economy would be a step in the right direction toward securing a well-functioning and profitable Swedish steel industry.

    Circular economy is a manufacturing model that aims to eliminate all waste and residue products by ensuring end-of-life products return to the production cycle. This differs from the more traditional, linear way of thinking where a product’s chain ends once it is worn out. Recycling and remanufacturing are two important processes within circular economy, which both help to optimize the use of natural resources. Recycling is when material from end-of-life products are used to produce new products. Remanufacturing means that part of end-of-life products are used in the production of new products that have the same or better quality and performance. Recycling is already a well-established way of working in the steel industry, however remanufacturing has not yet reached the same implementation and acceptance level.

    We investigate which incentives there are for recycling and remanufacturing within the Swedish steel industry. This has been done by studying existing research in the area and by examining the current methods available. These processes look through a comparative studie between three companies within the industry: Sandvik, Atlas Copco and SSAB.

    The result of this study shows that the financial incentive is of great importance for the work with recycling and remanufacturing. While recycling is accepted, remanufacturing is facing greater obstacles before it is embraced by the Swedish market. Further technical development of these processes is crucial for companies to prioritize future work in the field. Laws and regulations may be put in place to incentivize a future of more regulated practices and higher costs for companies that fail to manage their waste in a beneficial way. Production flow can also be positively affected by these processes.

    In summary, there are great opportunities in the area that will become more apparent as companies begin to embrace and design their production with recycling and remanufacturingin mind.

  • 76. Andersson, David Emanuel
    et al.
    Andersson, Åke E.
    Hårsman, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Daghbashyan, Zara
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Unemployment in European regions: structural problems versus the Eurozone hypothesis2015In: Journal of Economic Geography,, ISSN 1468-2702Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Unemployment rates differ dramatically across European regions. This article analyses these differences by integrating institutional and spatial perspectives into a unified dynamic framework distinguishing between slow and fast processes of change. The framework forms the basis for an econometric model that is used to analyse labour market differences among European Nomenclature des unités territoriales statistiques 2 regions. The results of random-effects models indicate that four key factors—all of which are of the slowly changing type—explain a large part of the variation in unemployment as well as employment rates. Flexible labour market regulations and above-average levels of interpersonal trust are institutional factors that reduce unemployment. Accessibility factors such as inter-regional transport connectivity and local access to skilled workers have similarly substantial effects. Whether a region belongs to the Eurozone or not seems to be less important.

  • 77.
    Andersson, Eric
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Evaluating the Strategic Benefits of the ITS Implementation at the Värta Port2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When City of Stockholm wanted to build apartments on land used and controlled by Ports of Stockholm a project was initiated with the purpose of accommodating this request. The project meant that one of the piers at the Värta Port was expanded and the ITS system was implemented at said pier. Since the project was initiated from, what was considered, necessity an extensive evaluation of the economic and strategic consequences was not preformed. This thesis discusses and evaluates the strategical aspects of the ITS implementation at the Värta Port.

    The strategical benefits of the ITS system is that it enhances the competitive advantage, the location, of Ports of Stockholm through giving them more control over the port since the infrastructure was previously owned by their customer, Tallink Silja. Furthermore, the system creates a safer work environment at the port through better controlled container and truck management and preplanned emergency scenarios. 

    The system also removes wastes in the logistical process in the port through the added control of entries and exits and a fully digital sorting and storing system. This can provide operational cost reductions to Tallink Silja who is responsible for the operation of the port. Additionally, the system provides added value for the end customer as the reliability of the shipments increase. If these benefits are enough to justify the ITS system cannot be determined in this thesis as it is only the management at Ports of Stockholm that possesses the implicit knowledge required, but there exist substantial strategical benefits to the ITS system.

  • 78.
    ANDERSSON, ERIK
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Carlsson, Simon Carlsson
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    A stepwise strategy for achieving a critical mass: for a two-sided platform2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Individuals’ and companies’ ability to reach a vast majority of people through scalable solutions have never been more apparent. In addition, the traditional way of creating and capturing value has been challenged by the emergence of the new digital economy. In some industries, new actors that fully appreciate the new set of rules and opportunities have outperformed their traditional peers. Those actors, i.e. Uber and AirBnB, often leverages on a two-sided platform in order to create an appealing value proposition for their customers. Both these success stories also benefit from the sharing economy. Network effects are often closely tied to a two-sided platform. This implies that the perceived value of such a platform is shaped by the actions of the users. This will foster winner-take-all environments and the need to achieve a critical mass in order to be successful. Despite the endless possibilities of the new economy, there is a need to build up a skillset that enabling a structured way of addressing new business opportunities. To some extent, there has never been a more urgent need for understanding how success is accomplished and value captured in this new economy. The purpose of this research is to present a stepwise strategy for a two-sided platform in order to achieve a critical mass. In order to fulfil this purpose, a comprehensive literature review have been conducted, together with interviews with two distinct groups, the distribution of a questionnaire, and work-shops with a Case company with a typical two-sided platform. The first group constituted of experts within the field of two-sided platforms and network effects, situated in Stockholm. The second group constituted of potential users of the case company’s two-sided platform. This group also answered the questionnaire. The main findings from our research is a strategic framework that incorporates factors that are perceived by the experts and the literature as most important in order to achieve a critical mass. Furthermore, these factors could be divided into two dimensions; The phenomenon and Suggested actions. The phenomenon represents an issue that the user of the strategic framework determines as high or low in regards of the specific two-sided platform. Suggested actions provide a plausible solution if the issue need to be addressed. We also motivate why a critical approach in evaluating the platform is preferable. In addition, the strategic framework is developed to be used in an iterative manner, thus capturing the desire to propose a stepwise strategy. The experts in our population brings up a set of important factors that also are strengthened by the literature. These factors lay the foundation of the strategic framework. Although we are aware that the strategic framework is highly dependent on the results retrieved from the interviews, our final recommendation is that it should be used as support to the initial strategy, thus lowering the likelihood of unexpected pitfalls.

  • 79.
    Andersson, Gabriella
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Jonsson, Eva
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Transport Cartons' Impact on Supply Chain Efficiency2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Large product assortments commonly lead to that fast fashion retailers have a large number of transport cartons, with varying sizes, to distribute products from manufacturing sites to distribution centers. Ultimately, the transport cartons have a large impact on the supply chain efficiency, as they affect several nodes in the supply chain network. Previous research has considered transport cartons’ impact on individual supply chain nodes, but little research has been devoted to evaluate the transport cartons impact on the supply chain network as a whole. Thus, this thesis aims to contribute with knowledge to bridge the gap in literature by investigating how a company’s transport cartons affect the overall supply chain efficiency, by applying a holistic perspective.

    The thesis was conducted as a case study in collaboration with Hennes & Mauritz (H&M), aworld-leading fast fashion retailer. The research identifies opportunities and challenges related totransport carton usage, and how the cartons impact supply chain efficiency. Moreover, the research evaluates the costs associated with different sets of transport carton sizes, based on acost estimation model constructed on data provided by H&M. It is concluded that a small set oftransport carton sizes could increase supply chain efficiency and generate potential cost savingsdue to mainly two reasons. First, a small set of transport cartons could lead to efficient containerloading. Second, it could lead to efficient carton handling and optimal space utilization in thedistribution centers.

  • 80.
    Andersson, Håkan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Monte Carlo metoder: En översyn av variansreduktionstekniker2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats försöker utvärdera olika strategier för variansreduktion som används vid prissättning av finansiella optioner med Monte Carlo-simulering. Inom finans och teoretisk prissättning av optioner har det varit en enorm mängd forskning. Det verkliga priset på en option har alltid varit ett stort forskningsområde. År 1973 presenterade Black & Scholes sin modell för prissättning av en enkel option. Idag används fortfarande Black & Scholes metod för prissättning och kallas "det rätta teoretiska svaret". Nackdelarna är att den bara kan prissätta enkla optioner utan flexibilitet. För prissättning av optioner med en mer exotisk struktur behövs mer komplexa metoder. Ett annat sätt att prissätta optioner är att simulera den underliggande tillgångens rörelser ett par tusen gånger och sen tillämpa stora talens lag och ta ett genomsnitt av resultaten. Detta visade sig vara ett mycket bra sätt att prissätta exotiska optioner. Dock så är det svårt att använda simulering då den långsamma konvergensen och den höga tidsåtgången för simuleringar gör det svårt att använda simulering i praktiken. Detta arbete syftar till att hitta den bäst passande prissättningsmetod för olika typer av optioner. Två huvudsakliga strategier för prissättning av optioner med variansreduktion definieras och utvärderas. På grund av den kända problematiken kring långsam konvergens och hög tidskonsumtion vid Monte Carlo-simulering så diskuteras även olika strategier och metoder för att minska dessa. Mina upptäckter under denna studie var att det inte finns någon "silver bullet". Samtliga tekniker utvärderade i denna studie har både styrkor och svagheter när de prissätter olika typer av optioner. Utifrån de tekniker som diskuterats finns det en teknik som sticker ut lite mer än de andra. Slutsatsen är att Antithetic Variate är den teknik som levererar ett trovärdigt resultat med låg standardavvikelse under relativt kort tid för samtliga optionstyper.

  • 81.
    Andersson, Jesper
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Pettersson, Magnus
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    En samköpsorganisations påverkan på sina leverantörer2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Group purchasing organizations exists today in an increasing number of industries. Group purchasing organizations have been in the healthcare sector in the U.S since the beginning of the 20

    thcentury. In common for all these group purchasing organizations is that they reduce the cost of purchases for their members.

    In Sweden group purchasing organizations started to establish in the beginning of 1990, and today there are several active group purchasing organizations. Many of these group purchasing organizations are currently working with purchase agreements for food and beverage for many of the Swedish hotel and restaurant chains. One of these group purchasing organizations are International Sport Facility Restaurant Association (ISFRA), they started in 2004 as a group purchasing organization for golf restaurants, and have since then enjoyed a steady growth. Their focus is to help sports-related restaurants to improve their purchasing, in cooperation with selected suppliers.

    ISFRA are about to grow their business in to other sports-related industries, but to ensure that they create long-term success they want to make sure they create value for both its members and their suppliers. For the members, the expansion will not pose any major differences except that the agreements will be even better. How the suppliers will be affected by ISFRA’s growth is more complex.

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how the suppliers are affected by ISFRA. What advantages and disadvantages does a group purchasing organization have on their suppliers?

    To answer this question a literature review was carried out in the subject. A number of theories were studied and the theory that corresponded best to group purchasing organization is customer

    clubs. In addition to that, to get the suppliers point of view on group purchasing organizations 9 interviews were held. From the literature review and the interviews a number of advantages and disadvantages were identified. The main advantages are increased sales, knowledge of customers, effective communication and loyal customers. The largest and most concrete disadvantages are decreasing margins and reduced transparency. In addition to these concrete disadvantages, there are a number of risks which may occur if the group purchasing organization is disorganized or by any other reason fail to fulfill achieve the main advantages.

    We are hoping that ISFRA with will be better prepared to in their work to build up an organization that takes in to account the suppliers needs and wishes, also be able to help the suppliers to find innovative solutions that create value for both the suppliers and ISFRA’s members.

  • 82.
    Andersson, Louise
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Klingberg, Sara
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    How to make ambassadors turn their friends into ambassadors2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the internet's rampage, the possibilities for consumer-driven distribution of information are massive. One way to use this inter-consumer approach is to encourage existing customers, or ambassadors, to invite their friends and family to become a part of the brands success. But how can companies motivate existing customers to play a more important role in the brand expansion?

    The purpose of this thesis is to explore the motives and triggers for existing customers to invite friends, to become new customers. This by combining the empirical data collected from telephone interviews and web surveys, with theories on brand equity and inter-consumer marketing. To delimit the thesis, only motives connected to the marketing of premium products with a high customer involvement have been analyzed. For this purpose, Mackmyra Svensk Whisky AB was chosen. The empirical delimitation of this thesis is thus the customers of Mackmyra.

    The results showed that the motives that are perceived motivational differ from person to person. The incentives identified as more prevalent than others were access to unique products, priority to limited editions, possibility to experience the company from the inside, invitations to exclusive events, price reductions and points to exchange for merchandise.The identified incentives were segmented. After the segmentation, every company should carefully consider which segments to target, as those best suited for incentive programs differs from case to case.

  • 83.
    Andersson Magnfält, Ida
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Orrgren, Christoffer
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Barriärer för intern supply chain integration: En case studie inom FMCG industrin2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the thesis was to investigate what barriers exist for internal supply chain integration within companies in the fast moving consumer goods industry and empirically contribute to the field of integrated supply chain. This was considered to be an interesting topic to investigate, since the fast moving consumer goods industry is characterized by volatile demand which requires a responsive supply chain.

    The theoretical frame of reference includes literature within the fields of integrated supply chain and lean enterprise. The area of integrated supply chain has previously primarily been focusing on the integration between actors in the external supply chain, i.e. between suppliers, manufacturers, and customers. Little research has seemed to be devoted to internal supply chain integration, i.e. the integration of functions within companies. The existing literature within the area of internal supply chain integration often comprehend issues related to collaboration, information sharing, communication and the challenge of counteracting objectives among functions. Furthermore, a philosophy aimed at coping with variation in demand as well as making internal processes more efficient is lean. The lean production theory has developed into lean enterprise theory aimed at expanding lean principles to cover the whole company.

     In order to fulfill the purpose of the study, a qualitative approach was chosen including a single case study at  Mondelëz Sweden. A single case study was chosen because the aim was to study a complex, social phenomenon within a specific context. The data has been collected through 23 interviews with unstructured as well as with semi-structured nature.

    Within the studied company six barriers for internal supply chain integration have been identified from the empirical findings. These barriers are related to: the understanding of the concept of integrated supply chain; existing silos; uncertainty regarding responsibilities; communication, information sharing; and the use of corporate values. The authors suggest that principles should be used to guide the internal supply chain integration. The principles are tied to the corporate values and should be used to monitor the methods used in the daily work in order to overcome the barriers and become more integrated. The proposed implications for companies in the fast moving consumer goods industry involve both long-term suggestions for internal integration as well as short-term implications enabling direct momentum.

  • 84.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    CIRCLE, Lund University and Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Braunerhjelm, Pontus
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics (Closed (20130101).
    Thulin, Per
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics (Closed (20130101).
    Creative Destruction and Productivity: Entrepreneurship by Type, Sector and Sequence2012In: Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy, ISSN 2045-2101, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 125-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Schumpeter claimed the entrepreneur to be instrumental for creative destruction and industrial dynamics. Entrepreneurial entry serves to transform and revitalize industries, thereby enhancing their competitiveness. The purpose of this paper is to investigate if entry of new firms influences productivity amongst incumbent firms, and the extent to which altered productivity can be attributed sector and time specific effects.

    Design/methodology/approach – Implementing a unique dataset the paper estimates a firm-level production function in which the productivity of incumbent firms is modeled as a function of firm attributes and regional entrepreneurship activity.

    Findings – The analysis finds support for positive productivity effects of entrepreneurship on incumbent firms, albeit the effect varies over time, what the authors refer to as a “delayed entry effect”. An immediate negative influence on productivity is followed by a positive effect several years after the initial entry. Moreover, the productivity of incumbent firms in services sectors appears to be more responsive to regional entrepreneurship, as compared to the productivity of manufacturing firms.

    Originality/value – The paper employs a firm-level production function approach allowing for time lags of the effect of entrepreneurship. The unique data implemented allow the authors to identify genuinely new ventures as compared to those associated with reorganizations of existing businesses, thereby overcoming much of data deficiencies in previous studies. In addition, data are distributed on Swedish functional labor market regions.

  • 85. Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Johannson, BörjeKTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics (Closed (20130101).Karlsson, CharlieLööf, HansKTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics (Closed (20130101).
    Innovation and Growth: From R&D strategies of innovating firms to economy-wide technological change2013Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume provides an understanding of firms' R&D and innovation strategies and their economy-wide consequences. It is based on the premise that differences in firm-level returns, as well as economy-wide outcomes, may be linked to the heterogeneous ways in which firms organize and undertake R&D and innovation activities. It emphasizes innovation strategies of innovating firms, and reflects that innovation efforts do not represent a uniform type of expenditure. Organized into three parts the volume moves from the micro to the macro-level. This structure highlights the notion that R&D and innovation and growth are two interdependent perspectives. The first of these is micro-oriented and focuses on innovation processes of firms, where R&D activities and other innovation efforts give rise to consequences such as a strengthening of resource bases, growth of sales and employment, patents, new products, increasing productivity and profits, and improved chances of survival. The second perspective comprises economy-wide effects in the form of overall technological change, growth in total factor productivity, and structural change processes, where certain sectors may benefit from new inputs from other sectors while others experience declining markets and reduced output.

  • 86. Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Johansson, B.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Introduction2013In: Innovation and Growth: From R&D Strategies of Innovating Firms to Economy-wide Technological Change, Oxford University Press , 2013Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 87.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Johansson, Börje
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics (Closed (20130101). KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Heterogeneous Distributions of Firms Sustained by Innovation Dynamics-A Model with Empirical Illustrations and Analysis2012In: Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, ISSN 1566-1679, E-ISSN 1573-7012, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 239-263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper develops a framework of innovation dynamics to appreciate observed heterogeneity of firm size distributions, in which dynamics refer to exit and entry of product varieties and variety markets of individual firms. The analysis is based on a model of variety-triplets where every such triplet in the economy is identified by a unique combination of a variety, destination and firm. New variety triplets are introduced by innovating firms in a quasi-temporal setting of monopolistic competition. Ideas for variety-triplets arrive to firms according to a firm-specific and state dependent Poisson process, whereas variety triplets exit according to a destination-specific Poisson process. The empirical analysis employs a detailed firm-level data base which provides information about all variety triplets. Firm size is measured by a firm's number of variety triplets. The empirical results are compatible with the model predictions of (i) a persistent distribution of firm sizes, (ii) frequent events of exit and entry, and (iii) state dependent entry, where a state may be given by each firm's composition of triplets and/or other firm attributes.

  • 88. Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Johansson, Börje
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Multinationals in the Knowledge Economy: A case study of AstraZeneca in Sweden2010In: Repositioning  Europe and America for Growth: The Role of Governments and private Actors in Key Policy Areas / [ed] Eberhard Bohne and Charlie Karlsson, Berlin: LIT Verlag, 2010Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents a case study of the role of a large R&D intensive multinational company for a small open economy. The case study examines the role of AstraZeneca in the Swedish economy, i.e. an economy dominated by multinational companies. The purpose of the report is to analyze the interaction of AstraZeneca’s units in Sweden with the rest of the Swedish economy, and the Swedish innovation system in particular. We analyze the company’s role as an employer in the private sector, its transaction links with other Swedish firms and its role for Sweden’s exports. In a second perspective we focus on the company’s role in the Swedish knowledge economy and innovation system. The report analyses the company as a node for knowledge flows in the Swedish economy and innovation system, and its role as an employer of highly educated and skilled workers in Sweden.Our analysis of the Swedish units’ interaction with the rest of the Swedish economy shows that ’traditional’ couplings in the form of transactions with Swedish suppliers are limited. It is instead the company’s position in the ‘knowledge economy’ that makes its presence in Sweden important.

  • 89. Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Johansson, Börje
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.). Jönköping International Business School (JIBS), Sweden .
    Karlsson, Charlie
    KTH. Jönköping International Business School (JIBS), Sweden .
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.). KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Reflections2013In: Innovation and Growth: From R&D Strategies of Innovating Firms to Economy-wide Technological Change, Oxford University Press, 2013Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 90.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH.
    Johansson, Sara
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Firm performance and international trade - evidence from a small open economy2012In: The Regional Economics of Knowledge and Talent: Local Advantage in a Global Context, Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd. , 2012, p. 320-342Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 91. Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics (Closed (20130101).
    Firm Performance and International Trade2012In: Knowledge and Talent in Regional and Global Context / [ed] In B. Johansson, C. Karlsson and R. Stough, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2012Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 92.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics (Closed (20130101). KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Small business innovation: firm level evidence from Sweden2012In: Journal of Technology Transfer, ISSN 0892-9912, E-ISSN 1573-7047, Vol. 37, no 5, p. 732-754Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines innovation among very small firms and provides new insights into both internal and external determinants of patenting. Applying a non-linear panel data approach to about 160,000 observations on manufacturing firms in Sweden for the period 2000-2006, the following facts emerge: (i) in contrast to larger firms, innovation in micro firms with 1-10 employees is not sensitive to variation in internal financial resources, (ii) skilled labour is even more important for innovation among micro firms compared to other firms, (iii) affiliation to a domestically owned multinational enterprise group increases the innovation capacity of small businesses, (iv) small firms' innovation is closely linked to participation in international trade and exports to the G7-countries, and (v) there is no statistically significant evidence that proximity to metropolitan areas, or presence in a specialized cluster, increases the innovativeness of the smallest firm.

  • 93. Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Thulin, Per
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation. Swedish Entrepreneurship Forum, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Does spatial employment density spur inter-firm job switching?2013In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 245-272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inter-firm job switching of workers is a much cited but seldom measured source of the productivity advantages of spatial employment density. It has been advanced as a conduit for localized knowledge flows as well as labor market matching efficiency. Using a matched employer-employee dataset for Sweden, we estimate the influence spatial employment density has on the probability of inter-firm job switching of private sector workers. Our estimates suggest that a doubling of employment density per square kilometer increases the probability that a random worker switches employer by 0.2 % points. The same effect is substantially higher for more skilled workers. While the effect of a doubling of density is limited, the actual differences in density across the regions in our data amount to a factor over 40, rendering differences in density an important explanation for regional variations in rates of inter-firm job switching.

  • 94.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Centre for Innovation, Research and Competence in the Learning Economy (CIRCLE) Lunds Universitet.
    Thulin, Per
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics (Closed (20130101). KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS (closed 20110701).
    LABOR MOBILITY AND SPATIAL DENSITY2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on a much cited but seldom measured micro-foundation for agglomerations: inter-firm labor mobility. Labor mobility has been advanced as a vehicle for knowledge flows and labor market efficiency, and is often maintained to be an important source of agglomeration economies. Based on matched employer-employee data, we estimate the influence that spatial employment density has on the probability of inter-firm job-switching, while controlling for ample attributes of each worker and employer. The rate of inter-firm labor mobility varies substantially across regions and we document a systematic and robust positive influence of density on the probability of job switching. The likelihood that such switching is intra-regional is significantly higher if the employees operate in denser regions, verifying that labor mobility (and thus the effects mediated by it) is indeed localized. Higher rates of inter-firm labor mobility appear as a likely mechanism behind the empirically verified productivity advantage of dense regions.

  • 95.
    Andersson, Mats
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Josefsson, Oskar
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Operationalisering av inköpskategorier för enkätstudier2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purchasing portfolio management has for the last decades been strongly influenced by Peter Kraljic. In his publication Purchasing must become supply management (1983); four categories of purchasing environments were introduced and described as a function of the complexity in the supply market and the importance of purchasing. For each of these categories Kraljic created a diversified set of recommendations and outlined several strategic implications as a tool for successful conduct of business. As part of an international research project with focus on purchasing at a category level, this study addresses the issue concerning the relation between Kraljic’s conceptual framework and the practice of mapping the purchase of goods and services into categories.

    The study has an exploratory approach and uses research data that has been collected through a global survey sent to a wide palette of manufacturing companies. The theoretical model of purchasing categories, linked to the survey items was developed mainly trough theories of Ellram & Olsen (1997) and Kraljic (1983). By combining the metadata from the survey with the purchase model conducted by Ellram & Olsen we have shown that the independent survey questions followed a specific pattern. Furthermore we have provided the tools to interpret them. The results have also been confirmed through a confirmatory factor analysis. These factors where then combined following the theoretic model structure, to construct the two dimensions, "Importance of purchasing" and "Complexity of supply market". Comparing each of the four quadrants in the two-dimensional matrix with Kraljic’s four categories then concluded the categorization. Beyond the limits of this paper the purpose of this validated variable is to enable further research of purchase portfolio categories and their implications in a wider managerial scope such as competiveness or sustainability.

  • 96.
    ANDERSSON, MIKAEL
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Characteristics of spinoffs from multinational and domestic parents2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the characteristics of spinoffs in Sweden. Using a matched employee-employer dataset for the time period 2001 to 2007, the purpose of this paper is to investigate if there are any differences between spinoffs that originate from multinational enterprises versus spinoffs that originate from domestic firms. The main hypothesis tested in this paper is that spinoffs from multinational enterprises will have lower hazard rates due to possessing some type of ownership advantage. The hypothesis is tested with duration analysis and a piecewise exponential hazard model that allows to control for important variables. The results from the empirical analysis does not give any support to the hypothesis that being a spinoff from a multinational parent decreases the hazard rate. However, results from a comparative duration analysis indicate that there are some differences between spinoffs from multinational and domestic parents. Another novel finding of the paper is that the hazard rate of a spinoff is an increasing function of the ratio of foreign employees.

  • 97.
    Andersson, Roland
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Nabavi, Pardis
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Wilhelmsson, Mats
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    The impact of advanced vocational education and training on earnings in Sweden2014In: International Journal of Training and Development, ISSN 1360-3736, E-ISSN 1468-2419, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 256-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Researchers have established a relationship between greater education and training and higher earnings but it is difficult to infer that the former causes the latter if those with higher earnings tend to engage in more education and training. The present study attempts to control for ability and family background to see if stronger inferences can be made about education and training as the independent variable. The study focuses upon advanced vocational education and training (AVET) in Sweden. This is post-secondary school education for individuals who are 20 years of age or older. The aim of this article is to estimate the effects of AVET on earnings by controlling for selection bias. We used various approaches such as instrumental variables, Hausman–Taylor estimates, fixed effects estimates and propensity score matching to achieve this aim. A panel, or longitudinal, data set for eight different labor markets in Sweden for the period 1996–2008 was used. The results indicate that earnings from AVET are higher than the return on investment in comprehensive education. The average effect on income is estimated to be in the range of 3–8 percent.

  • 98.
    ANDERSSON, SARA
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    LÖFQVIST, CAROLINE
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Generations of Private Labelsin a Swedish Grocery Retailer: Assessment of a Private Label Portfolio2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Customers have more frequently started to choose Private Labels in front of Manufacturer Brands  in the  grocery store shelves.  This is  a result of the last decade´s Private  Label development that has taken place across numerous countries and retailers. In recent years the Swedish grocery market has moved into an established Private Label state, as retailers have managed  to  increase  their Private  Labels’  quality,  image  and  penetration.  However,  it becomes  increasingly challenging for  retailers  to  assess  and  manage their  Private  Label portfolios as they become more and more sophisticated.

    The  study  investigates  generations  of  Private  Labels  within  a  grocery  retailer  with  the purpose to provide knowledge of how generations of Private Labels can be used to assess and manage a Private Label portfolio. The study used the model generations of Private Labels to classify Private Labels after four defined Private Label generations. The chosen research approach was to conduct a case study at the leading grocery retailer in Sweden. A qualitative study was conducted to investigate the characteristics of the retailer’s Private Labels. A quantitative  study  was  conducted  to  investigate  the  penetration  of  the  Private  Label generations across grocery categories. In addition, three multiple regression analysis were conducted to test relations between Private Label penetration and a number of variables for each generation. The analysis included five variables, which had been identified as possible determinants of Private Label penetration in previous research.

    The results of the study showed that the studied retailer held a well-developed Private Label portfolio that included three out of four Private Label generations. The retailer had no Private Labels within the first generation, which was defined as the least sophisticated generation. The third generation, characterized by me-too products, held the largest penetration among all the studied grocery categories. The study found that the variable share of articles had a significant positive relation to Private Label penetration for the three present generations. The study illustrates how the retailer can categorize and assess its Private Label portfolio based on generations of Private Labels. The study also provides knowledge of how the retailer can manage the generations of Private Labels based on its objectives and market situation.

  • 99.
    ANDERSSON, SIRI
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Sustainability and Industrial Dynamics.
    Lind, Patricia
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    How External Requirements Affect the InsuranceIndustry: An Investigation on Swedish Insurance Companies’Adjustments to Solvency II2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The financial sector stands for an important part of society’s fundamental infrastructure andnational economy. Previous financial crises indicate the importance of having a well-regulatedfinancial market. Former directives of regulating the insurance industry had insufficient solvencyregulations and were lacking in risk management. Therefore, the regulatory framework SolvencyII, the successor to Solvency I, has been established on the European market. The objective ofSolvency II is to ensure consumer protection by ensuring insurance companies properly reflectthe risks their businesses are vulnerable to.The regulatory framework Solvency II came into force in the turn of 2015/2016. However, it hasbeen on every insurers’ agenda for years and preparations have been done. It is therefore ofinterest to investigate how Swedish insurance companies have adjusted to Solvency II at an earlystage after the transition.This has been investigated by conducting interviews with mainly Chief Risk Officers and RiskManagers at Swedish insurance companies. As a complement, a questionnaire was distributed toasset and capital managers, having insurers as customers, regarding their perception of insurers’changes in investment behaviors.The findings of this study imply that insurance companies have had a compliance focus to adoptthe regulation rather than a business focus. No indications of adjustments to corporate businessstrategy has yet been noticed. However, some companies have developed a risk culture withinthe organizations. The extensive reporting and calculations of capital that Solvency II entails, haslead to implementations of new systems and processes for companies. It is further noticed thatSwedish insurance companies use the standard model for calculating the capital requirements.Solvency II has lead to increased understanding of the trade-off between capital, risk, and returnby holding a risk-adjusted capital. Also, an increased engagement of employees in the riskmanagement process has been noticed. The companies are aligned with the ORSA process, sinceit is one of the requirements, and are aware of the potential benefits the ORSA process cancontribute to. Lastly, this study indicates an improved risk awareness and culture within theinsurance companies by educating existing employees and employing new competentemployees.

  • 100.
    ANDRÉN, JACOB
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Sustainability and Industrial Dynamics.
    Leadership for Organizational Change: A case study of how insurance companies can develop their leadership to better manage organizational change2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid development and changes in customer needs places high demands on companies to constantly adapt to new customer requirements in order to stay competitive. This places further demands on companies’ ability to put the customer in focus and quickly develop, produce and offer what the customers expect, which often implies organizational changes. Organizational changes can contribute to making employees feel confused and insecure concerning their new role, which in turn contributes to low motivation and inefficiency among employees. Research has shown that a critical success factor for changes is employees’ ability to cope and adapt to change. Leaders have a decisive role in this and can help employees considerably when it comes to this aspect. The problem is a lack of knowledge about which aspects of leadership are most important for companies to develop in order to better manage organizational changes. 

    This research has investigated leadership deficiencies in insurance companies that prevent them from managing organizational changes effectively. Furthermore this  research has examined how insurance companies may rectify the leadership deficiencies that have been identified in this research. The research consisted of a case study at Trygg--‐Hansa, which included both interviews and questionnaires.

    The results indicated that leaders have deficiencies within Self--‐Awareness, Communication, Lead Employees, Manage Change and Strategic Planning. Furthermore, the most important deficiency to improve is Communication since it is the foundation for the others in some extent.

    The  findings in this research have both research and managerial implications. Regarding the research implications, this research identifies important leadership shortcomings that prevent insurance companies from manage organizational changes effectively. Regarding the managerial implications, the findings in this study may be too firm specific for urging other companies and organizations to use the results and suggested recommendation of this research.

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